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Trends in

Lubricant & Additive


Technologies

March, 2019

JAMA Engine Oil Seminar Task Force


List of Content
1. History of Automotive Lubricants
2. Composition of Lubricants
• Base Oils
• Additives
3. Future Directions
• By Lubricant Components
• By Lubricant Categories
4. Summary

2
List of Content
1. History of Automotive Lubricants
2. Composition of Lubricants
• Base Oils
• Additives
3. Future Directions
• By Lubricant Components
• By Lubricant Categories
4. Summary

3
Changes in the Requirements for Automobile
and Introduction of New Technologies
Item ~ 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s 2030s
Common
Perform- DOHC
TC Rail
Rotary Turbo VVT
ance I-C Electronics
Control VNT

Easy 5AT 6AT 8AT


Step Slip Autonomous
AT 3AT 4AT Vehicles
Drive CVT Control DCT 10AT
AMT
DI
Fuel Lean Hybrid Down HCCI
Economy Burn Sizing VCR
GDI
Idle Common
Stop Rail
Exhaust Fuel
Catalyst DOC Cell
Emission EGR Cooled
DPF/SCR
EV
EGR TSI

Legend : Gasoline Diesel Trans-


Engine Engine mission Others

4
History of Automotive Lubricant Specifications
Type of Car Region 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s

API SC SD SE SF SG SH SJ SL SM SN / SN+ SP
USA
ILSAC GF-6A
GF-2 GF-3 GF-4 GF-5
Passenger GF-1 GF-6B
Car Japan JASO
GLV-1

Europe CCMC G ACEA A ACEA A/B

CI-4 plus CK-4


USA API CC / CD CE CF-4 CG-4 CH-4 CI-4
CJ-4 FA-4
Heavy
Duty Europe CCMC D ACEA E
Diesel
JASO DH-1
Japan
JASO DH-2 / DH-2F

Europe CCMC SHPD ACEA B ACEA A/B and C


Passenger
Japan JASO DL-1
Diesel
Asia JASO DL-0

USA API TC
Motorcycle JASO FA/FB/FC JASO FB / FC / FD
Japan
JASO MA/MB

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History of Automotive Lubricant Specifications
Type of Car Region 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s

API SC SD SE SF SG SH SJ SL SM SN / SN+ SP
USA
ILSAC GF-6A
GF-2 GF-3 GF-4 GF-5
Passenger GF-1 GF-6B
Car Japan JASO
GLV-1

Viscosity Grade
Europe #30 20W-40 10W-40CCMC10W-30
G 5W-30 5W-20 0W-20
ACEA A ACEA0W-16
A/B 0W-8
CI-4 plus CK-4
USA API CC / CD CE CF-4 CG-4 CH-4 CI-4
CJ-4 FA-4
Heavy
Duty Europe #40 15W-40
CCMC D 10W-30ACEA E 5W-30
Diesel
JASO DH-1
Japan
JASO DH-2 / DH-2F

Europe CCMC SHPD ACEA B ACEA A/B and C


Passenger
Japan JASO DL-1
Diesel
Asia 10W-40 10W-30 5W-30 0W-30
JASO DL-0

USA API TC
Motorcycle #40 20W-40/20W-50 10W-30/40
JASO FA/FB/FC (5W-30)
JASO FB / FC / FD
Japan
JASO MA/MB

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List of Content
1. History of Automotive Lubricants
2. Composition of Lubricants
• Base Oils
• Additives
3. Future Directions
• By Lubricant Components
• By Lubricant Categories
4. Summary

7
Composition of Automotive Lubricants
Additives

Friction Modifier
Base Oil Rust Inhibitor
Corrosion Inhibitor
Anti-Foam
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History of Base Oil Refining and Additive Technology
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020

Atmospheric Distillation
Distillation
Base Oil Refining Technologies

Vacuum Distillation

Removal of Solvent Refining (Sulfurous Acid Anhydride Method)


Sulfuric Acid Washing,
Aromatics Water Washing Solvent Refining (Furfural Method)
Removal of Group I
Clay Treatment Hydro treatment
S and N
Removal of
Solvent Dewaxing Catalytic Dewaxing
Wax Group II
Hydrocracking
Adjustment of
Hydrocarbon Wax Isomerization
Molecule
Group III
GTL Method

Petroleum Sulfonate Phenate OCP High MW Succimide


Additive Technologies

DBPC Dispersant PAMA MoDTC Star Polymer


Automotive
Ca Sulfonate Basic Phenate Comb Polymer
Lubricant
ZnDTP Succimide
Silicone Antifoam Salicylate

Oleic Acid PAMA P-S-Cl type EP Agent


Industrial
S type EP Agent
Lubricant
Fatty Amine Benzotriazole
Standard, SAE Viscosity Classification API Service Classification API Base Oil Classification
Specification,
Test Method, etc. Viscosity Index Multi Grade Lubricant

Social Movement First World War Second World War First Petroleum Shock Kyoto Protocol

9
API Categories of Base Stock for Engine Oils
Typical Refining
% Sulfur Saturates VI Process
Solvent extraction /
Group I >0.03 and/or <90 80 to 120 Hydro finishing /
Solvent dewaxing
Hydro treating /
Group II <0.03 and >90 80 to 120 Hydro dewaxing
Hydro cracking /
Group III <0.03 and >90 >120 Hydro dewaxing or GTL
or Wax isomerization

Group IV Poly-Alpha-Olefins (PAO)


Group V All Others

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Comparison of Base Stocks by API Categories
Group I Group II Group III Group IV
Solubility ◎ ○ ー ー
Oxidation Stability ー ○ ◎ ◎
Thermal Stability ー ○ ◎ ◎
Volatility ー ○ ◎ ◎
Legend -: Fair ○: Good ◎: Excellent
API Category Group I Group II Group III Group IV (PAO)
3
Density (15℃), g/cm 0.870 0.847 0.84 0.826
Color (ASTM) L0.5 L0.5 L0.5 L0.5
Flash Point (COC), ℃ 234 226 234 238
2
Kinematic Viscosity (40℃), mm /s 30.7 29.1 32.7 30.5
2
Kinematic Viscosity (100℃), mm /s 5.29 5.27 6.02 5.85
Viscosity Index 104 113 132 136
Pour Point, ℃ -12.5 -17 -20 -65.0
Sulfur, mass% 0.03 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.00
Noack, wt% 15.7 14.0 7.9 10.4

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Viscosity vs. Volatility relations by base oil categories

Group-I and II
0W-xx 5W-xx
(<15% NOACK) (<15% NOACK)

Group-III

Source: HP
of base oil
producers
・Lower viscosity tend to give higher volatility
・Group-III shows lower volatility than Groups-I / II
・0W grade with <15% NOACK can be realized by Group-III
Changes in Engine Oil Formulation
(Examples; PCMO)
1970s 2010s
SE 20W-40 GF-5 0W-20
Detergent

Dispersant
12% Anti-Oxidant
18%
Anti-Wear
Viscosity
Modifier
Others

FM
Others
Group I
88% Base Oil
Group III 82%

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Changes in Engine Oil Formulation
(Examples; HDDO)
1970s 2010s
CD #40 CJ-4 10W-30
Detergent

8% Dispersant
Anti-Oxidant
20%
Anti-Wear
Others
Viscosity
Modifier

Others
Group I
92% Base Oil
Group II
80%

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Examples of Trade-Off Relation between
Performance Requirements
Low Viscosity High Viscosity
Fuel Economy Film Thickness
Cooling Base Oil Sealing
Engine Start Low Volatility

Merit Demerit
Detergency Metallic DPF Blocking
Thermal Stability LSPI
Detergent
Acid Neutralization Ash Accumulation on Piston Head
Anti-Rust (e.g. Gas Engine)

Dispersancy Ashless Low Temperature Fluidity


Zero Ash Dispersant Block other Additives

Anti-Wear Cat. Poisoning


Oxidation Stability ZnDTP Sludge Formation
(Anti-Wear)
Anti-Corrosion Discoloring

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List of Content
1. History of Automotive Lubricants
2. Composition of Lubricants
• Base Oils
• Additives
3. Future Directions
• By Lubricant Components
• By Lubricant Categories
4. Summary

16
Trends in Lubricant Components
Component Basic Functions Recent Developments
Viscometrics, solubility, Higher Viscosity Index, Less volatility and
Base Oil
volatility, stability oxidation stability
Engine detergency, Less treat for low ash formulations.
Detergent acid neutralization, Less Calcium to prevent LSPI in downsizing
thermal stability turbocharged gasoline engines
Soot dispersancy, Balanced adsorption and solubility such as
Dispersant
prevent sludge formation High MW Succinimide

Prevent oxidation and Increased use of Ashless Anti-Oxidant for


Anti-Oxidant oil thickening less phosphorus

Anti-Wear Form anti-wear layer Less treat or less volatility of ZnDTP.


Increased use of Ashless or Molibudenum
Agent under boundary regime type Anti-Wear agents

Friction Reduce friction between Combined formulation of multiple FMs.


Modifier rubbing surfaces Effective FM under EHL Regime

Viscosity Improve temperature – Advanced Polymers with unique molecular


Modifier viscosity characteristics architectures

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Future Directions ?
Fuel economy will be kept at first priority. Further reduction of
viscosity is expected. Base oil technology has critical importance
PCMO such as high VI and low volatility. Additive technologies for
reducing friction and for protecting engine are also key issues.

Both fuel economy and emission control will be required,


simultaneously. Balanced additive technologies for fuel economy,
HDDO compatibility with after treatment devices and wear protection
are important.

Higher power densities, tighter emission and fuel economy


norms will need fuel efficient and low P oils with right balance of
MCO additive technology for sustainable clutch performance, fuel
economy and hardware durability such as gear pitting protection.

Higher efficiency of hydraulic system will be key issue for future


construction machineries, in the meantime, durability and
LCM reliability are also required. Optimized combination of base stocks
and additives is important.

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List of Content
1. History of Automotive Lubricants
2. Composition of Lubricants
• Base Oils
• Additives
3. Future Directions
• By Lubricant Components
• By Lubricant Categories
4. Summary

19
Summary
• Environmental protection such as CO2 reduction
and emission control are key drivers for future
automobile.
• Changes in power train and driveline design are
taking place continuously.
• Automotive lubricants should be compatible with
the new hardware.
• Further contributions of lubricants for improving
fuel economy, reliability and durability of
automobile are expected through advanced base
oil and additive technologies.

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Thank you for your attention !!