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S|h8dr-k\L,

n-!L=\t avk8s!\L ‘hR8’m8K=Nv\r


kr=w-y-r-K=k
B8g;-01
Am=q;

w`6 k=t=;b |vd-y=\t ‘S|h8dr-m85’ >pS-&_kr-c{ ‘S<>w_ p0-


>p|vs;, S|h8dr-m8\r nM=\t An=k+l]; wty=Nv\r kr=w-y-r-K=k’
eN lG=|lq v8y-c{|P87 SM->s v-k8rm8`=#8yw<. Ad]m8y-
al[8h=v-\n S<w-c{=. p-\N m=j8h-d= >pS<F8nW-n=; aw-\4R p`<U-
w4m85K=; |v#- akmz-@= >p85w<F-c{=.
‘S|h8dr-’m8\r, n-!L=\t lG=|lqK< mR=pt-\yz=w=; m=/<
i!\n\y8r= Am=q; ez=|w#- vNw-n< k8r`m=#<. n-!7 >p|y8g-c{
B8xy=\t B;g-, oz=K85N \\sl-, v]k<wwy85N v-vr`;, v-xy\W
S;bn<Y-c{ AzW-l=0 aR-v< el[8; \k8#=; w-kv85N or= k}w-!
mwprm8y v-Y-k7 >pS<w8 v-K84 |p8l=; n-!7 >p8p<wr8y-r-K=Q.
a6h;d=l-l[8h<. ptc{v\n, iS9<l8h_ p`<U-w5K< n_ in-y=; v-jy;
n6|k`\m.
SmS<wK8r8y ‘S|h8dr-’m8\r n-!L=\t \\vj<28n-k r;g\W kz-v-
\n p=kz<W=|/8z=; m=j8h-d= p`<U-w5K= |v#- >p85w<F-K=N\w%=
\k8#< eN< n-!7 kr=w=Q#8v=;. n-!L=\t, p+5v-kr=; AY=n-
kr=m8y p`<U-w4m85 n-!7\Kw-\r >pS<w8v-c{ in-y=; p-4vl-c{-T-
l[8W ‘fw<v’k7 v8y-c{= kz-y=|/87, iS<l8h_ p`<U-w4m85 n-
!7K= |v#- >pS<w8v-c{ in-y=; ns-c{-T-l[8W ‘fw<v’k7 v8y-c{= kz-
y=|/87 n-!7K8 S;sy; w_r=;, w_5c{. i|P87 n-!7 n-!L=\t
‘An=k+l]’!\L S;bn<Y-c{< |b8Yvw-kL8y-T=#<. in- n-!L=\t
‘avk8s’!\LPZ- k+t- |b8Yvw-kL8|k#w=#<. iI n-l w=t5N86 n-
!7Kw-n= kz-y=;. kz-y\T.
v-j<28n; |nt8n=0 n-!L=\t avk8s!7\Kw-r-6 n-!L=\t w\N
p`<U-w5 n6k-y fw<vk7 v8y-c{< nm=K< w=t!8;. n-!7K=0
‘An=k+l]’!\L pO-P-c{ av5 ‘avk8s’!|L8t= k8`-c{ an_w-y=;
eN-T=; n-!7 vL5N S8hcr]v=; v-ly-r=W8;.

19306 SmS<w p8S<S8K-y 38; >p|my;:


“S<>w_k7K< k\y{z=W< pO-P-K6 sRi6 mk<R+h8\`Q; mZ=; p|l
mh8n<m8r8y ulm8K7 m=/< w\N w_r=m8n-c{-T=0w8ky86 av5K<
k\y{z=W< pO-P-K6 >p|w]k; p8t-l[8Ww8\`N< iI |y8g; w_r=m8n-
K=Q.” (a6by84 aRb- mly8L; m8S-k 1930, m85c{< |pj< 25)

S<>w_ v-d]8B]8S; k0-n= w=l]; !!!


“eN86 S<>w_ ez=W< pO-K=Nw-6 BIw-kprm8y vl[ g=`v=; u\#8
i|l[ eN< iv-\t pR|y#w-l[. BIw-kprm8y vl[ g=`v=m=#8y8l=;
aK8r]; sRin< v-|r8Y-K=Nw-n< wtS<Sm-l[. k0-6 g=`!L=\#Q
pR@ iS<l8; at=W n-m-xW-6 aw< hR8m8\`N< >pq]8p-c{\l[8?”
(SmS<wy=\t aR=pw8; v85x-k S=vn_5, |pj< 67)

aXrv-d] hR8m= w\N!!!


“S<>w_ aXrv-d] aY-kv=; d_n-y{8y v-xyW-|l8 sRa< an=Sr-c{ |w8w-
|l8 k8r]m8y Avs]W-|n8 al[8W|w8t= k+t- aw-n86 k`K-l[8W
p8p!7 vQ vs8k=Nw=; aw= p|l p8p!7K=0 upkr`m8k=Nw=;
d}x<t-y-6 aR-y\PTw8y=; an=Bv\PTw8y=; vr=Nw< \k8#< S<>w_
aXrv-d] w_5c{y8y=; hR8m8v84 m8>w|m vz-k8`=Q0+.” (a6by84
aRb- mly8L; m8S-k 1930, \f>b=vr-, |pj< 17)
2!L!\n pR@-r=Q, aw-\n ew-5Ww< ‘m=b<wd-u’kL=;
‘p8s<c8w]4 pr-x<kr`v8d-’kL=m8`<!!!
“S<>w_k7K< ez=W< pO-P-c{= k+\tN SmS<wy=\t n-5|Ds; iv-\t c-
%n_ym8`<. 1930, m85c{< 16n< m~85K8t< |c5N SmS<wy=\t n8l8;
S|MLn; m=S<l-; S<>w_k\L ez=W< pO-P-c{= k+\tN >p|my;
p8S<S8K=ky=#8y-. m=b<wd-ukL=|ty=; p8s<c8w]4 pr-x<kr`v8d-
kL=|ty=; pr-h8SW-n< iw= v-|Yym8y-. SmS<w w_r=m8nW-\4R
g=`vs; k8`8n=0 k~< av5K=#8y-l[.” (a6m=b8Rk< 1986.
\Sp<w/5 7)

hd_S-6 vN-T=#<!!!

“S<>w-k7K< (k+t=w6) ez=W< (v-d]8B]8S;) pO-P-Kr=\wQ; n+6


n+6P=; S+RW=N+R=; pO-P-|K`\mQ; hd_S-6 vN-r-K=Q.”
(k5Ms8S<>w Sr`-, |pj< 67. S=N_ pb[-|Kx4 \S4R5, \cM8t<)
avS8nm8y-, ‘S|h8dr-‘k\L, S<>w_kL=\t p0->p|vs\W S;bn<Y-c{
mwprm8y v-Y-k7 k-w8b-6 n-Q; pO-c{< o8w-Wr=N
>pv5Wnm8`\l[8 n-!7 iI lG=|lqy-l+\t n-5vh-c{w<? n-!L=\t iI
>pv5Wn; SmS<wy=\t v_X`W-6 e!\ny=0w8\`N< w8\z
\k8t=K=N u&r-`-y-6 n-Q; v8y-\c{t=K=k:
“iv-\t |lqk4 As* >pkt-P-c{ >ps<n!7 kl<p-w!L8y- |w8N-
|P8k=Q. k8r`; e>w vl=w8y8l=; S<>w_ ablyl[8w8v=N-l[. av7 Br-
|K#vLl[. Br-K\P|t#vL8`<. v-Y-k7 k-w8b-6 n-N< mnS<S-
l8K8n=; o8w-\K8t=K8n=m=0 b8Y]w av7K-l[. k5MW-l=; Y5MW-
l=; S;S<k8rW-l=; S<>w_w9W-\4R mh-m|y8\t uWm k=t=;b-n- Ay86
|p8r8y<ky-l[. mZ=0v p=r=x b8Y]wy-6\Pt=Q.” (r-S8l \\d9v8r-k,
1990, AgS<Z<-1)
‘S|h8dr-’m8\r, n-!L=\t An=k+l]!\LPZ- n-!7K= pO-P-c{= wN
bh=m8n\PT SmS<wP`<U-wr=\t fw<vkL8`< n-!L->wy=; v8y-
c{w<. in-, m=b<wd-uk\LN< n-!L86 v-L-K\Pt=N m=j8h-d=k7 n-
!7K= |v#- ez=w-yw= k+t- v8y-K=k. eN-T< S<>w_ p0->p|vsW-
n=0 iS<l8m-km8y \wL-v=k\LPZ- c5c{ \cy{8;.
oN<: “i6m< mwprm8y aR-v= m8>wm8\`*-6 k+t-y=; A aR-v-6 S8m8n]
j<28n; S-&-c{ e>w m=S<l-; S<>w_k7 nM=\t |krLW-l=#<. aw=;
|p8k\T, nM=\t S<>w_k7 mwprm8y p8`<U-w]; |nt`\mN< up|ds-
K=k|y8 an=vd-K=k|y8 \cy{=N p`<U-w4m85 e>w|pr=#<? av5K<
|>p8w<S8hn; n6k=Q\#8? a|w8 av\r n-r=w<S8h\Pt=W=ky=;
p=R|k8T= p-t-c{= vl-K=ky=m8\`8 nM=\t p`<U-w4m85 \cy{=Nw<?
oZv8K-6 284 |c8d-K8;. i6m< eN< pR@86 d_n-y{8y
an=x<O8n!\LPZ-y=0 aR-v< m8>wm8\`N k=t=S8y Asy; |p8Z-
P=l5W=N m=S<l]8K4m85, av\r|P8\l k-w8|b8w- m=S<l]8KL8k84
e>w S<>w_k\L an=vd-c{-T=#<?” (a6mn85 m8S-k, 1961, m85c{<, 5)
r#<: “Sm=d8yW-\l S<>w_v-B8gW-\4R aj<2wy-l8`< w!L=\t j_v-w;
pt=W=y5W-y-r-K=N\wN< p=|r8h-w v5gW-n< nN8yR-y8;. A n-
lK< S<>w_k7 k8r]v-vrm=0vr8y-W_5N86, k=X-p+r`W-n< m85gm-
l[8\w gw-|kt-l8y-W_r=\mN Bym8`< aph8S]m8y iI b8l-sW-
4|m6 p-t-c{= w+!84 iQ; or=k+T5 or=!-K8`=Nw<. p\X jn!7
u`5Q kz-@=. in- iI pw-n8Rr c-lv8k=ky-\l[N< mnS-l8K-y86
av5K= w\N nl[w8`<.” (a6mn85 m8S-k, 1960, nv;/5, 5 p=. 10 l.
7)
‘S|h8dr-’m8\r, v-xy; m8Z=ky8\`N< Yr-Kr=w<. w=tKW-6 pR@
wrW-l=0 or= lG=|lq ‘n-!\Lz=w-’yw< v8y-c{|P87, pW= n8l<pw=
v5x!7K= m=/< m=j8h-d= >pS<F8n; >pvc-c{w< n-!L-6 k#=.
a6h;d=l-l[8h<. m=S<l]8K7 pR@-tW= n-!7 n-N-r=\N*-6,
An=k+l]\WPZ-y8\`*-l=;, n-!7K< ez=w84 kz-y=m8y-r=\N8? p0-
>p|vs\WPZ- o8w-PO-K8n=; o8w-\K8t=K8n=; S8Y-K=m8y-r=\N8?
al[8h=v-\n S<w=w-|c{8L+. h}dyW-6 n$-|y8t< w8w<pr]m=\#*-6 n-
!L=\t \\vj<28n-k8B-v}&-K< m=S<l]8K|L8t< |p8r8t-y m=j8h-d=
p`<U-w5K= |v#- >p85w<F-|c{8L+.

B8g;-02
qb5 S-y8RW<

al[8h=v-\4R Bvnm8y p0-y-6 \cN< S<>w_k7 j=m=a jm8aW=kL-6


p\*t=K=Nw< hR8m8\`Q; aw-n86 aw< \cy<w= |p8kr=\wQ; n-
!7 n-!L=\t S|h8dr-m8\r Ah98n; \cy{=|/8z=; n-!|L8 n-!L=\t
p`<U-w4m8|r8 ‘km’ e\N8rXr; pRy8W or= |mqly=#<. Sklv-Y
|w8N-v8S!L=|ty=; k+Wr!8y |n5c{P+r!L-6 S<>w_k7
p\*t=K=Nw-\ny=; mq<bRkL-6 \cN< av5 k8T=N Bk<w-
>pktn!|Ly=; S;bn<Y-c{ iS<l8m-k v-Y- iQv\r n-!7 o8w-PO-c{-
T=\#8? Sw]W-6, |k8l8hl |n5c{P+r!7K< ‘qb5 S-y8RW<’ eN<
|pr-T<, aw< S<>w_k7K=; S=NW8\`N< >pq]8p-c{< SmS<wP`<U-
w4m85 n-!\L m=z=v4 AT-\WL-K=ky\l[? al[8h=v-\4R BvnW-6
av5K= |v#- n-s<cy-c{ B8gW< Bk<w- p+5v\mW- j=m=a
jm8aW=kL-6 p\*t=W< |p8k=N at-y8W-kL-6 n-N< a^= \\pSy=;
|n5c{P`m8y- k-T-l[ eN< n-!L=\t p8w-r-m85KR-y8;. aw=\k8#=
w\N ‘p0-’\yK87 ‘p0’K< >p8m=q]; kl<p-K=N av5 n-!\L
mq<bRkL-|lK=; |n5c{ vyl=kL-|lK=; uR+S< aRkL-|lK=; w0-v-
t=ky8`<. aw-n< ‘h-j8b-\4R AyW<’ av5K< wtSml[! Aw-k(R)\y
um5(R) uIrK< wl[-yw< b8Ykml[! S<>w_k7K< p0- v-lK=Nw-n< n-
!L=&r-c{ or= hd_S=; pr-g`n_yml[! iN8 l-l[8h- v iN8 i\\lh-
R8j-uI4.
‘S|h8dr-’k\L, n-!L=\t lG=|lqy-6 AR8; n/R8y- \k8t=W |c8d];,
‘|l8kW-\l S<>w_kL=\t\yl[8; |nw8KL8y >pv8ck pw<n-m8r-6
A\r*-l= \m8r87 E\w*-l=\m8r= p0-y-6 j=m=a jm8aW-n8y- |p8y-
r=|N8?’ eN8`<. n-!7\K|% iw=|p8\l8r= |c8d]; i!\n |c8d-K84
|w8N8Ww<: ‘‘|l8kW-\l S<>w_kL=\t\yl[8; |nw8KL8y >pv8ck pw<n-
m8r-6 A\r*-l=\m8r87 E\w*-l=\m8r= p0-y-6 |n5c{|K8 uR+S-|n8
p\*t=W-r=\N8? prp=r=x4m85 S|ML-K=N mq<bRkL-6 \cN<
|n5c{P`v=; uR+SPv=; n-|vd-c{-r=\N8?” e|% i!\n\y8r= |c8d];
vN-l[. iw-n< mR=pt-\yz=w84 u|Ds]m=\#*-6, ‘S|h8dr-’k\L, n-
!L=\t mq<bRkL-6 ntK=N |n5c{P+r!L=\t ‘|k8l;’ k}w]m8y- mnS-6
k#= |v`; ez=w84. (aw< w8\z v-vr-K=Q#<).
n-!L=\t p>%#8; n/5 |c8d]; k=Rc{= ktQ |p8y-. aw-!\n, “S<>w_
p0->p|vsW-n= |v#- v8d-K=Nw< prp=r=x|r8\t8W<
\w8T=r=M8n8\`8 a\w8 k+t=w6 >pw-fl; lB-K8\n8?” Ew8y8l=;
SmS<w\P~=!\LN n-lK< S8Y]m8k=N p0-kL-\l mq<bRkL=\t
|n5c{8 uR+S=kL-\ll[8; n-!7 p\*t=K=Q#8v=m\l[8. av-t!L-
\lW=N S<>w_p=r=x4m8r=\t ‘Bk<w-’y=; ‘v-Bk<w-’y=; 2!|LK87 n-
!7K8`\l[8 aR-y=k. S|h8dr-m8\r, |n5c{PR/=kL-\lW-y86
‘prp=r=x4’m8\rl[8; ‘S9p=r=x4’m8r8k=\m8? a\w8, av-t!L-6
\w8T=r=Ml=kL=; m=T-y=r=Ml=kL=\m8Q; ntK84 S8Y]ml[8W v-Y; vl[
Aw<m_y |vl-y=; oIl-y8K7 S<F8p-K=Q\#8? al[8h=v-\4R Bvn!L-
6 \cN< av5K= m8>w; >p|w]km8y S<FlW< nmS<k8r; n-5vh-K=Nw-
|nK87 e%= S=rX-ww9m8`< mq<bRkL-6 n-!7K< lB-K=Nw<? aw-
|nK87 e%= >pw-flm8`< n-!7K< ‘k+t=w6’ k-T=Nw<? qb5
S$5sn; \k8#< k-T=\mN< >pv8ck4(S) pR@, mr` c-%y=;
pr|l8k |b8Yv=; |n5c{P+r!L-l+\t n-!7K< k-T8R=\#8? ‘S|h8dr-
’k\L, n-!L=\t mq<bRkL-6 ntK=N |n5c{P+r!L=\t ‘|k8l;’
k}w]m8y- mnS-6 k#= |v`; mR=pt- ez=w84.
S<>w_k7K< j=m=a jm8aW=k7K< p0-v-lK=N n-!7 Bk<w-p+5v;
p\*t=K8R=0 |n5c{{P+r!L=|ty=; uR+S=kL=|ty=; c->w; orl<p; v-
sd_kr-|c{8\T. 2!7 aw-6 p\*t=K8R-l[ eQ n-|xY-Kr=w<.
SmS<w\P~=!7 mq<bR S-y8RW-(?)n< ‘prp=r=x’|Pt-y-l[8\w,
‘k=zP;’ ByK8\w, ‘h-j8b-\4R AyW-’\4R B_x`-y-l[8\w v-d+r
|ds!L-6 n-Q |p8l=; eW8R=\#N< n-!L=\t >pS-&_kr!7 w\N
ez=w-y-T=#<. v8y-K=k,
“mh84m8r=\t mq<bRy-|lK< S-y8RW-n< vr=N S<>w_kL=\t e~v=;
k=Rvl[. m/=R;, p=W4p0-, it-y!r, \pr-!W+5, n-l8m=Z;, B_m8p0-
w=t!-y mq<bRkL-|lK< d_5Gy8>w \cy<w= vr=N S<>w_k7
k=R\c{8Qml[” (Sw]Y8r, 2003, nv/5, 1-15)
e\%8\Ky8`< mq<bRkL-\l |n5c{kL-l=; uR+S=kL-l=; ntK8R=0w<?

n-lv-LK= kW-K6, c_r`- n-|vd-Kl=; v8!l=;


qbR-6 pc{PT= p=wK6 k8`-K n-|Xp-K6
\k8t-|yZ< aP\PT- vrv<
An\yz=\N0W< \c#m=#<, p_P-v-L-, k=zl+W<
S5KS<, g8n|mL, mr`K-`5 S-n-m8Z-k< U84S<
kr-mr=N< >p|y8g; R8W_b<, mIl+d<, vyL<
|m6k# Sklm8n |pK+W=k7K=; sRi\4R an=v8dm=\#N8`<
SmS<wmwK8r=\t pX;. o8|r8 qb5 S-y8RW-|n8t=mn=bn<Y-c{<
ntW\Pt=N iWr; ‘ib8dW=’k7K< |rqy=&r-c{ >gn<F!L=#<
mly8LKry-6. ‘m=T=; v-L- |n5c{\y ew-5K=Nv5\K8r= mR=pt- - t-.
|p8K5 m=S<l]85’, ‘A#= |n5c{y=; apv8d!L=; - \k.y;. ah<md<
|k8y’ eN_ p=S<wk!7 avy-6 c-lw8`<. ‘S|h8dr-’m85 av\y8N<
v8y-c{< |n8K84 Smy; k\#W=k. \wL-v-|lK8y- iw8 r#= R-
|P85T=k7:

“29n< r8>w- 12n< pT8/- gv. y=.p-. S<k+L-6 el[8 up A|G8x kM-Z-k|Ly=;
p\*t=P-c{= \k8#=0 S-n-m8Z-k< U84S=; b84R< v8d] mw<Srv=; ntK=;.
p=l5\c{ 5n< w!7K=0 aP\PT-y=; w-r=m=6 k8z<cy=; j8RW-n< Sm_p;
eW=N|w8\t kr-mr=N< >p|y8gv=; ntW=;” (m;gL; d-np>w;, 25-2-2004)
in-y=m=#< \wL-v=k7. iw->wy=; pR@w<, al[8h=v-\4R Bk<w-n-
5Brm8y p0-kL-6 \p~=!7 j=m=a jm8aW-n< p\*t=K6 hR8m=;,
qb5 S-y8RW-\4R |pr-6 ntK=N |pK+W+kL-6 av5K< p\*t=K6
S=NW=m8\`N m=S<l]8KL=\t d=5n]8ym=0w= \k8#8`<. S<>w_kL=\t
qb5 S-y8RW-\n S;bn<Y-c{ s8f-iI md<hb-\l v-Y-\yPZ- E\R
ez=w8n=#<. i|P87 aw-n< m=w-r=N-l[.

B8g;-03
nmS<kr-c{= k+t8, ud<G8tnm8v8;!!!

S<>w_k7 p0-y-6 nmS<kr-K84 \cl[=Nw< hR8m8\`N< >pq]8p-


K=ky=; aw-Q |v#- >pS;g-K=y=; \cy{=N SmS<wK85 i|P87 ev-
\t eW- n-6K=N+ eNR-y8n8`< iI c->w;. S<>w_k\L\K8#< p0-
ud<G8tn; \cy{=NK-tW=v\r eW-y-r-K=Q!!!

nb-(S)y=\t k8l|W8 |sx\m8 p0- ud<G8tn; n-5vh-c{ nb- pw<n-


Ar8 S|h8dr_?
B8g;-04
S<>w_ j=m=a: jm8aW=; s8f-iI md<hb=;

in- nm=K< v-xW-|lK< ktK8;. w8\z \k8t=K=Nw< s8f-iI md<hb-


\l nM=\t v-xy S;bn<Ym8y u&r`-kL8`<. >pS<w=w md<hb-\n
wq<l_d< \cy{=N ‘S|h8dr-’m85 eN n-lK< n-!7K< |b8Y]\Pt=\mN=
kr=w-y8`< av et=W=&r-K=Nw<. n-!L=\t |lqnW-6 k# m8S-
kkL=|ty=; p=S<wk!L=|ty=; u&r`-kL-|lK< ktN-T-l[. i4s8 al[8h<
aw-n=; mR=pt-y=#8v=;. i|P87W\N iw< vL\r n_#= |p8y-T=#<.
k8r]; >gh-Kl8`< lX]\m*-6 Sw]; vS<w=w8prm8y- v-ly-r=W-y86
mw-y8v=;. aw-n8v8\T.

1- “S<>w_k7 j=m=aK< vr=|/87 av7 k=L-c{< v}W-y8k`;. S=gn<Y


vS<w=K7 av7 up|y8g-K=Nw-\n 284 \vR=K=Q.” (uM< v8L]; 1
|pj< 175)

2- “n-s<cy; j=m=ay-6 n-N< oz-v=0 at-m, S<>w_, y8>wK85


|p8\ly=0v5 j=m=a nmS<kr-c{86 av5Kw< mw-y8k=Nw8`<. iw-6
ib<4 m=4d-5, im8m=6 hR\\mn- |p8\ly=0v5 ij<m8a< u&r-c{-
T=#<. n8l= Rk<aW=0 L=h5 nmS<kr-K6 iv5K< n-5bn<Ym|l[?
a|P87 j=m=a r#= Rk<aW= nmS<kr-c{86 e!\ny8`< n-5bn<Y;
avr-6 n-Q; il[8w8v=k? eN< or87 |c8d-c{86 aw-Q0 mR=pt-
i>pk8rm8`<: j=m=a r#< Rk<aW< A\`*-l=; L=hR-|nK87 EZv=;
pr-p+5~m8yw< aw8`< (sRh=6 m=hDb< - 4/469)

3- “S<>w_k7 j=m=aK< vr84 u|Ds-c{86 mZ=0 nmS<k8r!7K=


vr=Nw= |p8\lW\Ny8`<.” (sRh=6 m=hDb< - 4/469)

4- “S<>w_k7K< q-y8m=\\l[6 (r8>w- nmS<k8r;) |p8\ly=0 S=NW=


nmS<k8r!7K=; p0-y-6 p\*t=K8v=Nw8`<.”
(sRh= m=S<l-; - 5-6/209)

5- “S<>w_k7K< p=r=x4m8r=\t k+\t >gh` nmS<k8rW-6 p\*t=K6


S=NW8K\Pt=;.” (sRh= m=S<l-; - 5-6/209)
6- “S<>w_k7 p0-y-|lK< p=R\Pt6, al[8h=v-\4R RS+6 (S) pR@=:
n-!L=\t B8r] p0-y-|lK< SMw; |c8d-c{86 av\L wtyr=w<.” (sRh=
m=S<l-; - 2/399)

7- “p0-y-6 |p8k84 S<>w_ B5W8v-|n8t< an=v8d; |c8d-K6: nb- (S)


y-6 n-Q; n-|vdn;, n-!L=\t B8r] p0-y-6 |p8k84 SMw; |c8d-c{86
n-!7 wtyr=w<.” (hw<h=6 b8r- - 2/409)

8- “im8m-n< EZv=; |>sx<tm8yw<, w\4R p-N-6 S<>w_kL-\l[*-6, Sl8;


v_T-y ut\n w\4R nmS<k8r S<FlW= n-Q; ez=|N6Kl8`<.”
(hw<h=6 b8r- - 2/409)

9- “p-N-6 S<>w_kL-\l[*-6 Sl8; v_T-y ut\n im8; w\4R


nmS<k8rS<FlW= n-Q; ez=|N6K=Nw< S=NW8K\Pt=\mN< im8;
s8f-iIy=; a|DhW-\4R an=y8y-kL=; (R) pR@-r-K=Q. i>pk8r;
s8f-iI® w\4R ‘m=q<wS-R-’6 pR@-T=#<. an=y8y-k7 aw-6 E|k8p-
c{-T=m=#<. . . eN86 p-N-6 S<>w_k7 u0 pX;, av5 p-r-@=
|p8k=Nw=v\r im8m=; mZ= p=r=x4m8r=; Sl8; v_T-yw-n< |sx;
al[8h=v-\n S<mr-c{= \k8#< al<p Smy; av-\tW\N ir-K=Nw8`<
nl[w<. avS8n; p-r-@= |p8k=N S<>w_|yy=; |vgW-6 |p8k=N
p=r=x4m85 k#=m=T84 pZ8W v-Y;. S<>w_k7 Sl8; v_T-y ut\n p-r-
@= |p8k=Nw8`< S=NW<. S<>w_k7 p-r-@= |p8y86 im8m-n=; mZ=
p=r=x4m85K=; p-r-@= |p8k8;. iw-n< im8; s8f-iIy=; an=y8y-
kL=; \wL-v< u&r-K=Nw< uM=Slm: (R) y=\t hd_S-\ny8`<. av5
pR@=: nb-(S) Sl8; v_T-y86 S<>w_k7 ez=|NZ= |p8k=;. av5 p-r-
@= |p8k=Nw=v\r w-r=|mn- a6p; w8mS-K=;. av5 p=r=x4m8\r
k#=m=T8w-r-K84.” (sRh=6 m=hDb< v8L]; 3 |pj< - 489)

10- “im8; Sl8; v_T-y86 S<>w_k7 p-r-@= |p8k=Nw=v\r a|Dh;


a6p Smy; al[8h=v-\n S<mr-K=Nw< 284 ix<t\Pt=Q, uM=Slm:
(R) pR@w= |p8\l. p-\N a|Dh; ez=|N6K`;.” (a6 uM<, v8L]; 1
|pj< - 111)

11- “im8; s8f-iIy=; an=y8y-kL=; pR@-T=#<: Sl8; v_T-y86 w\4R


p-Rk-6 S<>w_k7 i\l[*-6, im8; w\4R nmS<k8r S<FlW= n-Q;
ez=|N6K=k eNw< S=NW8K\Pt=;. (m=g<n-, v8L]; 1 |pj< - 183)
12- “im8; v-rm-c{86 ut\n, av-\t S<>w_k7 i\l[*-6 w\4R nmS<k8r
S<Fl; v-T= p-r-y`;.” (n+R=6 ab<S85, |pj< - 70)

m=4v-Y-k7 m8Z-\vK8n=; >p8S<F8n-k S*=c-ww9!L-6 n-N< p=RW=


vr8n=; Sw]|W8t< S<|nh; k8T8n=; k9=5An-|lK=; S=NW-|lK=;
Aw]%-km8y- mt!8n=; Sn<mnS= k8T=k. An=k+l]!\LPZ- m8>wml[
d_n-\l avk8s!\LPZ-y=; ‘S|h8dr-’m8\r n-!7 |b8Yvw-kL8k`;.
aw-\nw-r= n-6K=Nv\r w-r-c{R-y8n=; w-rS<kr-K8n=; wy{8R8k`;.
iw< pr|l8kW-\l S95gW-\4R k8r]m8`<. m5KS-\4R k8r]ml[.
p=`]v=; nn<my=; e>wk#<, al[8h=v=; RS+l=; pO-P-c{ v-Y;
|nt8n8v=\m8 aw-n= |v#- mw<Sr-K=k. p8w-r-m85 plw=; pRy=;.
Sm+hW-\4R >pm8`m8b&m8y ew-5P-6 av5 pW-mtK=;. n-!7K<
v-d] aB]S-K6 hR8m8\`N< pR@v5 i|P87 aw< pRy=Q\#8?
y8>wK8r-k7K< nmS<kr-K84 >p|w]k; S<FlSIkr]|m5\Pt=W`\mQ
pRy8n=; a!\n \cy{8n=; av5 SN&r8y-\l[?S<>w_k7K< p0-
|y8tn=bn<Y-c{= w\N nmS<k8r SIkr]|m5\Pt=W-y86 ‘S=rX-ww9;
k+t=’\mQv\r m=S<l]8K7 ez=w-W=t!-y-\l[? S;sym=\#8? E*-6
iw= k+t- v8y-K=k:

“iv-t!L-6 S<>w_k7K< >p|w]k; >p85w<n8 SIkr]; E5\Pt=|W#w<


aw]8vs]; w\N. p0-k|L8tn=bn<Y-c{8k=|/87 pr-p8ln \clv<
k=RK8;. S=rX-ww9v=; k+t=;.” (m5Mr; S<\px]6 m8gS-4, |pj< - 11)

S|%8xm-\l[ n-!7K-w= v8y-c{|P87? aw8`= pR@w<, Sw];


a!\ny!= |w86K-l[. jy-K84 k=Rc{= Smy\mt=K=\mN< m8>w;.
‘S|h8dr-’m8\r al[8h= n\M d_n-\4R Sw]vz-y-6 ntW\T. w-n<mk\L
k\y{8z-y8n=; nn<mk\L u7\K808n=; av4 an=>gh; \c8r-y\T.
Am_4

kb_5 e;. pRL-


Sw]>pk8s;
j=\\b6, SId- a|Rb]