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Duct design

King Abdulaziz University


Air flow in ducts
College of Engineering
Major and Minor Losses in Ducts
Loss coefficient for some fittings
Mechanical Engineering
Equivalent length for a fittings
Duct accessories
MEP 451 Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
Pressure diagram
Duct Design Duct design
Equal friction method
June 2009 Balanced Capacity method
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Air Flow in Ducts


2
Modified Bernoulli equation Velocity air pressure, Pv
1

⎛ 1 ρV12 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ρV22 ρgl f ⎞


⎜⎜ p1 + 2 g ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ p2 + 2 g + g ⎟⎟ ⎛ V2 ⎞ ⎛ V ⎞
2
⎝ c ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠
Pv = ρ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜
c
Major and minor losses ⎟ Pv in in water and V in ft/min
⎝ 1097 ⎠ ⎝ 4005 ⎠
⎛ g c p1 1 ρV12 ⎞ ⎛ p2 1 ρV22 ⎞
⎜⎜ + ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ + + lf ⎟⎟
⎝ ρg 2 g ⎠ ⎝ ρg 2 g ⎠

Ps1 + Pv1 = Ps 2 + Pv 2 + ∆Pf ⎛ V2 ⎞ ⎛ V ⎞


2

Pv = ρ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ Pv in Pa and V in m/s
⎝ 1.414 ⎠ ⎝ 1.29 ⎠
P01 = P02 + ∆Pf

ρgl f
∆Pf = Pressure loss between 1 and 2
gc 3 4

Moody Diagram
Major losses in duct

L V2
∆Pf = f ρ
D 2g

f friction factor = f(Re, e/D)

1 ⎡ 12e 2.51 ⎤
= −2 log10 ⎢ + ⎥
f ⎢⎣ 3.7 D Re D f ⎥⎦
F = friction factor=f(Re, roughness)
e is the pipe roughness
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1 Duct Design
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Uses of pressure loss charts


Equivalent of a circular duct
1-In English unit chart (Fig. 12.21), the y-axis is the pressure
drop per 100 ft length of the duct

(ab )5 / 8
2-The chart has 4 parameters: pressure drop, air flow rate,
air velocity, and duct diameter
De = 1.3
3-Knowing two of these parameters, one can get the other
two parameters (a + b )1/ 4
4-The given duct size is for circular pipe. Use the equivalent
table or equation to find the size of the rectangular duct
De equivalent diameter

a and b are the dimension of a rectangular duct

9 10

Figs. 12.21 and 12.22 correction factors

A) Correction factor for density and viscosity when T >100°F (38 C)

0.9 0.1
⎛ρ ⎞ ⎛ µa ⎞
C = ⎜⎜ a ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ ρs ⎠ ⎝ µs ⎠

subscript a refers to actual and s refers to standard condition

∆P0 a = C∆P0 s

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2 Duct Design
B-Correction due to duct liners Non-circular duct

f for typical galvanized duct is 0.02


4(Cross sec tion area )
Dh =
f for liners is between 0.03 and 0.06 Wetted Perimeter

ρVD VD
Re D = =
µ ν

ρVDh VDh
Re Dh = =
µ ν
Roughness correction factor
for commercial duct liners 13 14

Notes on using pressure


loss chart Minor losses (losses in fittings)

ρV 2
You can enter the chart knowing the CFM and ∆P = C0 = C0 Pv
pressure loss to get duct size in diameters and air 2g
velocity
If you know the flow rate and rectangular cross
section velocity, then calculate V and enter the chart Tables to finds Co for different fittings
using V and Dh

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Table 12.8 C

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3 Duct Design
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21 22

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4 Duct Design
Example 12.8
Equivalent of a minor loss in terms of
Compute the pressure loss due to a round 90° diverging section. The common
section is 12”, and the straight through section is 10 “. The flow rate in the
straight pipe length
common section is 1100 cfm, the flow rate in the branch is 250 cfm.
Major loss
c Straight section Branch section
s L V2
Vs =
Qs
= 1558 ft/min Vb =
Qb
= 1273 ft/min ∆PL = f ρ
As Ab D 2g
Qs 850 Qb 250
= = 0.77 = = 0.23
b Qc 1100 Qc 1100
As Ab
= 0.25 Minor losses (losses in fittings)
= 0.69 Ac
Ac
V2
From fig. 12.11B
∆P0 = Cρ
Cs=0.14 Cb =1.55 2g

⎡ V ⎤
2 L C
=
2
⎡ V ⎤
∆P0 s = Cs ⎢ s ⎥ = 0.021 in H 2O ∆P0b = Cb ⎢ b ⎥ = 0.16" H 2O
⎣ 4005 ⎦ ⎣ 4005 ⎦ D f
25 26

27 28

Example 12.9
Compute Le for duct system Duct accessories
shown in figure
1- Dampers (Parallel blades and opposed blades)
2-Fire dampers
3-Turnning vanes (linear and aerofoil)

Fittings Description Loss Le (ft) Le (m)


coefficient Co
Entrance Conical θ=0° Table 0.5 19 5.8
12.10A
f=0.022 for D=10’’
45 Diverging Cb=0.6, Table 12.11A, 0.6 11 3.4
branch D=6”

Straight 45 Cs=0.13, Table 12.11A, 0.13 4 1.22


diverging f=0.0225 for D=9’’

90 elbow C=0.43, Table 12.8A, 0.43 7.7 2.35


f=0.028, D=9” 29 30

5 Duct Design
Pressure Pressure diagrams
diagram Energy grade line EGL=Total Hydraulic grade line EGL=static
pressure=Po pressure, Ps

-0.04 31 32

Pressure diagrams
Duct design methods

1-Equal friction method


2-Balanced capacity method
3-Static regain method

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Equal friction method Example 12.11


1-Select the run with the anticipated max. flow resistance
Size the duct system shown using equal friction method.
2-Calculate the duct equivalent length (Le) Total pressure available fro duct is 0.12 “ water. The
3-From the known pressure available for the supply duct, calculate the pressure loss pressure drop for each diffuser is 0.02 “ water
in inches of water per 100 feet (∆P/L)
4-Size each duct section using the pressure drop and the flow rate in that section
5-Calculate the total pressure drop for each run. Use dampers when necessary

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6 Duct Design
Summary of results for Example 12.11
Example 12.11
Section Q (cfm) D (in) V (ft/min) Le ∆P
Available pressure is 0.12 in ∆P0 / L
H2O (30 Pa). Loss in diffuser 1 500 12 650 0.058 50 0.029
is 0.02 in H2O (5 Pa). 2 350 10 650 0.07 23 0.016

3 150 8 440 0.045 87 0.039


L123 = ( L1 + Lent ) + ( L2 + Lst ) + ( L3 + Lwye + L45 + L90 + Lboot ) 4 200 8 590 0.075 73 0.055
5 150 8 440 0.045 80 0.036
L123 = (20 + 30) + (15 + 8) + (25 + 13 + 6 + 10 + 33) = 160 ft
Pressure losses in each run

Run ∆P0 ( inches water)


∆P0 / L = 0.1* (100 / 160) = 0.063 in H 2 O per 100 ft
123 0.029+0.016+0.039=0.084
124 0.029+0.016+.055=0.010

37 15 0.029+0.036=0.065 38

Example 12.12
Balanced Capacity method
For section 4

Example 12. 12 ∆P04 = ∆P03 = 0.039 inches of water


∆P04 / L = 0.039(100 / 74) = 0.053
From Fig. 12.21 D4=8.7 or 9 inches V4=469 ft/min

For section 5

∆P05 = 0.084 − 0.029 = 0.055


From Fig. 12.21 D5=7.4 or 8 inches V5 =440 ft/min

The difference between the two solution is minor

section Equal friction method Balanced Capacity method


4 D4=8’’ D4=9’’
5 D5=8’’ D5=8’’
39 40

Recommended air velocities (f/m)

Recommended velocity

Residence Schools, public Industrial areas


areas
Outside air 500 500 500
inlet
Fan outlet 700 800 1000

Main ducts 700-900 1000-1300 1200-1800

Branch duct 500-600 500-600 800-1000


Recommended velocities regions
41 42
1 m/s ≅200 ft/min

7 Duct Design