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Selective Envelope Detection

Using Selective Envelope Detection (SED) for the early


detection of faults in rolling-element bearings

BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.1


Selective Envelope Detection

 The Efficient Tool for


 Detection and analysis
of
– Rolling Element
Bearing faults
– Repeated Impacts
– Modulated Random
Noise

BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.2


Selective Envelope Detection
Principle

High frequency noise


is used as a carrier 1/3rd oct
Digital Filtering

< 10dB

Rectifying

. 10 kHz

FFT-analysis

BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.3


Selective Envelope Detection

SED
The Efficient Tool for
Detection and analysis of
–Rolling Element Bearing faults
–Repeated Impacts
–Modulated Random Noise

• Filtered Amplitude demodulated FFT analysis


• Envelope filter ranges in 1/3 octave bands from 709Hz to 44.7kHz
• 10Hz - 20kHz of FFT display span
• Dynamic range ~90dB
• Tracking & Gear exchange triggering
• Averaging 1 - 1000 (Spectrum or Enhanced)
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.4
Envelope Analysis

Vibration
time time
signal

Spectrum
frequency
10 kHz

Filtered
time singal
time

Envelope
Spectrum

frequency
50 Hz
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.5
Bearing defects are easily seen
in Envelope spectrum

In normal spectrum the bearing


frequencies are not always visible
when there is a bearing fault

50 Hz

In the Envelope Spectrum early


Envelope developements of bearing faults
can easilybe identified
Spectrum

50 Hz
Envelope spectrum with no
fault show no peaks !

50 Hz
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.6
Random Noise

 When a Rolling Element Bearing


is rotating Random Noise is
emitted caused by the metal
contact between the rollers and
the bearing.
 The Random Noise:
– has a flat spectrum.
– contains energy in very high
frequency range.

40 kHz
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.7
Beginning Wear

 The maximum metal stress of a


Rolling Element Bearing is
– In the load zone of outer race
Load Direction
– Few millimeters below the Crack
bearing surface.
 Most Bearing wear starts as a spall
or crack.
 The Crack will Produce Impacts
– Energy in high frequencies
– Exciting of bearing
resonances.

Spall

1X 10 kHz
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.8
Progressing Wear

 As the wear progresses:


 Defects tend to smooth out
 The signal is not so impactive
 The Random Noise noise of the
good bearing becomes
modulated
 As the defect becomes deeper,
the
balls will jump and erode the inner
race.

. 10 kHz
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.9
Modulated Random Noise /
Impacts

Impacts

t f
1
t FMax   50kHz
t
Modulated Random Noise

f
Fmax  12 kHz

BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.10


Envelope detection of
Modulated Random Noise

 Modulated Random Noise (MRN)


has side bands throughout the
spectrum.
 Placing the Envelope filter on the
resonance, may amplify some side
bands and de-amplify some side
bands.
Envelope Filter
 A broad envelope filter placed
Range
outside of resonances is best for
measuring MRN

< 10dB

. 10 kHz
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.11
Defect Depth can be calculated

m  10 1
f




L
10




f n m=a/A
a A

f a
i
 
 

mf i
Modulation of the time signal

L  Peak Height in the Envelope Spectrum

f n  Frequency width of one line of the FFT analysis

f a  Frequency band width of the Selective Envelop Filter

L 
BPFO
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.12
Bearing Frequencies


D1  D 2
PD 
2
D1 D2 BD
n = number of balls

f r = rotation frequency

n  BD 
BPFO = f outer ( Hz )  fr1  cos  
2  PD 

n  BD 
BPFI = f inner ( Hz )  fr1  cos  
2  PD 

PD   BD 
2

BSF = f ball ( Hz )  f r 1   cos   
BD   PD  

1  BD 
f cage ( Hz )  fr 1  cos  
2  PD 
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.13
Bearing Faults

1. Outer Race Faults


• Lead Time Month’s
• Ball Pass Frequency Outer Race
( BPFO) and Harmonic BPFO

RPM
2. Inner Race Faults
• Lead Time Days - Weeks
• Ball Pass Frequency Inner Race
(BPFI) With Side bands BPFI

of Rotation speed

3. Ball Defects
• Requires Immediate action
• Ball Spin Frequency
BSF with Harmonics. BSF

• Often in combinations with


above with various interharmonics.

BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.14


Mounting Rotor and
Lubrication defects
Rotor Misalignment
Rotor Unbalance
1*RPM
Force Revolution around
outer race RPM

Radial Tension 2*RPM


of Bearing
2*RPM

Misalignment of
2*BPFO
outer Race
2*BPFO

Slip of Race in Harmonics


the Mounting Seat of RPM
RPM

Increase of
Lubrication Defect Background
level
BPT0046-EN-11 Selective Envelope Detection p.15