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# STRUCTURAL

DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM 6:
A hanging storage bin weighing 260 kN will be supported by three circular threaded rods. Using A36 steel,
Fy = 250 MPa, Fu = 400 MPa.

## ➀ Determine the required rod diameter of unthreaded rod.

➁ Determine the diameter of the rod before upsetting if an upset rod is used.
➂ Determine the required diameter of the upset end.

Solution:
➀ Required rod diameter of unthreaded rod
260
T= = 86.67 kN
3
⎛ π⎞
86670 = 0.33(400) ⎜ ⎟ D2
⎝ 4⎠
D = 28.9 say 30 mm

## ➁ Diameter of the rod before upsetting if an upset rod is used

⎛ π⎞
86670 = 0.60(250) ⎜ ⎟ D2
⎝ 4⎠
D = 27.12 say 28 mm ø

## ➂ Required diameter of the upset end

π
4
T = 0.60(250)(615.75)
T = 92362.5 N 28 mm 30 mm
Dia. of upset end:
⎛ π⎞
92362.5 = 0.33(400) ⎜ ⎟ D2
⎝ 4⎠
D = 29.84 say 30 mm
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM:
Light gage cold-formed steel channels used as purlins are simply supported on roof trusses 6 m. apart.
Given: Roof slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1V:4H
Live load, L = 1000 Pa
Wind pressure, W = 1440 Pa
Wind pressure coefficient:
At windward side, pressure = 0.18
At leeward side, suction = 0.60
Properties of C Purlins: C 200 mm x 76 mm
Sx = 6.19 x 104 mm3 Sy = 1.38 x 104 mm3 fbx = fby = 207 MPa

Assume that all loads pass through the centroid of the C section.
For D + L + W, a one-third increase in allowable stresses is allowed.

➀ What is the safe purlin spacing (m) due to D + L if sag rods are not used?
➁ What is the max. spacing of purlins (m) due to D + L + W at the leeward side?
➂ How much is the safe spacing of purlins (m) due to D + L + W at the windward side?
S
SOLUTION:
➀ Spacing due to D + L if sag rods are not used
DL = 720S
LL = 1000S
W = 1440S
Windward pressure = 1440S(0.18) = 259.20S
1
Leeward pressure = 1440S(0.60) = 864S θ
4
1
tan θ =
4 y
θ = 14.04˚ θ DL + LL=1720S
Bending along x - axis :
Wx = 1720S Cos 14.04˚ x

Wx = 1668.62S
y
2
Wx L
Mx = Wx
8
Wy
1668.62S(6)2
Mx = x
8
M x = 7508.78S N.m.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM: (CONTINUATION)
Mx 7508.78S(1000) My
fb x = = = 121.31S fb y =
Sx 6.19 x 10 4 Sy
Bending along the y - axis : 1877.72S(1000)
fb y =
Wy = 1720S Sin 14.04˚ 1.38 x 10 4
Wy = 417.27S fb y = 136.07S

Wy L2 fb x fb y
My = (no sag rods) + = 1.0
8 Fb x Fb y
417.27S(6)2 121.31S 136.07S
My = + =1
8 207 207
M y = 1877.72S N.m S = 0.80 m.

## ➁ Spacing of purlins due to D + L + W at the leeward side

Wy = 1720S Sin θ
Wy = 417.27S
Wx = 1720S Cos 14.04 – 864S DL+LL=1720S
Wx = 804.62S
Wx L2 θ 864S
804.62S(6)2 (1000)
Mx = = = 362 x 10 4 S S
8 8
Wy L2417.27S(6)2 (1000)
My = = = 187.8 x 10 4 S
8 8
M 362 x 10 S4
fb x = x = = 58.48S
Sx 6.19 x 10 4
My 187.8 x 10 4 S
fb y = = = 136.09S
Sy 1.38 x 10 4 y

fb x fb y 864S
y
+ = 1.0
Fb x Fb y Wy
Wx
58.48S 136.09S x Wy
+ = 1.0
⎛ 4⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ x
⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ (207) ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ (207) 1720S

S = 1.40 m.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM: (CONTINUATION)
➂ Spacing of purlins due to D + L + W at the windward side

D + L = 1720S
WL = 259.20S
y
Wx = 259.20S + 1720S Cos 14.04
Wx = 1927.82S 1720S y
259.20S θ
Wx L2
Mx = Wx
8
x
1927.82S(6)2 (1000) Wy
Mx = N.mm
8 x
M x = 867.52S x 10 4
Mx 867.52S(10)4
fb x = = = 140.15S
Sx 6.19 x 10 4
Wy = 1720S Sin 14.04˚
Wy = 417.27S
Wy L2 417.27S(6)2 (1000)
My = = = 187.8 x 10 4 S
8 8
My 187.8 x 10 4 S
fb y = = = 136.09S
Sy 1.38 x 10 4
fb x fb y
+ = 1.0
Fb x Fb y
140.15S 136.09S
+ = 1.0
⎛ 4⎞ ⎛ 4⎞
⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ (206) ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ (206)

S = 0.9943
Use S = 1.0 m.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM:
From the given figure, beam EFGH and IJKL are 3-span beams supported by girders AM, BN, CO and
DP. Panel BCONB only is subjected to live load of 4.8 kPa. Assume EI is constant. Due to given live loads
only.
A B C D
➀ Find the positive moment at span FG in kN.m.
➁ What is the maximum shear of span EF in kN? 2.5
➂ How much is the maximum moment at span EF in kN.m.?
E F G H

Solution: 2.5

3 2.5
MFG = wL2
40 M N O P

3 6m 6m 6m
MFG = (12)(6)2
40
MFG = 32.4 kN.m.

## ➁ Max. shear at span EF.

wL M=-21.6 kN.m
Vmax =
20 E 6m F

12(6)
Vmax = R
20
R 12 kN/m R
Vmax = 3.6 kN

E F G H
6m 6m 6m
R1 R1
➂ Max. moment at span EF
36 kN
wL2
M max = - -3.6 kN
20
12(6)2
M max = - -3.6 kN
20 -36 kN
M max = - 21.6 kN +32.4 kN.m

-21.6 -21.6
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM 4: wu
DL = 8 kN/m LL = 4 kN/m
Prop. of W section: A B C
d = 350 mm I = 1.6 x 108
Assumeto be simply
supported

tw = 8 mm Fy = 248 MPa 4m

## ➀ Compute the max. bending stress if full length of the beam is D

➁ Compute the max. bending stress considering possible live load
pattern. wu= 8 + 4 = 12
➂ Compute the max. shear stress of the beam.
A B C
Solution:
2m 6m
➀ Max. bending stress if the full length of the beam is
R1 R2
40
∑M C = 0 24(2) 40(3.33)
Max. M = - +
6 R1 = 12(8)(4) 2 2 2
Max. M = 42.66 kN.m.
R1 = 64 kN x
MC -24
R 2 = 12(8) - 64 fb =
I Max. M
-32

R 2 = 32 kN 42.66 x 10 6 (350 / 2)
fb =
40 - 12x = 0 1.6(10)8
x = 3.33 fb = 44.97 MPa
M1
➁ Max. bending stress considering live load pattern
LL=4
∑M C = 0 16(2) 38.67(3.22)
Max. M = - + DL=8

6 R1 = 8(8)(4) + 4(6)(3) 2 2
A B C
Max. M = 46.26 kN.m.
R1 = 54.67 2m 6m
MC R1=84.67 R2
R 2 = 8(8) + 4(6) - 54.67 fb =
I 38.67
R 2 = 33.33 kN 46.26(350)(10)6
fb =
38.67 - 12x = 0 1.6 x 10 8 (2) 2

-16

## ➂ Max. shear stress Max. M

-33.33

V 40000
Fv = Fv =
dt w 350(8)
V = 40 kN Fv = 14.29 MPa
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM 2:
Given: Superimposed DL = 3.2 kPa (includes floor finish, ceiling, fixtures, etc.)
Live load = 3.6 kPa Beam b x h = 400 x 600
Concrete weighs = 24 kN/m 3 Slab thickness = 100 mm
Columns E and H are omitted such that the girder BEHK supports beam GHI at H and DEF at E. Assume
E is hinged and D and F are fixed.
A B C
➀ Compute the ultimate uniform load of beam DEF.
➁ Compute the shearing stress of beam DEF if it has an 3m
D E F
effective depth of 530 mm.
➂ Compute the max. negative moment of beam DEF. 3m
G H I
➃ Compute the max. positive moment of beam DEF.
3m
Solution: J K L

## ➀ Ultimate uniform load 7.5 m 7.5 m

Super-imposed DL = 3.2(3) = 9.6 kPa
MD MF
Slab = 0.10(3)(24) = 7.2 w u =48.6 kN.m
Beam = 0.4(0.6)(24) = 4.8
DL = 9.6 + 7.2 + 4.8 = 21.6 kN.m D F
LL = 3.6(3) = 10.8 kN/m 7.5 E 7.5
wu = 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL Hinged
R R1
R1
wu = 1.4(21.6) + 1.7(10.8) = 48.6 kN/m
L = 15
➁ Shearing stress of beam DEF 227.81
136.69
3
R = wL
8
Shearing stress :
3
R = (48.6)(15 V -136.69
8 υ= u
R = 273.375 kN øbd -227.81

υ=
0.75(400)(530)
R1 = 227.81
υ = 1.43 MPa
Vu = 227.81

## ➂ Max. negative moment -M=-wL 2 /32 -M=-wL 2 /32

wL2
M =- ➃ Max. positive moment of beam DEF
32
48.6(15)2 wL2
M =- M =+
32 57
M = - 341.72 kN.m. 48.6(15)2
M =+ = +192 kN.m.
57
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM 1:
Given: Superimposed DL = 3.2 kPa Beam b x h = 400 x 600
LL = 3.6 kPa Slab thickness = 100 mm
Wt. of concrete = 24 kN/m 3

The columns at E and H are deleted, thus girder BEHK supports beam DEF at E and beam GHI at H.
Assume all spans are loaded. Based on tributary area of the beams.
➀ Calculate the ultimate uniformly distributed load at A B C

beam DEF. 3m
➁ Calculate the shearing stress in beam DEF. Assume D E F

530 mm. G H I

## ➂ Calculate the moment at E. 3m

➃ Calculate the max. positive moment in span DE J K L

## assuming fixed supports at D and F. 7.5 m 7.5 m

Solution: MD MF
wu=48.6 kN.m
➀ Ultimate uniformly distributed load at beam DEF
Super-imposed DL = 3.2(3) = 9.6 kN/m
Slab = 0.10(3)(24) = 7.2 kN/m D F
7.5 E 7.5
Beam = 0.4(0.5)(24) = 4.8 kN/m
Total DL = 9.6 + 7.2 + 4.8 = 21.6 kN.m R1 R R1
LL = 3.6(3) = 10.8 kN/m L = 15
Ultimate load: wu = 1.4(21.6) + 1.7(10.8) = 48.6 kN/m
182.25 182.25

## ➁ Shear stress of beam DEF 3.75 3.75

wL 48.6(15)
R= = = 364.5 kN 3.75 3.75
2 2
2R1 + R = 48.6(15) -182.25 -182.25
R1 = 182.25 -wL2/96 -wL2/96
Vu = 182.25 kN
Vu 182250
υ= = = 1.15 MPa
øbd 0.75(400)(530)
-wL2/48 -wL2/48 -wL2/48

➂ Moment at E
wL2 ➃ Max. positive moment at span DE
M =-
48 wL2
+M =
wL2 48.6(15)2 96
ME = - =- = 227.81 kN.m.
48 48 48.6(15)2
+M = = 113.91 kN.m.
96
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM 23:
Superimposed DL = 3.2 kPa Beam: b x h = 400 x 600 mm
Live load (LL) = 3.6 kPa Slab thickness = 100 mm
Unit wt. of concrete = 24 kN/m 3
A B C
Beam DEF is simply supported at D, E, F.
For 2 spans both loaded, the negative moment at the interior 2.5 m
D E F
support is wL2/8.
2.5 m
For 1 span loaded, the negative moment at the interior support G H I
is wL /16.
2
2.5 m
For maximum stresses apply the following: J K L

2. Ultimate load combination: U = 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL
100 Slab

## ➀ What is the maximum moment at the interior support at E of

beam DEF? 600
Beam
➁ What is the maximum reaction at the interior support at E? 500
➂ If the loads at ultimate conditions are as follows:
Total DL (wu) = 24 kN/m
LL (wu) = 12.2 kN/m 400
Find the max. positive moment at span DE.

## For DL and LL For live load only

w1 wL

L L L L
0.375 1.25 0.375
R1=3/8wL R2=10/8wL R1=3/8wL R3=7/16wL R2=10/16wL R4=1/16wL
=0.375wL =01.250wL =0.375wL
0.4375
0.625 0.625
0.375

0.4375L
-0.5625

+M=0.0957
-0.375
-0.625
0.0703 0.0703
M=0.0703wL2 M=0.0703wL2

-wL2/16=0.0625wL2

M=wL2/8=0.125wL2
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

## PROBLEM 23: Continuation

➀ Max. moment at the interior support at ➁ Max. reaction at E of beam DEF
Superimposed DL = 3.2(2.5) = 8 kN/m RE = 1.25 wL
Beam = 0.4(0.5(24) = 48 kN/m RE = 1.25(18.8)(7.5)
Slab = 0.10(2.5)(24) = 6 kN/m RE = 176.25 kN
Total DL = 8 + 4.8 + 6 = 18.8 kN/m Due to live load:
LL = 3.6(2.5) = 9 kN/m RE = 1.25 wL (biggest value)
RE = 0.625 wL
Max. moment at E for DL:
RE = 1.25(9)(7.5)
(18.8)(7.5)2
MDL = RE = 84.375 kN
8 RE = 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL
MDL = (18.8)(7.5)2 (0.125) RE = 1.4(176.25) + 1.7(84.375)
MDL = 132.19 kN.m. RE = 390 kN
Max. moment at E for LL:
wL2 wL2 ➂ Max. positive moment at span DE
M= or Due to DL: (ultimate values)
8 16
2 MDL = 0.0703 wL2
wL
Use M = = 0.125wL2 MDL = 0.0703(24)(7.5)2
8
MDL = 94.91 kN.m.
9(7.5)2
ML = Due to live load:
8
MLL = 0.0957 wL2
ML = 9(7.5)2 (0.125)
MLL = 0.0957(12.2)(7.5)2
ML = 63.28 kN.m. MLL = 65.67 kN.m.
M u = 1.4 MD + 1.7 ML Total +M at span DE:
M u = 1.4(132.19) + 1.7(63.28) +M = 65.67 + 94.91
+M = 160.58 kN.m.
M u = 293 kN.m.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

PROBLEM 24:
Longitudinal beams EFGH and IJKL are simply supported at E, F, G and H, and at I, J, K, L.
Ultimate load: U = 1.2 DL + 1.0 LL
Given: S = 2.4 m L1 = L2 = L3 = 7.5 m
Total DL = 4.9 KPa
LL = 3.6 KPa

## ➀ Calculate the max. reaction at K.

➁ What is the max. shear at span KL?
➂ Find the max. negative moment at K.

A B C D

2.4 m
E F G H

2.4 m
I J K L

2.4 m
M N O P

wu
wu
I J K L
L L L I
L J L K L L

## 0.40wL 1.10wL 1.10wL 0.40wL 0.383wL 0.20wL 0.45wL -0.033wL

0.6wL
0.5wL
0.4wL 0.583wL
0.383wL
0.033wL

A B C D
-0.5wL -0.4wL
-0.6wL -0.687wL -0.417wL

## +0.08wL2 +0.08wL2 +0.0735wL2

+0.025wL2 +0.0534wL2

-0.0333wL2
-0.1167wL2
-0.10wL2 -0.10wL2

STRUCTURAL DESIGN – LECTURE

## PROBLEM 24: Continuation

wu wu
SOLUTION: I J K L
➀ Max. reaction at K
L L L
DL = 4.9(2.4) = 11.76 KN/m
LL = 3.6(2.4) = 8.64 KN/m
Due to dead load: 0.45w L 0.55w L 0.55w L 0.45w L
RK = 1.10wL 0.55w L
RK = 1.10(11.76)(7.5) 0.45w L
RK = 97.02
Due to live load: (select the biggest value of -0.45w L
the 3 reactions at K) -0.55w L
RK = 0.45wL
RK = 0.55wL 0.1013w L2 0.1013w L2
RK = 1.10wL
Use RK = 1.10wL
-0.05w L2
RK = 1.10(8.64)(7.5)
RK = 71.28 Live Load Pattern
Max. reaction at K:
Rmax = 7.2 DL + 1.0 LL
Rmax = 1.2(97.02) + 1.0(71.28)
Rmax = 187.70 KN

## ➁ Max. shear at span KL ➂ Max. negative moment at K

VKL = 0.60wL MK = - 0.10wL2
VKL = 0.60(11.76)(7.5) MK = - 0.10(11.76)(7.5)2
VKL = 52.92 KN MK = - 66.15 KN.m.
Due to live load: (select the biggest value) Due to live load: (select the biggest value)
VKL = 0.60wL MK = - 0.10wL2
VKL = 0.033wL MK = - 0.033wL2
VKL = 0.55wL MK = - 0.05wL2
Use VKL = 0.60wL Use MK = - 0.10(8.64)(7.5)2
VKL = 0.60(8.64)(7.5) MK = - 48.6 KN.m.
VKL = 38.88 KN Max. negative moment at K:
Max. shear at span KL: MKmax = 1.2 DL + 1.0 LL
Vmax = 1.2 DL + 1.0 LL MKmax = 1.2(66.15) + 1.0(48.6)
Vmax = 1.2(52.92) + 1.0(38.88) MKmax = - 127.98 KN.m.
Vmax = 102.38 KN