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applied fracture

mechanics

ELSEVIER Theoretical and AppliedFracture Mechanics27 (1997) 13-20

E.E. Theotokoglou

Department of Engineering Science, Section of Mechanics, The National Technical University of Athens, GR-15773 Athens, Greece

Abstract

Experiments and two-dimensional finite-element analysis are carried out for unidirectional and angle-ply curved

laminates. These laminates are used for deep sea applications and offer considerable advantage over their metal counterparts.

Much work has recently been devoted to the failure mechanisms of thick composites. Delamination growth of thick

composite laminates and shells is also pertinent to the structural performance and certification of underwater composite

shells. In this study, specimens are produced and tested for failure. A linear and geometric non-linear two-dimensional finite

element analysis of the end-notched flexure specimen is performed to evaluate the compliance and Mode-II strain energy

release rate G n.

criticality assessment should therefore include inter-

The use of composite cylinders for deep sea laminar cracking. This is particularly important for

applications offers considerable advantage in terms thick and curved composite structures. For filament

of buoyancy on account of the high specific proper- wound cylinders, delamination also occurs between

ties. Much work has recently been devoted to the angle-plies (e.g. + ~9). Previous works on delamina-

performance of thick-walled composite cylinders [1], tion has been limited to crack propagation in unidi-

but the influence of defects has received little atten- rectional (0 °) composites.

tion. Defect growth in thick composite shells is Delamination studies for marine structures in-

important to the design and manufacture of underwa- volve analysis of composites with curved geometries,

ter vehicles. As demonstrated by extensive studies angle-ply beams, and crack interfaces. Only a few

related to aerospace applications of composite struc- papers are available [4-9] on this subject.

tures [2,3], the interlaminar 'delamination' failure This paper is concerned with interlaminar crack

mode, which involves crack propagation between the propagation in beam specimens cut from flat panels

plies in a laminated composite, is also expected to be and cylindrical shells used for marine applications.

critical for thick composite structures. These specimens are tested in Mode II.

Applications of composites to marine structures A linear and geometric non-linear two-dimen-

under biaxial compression are currently limited to sional finite element analysis of the end-notched

their inability to attain the theoretical compressive flexure (ENF) specimen, is performed to determine

strength of the material, because of defects intro- the specimen compliance and the strain energy re-

duced in processing and manufacturing. In addition lease rate GII. The contact problem is included in the

to fiber wrinkling that causes kink band formation finite element model and the strain energy release

PII S0167-8442(97)00003-7

14 E.E. Theotokoglou / Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) 13 20

Table 1 ,P

Properties of unreinforced resin (in mean and standard deviation)

Material E (OPa) Kjc (MPa ~m-m) G,. (J/m:)

Epoxy 2.58 (0.14) 0.70 (0.08) 175

pl2 %

technique. Finally, the finite element results are com-

pared with the experimental results and the bean~ Fig. 1. End-notch flexure specimen.

theory solutions [9,10].

2. Material properties

crack is subjected to Mode II loading. The ENF

specimens were machined to give dimensions of

The materials tested are made of g l a s s / e p o x y

2L = 100 m m and an overall length of 125 mm. The

laminates. The epoxy type is LY556 from Ciba

thickness 2h of the unidirectional (UD) specimens is

Geigy, cured with hardener HY917 [1 1]. Table 1

from 4.62 to 4.76 ram.

gives the elastic and fracture toughness properties

In the case of tubes reinforced at [_+30] 6 the

[11]. The reinforcing fibers are of E-glass with mod-

specimens were cut from the composite cylinders as

ulus of elasticity 72.5 GPa and Poisson's ratio 0.3.

shown in Fig. 2. The geometrical parameters of the

Both unidirectional laminates and cylinders with

specimens are the same as those for the LID where

[-t-3016 lay up were filament wound by S E R M A

the inner radius of the cylinder is R / = 80 mm as

A.E. Mulhouse. The fiber volume fraction is 52.4%.

shown in Fig. 2. The thickness (2h) of the angle-ply

The internal diameter of the cylinder is 160 mm and

specimens varies from 5.00 mm to 5.11 ram. Shear

the nominal wall thickness is 5 ram. The laminates

loading is applied to the crack front for the ENF

are not symmetric about their mid-surface. The film

specimen shown in Fig. 3.

defects were placed between the 6th and 7th layers.

The orthotopic material properties of unidirec-

tional E - g l a s s / e p o x y composites based on microme-

chanics calculations [12], are listed in Table 2, where

the subscripts 1, 2 and 3 correspond to the longitudi-

nal transverse and thickness directions, respectively.

Film Inse~rt \

at mid-thickness "Beam Specimen

3. Experimental procedure

cal shells, and tested at the French Oceanographic

research organization I F R E M E R (Brest Center). Fig.

Table 2

E-glass/epoxy material properties '~

Etl (GPa) E22 (GPa) GIz (GPa) G23 (GPa) ul2 u,~ J,.<,,"-

39.22 7.59 1.93 2.95 0.291 0.291

Fig. 2. lnterlaminar fracture specimens taken from filament wound

a E33 = E22, P13 = /212' GI3 = GI2" cylinders containing implanted defects at mid-thickness.

E.E. Theotokoglou / Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) 13-20 15

l.Z Specimen 3

Specimen /+ ~

I

!

1.0 ,

7 ~

ENF Specimen

0.8 ,

Fig. 3. Beam fracture specimen for shear delamination fracture

testing of cylinder wall.

~. 0.6 )

The crack length is 25 mm. The load was applied

to the ENF specimens via rollers in a three-point

bend text fixture. Straight cylindrical supports were

used. The specimens were precracked from a Mode I

' /

a_ i i

The displacements are measured from the central

point taken via the crosshead displacement trans-

r

1.6 I ! ~ ! , 0 , ] , , ,

specimen 1 : i ...._. 0 2 /, 6 8 10 12 It,

• / ~r m

Ispeci " en- - 2 ,! ~ i: ~ N~. Displctcement d (mini

1./+ - - i Fig. 5. Load-displacement curves obtained by experiments in the

II / ' I , case of angle-ply [ + 30] 6 E-glass/epoxy curved laminates.

yll ,/~ ~ i

1.2

i' i

t 1.0 III// !

Fig. 4 gives two load versus displacement curves of

l i D Mode II tests for the aluminum foil defect. For

the curved specimens [ + 30]6 with a precrack under

Mode I, the load-displacement curves are given in

~o.a , ) Fig. 5. The specimen dimensions, loads and dis-

) , placements at non-linearity for both cases can be

found in Table 3.

o.6 i

I

0.~ Table 3

Specimen dimensions, loads and displacements at non-linearity

Specimen Width (mm) Thickness P(N) d (mm)

O.Z (b) (mm) (2h)

UN E-glass/epoxy

Specimen 1 20 4.71 1015 3.675

o, l I Specimen 2 20 4.76 1098 3.881

0 5 10 15 2.0 25

Curved (+ / -30) E-glass/epoxy

Displacement d (ram) Specimen 3 20 5.04 566 3.45

Fig. 4. Load-displacement curves obtained by experiments in the Specimen 4 20 5.06 534 3.22

case of unidirectional E-glass/epoxy laminates.

16 E.E. Theotokoglou / Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) 13-20

4. Analysis of the ENF specimens Eqs. (4) and (5) were modified in [10] to include

the effect of transverse shear deformation, thus

Load-line compliance, C, is defined as the ratio of 1.2L + 0.9a

the displacement, d, under the central loading point Cs~~ = CBv + (6)

to the applied load as given by 4bGi3h

c p

d

(2)

G~,H=G~T[1 +0.2(E,/Gl3)(h/a) 2] (7)

where Gi3 is the interlaminar shear modulus.

The energy release rate Gll takes the form [] 4]

p2 dC

G. (3) 5. Finite element analysis of the ENF-specimens

2b da

where a is the crack length and b is the width of the Much efforts have been made to analyze the ENF

specimen. specimen by two-dimensional finite element analysis

The load line compliance, C B'r, and the energy [15-18]. In general, analysis of the ENF-thick com-

release rate, G~T, have been obtained in [9] as posite specimen would require a three-dimensional

calculation in conjunction with a contact algorithm.

2L 3 + 3a

The contact area that could potentially extend along

CBT = 8 E 1bh 3 (4) the entire crack interface is an unknown. As a sim-

plification, the present study considers a two-dimen-

C~ "r = 9 a 2 p e / ( 1 6 e l b 2 h 3) (5)

sional analysis and precludes the edge effects. The

where L is the half-span of the beam, h is the four-node isoparametric plane strain finite element

half-thickness (Fig. 1) and E~, is the Young's modu- code, ANSYS [19], is utilized. Triangular plane strain

lus in the longitudinal direction. elements are adopted as transition elements between

t

4

-0.127mm- t~

0.127 mm

KIt

( CONTAC k8)-I----L

3-node element[ I-"

along crock [ l

interface [

[I

kk

II

0.127 mm

-[o.o127

_ I1"1111

I II l_J /

Crock Tip ~ -

0.127 mm

+'--'i

0.0127 mm

Fig. 6. Enlarged view of the crack tip deformed mesh (symmetric configuration).

E.E. Theotokoglou/ Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) 13-20 17

geneous and orthotopic while the structural details

on the sub-laminate level, such as the individual

plies are neglected.

Fig. 7. CONTAC48, interface element definition [19].

The compliances and energy release rate were

calculated for the range of different unidirectional

fine and coarse mesh regions. Significant mesh re- flat and angle-ply [-t-3016 curved specimens. The

finement is provided to calculate the strain energy normalized crack length ( a / L ) equals to 0.5.

release rate with accuracy. Elements at the crack tip The compliance values predicted with the friction-

have an aspect ratio of unity and nominal length of less linear finite-element analyses and those from the

approximately of 0.0127 mm. Mesh refinement in experimental procedure and the bending deformation

the vicinity of the crack-tip is consistent with that (Eqs. (4) and (6) are presented in Tables 5 and 6.

used in [17,20]. The details of the deformed finite They correspond to the UD and curved specimens. It

element grid pattern near the crack tip is shown in is shown that the finite element CFE values are lower

Fig. 6. than the experimental CEX values. It is also observed

The frictionless contact problem is incorporated that the finite element CFE values agree better with

into the finite element model by the connecting the beam theory without taking the transverse shear

nodes across the crack interface with the triangular deformation into account. The finite element values

elements (CONTAC48) [19] of zero tensile stiffness are lower than the beam theory and the transverse

and infinite compressive stiffness. As illustrated in shear deformation theory values and the maximum

Fig. 7, CONTAC48 is a two-dimensional point-to- difference is about - 3.6% and - 5.4% for the unidi-

surface contact element which permits the specifica- rectional and the curved laminates respectively in the

tion of the compressive stiffness, the crack-face case of beam theory and about - 7 . 5 % in the case of

which considers as the target line, and a coefficient transverse shear deformation theory. In addition, Eq.

of friction for the sliding surfaces. Finally, the finite (4) for CBT, provides excellent agreement (less than

element mesh consists of 1576 isoparametric four- 0.2%) with experimental results in all cases investi-

node elements, 150 triangular elements and 200 gated. The good agreement between experimental

CONTAC48 elements. compliance and beam theory gives confidence to the

The strain-energy-release rates are calculated us- finite element models as an accurate description of

ing the virtual crack-closure technique [21]. Since the ENF fracture specimen.

only Mode II crack extension is considered, it suf- In order to determine the energy release rate, the

fices to take the strain energy release rate component crack closure technique was applied. In Tables 7 and

G n, determined by 8, finite element strain energy release rate calcula-

tions are correlated to beam theory results. As in the

1

GEl : - ~ ~ a { F x i ( U k - U'k) } (8) compliance case, the finite element analysis for the

values of G H, agrees better with the beam theory

where, Fxi are the forces at node i (Fig. 6) in the

x-direction. The quantities (u k - u'k) are the relative

tangential nodal displacements. A crack length of 25 Table 4

mm and crack increment (Aa) of 0.0127 mm were In-plane mechanical material properties of the angle-ply [+ 30]6

used. E-glass/epoxy

For the angle-ply [ + 30] 6 laminates, the in-plane Exx (GPa) Eyy (GPa) Gxy (GPa) //xy

mechanical properties given in Table 4 were calcu- 19.11 7.32 8.73 0.818

lated using the classical lamination theory [13]. The

18 E.E. Theotokoglou / Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) 13-20

Table 5

Comparison of compliance values from linear finite-element analyses, beam theory solutions and experimental results in the case of

unidirectional E-glass/epoxy laminates

Specimen FE analysis Experiment Beam theory Compliance ratio

CVE ( m / N ) × 10 - ° CEx ( m / N ) × 10 o CB3-( m / N ) × 10 6 CsH ( m / N ) × 10 -6 CFE/CEx CFE/CBT CFE/Cs~I

Specimen 1 3.496 3.621 3.626 3.776 0,965 0.964 0.926

Specimen 2 3.380 3.535 3.504 3.652 0.956 0.965 0.926

Table 6

Comparison of compliance values from linear finite-element analyses, beam theory solutions and experimental results in the case of

angle-ply ( + / - 30) E-glass/epoxy curved laminates

Specimen FE analysis Experiment Beam theory Compliance ratio

CFE ( m / N ) X 10 -6 CEX ( m / N ) X 10 ~ CBT ( m / N ) × 10 -6 CSH ( m / N ) X 10- 6 CFE/CE X CFE/CB T CFE/Cs H

Specimen 3 5.746 6.095 6.072 6.212 0.943 0.946 0.925

Specimen 4 5.686 6.030 5.989 6.129 0.943 0.949 0.928

Table 7

Comparison of G . values from linear finite-element analyses and beam theory solutions in the case of unidirectional E-glass/epoxy

laminates

Specimen FE analysis Beam theory Gn-ratio

G~E ( j / m 2) GBT ( j / m 2) GSln ( j / m 2) ~,,FEi c , ,BT O~#lo,S,n

Specimen 1 1720 1771 1813 0.971 0.949

Specimen 2 1940 1998 2046 0.971 0.948

Table 8

Comparison of G , values from linear finite-element analyses and beam theory solutions in the case of angle-ply ( + / - 30) E-glass/epoxy

curved laminates

Specimen FE analysis Beam theory Gn-ratio

G~E ( j / m 2) GBT ( j / m 2) GISIH( j / m 2) GnrE/GIIBT G.FE/GIISH

Specimen 3 882 922 934 0.957 0.944

Specimen 4 774 808 819 0.958 0.945

Table 9

Comparison of compliance and G u values from linear and non-linear finite-element analyses in the case of unidirectional E-glass/epoxy

laminates

Specimen Linear FE Non-linear FE Compliance ratio Gu-ratio

CFE ( m / N ) X 10 -6 GI~E ( J / m 2) CNFE ( m / N ) X 10 0 GNFE( j / m 2) CFE/CNFE GIIFE/G nNFE

Specimen 1 3.496 1720 3.501 1700 0.999 1.012

Specimen 2 3.380 1940 3.389 1917 0.997 1.012

E.E. Theotokoglou / Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) 13-20 19

Table 10

Comparison of compliance and G u values from linear and non-linear f'mite element analyses in the case of angle-ply ( + 30) E-glass/epoxy

curved laminates

Specimen Linear FE Non-linear FE Compliance ratio Gn-ratio

CFE (m/N) × 10 -6 GI~E (J/m 2) CNFE (m/N) × 10 -6 GNFE( j / m 2) CFE/CNFE GIIFE/GHNFE

Specimen 3 5.746 883 5.760 873 0.998 1.01 l

Specimen 4 5.686 774 5.702 762 0.997 1.016

than with the beam theory including transverse shear the curved laminates have been simulated by a plane

deformation. Inspection of the results presented in finite element model. The absence of an effect of

Tables 7 and 8, indicate that the maximum difference large deflect'ions on the evaluation of the energy

is about - 3 % for the unidirectional and about release rate GI~ is also investigated.

- 4.3% for the curved laminates in the case of beam • The curved specimens gave much smaller G H

theory and about - 5.2% and - 5.6% respectively in values than the flat UD specimens, suggesting that

the case of transverse shear deformation. there may be a significant Mode I component pre-

To investigate the effect of finite rotations caused sent.

by large deflections, the geometric nonlinear analysis

of the ENF fracture specimen is conducted with the

ANSYS finite element program [19]. This analysis is Acknowledgements

also conducted without friction. Tables 9 and 10

The author is grateful to Professor Leif A. Carls-

show the comparison of CVE and G~E values ob-

son of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at

tained from linear and geometric non-linear analysis

Florida Atlantic University for support and encour-

for a crack length of a = 0.5L. Both UD and curved

agement during the course of this investigation. Fur-

specimens are used. Linear and non-linear solutions

thermore, thanks are due to Dr. Peter Davies of the

are in agreement with each other with maximum

French Oceanographic Institute IFREMER (Brest

differences about - 0 . 3 % for compliance and about

Center) for supply with the experimental results.

1.6% for G H, in the case of curved laminates.

References

7. Conclusions

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ASTM STP 775, Philadelphia, PA, 1982.

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