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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN

SCHOOL EDUCATION OF (AP & TN)

CCA1018 - IT AND BUSINESS APPLICATIONS PROJECT REPORT


Submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of

BBA

By
S. CHITTI BABU
17BBA0089

Under the Supervision of


Prof. P. Mani

CCA1018 - IT and Business Applications

November, 2018

1
DECLARATION

I, Mr. / Ms. _S. CHITTI BABU____withregisternumber17BBA0089____,


hereby declare that the project report entitled “COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOL EDUCATION IN (AP&TN)”
submitted by me to VIT Vellore, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
award of the degree of BBA is a bonfire work carried out by me under the
supervision of Prof. P. Mani, Assistant Professor, School of Social Sciences and
Languages, VIT Vellore – 632 014. I further declare that the work reported in this
project has not been submitted and will not be submitted, either in part or in full, for
the award of any other degree or diploma in this institute or any other Institute or
University.

Place: TT 313
Date: 01/11/2018 Mr. S. CHITTI BABU
(Signature)

2
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project work entitled “COMPARATIVE


ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOL
EDUCATION (AP&TN)” submitted by Mr. S. CHITTI BABU with registration
number17BBA0089___, to VIT Vellore, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the award of the degree of BBA, is Bonafede work carried out by him/her under my
supervision. The project fulfils the requirement as per the regulations of this
University and in my opinion meets the necessary standards for submission. The
contents of this report have not been submitted and will not be submitted either in
part or in full, for the award of any other degree or diploma in this Institute or any
other Institute or University.

Place: TT 313 PROF.MANI. P


Date: 01/11/2018 Guide’s Name & Signature

3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset, I thank the Almighty God for His blessings for granting me the
knowledge and right aptitude to successfully complete my project work.
I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to my guide Prof. P.
Mani, Assistant Professor, School of Social Sciences and Languages, whose
esteemed guidance and immense support encouraged me to complete the project
successfully.
I wish to express my sincere thanks to Honourable Chancellor, Dr.G.
Viswanathan; esteemed Vice-President, Shri.G.V. Selvam; respected Vice
Chancellor, Dr. Anand A. Samuel and respected Pro-Vice Chancellor Dr. S.
Narayanan of this prestigious VIT, Vellore for providing me an excellent world
class academic environment and facilities for pursuing my B. Com Programme.
My sincere gratitude lies to the Dean, Dr.G. Velmurugan, School of Social
Sciences and Languages, and Head of the Department of Commerce for providing
me an opportunity to do my project work in the VIT.
I also thank all the faculty members of the Department of Commerce and
faculty of other Departments of the School of Social Sciences and Languages and
the non-teaching staff for giving me the courage and strength that I needed to achieve
my goals.
My special thanks to my friends for their timely help and suggestions rendered
for the successful completion of this project.
This acknowledgement would be incomplete without expressing my whole
hearted thanks to my parents for their continuous support and guidance in all walks
of my life.

Mr. S. CHITTI BABU

4
CONTENTS

TITLE Page Number

Declaration Ii

Certificate Iii

Acknowledgement Iv

Contents v – vii

List of Figures Ix

List of Tables X

Chapter I INTRODUCTION 7-11

Chapter II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 12

Chapter III PROPOSED APPROACH 13-15

Chapter IV DATA ANALYSIS 16-23

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND


Chapter V 24-27
CONCLUSION

REFERENCES 28-29

QUESTIONNAIRE 30

5
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. Title Pg. No.


No.
1 RESOURCES OF IT IN AP&TN 16
2 MAJORITY IN USAGE OF IT (TN&AP) 17
3 MORE USAGE OF SOCIAL NETWORK 17,18
(TN&AP)
4 COMPARATIVE IN IMPLEMENTING IT 18
5 TOOLS USED IN IT 19

6 EFFORDS TO IMPROVE IT 20

7 STEPS TAKEN TO IMPROVE PRACTICAL 21


KNOWLEDGE IN IT
22
9 SOURCES OFFERING TO IMPROVE IT
10 23
MAJORITY USAGE OF IT APPS IN
SCHOOL(TN&AP)

6
CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION:

Information technology (IT) is the applicatio of computers and telecommunications


equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a
business or other enterprise.

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks,
but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as
television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information
technologies,includescomputer
hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecommunications
equipment, engineering, healthcare, e-commerce and computer services.

Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating


information since the Sumerians developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the
term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article
published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L.
Whistler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established
name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three
categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical
methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through
computer programs.

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to


distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450
7
AD), mechanical (1450–1840), electromechanical (1840–1940) and electronic
(1940–present). This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which
began in about 1940

ICT IN SCHOOL EDUCATION OF AP: The Information and Communication


Technology (ICT) in schools have been subsumed in RMSA (Rashtriya Madyamid
Shiksha Abhiyan). Now in ICT in schools in a component of RMSA. ICT in schools
was launched in Dec 2004 and revised in 2010 to provide opportunities to secondary
stage students to mainly build their capacity on ICT skills and make them teach
through computer and learning process. The scheme in a major catalyst to bridge the
digital divide among students of variant socio economic and other geographical
barriers. The scheme provides support to states to establish computer labs on
sustainable basis.
First one in partnership with state governments union territories
administrators for providing computer aided education to secondary and
higher secondary government and govt. aided schools.
Establishment of smart schools.
Teach related interventions
Development of e-content through CIET

150 smart schools would be set up by state govt. UT’s at the district level
using a grant of 25lakhs. At least 40 computers in each such schools.
The proposed new school education syllabi of TN have challenges to make
the learner a career competitive and cultural conscious individual. To achieve these
goals by maintaining the quality education, blending of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) with the school education syllabi is required as
the need of the hour. Blending ICT with the school education syllabi will be a
twofold task scholastic and scholastic.

8
With this guidance from New Education Policy (2016) blending ICT with TN school
education syllabi will empower the student.

To make the learning enjoyable.


To easily comprehend and understand difficult concepts.
To generate employability and entrepreneurial skills.
To create a technological aptitude.
To develop a career competitive attitude,
To make a responsibility.

The National policy on ICT in school education 2012 by MHRD has three tier goals
namely Creation, Promotion and Motivation of ICT enabled in school education.
TN is geographical the 11th largest state with 64 districts, 385 block resource centres,
27 Urban areas, 17,371 Revenue villages, 13,230 Panchayats. As far as the landscape
is concerned we are still in the road to achieve connectivity to schools of all villages
in TN.

ICT can be blended with TN school syllabi through three modes.


1) Survival
2) Mastery
3) Innovation

Phase I: In fractural development and Interact Connectivity

Phase II: Capacity building training to teachers

9
Phase III: ICT inclusion

They prepare our students in the next generation research fields like automation
Intent of Things (IOT) block chain where there will be a smooth transfer of
learning.

ICT in AP:

Introduction:

The future of students in very challenging as the present age is the age of
Information and Communication Technology. ICT is universally acknowledged as
an important catalyst for social transformation and national progress.

Functions:

 Development of syllabus, course walk, training manuals and teaching learning


materials.
 Coordinates with NCERT, RIE Mysore, and SPSA (RUM) etc. in conduct of
trainings seminars of field studies.
 Training and encouraging teachers.
 Holding State level and National level seminar on current issues.

10
In First Phase:

The curriculum will be introduced for students of classes VI, VII, VIII at 168
model schools 175 social welfare school’s spreads across the state. It will be
extending classes IX and X in the next academic year.

The AP school education dept. is planning to bring back the Information and
Communication Technology. ICT curriculum I 1,647 school across the state.

There are two phases of ICT which was implemented in United AP in over
4,000 schools.

However, the post bifurcation, it got halted and now with the new advanced
methodology, the development on trying to implement ICT curriculum across the
state.

The revised ICT curriculum is mainly focused on integrating ICT tools as part
of pedagogy, instead of teaching computer as separate subject in the state schools.
As part of this, a separate curriculum will be given to both the teachers and students.

The AP state govt, has selected N-computing, a provider of shared computing


technology, to supply a massive computer education programme in the state, which
will be co-funded by the state and central govts.

The programme will provide computing access for the first time to 18 lakhs
schools children throughout the state.

11
The AP programmer is based on the BOT out sourcing model developed by
the AP govt. BOT stands for Build, Operate and Transfer and requires out sources
to instill, staff and manage the labs are installed quickly and stick performance
benchmarks are met. The five-year period also enables school staff to develop their
own skills in managing the computer aiding teaching capabilities.

NIIT will be responsible for managing 2005 of the schools involved in the project.
AP is one of the most progressive states to have encouraged early adoption of ICT
in schools for enhancing quality of education.

NIIT is pleased to bring the benefit of N computing shared computing


technology to the state.

The literacy level is in bottom quartile of the country and nowhere near the
neighbouring states TN and Karnataka while GER of AP is higher education (22%)
is higher than national average it is lower than national the neighbouring states of
Karnataka (25.5%) and Tamilnadu (42%).

12
CHAPTER-2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

Information studies programs can simulate VOs in courses and teach certain skill
sets that are needed in VO work: critical thinking, analytical methods, ethical
problem solving, stakeholder analysis, and writing policy are among the needed
skills and abilities. Simulated virtual teams allow participants to learn to trust team
members and to understand how communication and product development can work
effectively in a virtual workspace. It is hoped that some of these methods could be
employed in corporate training programs also. In an innovative course, inter-
university VOs were created to develop information products. Groups in four
geographically dispersed universities cooperated in the project; at its conclusion,
students answered a self-administered survey about their experience. Each team’s
success or difficulties were apparently closely related to issues of trust in the team
process. Access to and ease of communication tools also played a role in the
participants’ perceptions of the learning experience and teamwork. The term is
commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also
encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and
telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including
Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating
information since the Sumerians developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term
information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published
in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whistler
commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name.
We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three
categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical
methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through
computer programs. The comprehensive review of the literature addresses the
13
research question pertaining to the objective of this study: Are private schools more
effective in improving the academic achievement of students? The issue of relative
effectiveness of government and private schools is a key ingredient in debates about
educational policy in both developed and developing states. This issue has deeply
interested the social science researchers too. They have tried to investigate the
reasons for better performance of the private schools in comparison to that of the
government schools. In developing country like, India the ever-growing demand
for fee-charging private schools, is based on the endemic problem of teacher
absenteeism, teachers shirking work and lack of commitment in government schools
(Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu.

14
CHAPTER-3

PROPOSED APPROACH:

Benefits of using IT in school education.

Information and communication technologies have recently gained groundswell of


interest.it is a significant research area for many scholars around the globe. Their
nature has highly changed to face of education over the last few decades.

in addition, schools with sufficient ICT resources achieved better results then those
that are not well equipped. There is significant improvement on learner’s
performances. Final teachers became more convinced that educational achievements
of pupils are due to good ICT used in fact high percentage of teachers in India states
86% that pupils are more motivated when computers and internet are being used in
class Many pupils consider ICT tools very helpful in that it helps them to do
assignments teachers see that ICT enables students with special needs or difficulties.
It also helps to reduce the social disparities between pupils, since they work in teams
in order to achieve a given task. Students also assume responsibilities when they use
ICT to organize their work through digital portfolios or projects. In addition, the
study showed that ICT has significant impact on teachers and teaching processes.

By virtue of government Interventions and training seminars organized in this


regard, ICT tools stimulate teachers. Indeed, an absolute majority of teachers in India
(90 %) claim to use ICT to do tasks, such as preparing lessons, sequencing classroom
activities, etc. Therefore, teachers plan their lessons more efficiently. ICT also help
teachers to work in teams and share ideas related to school’s curriculum. There is
also evidence that broadband and interactive whiteboards play a central role in
fostering teachers’ communication and increasing collaboration between educators.

15
The ICT Test Bed evaluation Underwood provides an evidence that many teachers
use ICT to support innovative pedagogy. It states: “New technologies that provide a
good fit with existing practices, such as interactive whiteboards are first to be
embedded, but others like video conferencing, digital video and virtual learning
environments are now being incorporated, providing evidence of ongoing learning
by the workforce. Training needs to continue to support innovative pedagogy.” Both
examples show that ICT is being integrated in a continuous process. Therefore, ICT
can improve teaching by enhancing an already practiced knowledge and introducing
new ways of teaching and learning. Transforming teaching is more difficult to
achieve. “Changes that take full advantage of ICT will only happen slowly over time,
and only if teachers continue to experiment with new approaches.” (Underwood
2006) This evaluation came from a teacher training seminar in IT during the ITMF
project. It showed that teachers have not fully changed their use of ICT in education;
however, most of them changed their way of thinking about the application of ICT
in education. Teachers have increased their use of ICT in lessons where students
look for information on the net and use it afterwards for subject specific areas, but
hardly any use of ICT for class presentations. Nonetheless, teachers do not make use
of ICT to engage students more actively to produce knowledge. Similarly, the e-
learning Nordic study shows an increase in the use of ICT to teach but not to innovate
teaching methods: “ICT generally has a positive impact on teaching and learning
situations, but compared with the ideal expectations; the impact of ICT on teaching
and learning must still be considered to be limited” Educational software needs to
be developed and implemented with a full understanding of the principles of learning
and developmental psychology. Many new issues arise when one considers how to
educate teachers to use new technologies effectively: What do they need to know
about learning processes? What do they need to know about the technologies? What
kinds of training are most effective for helping teachers use high-quality

16
instructional programs? Understanding the issues that affect teachers who will be
using new technologies is just as pressing as questions of the learning potential and
developmental appropriateness of the technologies for children.

Assessment to Support Learning

Assessment and feedback are crucial for helping people learn. Assessment that is
consistent with principles of learning and understanding should Mirror good
instruction. Happen continuously, but not intrusively, as a part of instruction.
Provide information (to teachers, students, and parents) about the levels of
understanding that students are reaching. Assessment should reflect the quality of
students’ thinking, as well as what specific content they have learned. For this
purpose, achievement measurement must consider cognitive theories of
performance. Frameworks that integrate cognition and context in assessing
achievement in science, for example, describe performance in terms of the content
and process task demands of the subject matter and the nature and extent of cognitive
activities likely to be observed in a particular assessment situation. The frameworks
provide a basis for examining performance assessments that are designed to measure
reasoning, understanding, and complex problem solving.

The nature and purposes of an assessment also influence the specific cognitive
activities that are expressed by the student. Some assessment tasks emphasize a
particular performance, such as explanation, but deemphasize others, such as self-
monitoring. The kind and quality of cognitive activities observed in an assessment
situation are functions of the content and process demands of the tasks involved.
Similarly, the task demands for process skills can be conceived along a continuum
from constrained to open. In open situations, explicit directions are minimized in
order to see how students generate and carry out appropriate process skills as they

17
solve problems. Characterizing assessments in terms of components of competence
and the content and process demands of the subject matter brings specificity to
assessment objectives, such as “higher level thinking” and “deep understanding.”
This approach links specific content with the

18
CHAPTER-4

DATA ANALYSIS:

The aim of this study is to compare the INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY in school


education. in order to reach the aim a structured questionery was sent to 100 peoples
and we got responses by 60 people

Data interpretation

FIG1. RESOURCES OF IT IN AP&TN

16.70%

83.30%

digital class rooms tablets

Fig 1 says that most of the students are preferring digital class rooms 83.30% of
students are preferring this

19
FIG2. MAJORITY IN USAGE OF IT

26.70%

73.30%

computer labs reception

Fig2 says that the both the states are using computers majority in computer labs

20
FIG3. MORE USAGE OF SOCIAL NETWORK

41.90%

58.10%

andhra pradesh tamilnadu

Fig3 explains about the using of social networking in school education of two
states(TN&AP). By the conclusion AP is using more social networking.

FIG4.COMPARATIVE IN IMPLEMENTING IT

31.30% 34.40%

34.40%

tamilnadu andhra pradesh other

21
Fig 4 by this both (TN&AP) states are implementing IT in same majority and some
other states are also using the same.

FIG5. TOOLS USED IN IT

9.40%

6.30%

56.30% 28.10%

smart board digital pads computers all the above

Fig5 shows the majority to use all the above devices to improve the information
technology

22
FIG6. EFFORTS TO IMPROVE ( IT )

23
FIG.7 PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE

20.6

58.8 20.6

1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 0

Fig7 represents the assignments and practical labs are more important to improve
the skills in information technology

24
FIG9. SOURCES OFFERING TO IMPROVE IT

23.50%

76.50%

laptops tablets

Fig9 represents the source of using IT by the laptops they are providing the laptops
to students

25
FIG10. MAJORITY USAGE OF IT APPS IN SCHOOL(TN&AP)

50% 50%

andhra pradesh tamilnadu

Fig10 shows the usage of IT apps in school are similar to tamilnadu and Andhra
Pradesh

26
CHAPTER 5

FINDINGS:

we found that the Andhra Pradesh is poor in using of INFORMATON


TECHNOLOGY by using information technology students can easily understand
and learn the TECHNOLOGY teachers are also comfortable with IT teaching
methods

 digital class rooms should be implemented in schools


 the computer labs should be improved
 social networking usage should be increased, as for references
 improve the usage of IT in using of smart boards, tablets, laptops
 digital assignments and practical labs should be improved
 implementation of IT apps in schools should be increased

SUGGESTIONS:

The following suggestions are offered by the researcher for improving


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY in school education we should implement the
above-mentioned devices and methodology to develop IT in school education from
the research findings and also from the interactions the researcher had with the
respondent schools in TN&AP. The future of students in very challenging as the
present age is the age of Information and Communication Technology. ICT is
universally acknowledged as an important catalyst for social transformation and
national progress. Information and communication technologies have recently
gained groundswell of interest.it is a significant research area for many scholars
around the globe. Their nature has highly changed to face of education over the last
27
few decades. The AP programmer is based on the BOT out sourcing model
developed by the AP govt. BOT stands for Build, Operate and Transfer and requires
out sources to instill, staff and manage the labs are installed quickly and stick
performance benchmarks are met. The five-year period also enables school staff to
develop their own skills in managing the computer aiding teaching capabilities. NIIT
will be responsible for managing 2005 of the schools involved in the project. AP is
one of the most progressive states to have encouraged early adoption of ICT in
schools for enhancing quality of education It's just through teaching that the
educational modules wake up for children. Furthermore, it's just through
comprehension the workmanship, science and art of teaching from exploration,
examination and shared experience that teachers can illuminate and refine their
practice. Depending on propensity or authority claims isn't sufficient. A more
prominent spotlight on what proof lets us know about powerful teaching and learning
will empower teachers to offer each kid some assistance with achieving the most
elevated conceivable standard in all parts of their education. Where assessment and
benchmarks are concerned we require a more extensive common-sense collection
and a more modern vocabulary. We should devise approaches that improve learning
and additionally test it, that backing the educational programs as opposed to contort
it, and that seek after exclusive requirements in every aspect of learning, not only
the center subjects. It's no more satisfactory that tests at a minute in time and in a
restricted range of learning are dealt with as measures of a tyke's whole educational
fulfillment or of everything that schools mean to give. Tests have their place,
however both assessment and responsibility ought to be about significantly more
than test results. We need to sort out what primary education is for, and ensure that
aims driving the curriculum and are not merely cosmetic. To say, as the government
does, that the main aim of primary education is to make children 'secondary ready'
is to undervalue children's huge potential for development and learning during the

28
primary years. Education is about the here and now as well as the future, but schools
should also address the wider condition and needs of children and society in today's
complex world. Children leaving primary school should of course be ready for what
follows, but what follows year 6 is life, not just year 7. Most teachers lecture, assign
work, and label student work (turned in on time) as acceptable or unacceptable.
Unfortunately, those teachers will get a very different level of effort and success
from their students than teachers who ask questions, encourage research and
discussion, prefer students to create their own original project ideas, require the
students to identify their own strengths & weaknesses, and will accept nothing less
than the student's best work (no matter how long it takes). In a system as huge as our
public schools, there is need for a curriculum. Allowing students some choice and
control in deciding how to demonstrate their learning while encouraging an
awareness of their own thinking processes will develop self-discipline and
motivation. In schools, a lot of the discussion about social networking focuses on
how students are using (or misusing) popular sites like Facebook or Myspace. But
social-networking sites can be incredibly useful for teachers, too. Need an idea for
how to teach the popular young adult novel The Book Thief? Curious about how
Second Life can enhance classroom learning? The answers to all these questions can
be found online. But social-networking sites aren’t just about linking people to
resources. They’re about linking people to people—and fostering critical discussion
There’s no doubt about it: Traditional professional development can be very pricey.
By the time you consider speaker fees, the cost of texts, and hiring substitutes to
cover classes, districts can easily spend tens (or hundreds) of thousands of dollars
on PD initiatives. “But this model of professional development—with a workshop
here and a day-long meeting there—doesn’t produce lasting results,” says Mike
Mattos, principal of PioneerMiddleSchoolinTustin, California,andco-
authorofPyramid

29
That’s where professional learning communities come in. By emphasizing the
establishment of a shared vision, collective learning, instructional collaboration, peer
observation, and action research, PLCs create the opportunity for continuous,
teacher-directed staff development. “And it’s free,” adds Mattos. At his school,
teachers have successfully engaged in PLCs to address key issues, such as
establishing effective grading practices, meeting Hispanic students’ needs, and
working with at-risk students.
CONCLUSION:

By our project conclusion we conclude that the Andhra Pradesh is still making
process to improve IT in school education but Tamilnadu is supporting to give better
education to the students. Everyone has understanding, resources, and interests on
which to build. Learning a topic does not begin from knowing nothing to learning
that is based on entirely new information. Many kinds of learning require
transforming existing understanding, especially when one’s understanding needs to
be applied in new situations. Teachers have a critical role in assisting learners to
engage their understanding, building on learners’ understandings, correcting
misconceptions, and observing and engaging with learners during the processes of
learning.

This view of the interactions of learners with one another and with teachers derives
from generalizations about learning mechanisms and the conditions that promote
understanding. It begins with the obvious: learning is embedded in many contexts.
The most effective learning occurs when learners transport what they have learned
to various and diverse new situations. This view of learning also includes the not so
obvious: young learners arrive at school with prior knowledge that can facilitate or
impede learning. The implications for schooling are many, not the least of which is
that teachers must address the multiple levels of knowledge and perspectives of

30
children’s prior knowledge, with all of its inaccuracies and misconceptions.
Traditional education has tended to emphasize memorization and mastery of text.
Research on the development of expertise, however, indicates that more than a set
of general problem-solving skills or memory for an array of facts is necessary to
achieve deep understanding. Expertise requires well-organized knowledge of
concepts, principles, and procedures of inquiry. Various subject disciplines are
organized differently and require an array of approaches to inquiry. We presented a
discussion of the three subject areas of history, mathematics, and science learning to
illustrate how the structure of the knowledge domain guides both learning and
teaching

Technology has become an important instrument in education. Computer-based


technologies hold great promise both for increasing access to knowledge and as a
means of promoting learning. The public imagination has been captured by the
capacity of information technologies to centralize and organize large bodies of
knowledge; people are excited by the prospect of information networks, such as the
Internet, for linking students around the globe into communities of learners.
Designing effective learning environments includes considering the goals for
learning and goals for students. This comparison highlights the fact that there are
various means for approaching goals of learning, and furthermore, that goals for
students change over time. As goals and objectives have changed, so has the research
base on effective learning and the tools that students use. Student populations have
also shifted over the years. Given these many changes in student populations, tools
of technology, and society’s requirements, different curricula have emerged along
with needs for new pedagogical approaches that are more child-centered and more
culturally sensitive, all with the objectives of promoting effective learning and
adaptation (transfer), The requirement for teachers to meet such a diversity of
challenges also illustrates why assessment needs to be a tool to help teachers
31
determine if they have achieved their objectives. Assessment can guide teachers in
tailoring their instruction to individual students’ learning needs and, collaterally,
inform parents of their children’s progress. Supportive learning environments, which
are the social and organizational structures in which students and teachers operate,
need to focus on the characteristics of classroom environments that affect learning;
the environments as created by teachers for learning and feedback; and the range of
learning environments in which students participate, both in and out of school.
Classroom environments can be positively influenced by opportunities to interact
with others who affect learners, particularly families and community members,
around school-based learning goals. New tools of technology have the potential of
enhancing learning in many ways. The tools of technology are creating new learning
environments, which need to be assessed carefully, including how their use can
facilitate learning, the types of assistance that teachers need in order to incorporate
the tools into their classroom practices, the changes in classroom organization that
are necessary for using technologies, and the cognitive, social, and learning
consequences of using these new tools.

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32
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of Digital technology

11. KAI R. LARSEN (2002): In his research paper he found that Forming virtual
organizations (VOs) is a new workplace strategy that is also needed to prepare
information, technology, and knowledge workers for functioning well in inter-
organizational teams.

12.HIMANU SHARMA (2007): In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare
the relative effectiveness of government and private schools.

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QUESTIONARIES:
1. what kind of resources should TN and AP governments providing for improving
computer-based instruction?
2. In what state the school are using majority percentage of IT?
3.In which state social networking in school is more TN or in AP?
4. which state is most effectively implementing IT in school?
5. If yes? Which tools do they wish to use IT.
6. How the TN and AP governments taking efforts to improve educational out comes
using IT?
7.How they evaluate online learning programme.
8.what are the steps that both states following to improve practical knowledge.
9.what are the sources do they states offering?
10.what are the external drivers of changes in implementation of IT in school?
11.What are the consequences after implementation of IT in school?
12. Which state is using more IT apps in education compared to Tamil Nadu and
Andhra Pradesh?
13. On average how many hours per day do they spend using computers for teaching
and co-curricular activities?
14. List up five outcomes or improvement you believe can be achieved with

the better use of IT in school?


15. How effectively do you think in TN and in AP states using IT from 1 to 10
standards?

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