Anda di halaman 1dari 74

Osteology – Anatomical

Orientations, Planes, Directions


Osteology – Anatomical
Orientations, Planes, Directions
• In order to be able to describe orientation of
skeleton and dental structures and their
component parts in 3 dimensions,
uniformity of description is necessary
Osteology – Anatomical
Orientations, Planes, Directions
Reference Positions:
• 1. Standard Anatomical Position of
Skeleton – for skeleton as a whole
• 2. Frankfort Horizontal (FH) - for skulls
Osteology – Orientations:
Standard Anatomical Position
• Standing
• Feet together pointing forward
• Palms forward (no bones crossed), arms at
sides
• Looking forward
• No matter what position a bone or skeleton is
found in, surfaces are referred to as if individual
is standing erect in standard anatomical position
Standard Anatomical Position

-standing
-feet together
-palms forward
-looking forward
Standard
Anatomical
Position

From Gosling et al
Fetal
Anatomic
Position

Modified
from
Moore
Osteology – Orientations:
Frankfort Horizontal for Skulls
• Named for city of 1884 convention
• Plane defined by 3 points: right and left porion (at
top of auditory meatus), and left orbitale (bottom
of left orbit)
• 6 standard viewing perspectives: all perpendicular
or parallel to FH (norma occipitalis – from behind,
frontalis – from in front, basalis – from base,
lateralis – from right and left sides, verticalis –
from above)
Frankfort Horizontal

Skull and face –


left lateral view

Frankfort
Horizontal is
defined by plane
between right
and left porion
and left orbitale

Modified from Rhine


Osteology – Planes of Reference
1. Sagittal (midsagittal, median, midline)
2. Coronal (frontal) plane
3. Transverse (horizontal) plane
4. Oblique plane
Planes of Reference - Sagittal
• Sagittal = midline = median = midsagittal
• Divides body into right and left halves
• Any planar slice paralleling this plane is
parasagittal
• Is a vertical anteroposterior plane
• Parallel to sagittal suture of skull
Planes of Reference - Sagittal
Schematic human –
seen from above Posterior

Right Left

Anterior
Planes of Reference - Sagittal
Sagittal plane
Schematic human –
Posterior
seen from above

Right Left

Anterior
Planes of Reference - Sagittal
Sagittal plane

Schematic human –
Posterior
seen from above

Right Left

Parasagittal planes Anterior


Planes of Reference – Sagittal

Right Left

Body is divided
into left and right
halves
Planes of Reference - Coronal
• Coronal = frontal
• Divides body into anterior and posterior
halves
• At right angle to sagittal plane
• Vertical side-to-side plane
• Approximately parallel to coronal suture
Planes of Reference – Coronal
(Frontal)
Schematic human –
seen from above Posterior

Coronal
plane

Anterior
Planes of Reference - Transverse
• Transverse = horizontal
• Slices through body at any height
• Perpendicular to sagittal and coronal planes
• In case of an organ or other structure, a
transverse or cross section is at right angles
to long axis of that organ or structure
Planes of Reference – Transverse
(Horizontal)

Transverse plane
slices through body
at any height and is
perpendicular to
sagittal and coronal
planes
Planes of Reference – Long Axis
and Transverse Axis of Organ
Long axis

Transverse
axes
Planes of Reference - Oblique
• May lie at any other angle
Planes of Reference – Oblique
Oblique plane

Oblique plane
may lie at any
angle
General Skeletal Terminology
• Cranial skeleton: skull (= cranium +
mandible)
• Post-cranial skeleton: remainder of skeleton
(axial and appendicular skeleton)
• Axial skeleton: bones of trunk, including
ribs, vertebrae, sternum, pelvis
• Appendicular skeleton: bones of limbs,
including shoulder girdle
General Skeletal Terminology –
Cranial - Postcranial
Cranial skeleton

Post-cranial skeleton
General Skeletal Terminology –
Axial - Appendicular

Axial skeleton =
skeleton of the
trunk

Appendicular
skeleton =
skeleton of the
limbs
Terms of Relationship
• “Three pairs of relative terms can express
relationship of any given structure to
another” (Grant)
• Superior-Inferior (up-down)
• Anterior-Posterior (front-back)
• Medial-Lateral (to and away from midline)
Terms of Relationship:
Superior - Inferior
• Superior: toward head end of body, hominid
or quadruped; “cranial” and “cephalic” are
synonymous for hominids and quadrupeds
• Inferior: opposite of superior; away from
head in hominids; “caudal” refers to tail end
of quadruped, but can be used to describe
fetal orientation, e.g. craniocaudal length of
fetus, craniocaudal growth of CNS
General Skeletal Terminology –
Superior - Inferior
Superior – toward the
head end

Inferior – away from


the head end
Terms of
relationship

Terms
“cephalic”
and “caudal”
are more
frequently
used to
describe fetal
directions
Modified
from
Moore
Terms of Relationship:
Superior - Inferior
• “Superior” and “inferior” are usually used
to describe direction in bones of axial
skeleton
• “Proximal” and “distal” are usually used to
describe direction in bones of appendicular
skeleton, i.e. proximal meaning nearer to
the axis of the body and distal meaning
further from the axis of the body
General Skeletal Terminology –
Superior-Inferior, Proximal-Distal
APPENDICULAR AXIAL

Proximal upper arm Superior


Distal upper arm

Proximal forearm

Distal forearm

Inferior
Terms of Relationship:
Anterior - Posterior
• Anterior: toward front of body; “ventral” can be
used homologously for hominids and quadrupeds;
“palmar” or “volar” for palms of hands, “plantar”
for soles of feet
• Posterior: toward back of body, opposite of
anterior; “dorsal” can be used homologously for
both hominids and quadrupeds; by convention
“dorsum”is top of foot or back of hand
General Skeletal Terminology -
Anterior
Superior

Anterior

Inferior
General Skeletal Terminology –
Posterior
Superior

Posterior

Inferior
Terms of Relationship:
Medial - Lateral
• Medial: toward midline (median plane of
body)
• Lateral: opposite of midline; away from
midline
• May be used to describe axial and
appendicular elements of skeleton
General Skeletal Terminology –
Medial - Lateral

Medial – Lateral –
toward the away
midline from the
midline
Terms of Comparison
• Describe relationships of structures between
species, as well as within species
Terms of Comparison:
Proximal - Distal
• Proximal: end of a bone nearest the axial
skeleton; used mainly to describe direction
in limb bones, i.e. to describe direction in
bones of appendicular skeleton
• Distal: opposite of proximal; farthest from
axial skeleton
General Skeletal Terminology –
Proximal - Distal
APPENDICULAR AXIAL

Proximal upper arm Superior


Distal upper arm

Proximal forearm

Distal forearm

Inferior
Terms of Comparison:
Ulnar - Radial
• Ulnar: near the little finger side; used for
forearm, hand; corresponds to medial
• Radial: near the thumb side; used for
forearm, hand; corresponds to lateral
General Skeletal Terminology –
Radial - Ulnar

Radial – Ulnar -
near the near the
thumb little finger
side side
Terms of Comparison:
Tibial - Fibular
• Tibial: near the tibial or shinbone side; used
for lower leg, foot; corresponds to medial
• Fibular: near the fibular side; used for lower
leg, foot; corresponds to lateral
General Skeletal Terminology –
Tibial - Fibular

Tibial – Fibular –
near the near the
shinbone fibular
side side
Terms of Comparison:
External - Internal
• External: outer
• Internal: inner
Terms of Comparison –
Internal - External

From Grant From Grant


Terms of Comparison:
Endocranial - Ectocranial
• Endocranial: inner surface of cranial vault
• Ectocranial: outer surface of cranial vault
Terms of Comparison –
Endocranial - Ectocranial
Ectocranial – outer
surface

Endocranial – inner
surface

From Grant
Terms of Comparison:
Superficial - Deep
• Superficial: close to surface
• Deep: opposite of superficial; far from
surface
Terms of Comparison –
Superficial - Deep

FromGrant
From Grant
Terms of Comparison:
Subcutaneous
• Just below skin
Terms of Comparison:
Ipsilateral - Contralateral
• Ipsilateral: same side of body
• Contralateral: opposite side of body
Terms of Comparison –
Ipsilateral - Contralateral

Contralateral – Ipsilateral – same side


opposite side of of body (e.g. right arm
body (e.g. right and right leg are on
arm and left arm ipsilateral side of body
are on
contralateral sides
of body)
Attachment of Muscles
• Proximal end: origin
• Distal end: insertion
Dental Terminology
Teeth - Surfaces
• Each tooth has 5 surfaces
1. Mesial
2. Distal
3. Lingual
4. Labial or buccal
5. Occlusal
Dental Terminology:
Mesial – Distal
• Mesial: toward point on midline where
central incisors contact each other (medial
surfaces of front teeth and anterior surfaces
of side teeth are mesial (proximal))
• Distal: opposite of mesial
Dental Terminology – Mesial - Distal

Mesial: toward the midline

Distal: opposite of mesial


Dental Terminology:
Lingual – Labial - Buccal
• Lingual: toward the tongue; opposite of
labial or buccal
• Labial (toward the lip): opposite of lingual;
used for incisors and canines (i.e. anterior
surfaces of front teeth)
• Buccal (toward the cheek): opposite of
lingual; used for premolars, molars (i.e.
lateral surfaces of side teeth)
Dental Terminology – Lingual-Labial-Buccal
incisors
labial labial and canines

premolars
buccal buccal and molars

lingual
Labial (toward lip): anterior surfaces of incisors and canines

Buccal (toward cheek): lateral surfaces of premolars and molars

Lingual: toward the tongue (opposite of lingual or buccal); same


term for all teeth
Dental Terminology – Occlusal
Surfaces
• Occlusal surfaces are biting surfaces, i.e.
where teeth of upper (maxillary) and lower
(mandibular) jaws meet are all “occlusal”
surfaces (an occlusal surfaces faces the
opposite dental arch)
• Occlusal = masticatory
• Occlusal or biting surfaces of incisors =
incisal surfaces
Dental Terminology – Occlusal Surfaces

Occlusal surface: biting surface, masticatory surface;


where maxillary and mandibular surfaces meet
Dental
Terminology –
Occlusal Surfaces

Occlusal surface:
biting surface,
masticatory surface;
where maxillary and
mandibular surfaces
meet

Modified from Rhine


Dental Terminology -
Contact Surfaces
• Proximal (mesial) and distal surfaces of adjacent
teeth are contact surfaces
• Exceptions: distal surfaces of last molars
• Proximal (mesial) and distal surfaces of adjacent
teeth rub against one another with chewing
motion, producing areas of wear – these areas may
match on adjacent teeth – may be useful in helping
to establish dental identification
Dental Terminology:
Interproximal
• In contact with adjacent teeth in the same
jaw
Dental
Terminology

Interproximal
Interproximal regions are
Regions and
indicated by arrows
Contact
Surfaces

Modified from Grant


Dental Terminology – Interproximal Contact Surfaces

Wear facets on mesial and distal


surfaces are indicative of an
interproximal articulation with
adjacent teeth

Modified from Brothwell


Dental Terminology:
Tooth Axes
• Mesiodistal: axis from mesial to distal
surface
• Buccolingual or labiolingual: axis from
buccal or labial to lingual surface
Teeth – Measurements -
Mesiodistal Diameter
• Maximum diameter between mesial and
distal contact points
Teeth – measurements – schematic – crown view

labial or buccal

Mesiodistal
diameter –
maximum
diameter
between mesial
and distal
contact points

lingual
Teeth – Measurements –
Buccolingual Diameter
• Maximum diameter at right angles to
mesiodistal diameter
Teeth – measurements – schematic – crown view

labial or buccal

Buccolingual
diameter –
maximum
diameter at
right angles to
mesiodistal
diameter

lingual
Teeth – Measurements – Crown
Module
• A measurement of “relative crown mass”
• Average of mesiodistal and buccolingual
diameters
Teeth – measurements – schematic – crown view

labial or buccal

Crown module –
a measurement
of relative crown
mass

Crown module =
(mesiodistal
diameter +
buccolingual
diameter) /2 lingual
END