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Chapter 9 Study Guide

 Suppressor: mutation that reverses an earlier mutation


- Amber mutation induces early STOP (UAG)
- Help elucidate amino acid codes
- Cosuppressors helps suppressors suppress a mutation
- Reoressors inhibits expression
- Derepressors inhibits repression

Codons

 AUG (Start codon)


 Stop codons are considered nonsense because they do not code for anything.
 Stop codons are:
- UAG (Amber)
- UAA (Ochre)
- UGA (Opal)

Structure of tRNA

slide 14,15,16

 5’ position is less confined


- Accommodates non-stranded base parings
 Degeneracy accounts for multiple codes for the same AA
- Same tRNA binds to multiple AAs
 Conversion of adenine forms inosine
Key Sites of interaction in Bacterial Ribosomes:

 A site: entry of charged tRNA


 P site: of growing polypeptide
- + binding site for AUG
 E site: exit for unchanged stem of tRNA

Translation’s 3 steps:

Step1: Initiation

 Small ribosomes bind to AUG of mRNA


- IF is an initiating factor
- Assisted by IF that stops mRNA movement and initial complex to P site

Step2: Elongation

 Amino acid corresponding to the mRNA


- mRNA codon is dropped to A site
- hooks to predecessors by peptide bonds using ratchet mechanism
 assisted by EF (elongation factors)

Step3: Termination

 nonsense codons halts synthesis.


- Addition of RF (release factors) catalyzes hydrolysis reaction
 Water molecule pushes peptide free
 UAA, UAG, UGA are NONSENSE codes
 RF1 → UAA & UAG RF2 → UAA & UGA RF3 removes RF1 & RF2
 Ribosome recycling factor + EF-G = dissociated ribosome

Reading frame: dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set
of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets.

Open reading frame: sequence of DNA that starts with start codon “ATG” (not always) and ends with
any of the three termination codons (TAA, TAG, TGA).

Frameshift: genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of many nucleotides in a DNA
sequence that is not divisible by three.

Name three features that induce a globular protein shape. Name three things that can
dramatically alter that shape. Commented [SS1]:

 Amino acid sequence, folding pattern, functions induce a globular protein shape.
What is a ribosome?
Article consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of
living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and
proteins