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A Thesis presented for the Faculty of the College of Criminology

ICCT Colleges Foundation Inc.

V.V Soliven Avenue II, Cainta Rizal

Cainta Rizal

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Criminology







January 2019



Jefferson, Gumiran, Peter Benedict, Macarilay, Jerick, Agor, Gil Bryan and Agnes, Paul Jeson for
the degree of bachelor of Science in Criminology.


Thesis Adviser

Approved and accepted by the Commission on Oral Examination with a grade of __ on



This humble work is dedicated

To whom all springs from,

And to whom all glory must be returned,

To him, our creator, our God

This is also dedicated

To our Family who has always taken pride

In our little accomplishment in life

We dedicated this thesis to our parents,

Who taught us to think

Understand and express.

We earnestly feel that without their inspiration,

Able guidance and dedication,

We would not be able to pass through the tiring process of this research.

The Researchers


Chapter 1


Background of the Study

The researchers for this subject matter are interested to conduct and perform the study
about the “Police Visibility in Barangay San Isidro, Taytay, Rizal” for the academic purposes or in
the near future as it can be utilized to enhance and develop the police visibility in the
community and to be able to understand on how this organization performs its task and
responsibilities. This study is related to the operations of the members of the Philippine
National Police in Taytay, Rizal.

This study is concerned about the effectiveness of police visibility in crime prevention at
barangay San Isidro, Taytay Rizal on how they have been conducted police patrol with regards
to the elimination of the desire and the opportunity to commit breach of law by vicious people,
in its shows how the police officers are effective as stewards and defender of the community.
The police officer is responsible for the maintenance of peace and order. Furthermore, they are
also considered law enforcers dignify to constrain to laws and ordinances which accordingly
result to crime precluding and continence.

They have been conducted patrol, police visibility and community policing with some
areas in Taytay Rizal this anti-crime operation was established in some areas within Taytay Rizal
where most number of crimes, such as shoplifting, curfew violation, snatching, robbery hold up
debt cases, Violence against Women and Children, riot and drug related crimes occurred.

Extensive crimes committed by the advanced and smart criminals have blockade the
people of Taytay Rizal. The awareness of criminal to the advantages of technology such as the
use of superior firearms, high speed motorcycles/vehicles and communication in crimes posed
general fear to the public. Most of the crimes now a day such as snatching, Robbery Hold up,
illegal Drug trade, Debt cases and curfew violation were executed by said law breakers. Petty
crimes were also target of those criminals such as Vandalism, Reckless Driving and Trespass to
dwelling. In number of those crimes were usually committed in areas conveyance, businesses,
institutions and public transport terminals were people usually meet and transact. In order to
suppress this hazard of the society, the Philippine National Police (PNP) should implement
strategic Patrol Plan secured on different anti-criminality operations.

Patrol is commonly a group of personnel, such as police or military personnel that are
assigned to monitor specific geographic area.

Patrol is an indispensable service that plays a leading rule in the accomplishment of the
police purpose. It is the only from of police service that directly attempts to eliminate
opportunity for misconduct. It also checks the development of desire for misconduct by
destroying wholesome ones, and probably influencing individual and group attitudes in its
routine daily association with public. Constant availability is important because time is of the
essence of most police work. In addition to performing duties relating to incidents to
misconducts, the complete coverage provided by patrol makes it available for other services.
The Patrol Man searches for and returns lost person and property and informs and assist
citizens. He serves as the eye and ears of the police department by gathering information useful
to the administration, to the special branches of the police service and other city departments.

The patrol force is considered to be the backbone or nucleus of the police service it is
responsible for the performance of practically all primary police tasks. Patrol officers can be
considered the most valuable people in the police department because all activities radiate
from them. A police department’s ability to carry out its function depends greatly on the patrol
officer’s 24/7 watchful vigilance. Hence, the patrol force is responsible for accomplishing the
total police job.

The common history of police forces of the Philippines can be traced back to the reigns of
the pre-Hispanic lakans, datus and sultans in the islands were soldiers who served in the
communities where the people lived (and which reported directly to local leaders) also
enforced local laws. All changed with the arrival of the Spanish rule and the introduction of
Western law to the archipelago. Until 1868, personnel of the Spanish army and local militias
were also tasked with policing duties in local communities, together with the Island
Carabienieros (raised its 1768 and colony’s first ever police). In that year, the local branch of the
Civil Guard was officially established by order of the Governor-General Carlos Maria Dela Torre
Y Nava Cerreda. Starting from single division, during the Revolutionary period grew into a corps
of military police with detachments in Luzon and the Visayas, and was notorious for its abuses
against Filipinos. (These abuses were mentioned in Jose Rizal’s two nobles; Noli Me Tangere
and El Filibusterismo, both writing about several cases of Civil Guardsmen abusing the local
populace.) Civil Guardsmen formed part of the Spanish military forces fought against Filipino
rebels during the Philippines Revolution.

With the beginning of American rule and the Philippine-American War, Philippine
Constabulary (PC) was raised in 1901 as a national gendarmerie force for law enforcement,
directly reporting to the American government. At the same time, what is now the Manila
Police District came into existence as the Philippines first city police force. Later police forces
began to model the US departments.

The gendarmerie force was later integrated into ranks of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines in the late 1930s- first as a command of the Army, and later on its own after State of

Police folded. (The PC’s personnel would later be fighting on both sides in the Second World

Passed on December 13, 1990, Republic Act No. 6975 the Department of the Interior and
Local Government Act of 1990 ordered the merger of both the Philippine Constabulary and the
Integrated National Police and formally created the Philippine National Police. R.A. 6975 was
further amended by R.A. 8551, the Philippine National Police reform and Reorganization Act of
1998, and by R.A. 9708. The R.A. 8551 envisioned the PNP to be a community- and service-
oriented agency.

One of the barriers to implementing directed patrol in the past has been the traditional view
that targeting crime hotspots can simply result in the problem moving elsewhere (this is called
crime displacement‟).

The name of Barangay San Isidro was came from a patron of Farmers and Laborers
named “San Isidro Labrador” this is one of the five(5) big barangays of Taytay Rizal. It has a total
landed area of four hundred forty two (442) hectares with a total population of 41, 520 based
on census of National Statistics Office last 2018.

San Isidro is one of the progressive Barangay of the town having garment factories,
sash factories and other small business firms continuously operating within the community.
Banking business is also progressive with a total of six banks serving the business sector. This is
one of the business reasons why San Isidro is attractive to investors considering its easy access
from manila via Ortigas Avenue extension and Rizal Avenue. San Isidro has several
sitio`s/puroks numbering about eleven (11). With only three of them categorized as depressed
areas. Since the primary objective of Barangay San Isidro is to maintain “Clean and Healthy
Community”, Barangay Nutrition Scholars have been trained by Municipal Health Office and are
being maintained for the purpose.

In early years of barangay San Isidro it is composed of plains and hills and also
surrounded by rivers, lakes, brooks and canals that is clean enough to enriching the land of
Barangay San Isidro.


NORTH : Municipality of Teresa and Antipolo, City

EAST : Province of Laguna and Laguna De Bay

WEST : City of Pasig from Municipality Cainta

SOUTH : Municipality of Jala-jala, Pillila, Morong, Binangonan,

Municipality of Taytay

TOTAL LAND AREA : 442 hectares

NUMBER OF STREETS : 70 approximately







2017- 2018 41,520

2015 36,780

2014 54,364

2010 35,790

2009 40,378

2008 38,364

2007 36,450

2000 32,718


OFFICES Siena College of Taytay

PUBLIC SCHOOLS: Informatics College

Simona National High School San Beda University Taytay

Muzon National High School POLICE STATION:

Simona Elementary School Taytay Municipal Police Station


PRIVATE SCHOOLS: God’s Grace Christian Family Church

Scholastica De San Alfonzo Inc. Lords Jewel Christian Church

St. Francis of Assisi Montessori The United Methodist Church

St. John The Baptist Parochial School St. John The Baptist Church

Lords Jewels Christian School Taytay New-Life Fellowship

Baptist Bible Seminary & Institute

The Messiah Community Church

San Isidro Labrador Chapel

Asia-Pacific Nazarene Seminary

Jesus Christ Saves Global Outreach

Sources of Data

The Researcher employed a survey questionnaire to gather data of the present study.
The Part I is the demographic status of the respondents. This part shows information about
their Current employment, Studies, and owned Business The second part of the questionnaire
deals with the indicators about Police Visibility in Barangay San Isidro in terms of Patrol, Police
Checkpoints and Police Oplans.

Furthermore, observation was used by the researchers while the respondent answers
the given questionnaires. The researchers observed whether the respondents were interested
on the topic of the study or not, and whether they answered honestly.

Review of the Related Literature and Studies

This phase contains the review of related literatures and studies of a foreign and local
literature, foreign and Local studies about the related studies of these subject matter also it
contains the conceptual/theoretical framework, paradigm of the research and the relevance of
the study literature/study up to the present studies.

Foreign Literature

According to Payton( 2001) Patrol Division is the “Back Bone of the Police Department”
Because it is the only division that cannot be eliminated and it is often the only one to work on
a twenty four hour basis. The history of police patrol is as old as organize society. Man has
always needed protection, first from animals, and then from his own kind. His first attempt to
protect himself and his family involved barricading the entrance to his cave. As the community
enlarged, so did the need for developing specialized group or agency to handle protection. This
form of protection usually involved night patrol of soldiers about the town, or city and groups
of soldiers stationed at various poets around the perimeter, and at major points with in the
same town or city.

According to Larson (2003) Patrol Beat/Sector. This is an area which one patrol unit (usually
exclusive) preventive patrol responsibility.

According to Eldefonso (2004) The patrol division in every police department is the
largest and most important single unit providing the community with the service it expects. It
operates on the central theme of the total police purpose, which is to prevent crime, and it acts
as the eyes and ears of the chief police administrator. How the administrator solves the many
and varied people problems depends heavily on the information furnished to him by patrol
force. Also through the patrol service, many of the elements contributing to emergency calls for
service can be eliminated or change by the routine operations of this division. Above all the
central theme of presenting crime is paramount.

For a crime to take place, three factors must exist simultaneously: (a) the desire of the
person to commit the crime (b) the will of the person to commit the crime, and (c) the
opportunity to commit the crime. Should any of one of these factors be removed by the work of
the patrol division, the crime will not be successfully committed. No other division in the police
profession can provide such favorable influence over the potential perpetrator of a crime.

According to William and Saden (2000) In Japan, basically, the patrol police operate
from police boxes, residential police boxes and radio patrol cars, each of which has been

assigned to specific area of patrol. The patrol police are on perpetual alert, patrolling and
visiting homes, the engaged in wide range of activities such as preventing crimes, arresting
criminal suspects, guiding traffic providing guidance to juveniles, protecting lost children and
drunks and listening to the problems of people in trouble and assisting in their solution.
Through these activities, the patrol police endeavor to make everyday life in each community
secure and peaceful.

According to Davis (2002) There number of activities for which the Patrol Force can be
responsible which are directly related to the prevention of crime. One reasonable objective
would be to set aside the specific portion of time during each tour of duty to specific patrol
activities. Such activities might include, patrolling parking lots in retail shopping areas were a
high incidence of auto theft has been reported; and conducting foot patrol in neighborhood
parks and around school playgrounds were a high number of incidents involving crimes against
children have been reported; and conducting foot patrol in parks and recreation areas where
strong armed robberies and assaults have been reported. The amount of time devoted to
various non-traditional activities shift or group of officers over a period of time can be
measured and compared with increases or decreases in target crimes.

Local Literatures

According to Vargas (2000) It is true that police functions have always been held basic
in society. One could not just deny the fact in an atmosphere of lawlessness and disorder, any
productive activity cannot go on smoothly or easily succeed. In year 2000, Vargas
recommended that “each division should work hand in hand so that they can fully attain their
respective mission: they should continue implementing their policies and guidelines in solving
crimes: Crime Laboratory Service should continue providing services to Cordilleran in order
than crimes will be solved at the earliest possible time.

According to Belagan (2004) some management problems and variables of the Baguio
City Police Command. Some of the problems he found to be serious were under deployment,
lack of personnel, favoritism, and financial variables. His recommendation included the
following: The Baguio City Police Command should improve each extent of effectiveness in the
attainment of PNP objectives considering the are professionally qualified and that Baguio City is
now highly urbanized City a melting pot of the people from all over the country and outside of
it. The Community- Oriented Policy (COP) Project should be vigorously and augmented by
trained barangay tanods. Visibility of Uniform Police Men and trained Barangay Tanods must be
at all time to minimize the occurrence of crimes.

According to Binay-an (2004) made a study on the Philippines National Police

Administration in Baguio City. His study revealed that the general powers to make arrest,
search and seizure in accordance with the constitution and pertinent laws should be

emphasized, and Oplan Pagbabago and Oplan Paglalansag should be enforced without fear or
favor. He recommends. That the PNP Administration in Baguio City should exert extra effort in
enforcing their implemented programs/projects to fully attain their objectives, aims and goals.
The programs/projects of the PNP Administration in Baguio City should be more effective in
professionalization of the PNP, Operation of community oriented policing system/Police on
the block, neighborhood watch and Oplan Pagbabago. The PNP Administration in Baguio City
should be flexible, adjustable, and understanding its Operation and functions. The study of
Binay- an is similar to the present study because the people who are handling the cases of
crimes are mostly policemen who were the subjects of the present study. Their difference lies
on the fact that the former study was on juvenile delinquency while the present is on the police

According to De Guzman (2001)On the police department, there are many types of
patrol. Included air, automobile, bicycle, boat, dog, foot, horse, motorcycle and television patrol
.Under the Philippine Patrol System, a choice of patrol method, whether food or mobile, shall
be made and based on the purpose of the patrol and the conditions under which it is to be
provided. The method of transportation shall be provided the patrolmen not on foot patrol
which shall and able most effective and economical accomplishment of his task. Cars, jeeps,
wagons, motorcycles, horses, bicycles and the like and are invariably used in police work.
However, the choice shall be based on an appraisal of the advantages and disadvantages of
each of the primary purposes of the patrol and the conditions in which it is to be affected. In
Quezon, City, the police is adopting two methods or types of patrol: the foot patrol being
undertaken by the police stations and automobile patrol by the Mobile Patrol Division.
However, both patrol’s primary duties and objectives are “Protection” and “Service” to the

According to Drilon (2013) Police visibility is critical to reduce crime volume

especially in critical and risky areas. But the personnel build-up of the Philippine National Police
is quite far from what is ideal and sufficient in order for effectively fight criminality and to
maintain peace and order throughout the country. The number of uniformed personnel of the
Philippine National Police was not enough to meet ideal meaning of One (1) Policeman is every
Five Hundred (500) Civilians in their area of responsibility in order to monitor the maintenance
of peace and order”.

Foreign Studies

According to Newman (2003) Experiments with other techniques designed to deter

crime range from relatively simple and non-controversial placing of ghost or unmanned police
cars distinctly visible along super highways to control traffic, to the use of police dogs in
surveillance and park patrol. One problem with all deterrence techniques, however, is the
extent of the non-criminal population’s willingness to put up with such inconveniences as exact

change rules, searches upon public entering public transportation, or the saturation of
neighborhoods with armed police..

According to Trojannowicz (2000) In the early 1990`s the notion of community

policing emerged as the dominant direction for thinking about policing. It was designed to
reunite the Police to the community. It is a philosophy and not a specific tactic: a proactive,
decentralized approach designed to reduced crime, disorder, and fear of crime, by involving the
same officer in the same community for a long term basis. There is no single program to
describe community policing. Community policing goals much farther than being a mere police
community relation program and attempts to address crime control through a working
partnership with the community. Here, community institution such as families, schools, and
neighborhood, and merchant associations are seen as key partners with the police in creating
safer, more secure communities. the community`s views have greater status under community

According to Al Coffey (2000) Foot patrol is the oldest means of conducting patrol,
and it still plays an important role in the deployment of officers today. As popularity and
practicality of vehicle patrol grew during the early part of the twentieth century, the frequency
of deploying officers on foot decreased. With increased population density in many major
urban areas approaching gridlock, however, foot patrol is reemerging as a workable method to
patrol areas not suited for vehicles

Targeting specific criminal activity is the key to selective enforcement. Under no

circumstances should a department or community allow a group of individual to be singled out
for harassment under the guise of selective enforcement, simply by virtue of their ethnicity,
politics, or aged. Used properly, it is a legitimate tool of law enforcement and can be used with
very favorable results to respond to high levels of criminal conduct, regardless of who the
violators are.

According to Robin (2004) the Police Departments have organized their delivery of
crime services around general preventive control: random motorized cruising by patrol officers
when they are not responding to radio dispatch calls. Considered the “backbone” of the Police
force, the preventive patrol is intended to deter crime through visibility of the police and their
opportunity to apprehend offenders in the act of fleeing from the scene.

To the man on the streets as well as to the police man himself, the apprehension of
criminals is usually stressed as a major goal. These means responding to related calls carrying
through which such activities as criminal investigation, collection of evidence, and interrogating
and arresting suspects. Another objective of police work which over lapse the former is crime
deterrence. The most important activity is street patrol to detect incidents of crime or
situations with crime potentials. A third objective is community service.

According to Bragas (2001), he stated that perhaps the most compelling evidence for
the effectiveness of place, oriented preventive patrol as oppose to random preventive patrol
analysis and systematic review of “hot spot” policing studies. Out of nine studies, seven showed
no noteworthy crime reductions as a result of place oriented patrol activities, and it should be
noted intervention types range among three broad categories: enforcement problem-oriented-
policing (POP) interventions, directed and aggressive patrol programs, and the use of
crackdowns and raids.

Local Studies

According to Domingo`s (2000) study centers on the present operational problems

being confronted by the Pasay City Police Station. Among these are the following: Lack of man
power, inadequate supplies of ammunitions, Lack of supplies, materials, equipment’s, and
logistics for repair and maintenance, Low salary of Police men. But despite this problems, he
concluded that the present mobile patrol procedures adopted in the Pasay City Police Station
particularly in the manner of control of each crew members thus in any way conform with the
standard set forth by the INP Rules and Regulations and finally, he stated that in spite of lack of
personnel, the station in performing effectively in each assigned mission. With that finding and
conclusions Domingo recommended the need for an aggressive patrol strength in order to
eliminate or minimize criminal operation in there are of operations. He said that a community
with a police force equipped with best equipment’s and personnel surely enhance better
populace. And lastly, he asked for more logistical support for operations to attain maximum

According to Ordinario (2006) Study present a description of patrol management

which shades light into patrol operations, its objectives and activities as well as the types of
patrol, techniques observation and knowledge while on patrol he said that patrolling is a
command responsibility. It is the very essence of police work and the patrol force is considered
as the backbone of police organization.

In his findings, and the find the term “Patrol” as a detachment of personnel or unit
taken from a larger body of troops sent out on combat, reconnaissance, prevention,
investigation or inspection mission. It is shown in his study that there are many objectives of
police patrol but the most important are protection and service basing thereof, he concluded
the following: That the work of the patrol force includes all the police functions. Therefore, the
more effective the patrol division, the less need there is for the other more specialized
operation divisions; That the quality of police service rendered by the whole department is
largely dependent upon the competence of the patrol force, That the manner of selecting,
training, directing and disciplining policemen will determine the effectiveness and affects the
prestige of the patrol force.

According to Duran (2003) in his study describes the organization and operational
set-up of the Mobile Patrol Division is the largest single unit of the WPD which is responsible of
the performance of primary police tasks. It provides complete coverage of the City of Manila 24
hours a day in any kind of weather conditions and may take immediate cognizance to any case
that may arise if an specialized group of unit failed to arrive early at the scene when summoned
at the given time. The mobility and readiness raised the emergency value and of an officer and
increase its ability to handle called for cases of with quickness.

According to Isaias (2002) The policeman in the performance of his multifarious

task is charged with bringing all law breakers to court but while doing so, he is compelled to
respect and observe their of constitutional rights. Thus, the police is the prime mover of the
criminal justice system that, without the police, such system is at a standstill.

The major resources of any police unit are directed toward providing crime control
services. Thus function as carried out within budgetary constraint emphasized efficient an
effective for law enforcement efforts. The public also views the police as the first and last resort
against crime and fear of crime. And, whether justified or not, the field officers’ working
personality and self-concept should revolve around crime control.

According to Acero Lao (2004) This study bears relevance to the present
investigation in the sense that it delves into crime prevention measures by which to aid the
police in its execution in the Barangay level, which is also the measure of the police visibility
issue that the present study digs into.

On the other hand, Lao looked into the problems in discipline and in the
enforcement of laws of the police department of the City of Tagbilaran. His study identified and
categorized the problems as those within the department, those outside the department, those
related to court actions, those within the realm of securing witnesses, those involving the non-
cooperation the victims and political interference.

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on the System Theory is espoused by Stem (2004). According to
Stem, any organization maybe likened to a system comprising of many parts. For a system to
operate effectively and efficiently, all parts should work properly in accordance with purposes
for which said parts are intended. When any part of the system becomes defective or unable to
effectively perform each intended functions, the entire system suffers because there may be
other sub-systems inter acting or defendant upon the smooth performance of the said part. If
left uncorrected, the defective part may totally break down and/ or continue to affect other sub
systems to the detriment of the entire system. Hence the system theory calls for an immediate
and full attention accorded to part failures for purposes of keeping the entire system working
properly and smoothly.

The application of this theory focuses on maintaining police visibility in the city of
Taytay, Rizal. this presents the framework for an effective maintenance of police visibility.

At present, the PNP is being critically rated by the community in its crime prevention
program. When we talk about crime prevention or crime deterrence, we talk about police
visibility. This rule is performed by police personnel – the patrol man in uniform who moves
around, walks or cruises the streets and who is always exposed and direct contact with the

They played an important role as they were the once who witness the vital need of
security among the community. Police conducting patrol to all corners of the area should be
properly oriented towards the performance of their jobs.

Police had each power to impose community roles and go against violators. They should
be a vivid example of good and law – abiding citizens.

Conceptual Framework

The researcher opted to use IPO or input, process, output method


Human Resources Survey Method Heightened public perception of

safety and security with the
1.1. Operation
presence of law enforcement in
1.2. Area Gathering Data community at all times.

1.3. Capacities Maintain fixed visibility points in

order to establish strategic
Evaluation of Gathered Checkpoints

Problems and Issues Data Develop good rapport with people at

Encountered in the their beat and regularly update with
implementation of Police tips and warnings on tactics and
Visibility in the area Interpretation of Data modus operandi of criminals in their

Conduct coordination/dialogue or
Proposed action to Presentation of Data symposium with Punong Barangay,
Administrative/Operational Brgy. Councils and General pubic
Plans may be formulated and pertaining to the update of peace
enhanced the performance and order situation especially on
of Police Visibility Program. environment issues.

Paradigm of the Study

The paradigm of the study shows the first box known as input, which provides the
assessment of the respondent`s student`s, employee`s and business owner`s indicator in Police

The second box known as process shows the methodology of research, descriptive
survey method, Data gathering, Evaluation of gathered data, Interpretation of Data and
Presentation of Data.

The third box known as output shows design solution to the effectiveness of Police
Visibility in Barangay San Isidro as Assimilated by the Residents: input the enhancement of

Statement of the problem

This study assessed the performance of Barangay San Isidro Taytay, Rizal Police Personnel in the
discharged of Police Visibility.

Specifically, this study sought answers to the following question:

1. How do the Students, Business Owner`s, and Private Employee`s assess respondents
about Police Visibility in Barangay San Isidro?

1.1 Operation

1.2 Area

1.3 Capacities

2. What issues and concerns encountered by the respondent as to the aforementioned


3. From the findings of the study, what Administrative/Operational Plans may be

formulated and enhanced the performance of Police Visibility Program.

Assumption of the study

The fundamental assumptions which underline this study are;
1. The data gathered are valid and reliable.
2. The description of the respondents are varies as to Business Owners, Students,
Employees and Residents
3. There are indicators in the police visibility.

Significance of the study

The study is deemed significant of the following;
Taytay Police Station - the study will provide them the importance of their presence in the
prevention and suppression of Crime Incidents, and police relations to the community.
Residence of Barangay San Isidro – the study will give them the idea of how important police
officers must be visible in their community.
Barangay officials - this is for them to have a clearer and more complete picture of importance
of maintaining police visibility, contributions to a better community-police partnership in
keeping peace and order.
Criminology students – the study will encourage them to finish their course and join the PNP
Organization or other law enforcements organizations. And they can obtain more knowledge
about their course.
Future Researcher – the findings may provide the subjects which they can explore for future

Scope and limitations

This study focused only to the Importance of Police Visibility. The respondents were One
Hundred Twenty (120) residents in Barangay San Isidro Taytay, Rizal. Responses of these
investigators were categorized according to instructions to find out the significance of their
responses on the solution used.
The research began from January 17, 2019 and will be finished on April 2019.
Definition of terms;
The following terms are defined lexically and operationally for better understanding of the
research study;
Area of responsibility - refers to the coverage of police station performing their police function.
Arrest – is the taking of a person into custody in order that he may be bound to answer for the
commission of an offense.
Auto Mobile Patrol – are patrols are routine drives made by law enforcement officers. They
usually ensure that there is surveillance.
Barangay – it is the geographical political unit under the local government code of 1991, section
Barangay officials – refers to the elected and designated officers of the basic local government
unit called Barangay. It is composed of Barangay Chairman, Councilmen, Lupon and etc.
Beat – a beat is the territory and time that a Police Officer patrols
Beat Patrol – a beat is the territory and time that a Police Officer patrols. Beat policing is based
on traditional policing (late 19th Century) and utilized the closed relationship with the
community members within the assigned beat to strengthened Police effectiveness and
encouraged Cooperative efforts to make a safer community. Beat Police typically patrol on foot
or Motorcycle which provides more interaction between Police and Community members.
Crime - refers to any act of omission or commission punishable by law.
Crime Control – is the primary concern of the Police as the “saying” control before the act into
a serious proportion. The line is basically, first to prevent ultimately to control.
Crime Deterrence – this pertains to police operation aimed at dissuading a person from acting
on his evil design or violating the law.
Crime Prevention– Is a reduction or elimination of the desire and or opportunity to commit a
Crime Suppression – it means the positive result of police action following a crime incident that
will usually tone down the severe effect or damaged that can cause by an incident if not
restrained or controlled.
Crime Volume – refers to the total number of reported crime incidents in an area over a given
period of time regardless of the number of perpetrators.

Community – refers to a social group of any sizes whose members resides in a specific locality,
share government and often have a common characteristic or interest and perceived or
perceiving itself as distinct is some respect from the larger society within which it exists.
Index crime – crime which are serious in nature in which occur which sufficient frequency and
regularly such they can serve as an index to the crime situation which is classified into Crime
against person and crimes against property.
Government – organization, machinery or agency through which a political unit exercises
authority and perform functions and which is usually classified according to the distribution of
power within it.
Implementation – It pertains to the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea,
model, design, specification, standard, Algorithm, or policy.
Jurisdiction- the geographic area, over which authority extends, legal authority the authority to
hear and determine cause of action. Jurisdiction generally describes any authority over the
certain area or certain person. For example the federal government is a jurisdiction unto itself.
Its power spans the entire united states, each state is also the jurisdiction unto itself, with the
power to pass its own laws. Smaller geographic areas, such as countries and cities, are separate
jurisdiction to the extent that they have powers that are the independent of the federal and
state government.
Patrol – it is where a person or group of people are sent to keep watch over an area.
Perpetrator – refers to a person who commits illegal acts or commits a crime.
Physical presence - refers s to the actual presence of the police man on beet performing patrol
Police - refers to the person who enforces the law.
Police Checkpoint – A location where the search, which is duly authorized by the PNP, is
conducted to deter/prevent the commission of crimes, enforce the law, and for other
legitimate purposes.
Police Station – a station that serve as headquarter for police in particular district; serve as a
place from which policemen are dispatch and to which arrested person are brought.
Police Visibility – refers to the actual presence or not just the presence of the police man on
beat which involves three things: Physical presence, Patrolling scheme, and response time.
Police Response – it refers to police operations aimed at being able to arrive at a crime scene at
the earliest possible time and in a manner and condition capable of suppressing and controlling
criminality and lawlessness
Police Community Relation – this refers to the partnership of the police and community. This
also includes active participation of both entities towards common agencies or purpose
particularly in the maintenance of peace and order in the community.

Public Safety – this includes all the many elements that enable residents of a community to
enjoy its streets, sidewalks, park, and other public places as well as sense in their homes,
schools and work place.
Petty Crimes – type of crime that is not considered serious when compared with some other
Public Servant – is a person in the public sector employed for a government department or
agency. The extent of civil servant of state as part of the “civil service” varies from country to
Rapport – a friendly, harmonious relationship characterized by agreement, mutual
understanding, or empathy communication possible or easy.
Sector – an area or portion that is distinct from others.
Vicious People – someone who does brutal things on purpose, out of ill-will towards other