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Andrew & Saida


a political theory that believes that the state should control the
methods of production, there should be no separate social
classes and everyone should be treated equally.

● Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels are credited with the creation
of communism, in the 19th century
● Introduced to the world through The Communist Manifesto
(Marx, Engels, 1848)
● The goal was to abolish Capitalism and the division of
classes, through property belonging to the state and the
means of production belonging to the people
Theoretical Basis
Key Theorist:
Karl Marx a German economist, political theorist, and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Germany.
Friedrich Engels a German philosopher, communist, social scientist, and businessman.

Key Works/ Documents:

The Communist Manifesto: written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, was first published in 1848. It formed the
basis for the modern communist movement as we know it, arguing that capitalism would inevitably self-destruct,
to be replaced by socialism and ultimately communism.

Arguments for:
Social class system that led to the exploitation of workers. Communism allows for one to not worry about death
from preventable causes such as starvation and thirst, and allows for a communitarianism society.
How it Works
● The people involved in a communist society control the means of
production (mines, factories, plants, etc.)
● All property is owned by the state, meaning the people don’t own
anything, they simply use the resources they require
● In realist communism, the people control the government equally
● If all of these points are implemented correctly, everyone would hold
an equal amount of power and there would be no need for
socio-economic classes
Ten Characteristics of Communism in
Theory In the Communist Manifesto
1. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.
2. A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.
3. Abolition of all right of inheritance.
4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
5. Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies especially for agriculture.
6. The combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries. The gradual abolition of the distinction between
town and country. This will be achieved by a more equable distribution of population over the country.
7. Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor. The combination of education
with industrial production.
8. Centralization of credit in the hands of the state. It would own a national bank with state capital and an exclusive
9. The state would control communication and transportation.
10. The state factories and instruments of production. It would cultivate wastelands and improve the soil. This would
follow a common plan.
Relevant Political Figures
● Vladimir Lenin - Founder of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) - Leader of the Russian Bolshevik Revolution.
● Mao Zedong - Chinese Marxist who lead the Chinese Communist revolution - Leader of the Chinese Communist Party
(CCP) - Chairman of the People’s Republic of China.
● Joseph Stalin - Secretary-General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union - Dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and
turned the county into a major world power.
● Nikita Khrushchev - First secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union - held a policy of de-stalinization and
attempted a peaceful coexistence with the capitalist West.
● Leon Trotsky - Communist leader in Russia’s October Revolution (1917) - Commissar of foreign affairs and war for the
Soviet Union - Exiled when Stalin rose to power.
● Ho Chi Minh - Founder of the Indochina Communist Party - President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Easy to Remember: Stalinist Russia, Maoist China, and Castro's Cuba.

Soviet Union: a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from December 30, 1922 to December 26,
1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were
highly centralized.

China: In October 1949, Mao Tse Tung established the Chinese Communist party.

Cuba: In April 1960, Fidel Castro proclaimed the Partido Communista de Cuba to be the ruling party.
The Soviet Union gave economic support to the impoverished country.

The last five remaining Communist countries are China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam.

● Almost impossible to have unauthorized opposition - it’s easy

for the governing body to shutdown any opposition. This
means one person can stay in power for an extended period
of time.
● If the resources the people have access to are limited, it can
result in widespread poverty.
● Everyone is employed

● Everyone is educated

● Communism can move so effectively because it overrides individual self-interest. It subjugates

the welfare of the general population to achieve imperative social goals.

● Centrally planned economy. It can quickly mobilize economic resources on a large scale. It is
able to execute massive projects and create industrial power.