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Concrete – is defined as the composition of paste (water and cement) and mineral
aggregates (coarse and fine aggregates) mixed in the proportions specified. It is a
construction material that is made of Portland cement (or some other form of
hydraulic cement), aggregate ( gravel and sand), and water mixed in predetermined
proportions. Concretes solidifies and hardens after mixing and placement due to a
chemical process known as hydration.


It shall consist of natural sand, stone screenings or other inert materials with
similar characteristics, or combinations thereof, having hard, strong and durable
particles. Fine aggregate from different sources of supply shall not be mixed or stored
in the same pile nor used alternately in the same class of concrete without the
approval of the Engineer.

It shall not contain more than three (3) mass percent of material passing the
0.075 mm (No. 200 sieve) by washing nor more than one (1) mass percent each clay
lumps or shale. The use of beach sand will not be allowed without the approval of the

If the fine aggregate is subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate
soundness test, the weighted loss shall not exceed 10 mass percent.

The fine aggregate shall be free from injurious amounts of organic impurities.
If subjected to the colorimatic test for organic impurities and a color darker than the
standard is produced, it shall be rejected. However, when tested for the effect of
organic impurities on strength of mortar by AASHTO T 71, the fine aggregate may be
used if the relative strength at 7 and 28 days is not less than 95 percent.


Sieve Desination Mass percent Passing

9.5mm(3/8 in) 100
4.75mm(No.4) 95-100
2.36mm(No.8) -
1.18mm(No.16) 45-80
0.300(No.50) 5 - 30
0.150mm(No.100) 0-10
Is the sum of total aggregates retained on specified sieve( N0.4 – 100)
divided by 100. Based on ASTM C33, FM of fine aggregates must be
within 2.3 to 3.1., the higher the FM the coarser the aggregates and
usually a lower FM results in more paste making concrete easier to finish.
In high cement factor used in the production of a high strength concrete,
a coarser sand with a FM of 3.0 will produce concrete with the best
workability and highest compressive strength . However, ACI table V have
standards and corrections to be used in calculation of Concrete Mix


It shall consist of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag, or other approved
inert materials (coralline or dolomites) of similar characteristics, or combinations
thereof, having hard, strong, durable pieces and free from any adherent coatings.

It shall contain not more than one (1) mass percent of material passing the
0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve, not more than 0.25 mass percent of clay lumps, nor more
than 3.5 mass percent of soft fragments.

If the coarse aggregate is subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate
soundness test, the weighted loss shall not exceed 12 mass percent.

It shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when tested by AASHTO
T 96.

If the slag is used, its density shall not be less than 1120 kg/m3. The gradation
of the coarse aggregate shall conform to Table 311.2.

Only one grading specification shall be used from any one source.

Particle shape includes two properties: sphericity and roundness. Sphericity is a

measure whether the particles is compact in shape That is , if it is close to being a
sphere or a cube as opposed to being flat (disk-like) or elongated ( needle-like).
Roundness refers to a relative sharpness or angularity of the particle edges and
corners. The higher the sphericity ( the closer the particle is to a sphere or cube ), the
lower will be its surface area and, therefore, lower will be its demand for mixing water
in concrete and lower will be the amount of sand needed in the mixture to provide
workability. More angular and less spherical coarse aggregates will require higher
mixing water and fine aggregate content to provide the needed workability.

Surface texture refers to degree of roughness or irregularity of the aggregate particle

surface. Usually, terms such as rough, granular, crystalline, smooth, or a glassy are used
to describe surface texture rather than using any quantitative method. Smooth
particles will require less mixing water-cementitious material ratio to produce concrete
with a given workability, but will have less bonding are with the cement paste than
rougher particles.


The shape and surface texture of the individual particles of sand, rock, gravel, slag, or
light weight aggregate making up an aggregate will have an important influence on the
workability of freshly mixed concrete and the strength of hardened concrete. Fine
aggregate particle shape and texture affects concrete in one major way-through its
influence on the workability of fresh concrete. Angular rough sands will require more
mixing water in concrete than rounded smooth fine aggregates to obtain the same
level of slump and workability, with other factors being equal. This in turn , will affect
the water- cementitious material ratio if the cementitious content is held constant; or it
will require an adjustment in the cementitious content if a certain water-cementitious
material ratio is needed.

The influence of fine aggregate shape and texture on the strength of hardened
concrete is almost entirely related to its influence on the resulting water- cementitious
material ratio of the concrete if the fine aggregate has a grading within the normally
accepted limits and its grading is taken into account in selecting concrete proportions.

Coarse aggregate shape and texture also affect mixing water requirement and water-
cementitious material ratio in a manner similar to that of fine aggregate. However,
coarse aggregate particles , due to their much smaller ratio of surface area to volume ,
affect strength through a more complex relationship of aggregate to cement paste
bonding properties and concrete water – cementitious material ratio. Therefore , the
effects of aggregate shape and texture on the strength of hardened concrete should
not be overgeneralized.

It has been demonstrated that the failure of a concrete strength specimen most often
starts as microcracks between the paste or mortar and the surfaces of the largerst
coarse aggregate particles. This a bond failure mode. Angular rough-textured
aggregates, for example have an increased surface area are bond to the cement paste
when compared to similar size rounded particles. Considering all of the factors that
have an effect on concrete strength, the following appear to be most important:

1. The surface area available for bond to the cement paste. Here, the shape and
texture of the largest particles is the most important.
2. The type of surface texture of the largest pieces, which affects the bond strength
per unit of surface area. The mineralogy and crystal structure of these pieces will
affect bond strength.
3. The relative rigidity of the aggregate particles compared to the surrounding paste
or mortar. The closer the deformation characteristics of the aggregate are to that
of the surrounding media, the lower the stresses at the interface will be that
developed at particle surfaces.
4. Maximum size of the aggregate. For a given water-cementitious material ratio, as
the size of the larger particle is increased, the likelihood of a paste to aggregate
bond failure increases since stresses at the interface will be higher than those for a
smaller particles.


Alternate U.S.
75 3 IN 100 - -
63 2 1/2 90-100 100 100
50 2 - 90-100 95-100
37.5 1 1/2 25-60 35-70 -
25 1 - 0-15 35-70
19 3/4 0-10 - -
12.5 1/2 0-5 0-5 10-30
4.75 NO.4 - - 0-5


Mixing water is the water available to come in contact with cement particles
during the initial phases of the chemical reaction between cement and water that
takes place in the concrete.

This Item covers criteria for acceptance of Questionable Water either natural or
wash water for use in concrete.

The mixing water shall be clear and apparently clean. If it contains quantities
or substances that discolor it or make it smell or taste unusual or objectionable, or
cause suspicion, it shall not be used unless service records of concrete made with it
(or other information) indicated that it is not injurious to the quality, shall be subject
to the acceptance criteria as shown in Table 714.1 and Table 714.2 or as designated
by the purchaser.

When wash water is permitted, the producer will provide satisfactory proof or
data of non-detrimental effects if potentially reactive aggregates are to be used. Use
of wash water will be discontinued if undesirable reactions with admixtures or
aggregates occur.
Table 714.1 – Acceptance Criteria for Questionable Water Supplies

Physical Properties Limits

Compressive strength, min. % Control at 7 days 90
Time of Setting deviation from control from 1:00 earlier to 1:30 later
Time of Setting (Gillmore Test)
Initial No marked change
Final Set No marked change
Appearance Clear
Color Colorless
Odor Odorless
Total Solids 500 parts/million max.
pH value 4.5 to 8.5

Table 714.2 – Chemical Limitation for Wash Water

Chemical Properties Limits

Chemical Requirements, Minimum Concentration
Chloride as CL (-1) expressed as a mass percent
of cement when added to the concrete mixtures
shall not exceed the following levels:
1. Prestressed Concrete 0.06 percent
2. Conventionally reinforced concrete in a moist 0.10 percent
environment and exposed to chloride
3. Conventionally reinforced concrete in a moist 0.15 percent
environment and exposed to chloride
4. Above ground building construction where the No limit for corrosion
concrete will stay dry

Sulfate as SO4 , ppmA 3000

Alkalies as (Na2O + 0.658 K2O), 600
Total Solids, ppm 5000

Wash water reused as mixing in concrete may exceed the listed concentreation
of sulfate if it can be shown that the concentration calculated in the total mixing
water, including mixing water on the aggregate and other sources, does not exceed
that stated limits.

Water will be tested in accordance with, and shall meet the suggested
requirements of AASHTO T 26.

Water known to be of potable quality may be used without test.




1. Bulk specific gravity is the characteristic generally used for calculation of the
volume by the aggregate in various mixtures containing aggregate including
portland cement concrete, analyzed on an absolute volume basis.
2. Absorption values are used to calculate the change in the weight of an
aggregate due to water absorbed in the pore spaces within the constituent,
compacted to the dry condition, when it is deemed that the aggregate has
been in contact with water long enough to satisfy most of the absorption


For Coarse Aggregate

Bulk sp. gr. = A/ (B - C)

Absorption, % = [(B – A)/A] x 100

A = weight of oven-dry test sample in air, g,
B = weight of saturated-surface-dry test sample in air, g,
C = weight of saturated test sample in water, g
or Fine Aggregate

Bulk Sp. Gravity = A/ (B + S – C)

Absorption, % = [(S – A)/A] x 100

A = weight of oven-dry specimen in air, g
B = weight of pycnometer filled with water, g
C = weight of pycnometer with specimen and water to calibration mark.
S = weight of saturated surface-dry specimen, g



This test evaluates the structural strength of coarse aggregate. It gives an

indication of quality as determined by resistance to impact and wear. The results do
not automatically permit valid comparisons to be made between sources distinctly
different in origin, composition or structure.


1. Los Angeles Machine.

2. Standard sieves with pan and cover.
3. Abrasive charges.
4. Pans.
5. Balance and weights.
6. Oven-uniform temperature of 110+5oC (230+9oF).

The test sample shall consist of clean aggregate which has been oven-dried to
constant weight/mass at 110+5oC and shall conform to one of the following table:

Sieve Size Grading and Weight of Test Sample, g

Passing Retained on A B C D

37.5 mm 25 mm 1250+25 - - -

25 mm 19 mm 1250+25 - - -

19 mm 12.5 mm 1250+10 2500+10 - -

12.5 mm 9.5 mm 1250+10 2500+10 - -

9.5 mm 6.3 mm - - 2500+10 -

6.3 mm 4.75 mm - - 2500+10 -

4.75 mm 2.36 mm - - - 5000+10

The abrasive charge shall consist of cast-iron spheres or steel spheres

approximately 46.8 mm in diameter and each weighing between 390 and 455 grams.
The charge depending upon grading of test sample shall be as follows:
Grading No. of Spheres Weight of charge, g

A 12 5000 + 25

B 11 4584 + 25

C 8 3330 + 20

D 6 2500 + 15

1) Place test sample and abrasive charge in the Los Angeles machine rotated
at a speed of 30 to 33 rpm 500 revolutions.

2) At completion of test, discharge material from the machine. Make a

preliminary separation of the samples on a sieve coarser than 1.70 mm.

3) Sieve finer portion on the 1.70 mm sieve, using the standing procedure of
sieving aggregates.

4) Wash all materials coarser than 1.70 mm, dry to constant weight/mass at
about 105oC to 110oC and weigh accurately to the nearest 1 gram.


Express the difference between the original weight/mass and the weight/mass
of material coarser than 1.70 mm sieve as a percentage of the original weight/mass of
test sample. This value represents the percent abrasion loss.

Original mass Sample retained on

of sample, g - No. 1.70 mm sieve, (No. 12) g

Percentage of Wear, % = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- x 100

Original mass of sample, g



The test determines the presence of the injurious organic compounds in natural
sands which are to be used in cement mortar or concrete. The purpose of the test is
to furnish a warning that further tests of the sand are necessary before they are
approved for use.


Glass bottles – approximately 350 ml graduated clear glass prescription bottle

with rubber, cork or other watertight stoppers, not soluble in the specified reagents.


Obtain a sample of sand weighing about 450g in accordance with standard

procedure in Reducing Field Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size.


1. Sodium hydroxide solution (3 percent) – dissolve 3 parts by weight of

sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 97 parts of water.

2. Reference color standard solution – dissolve reagent grade potassium

dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in concentrated sulfuric acid (sp. gr. 1.84) at the rate
of 0.250 g per 100 ml of acid. The solution if necessary to effect solution.


1. Fill a glass bottle to the approximately 130 ml level with the sample of the
sand to be tested.
2. Add a 3 percent NaOH solution in water until the volume of the sand and
liquid, indicated after shaking, is approximately 200ml.
3. Stopper the bottle, shake vigorously, and then allow to stand for 24 hr.


Values of unit weight/mass are used in volumetric- gravimetric

evaluations. In volumetric batching of concrete aggregate, the unit mass should
be known to convert weight/mass into loose volume.


Structural Concrete
Fine Aggregates Coarse Aggregates

Type: Natural Type: Rounded

Fine Modulos: 2.87 Max Size: 19.0 mm
Bulk Sp. Gr.: 2.57 Abrasion Loss: 29
Moisture Content: 7.21 Bulk Sp. Gr.: 2.60
Absorption: 3.82 Moisture Content: 1.75
Dry Unit Wt.: 1791.76kg/m3 Absorption: 2.09
Sp. Gr. Cement: 3.12 Dry Unit Wt. Ave: 1559.70kg/m3
Slump : 101.6mm


Abs. Vol. of Concrete = . 𝟎𝟗𝟎𝟗
𝟏𝟏 (𝒄𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒕 𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒐𝒓)

Abs. Vol. of 40 kg Bag Cement = (𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟐𝟖𝟐)
𝟑.𝟏𝟐 (𝒔𝒑.𝒈𝒓.) 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒌𝒈/m3

Adjustment from table V for water content considering the max. size of aggregates.
Determine the corrected slump:

Actual slump−Std.slump
Slump correction = (±3%)
= +3%

Net Water =
𝟏𝟖𝟗.𝟓𝟐 𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐬/𝐦𝟑

Abs. Vol. of Water per Bag =
11 bags/m3x1000 kg/m3
= 0.01722 m3/bag

Abs. Vol. of Cement and Water = .01282 + .01722

= . 𝟎𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟒

Abs. Vol. of Fine Aggregates and Coarse = . 𝟎𝟗𝟎𝟗− . 𝟎𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟒

= . 𝟎𝟔𝟎𝟖𝟕

Corrections of Fine Aggregates, % of Total Aggregates.

% sand of total aggregates = 46 considering 19mm dia. max. size

Water/Cement = = . 𝟒𝟑

.𝟒𝟑− .𝟓𝟕 (𝟏)

Water/Cement Corrections = = −𝟐. 𝟖

𝑨𝒄𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒍 𝒇.𝒎.−𝒔𝒕𝒅.𝒇.𝒎.
% F.m. corr = = . 𝟓%
( 𝟐.𝟖𝟕−𝟐.𝟕𝟓 )
= . 𝟓%
= .60
Total Corrections = .60% - 2.8%
= -2.2%

% sand from table V

= 46 – 2.2
= 43.8%

Abs. vol. of F.A = abs vol. of aggts. (43.8%)

= .06087 (43.8%)
= .02666

Abs vol. of C.A = .06087 - .02666

= 0.3421


CEMENT .012821 3.12 1000 40

FINE AGGTS. .02666 2.57 1000 68.516

COARSE AGGTS. .03421 2.6 1000 88.946

WATER .1722 1.0 1000 17.22

Corrected Weight

F.A = 68.516 ( 𝟏 + )
𝟕𝟎. 𝟖𝟒 𝒌𝒈
C.A = 88.946 ( 𝟏 − 𝟏𝟎𝟎
= 𝟖𝟖. 𝟔𝟒 𝒌𝒈
H2O = [ 40+ 68.516+ 88.946+ 17.22 ] – [ 40 + 70.84 + 88.64 ]
H2O = 𝟏𝟓. 𝟐𝟎𝟐 𝒌𝒈


Type: Natural Type: Rounded

Fine Modulos: 3.61 Max Size: 76.5
Bulk Sp. Gr.: 2.65 Abrasion Loss: 29
Moisture Content: 5.65 Bulk Sp. Gr.: 2.67
Absorption: 2.67 Moisture Content: 1.48
Dry Unit Wt.: 1791.76kg/m3 Absorption: 1.81
Sp. Gr. Cement: 3.15 Dry Unit Wt. Ave: 1559.70kg/m3
Slump : 101.6mm


Abs. Vol. of Concrete = . 𝟏𝟎 m3
Abs. Vol. of Cement = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟐𝟔𝟗
𝟑.𝟏𝟓 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎

Net Water = 𝟏𝟒𝟖 + − 𝟒. 𝟕(𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒍𝒆𝒔𝒔 𝒘𝒐𝒓𝒌𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒄. ) = 147.74

Abs. Vol. of Water and Cement: . 𝟎𝟏𝟒𝟕𝟕+. 𝟎𝟏𝟐𝟔

= . 𝟎𝟐𝟕𝟒𝟔

Abs. Vol. of Fine Aggregates and Coarse Aggregates

= .10 - .02746
= .07254

Water/Cement Ratio = = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟔𝟗 𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒔/𝒌𝒈

Water/Cement Corrections (. 𝟑𝟔𝟗− . 𝟓𝟕) ( )
= −𝟒. 𝟎𝟐
Corrections for Fineness Modulus: [𝟑. 𝟔𝟏 − 𝟐. 𝟕𝟓).
= +𝟒. 𝟑%
Total Corrections
+𝟒. 𝟑
−𝟒. 𝟎
− 𝟐. 𝟕𝟐%

Table V
𝟑𝟏% − 𝟐. 𝟕𝟐% = 𝟐𝟖. 𝟐𝟖%

Fine Aggregates: 𝟐𝟖𝟐𝟖 (. 𝟎𝟕𝟐𝟓𝟒)− . 𝟎𝟐𝟎𝟓𝟏

Coarse Aggregates: = . 𝟎𝟕𝟐𝟓𝟒−. 𝟎𝟐𝟎𝟓𝟏
= . 𝟎𝟐𝟎𝟓𝟏
=. 𝟎𝟓𝟐𝟎𝟑

Abs. Sp. Density UnCorr.

BATCH WEIGHT Vol. Gr. Water Wt. Corr. Wt.
Cement .01269 x 3.15 X 1000 = 40 40
Fine Aggregates .02051 x 2.65 x 1000 = 54.351 55.97
Aggregates .05203 x 2.67 x 1000 = 138.92 138.46
Water 14.774 x 1 x 1000 = 14.774 13.615

Corrected Weights:
%𝒇𝒓𝒆𝒆 𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓
Uncorrected wt (𝐅. 𝐀)[𝟏 + ]
𝟓.𝟔𝟓− 𝟐.𝟔𝟕
= 𝟓𝟒. 𝟑𝟓𝟏 [𝟏 + ]
Fine Aggregates = 𝟓𝟓. 𝟗𝟕

%𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒓𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒊𝒓𝒆𝒅
Uncorrected wt (𝐂. 𝐀)[𝟏 − ]
𝟏.𝟖𝟏− 𝟏.𝟒𝟖
= 𝟏𝟑𝟖. 𝟗𝟐 [𝟏 − ]

Coarse Aggregates = 𝟏𝟑𝟖. 𝟒𝟔

Water Corrections
= [ 𝟒𝟎 + 𝟓𝟒. 𝟑𝟓𝟏 + 𝟏𝟑𝟖. 𝟗𝟐] + 𝟏𝟒. 𝟕𝟕𝟒 − [𝟒𝟎 + 𝟓𝟓. 𝟗𝟕 + 𝟏𝟑𝟖. 𝟒𝟔]
= 𝟏𝟑. 𝟔𝟏𝟓 𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒔/𝒌𝒈
Item 311 - Portland Cement Concrete Pavement

A. Cement
Quantity: 9.0 bags /m3 (40 kg/bag)

Tests: For every 2,000 bags or fraction thereof:

1 - Q, Quality Test

B. Fine Aggregate

A. 0.50 m3 /m3 concrete ----- if using rounded coarse aggregate.

B. 0.54 m3 /m3 concrete ----- if using angular or crushed coarse aggregate.
Tests: For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:

A. For a source not yet tested, or failed in previous quality test:

1 - Q, Quality Test (Grading, Elutriation (Wash), Bulk Specific
Gravity, Absorption, Mortar Strength, Soundness, Organic
Impurities, Unit Weight, % Clay Lumps and % Shale).

B. For a source previously tested and passed quality test:

1 - Q, Quality Test (Grading, Elutriation (Wash), Bulk Specific
Gravity, Absorption, and Mortar Strength).

For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:

1 - G, Grading Test

C. Coarse Aggregate

a.) 0.77 m3 /m3 concrete ---- if using rounded coarse aggregate.

b.) 0.68 m3 /m3 concrete ---- if using angular or crushed coarse
Tests: For every 1,500 m3 or fraction thereof:

a.) For a source not yet tested or failed quality tests:

1- Q, Quality Test (Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity, Absorption,
Abrasion, Soundness and Unit Weight).

b.) For a source previously tested and passed quality tests:

1 - Q, Quality Test ( Grading, Bulk Specific Gravity, Absorption
and Abrasion).

For every 75 m3 or fraction thereof:

1 - G, Grading Test

D. Water
Tests: 1 - Certificate from Project Engineer or 1 - Q, Quality Test if source is

E. Joint Filler
1.) Poured Joint Filler
Tests: 1 - Q, Quality Test on each type of ingredient for each shipment

2.) Premolded Joint Filler

Tests: 1 - Q, Quality Test on each thickness of filler for each shipment

F. Special Curing Agents

Tests: 1 - Q, Quality test for each shipment

G. Steel Bars
Tests: For every 10,000 kg or fraction thereof for each size:

1 - Q, Quality Test (Bending, Tension and Quality Analysis)

H. Concrete
Tests: Flexural Strength Test on Concrete Beam Samples:
1 - Set consisting of 3 beam samples shall represent a 330 m2 of

pavement, 230 mm depth, or fraction thereof placed each day.

Volume of concrete not more than 75 m3

I. Completed Pavement

Tests: Thickness determination by concrete core drilling on a lot basis.

Five (5) holes per km per lane or five (5) holes per 500 m when two (2)

lanes are poured concurrently.

Alexander D. Turingan - 09328774661


Based on mix having a water cement ratio of 0.57 by weight of 27.7 liters per sack of
cement. 76.2 mm. slump and natural sand having fineness modulus of about 2.75

For mixes having either properties see adjustment below

Rounded Coarse Aggregate Angular Coarse Aggregate
Maximum size Sand % of Net Water Content per Sand % of Net Water Content per
of Coarse Total cubic meter Total cubic meter
Aggregate mm Aggregate Aggregate
(inch) by Absolute Kilograms Liters by Absolute Kilograms Liters
Vol. M3 Vol. M3
12.7 (1/2) 51 199 199 56 214 214
19.0 (3/4) 46 184 184 51 199 199
25.4 (1) 41 178 178 46 192 192
38.1 (1 ½) 37 166 166 42 181 181
50.8 (2) 34 157 157 39 172 172
76.2 (3) 31 148 148 36 163 163
152.4 (6) 26 131 131 31 146 146

Adjustment of above table for other condition

Effect of Value in Table V

Percent Sand Net water contents
Each 0.05 increase or decrease in water cement ratio ±1 0
Each 0.1 increase or decrease in fineness modulus of ± 1/2 0
Each 25.4 mm increase or decrease in slump 0 ±3 %
Manufactured Sand +3 + 8.9 kg
For less workable concrete as Pavement -3 ‒ 4.7 kg

The two (2) composition of concrete:

1. Paste – water and cement

2. Mineral aggregate – coarse and fine aggregate

Requirements of concrete:

1. It should have the required strength

2. It should be uniform, watertight, and resistant wear, weather and other
destructive agencies.
3. It should not shrink excessively on cooling or dying on wetting.
4. High resistant to fire, chemicals or abrasion.

Factors Affecting Strength/other characteristics of Concrete:

1. Quality of aggregate and cement

2. Quantity of mixing water and cement (the lower the water-cement ratio,
the greater is the strength)
3. Curing conditions
4. Time of mixing
5. Age


Is the process maintaining sufficient moisture and a favorable temperature in

concrete during the hardening process so that the desired properties for concrete
are developed.
It is important to prevent undesirable reduction of moisture in the paste as
soon as the concrete is placed. Loss of moisture at this age results in drying
shrinkage and development of cracks in the paste.

Two (2) principal methods or procedures for the protection and curing of concrete,
1. By maintaining a moist environment by the application of water through
ponding, spray, steams or saturated cover materials such as earth,
sawdust, or burlap.
Care should be taken to ensure that saturated cover materials do not dry
out and absorb water fall from the concrete.
2. By prevention of loss of mixing water from the concrete by means of
sealing materials, such as impervious sheets of paper or plastic, or by the
application of a membrane forming curing compound to the freshly placed

Shrinkage and Swelling:

When concrete is kept continuously damp it slowly expands, but both the
total amount and rate of expansion are normally so small that the volume is
considered to remain constant. Usually concrete is not kept damp, hence it is subject
to water loss and shrinkage, rather than expansion.
The more porous the hardened paste, the greater is the shrinkage. With the
same paste, the higher paste content of the concrete, the greater the shrinkage.
Drying shrinkage is a primary cause of cracking in concrete.

Heat of Hydration:

Excessive temperature rise is undesirable for it may impair strength and cause
cracking of the concrete. Some of the measures used to control rapid temperature
rise are, using a lean mix or low heat type of cement, precooling materials and using
ice with mixing water.

Quality Control Measures:

1. Selection of Materials
2. Design of Concrete Mixtures
3. Aggregate Production Control
4. Concrete Production Control
5. Control in Transporting and Placing
6. Control of Consistency
7. Sampling and Testing of Concrete Mixtures
8. Curing and Protection

Selection of Materials

Quality of concrete is greatly dependent on the quality of the individual

1. Aggregates:
A quality aggregate consist of particles which are free from fractures,
not easily abraded, favorably graded, and not flat or elongated, with rough
surface textures, and which contain no minerals that interfere with cement
hydration or react with cement hydration products to cause excessive

Criteria to be considered in selecting aggregates:

a. Once a grading is established it should be maintained constant within

rather close tolerances.
b. An aggregate with unfavorable particle shape should not necessarily be
rejected, if other alternatives are very costly.
c. An aggregate that contains appreciable amount of organic materials
which may interfere materially with the setting of cement should not
be used.
d. An aggregate that will not produce concrete of the required strength
should not be used. If required strength can be attained with an
excessive cement factor, use of the aggregate is not economical and
not advisable.
e. An aggregate to be used in concrete exposed to severe weathering
should be essentially free of particles that are soft or friable, or highly
f. An Aggregate containing substances that could react with alkalies in
the cement to cause excessive expansion should not be used in
concrete exposed to wetting unless it is required that low-alkali cement
is used.

2. Cement

There are various types of cement for different usages; for example, highly
early strength, surface resistant or low heat.
Type I Portland Cement is for general use and is the type ordinarily available.

Design of Concrete Mixtures

To determine the proportion of the ingredients that will produce concrete of

the proper workability when fresh and the desired durability and the strength after it
has hardened.

Factors to be considered:
1. Requirements as to placing.
2. Interrelationships of cement content, water-cement ratio, and gradation of
3. Required strength.
4. Quality of concrete necessary to satisfy the condition of exposure.
5. Considerations of economy

Aggregate Production Control:

After the aggregates have been selected, there should be constant check on
cleanliness and gradation during production.
In stockpiling aggregate at the plant site, care should be exercised such that
there is no segregation of the coarse from finer sizes.

Concrete Production Control:

1. The measuring scales should be calibrated and checked periodically.

2. The moisture content of aggregate should be determined constantly for
adjustment of mix proportions.
3. Measurement of aggregate, water and cement should be checked closely.
4. Segregation in coarse aggregate should be reduced to minimum by
separating the material into several size fractions and batching the
fractions separately.
5. Insure thorough mixing since it is essential for the production of uniform
The usual specifications such as one (1) minute for ¾ cu.m. plus one
(1) minute for each additional ¾ cu.m. of capacity can be used as guide for
establishing initial mixing time to be followed should be base on mixer

Control in Transporting and Placing:

A basic requirement for placing equipment and methods is that the quality of
the concrete in terms of water-cement ratio, slump, homogeneity and air content
must be preserved. Concrete should be placed in horizontal layers not exceeding 60
cm. in depth, avoiding inclined layers and cold joints. For monolithic construction
each concrete layer should be placed while the underlying layer is still responsive to
vibration, and layers should be insufficiently shallow to permit knitting the two
together by proper vibration. On sloping surface, concrete should be placed at the
lower portion of the slope first, progressing upward, thereby increasing natural
compaction of the concrete.
Consolidation of Concrete:

Internal vibration when properly applied is the most effective method of

consolidating and placing concrete. Vibrators should not be used to move concrete
laterally and should be inserted and withdrawn vertically at close intervals.

Control of Consistency:

The consistency of the mixtures should be checked frequently by the slump

test or ball penetration. The slump test is simple, but very important, since it is an
indicator of water content or water-cement ratio. An excess of water in the mixture
will cause a corresponding loss of potential strength. For economy, the lowest slump
which can be placed properly should always be used, because if the water-cement
ratio is fixed any increase in slump increases the cement requirement.

Recommended Ranges of Slump:


Maximum Minimum
Slabs, beams and reinforced walls 150 (6) 75 (3)
Building columns 150 (6) 75 (3)
Reinforced foundation walls and footings 125 (5) 50 (2)
Plain footings, caissons, and substructure walls 100 (4) 25 (1)
Pavements 75 (3) 50 (2)
Heavy mass construction 75 (3) 25 (1)

Sampling and Testing of Concrete Mixture:

The sampling requirement is to obtain a set of three (3) cylinder samples for
structural concrete or a set of three (3) beam samples for paving concrete for every
75 cu.m. or fraction thereof for each class of concrete. At least one set of samples
shall be obtained for each day of concreting work.

Particular attention should be given to the protection and curing of molded

specimen for strength tests. Due to their small volume compared to the structure,
test specimens will be more adversely affected by big temperature and will dry more
rapidly and completely than the concrete in-place.

Test specimens used as the basis for acceptance of concrete as delivered to

the jobsite should be protected from drying and temperature rise and should be
transferred to standard continuous moist curing conditions in a laboratory at the age
of one day. During the transfer, they should also be protected and handled carefully.

Curing and Protection:

Curing is keeping the concrete moist so that hydration of the cement can
continue. It is done immediately after final placement of the concrete to prevent or
minimize the occurrence of plastic shrinkage cracks.

The exposed surface of normal cement concrete should be kept continuously

moist for atleast 7 days, 14 days will be better.

Sealing compounds are generally accepted as satisfactory means of curing,

particularly if preceded by wet curing. The surface to be cured should still be moist
when the seal is applied.

Protection from Damage:

Heavy impact on green concrete will disturbed the mass should not be
permitted Floors over which construction activities are carried on should be covered.

Back filling against concrete should be done only when the concrete is strong
enough to carry the load, and only if performed with care to avoid impact.

Significance of Site Inspection:

There is no substitute for site quality control inspection in concrete work. If

there are defects in workmanship, the concrete structure may be structurally
unsound although test results are satisfactory. This may be due to one or a
combination of the following:

1. Addition of water after samples have been taken

2. Delayed placing
3. Unsuitable weather conditions (rain or excessive heat)
4. Inadequate compaction
5. Inadequate curing and protection
6. Contamination of concrete mix before or during placement.
Significance of Proper Sampling and Testing:

Test results on concrete samples reflect the actual of the structure. If the
sampling and testing of samples is defective, test results will be unsatisfactory but
the concrete may be structurally sound. This may be due to one or a combination of
the following:

1. Incorrect sampling
2. Inadequate compaction of sample
3. Contamination of sample
4. Damage to sample
5. Inadequate curing and protection of sample
6. Incorrect test method and procedure
7. Inaccurate test results
8. Mixed samples

Preparation of Grade:

After the subgrade or base has been placed and compacted to the required
density, the areas which will support the paving machine and the grade on which the
pavement is to be constructed shall be trimmed to the proper elevation by means of
a properly designed machine extending the prepared work areas compacted at least
60 cm beyond each edge of the proposed concrete pavement. If loss of density
results from the trimming operations, it shall be restored by additional compaction
before concrete is placed. If any traffic is allowed to use the prepared subgrade or
base, the surface shall be checked and corrected immediately ahead of the placing

The subgrade or base shall be uniformly moist when the concrete is placed.

Setting Forms:

1. Base Support

The foundation under the forms shall ne hard and true to grade so that
the form when set will be firmly in contact for its whole length and at the
specified grade. Any roadbed, which at the form line is found below
established grade, shall be filled with approved granular materials to grade in
lifts of three (3) cm or less, and thoroughly rerolled or tamped. Imperfections
or variations above grade shall be corrected by tamping or by cutting as

2. Form Setting

Forms shall be set sufficiently in advance of the point where concrete

is being placed. After the forms have been set to correct grade, the grade
shall be thoroughly tamped, mechanically or by hand, at both the inside and
outside edges of the base of the forms. The forms shall not deviate from true
line by more than one (1) cm at any point.

3. Grade and Alignment

The alignment and grade elevations of the forms shall be checked and
corrections made by the Contractor immediately before placing the concrete.
Testing as to crown and elevation, prior to placing of concrete can be made
by means of holding an approved template in a vertical position and moved
backward and forward on the forms.

When any form has been disturbed or any grade has become unstable,
the form shall be reset and rechecked.

Mixing Concrete:

The concrete may be mixed at the site of the work in a central-mix plant, or
in truck mixers. The mixer shall be of an approved type and capacity. Mixing time
will be measured from the time all materials, except water, are in the drum. Ready-
mixed concrete shall be mixed and delivered in accordance with requirements of
AASHTO M 157, except that the minimum required revolutions at the mixing speed
for transit-mixed concrete may be reduced to not less than that recommended by
the mixer manufacturer. The number of revolutions recommended by the mixer
manufacturer shall be indicated on the manufacturer’s serial plate attached to the
mixer. The Contractor shall furnish test data acceptable to the Engineer verifying
that the make and model of the mixer will produce uniform concrete conforming to
the provision of AASHTO M 157 at the reduced number of revolutions shown on the
serial plate.

Mixed concrete from the central mixing plant shall be transported in truck
mixers, truck agitators or non-agitating truck. The time elapsed from the time water
is added to the mix until the concrete is deposited in place at the Site shall not
exceed forty five (45) minutes when the concrete is hauled in non-agitating trucks,
nor ninety (90) minutes when hauled in truck mixers or truck agitators, except that
in hot weather or under other conditions contributing to quick hardening of the
concrete, the maximum allowable time may be reduced by the Engineer.

Limitation of Mixing:

No concrete shall be mixed, placed or finished when natural light is

insufficient, unless an adequate and approved artificial lighting system is operated.

During hot weather, the Engineer shall require that steps be taken to prevent
the temperature of the mixed concrete from exceeding a maximum temperature of

Concrete not in place within ninety (90) minutes from the time the ingredients
were charged into the mixing drum or that has developed initial set shall not be
used. Retempering of concrete or mortar which has partially hardened, that is
remixing with or without additional cement, aggregate, or water, shall not be

Test Specimens:

As work progresses, at least one (1) set consisting of three (3) concrete beam
test specimens, 150 mm x 150mm x 525 mm shall be taken from each 330 m 2 of
pavement, 230 mm depth, or fraction thereof placed each day. Test specimens shall
be made under the supervision of the Engineer, and the Contractor shall provide all
concrete and other facilities necessary in making the test specimens and shall
protect them from damage by construction operations. Cylinder samples shall not be
used as substitute for determining the adequacy of the strength of concrete.

The beams shall be made, cured, and tested in accordance with AASHTO T 23
and T 97.


Joints shall be constructed of the type and dimensions, and at the locations
required by the Plans or Special Provisions. All joints shall be protected from the
intrusion of injurious foreign material until sealed.
1. Longitudinal Joint

Deformed steel tie bars of specified length, size, spacing and materials
shall be placed perpendicular to the longitudinal joints, they shall be placed
by approved mechanical equipment or rigidly secured by chair or other
approved supports to prevent displacement. Tie bars shall not be painted or
coated with asphalt or other materials or enclosed in tubes or sleeves. When
shown on the Plans and when adjacent lanes of pavement are constructed
separately, steel side forms shall be used which will form a keyway along the
construction joint. Tie bars, except those made of rail steel, may be bent at
right angles against the form of the first lane constructed and straightened
into final position before the concrete of the adjacent lane is placed. In lieu of
bent tie bars, approved two-piece connectors may be used.

Longitudinal formed joints shall consist of a groove or cleft, extending

downward from and normal to the surface of the pavement. These joints shall
be effected or formed by an approved mechanically or manually operated
device to the dimensions and line indicated on the Plans while the concrete is
in a plastic state. The groove or cleft shall be filled with either a premolded
strip or poured material as required.

The longitudinal joints shall be continuous. There shall be no gaps in

either transverse or longitudinal joints at the intersection of the joints.

Longitudinal sawed joints shall be cut by means of approved concrete

saws to the depth, width and line shown on the Plans. Suitable guide lines or
devices shall be used to assure cutting the longitudinal joint on the true line.
The longitudinal joint shall be sawed before the end of the curing period of
shortly thereafter and before any equipment or vehicles are allowed on the
pavement. The sawed area shall be thoroughly cleaned and, if required, the
joint shall immediately be filled with sealer.

Longitudinal pavement insert type joints shall be formed by placing a

continuous strip of plastic materials which will not react adversely with the
chemical constituent of the concrete.

2. Transverse Expansion Joint

The expansion joint filler shall be continuous from form to form,
shaped to subgrade and to the keyway along the form. Preformed joint filler
shall be furnished in lengths equal to the pavement width or equal to the
width of one lane. Damaged or repaired joint filler shall not be used.

The expansion joint filler shall be held in a vertical position. An

approved installing bar, or other device, shall be used if required to secure
performed expansion joint filler at the proper grade and alignment during
placing and finishing of the concrete. Finished joint shall not deviate more
than 6 mm from a straight line. If joint fillers are assembled in sections, there
shall be no offsets between adjacent units. No plugs of concrete shall be
permitted anywhere within the expansion space.

3. Transverse Contraction Joint/Weakened Joint

When shown on the Plans, it shall consist of planes of weakness

created by forming or cutting grooves in the surface of the pavement and
shall include load transfer assemblies. The depth of the weakened plane joint
should at all times not be less than 50 mm, while the width should not be
more than 6 mm.
a. Transverse Strip Contraction Joint. It shall be formed by installing a
parting strip to be left in place as shown on the Plans.

b. Formed Groove. It shall be made by depressing an approved tool or

device into the plastic concrete. The tool or device shall remain in
place at least until the concrete has attained its initial set and shall
then be removed without disturbing the adjacent concrete, unless
the device is designed to remain in the joint.

c. Sawed Contraction Joint. It shall be created by sawing grooves in

the surface of the pavement of the width not more than 6 mm,
depth should at all times not be less than 50 mm, and at the
spacing and lines shown on the Plans, with an approved concrete
saw. After each joint is sawed, it shall be thoroughly cleaned
including the adjacent concrete surface.

Sawing of the joint shall commence as soon as the concrete has

hardened sufficiently to permit sawing without excessive raveling,
usually 4 to 24 hours. All joints shall be sawed before uncontrolled
shrinkage cracking takes place. If necessary, the sawing of any
joint shall be omitted if crack occurs at or near the joint location
prior to the time of sawing. Sawing shall be discounted when a
crack develops ahead of the saw. In general, all joints should be
sawed in sequence. If extreme condition exist which make it
impractical to prevent erratic cracking by early sawing, the
contraction joint groove shall be formed prior to initial set of
concrete as provided above.

4. Traverse Construction Joint

It shall be constructed when there is an interruption of more

than 30 minutes in the concreting operations. No transverse joint
shall be constructed within 1.50 m of an expansion joint,
contraction joint, or plane of weakness. If sufficient concrete has
been mixed at the time of interruption to form a slab of at least 1.5
m long, the excess concrete from the last preceding joint shall be
removed and disposed off as directed.

5. Load Transfer Device

Dowel, when used, shall be held in position parallel to the

surface and center line of the slab by a metal device that is left in
the pavement.

The portion of each dowel painted with one coat of lead or tar,
in conformance with the requirements of the item 404, Reinforcing
Steel, shall be thoroughly coated with approved bituminous
materials, e.g., MC-70, or an approved lubricant, to prevent the
concrete from binding to that portion of the dowel. The sleeves for
dowels shall be metal designed to cover 50 mm plus or minus 5
mm, of the dowel, with a watertight closed end and with a suitable
stop to hold the end of the sleeves at least 25mm from the end of
the dowel.

In lieu of using dowel assemblies at contraction joints, dowel

may be placed in the full thickness of pavement by a mechanical
device approved by the Engineer.

Final Strike-off (Consolidation and Fishing):

The screed for the surface shall be at least 60 cm longer than the maximum
width of the slab to be struck off. It shall be of approved design, sufficiently rigid to
retain its shape, and constructed either of metal or other suitable material shod with
Consolidation shall be attained by the use of suitable vibration or other
approved equipment.

In operation, the screed shall be moved forward on the forms with a

combined longitudinal and transverse shearing motion, moving always in the
direction in which the work is progressing and so manipulated that neither end is
raised from the side forms during the striking off process. If necessary, this shall be
repeated until the surface is of uniform texture, true to grade and cross-section, and
free from porous areas.

Acceptance of Concrete:
The strength level of the concrete will be considered satisfactory if the
averages of all sets of three (3) consecutive strength test results equal or exceed the
specified strength, fc ‘ and no individual strength test result is deficient by more than
15 % of the specified strength, fc ‘ . A set shall consist of a minimum of three (3)
concrete beam specimens.

Concrete deemed to be not acceptable using the above criteria maybe

rejected unless the contractor can provide evidence, by means of core tests, that the
quality of concrete represented by failed test results is acceptable in place. At least
three (3) representative course shall be taken from each member or area of
concrete in place that is considered deficient. The location of cores shall be
determined by the Engineer so that there will be at least impairment of strength of
the structure. The obtaining and testing of drilled cores shall be in accordance with

Concrete in the area represented by the cores will be considered adequate if

the average strength of the cores is equal to at least 85% of, and if no single core is
less than 75% of, the specified strength, fc ‘.

If the strength of control specimens does not meet the requirements of this
subsection, and it is not feasible or not advisable to obtain cores from the structure
due to structural considerations, payment of the concrete will be made at an
adjusted price due to strength deficiency of concrete specimens as specified

Deficiency in Strength of Concrete Percent (%) of Contract Price Allowed

Specimens, Percent (%)

Less than 5 100

5 to less than 10 80
10 to less than 15 70
15 to less than 20 60
20 to less than 25 50
25 or more 0

Figure 1. Components of a Typical JPCP

4.2 Joints

Concrete slabs will crack randomly from natural actions such as shrinkage or
curling. Therefore, joints are vital elements introduced into JPCPs to control cracking
and horizontal movements of the slabs. Joints in JPCP include transverse contraction
and construction joints, and longitudinal contraction and construction joints. Without
joints, plain concrete pavements would be riddled with cracks within one or two
years after placement. Even with JPCPs, incorrectly placed or poorly designed joints
will result in premature cracking.

4.2.1 Joint Construction

Joints are induced by saw cutting the concrete to a certain depth to

force the cracks to occur at those locations (see Figure 9 for crack that has
developed below the saw cut). The depth of the saw cut is limited to no more
than 1/3 the thickness of the slab's depth. This one third depth saw cut is
especially important over lean concrete base since it is much harder than
other types of bases and creates more surface friction with the underside of
the concrete slabs, which in turn can lead to more random cracking. The use
of “early entry saws” is also allowed with a saw cut depth of 1/4 the slab
thickness. Early entry saws are specialty saws used within the first few hours
of concrete curing, and can also be efficiently used on faster curing rigid slab.
Contractors can utilize a single or double saw cuts (see Standard Plan P20)
for making transverse or longitudinal contraction joint.
4.2.2 Joint Types

In the following, the two types of joints commonly used in JPCPs are
discussed. Transverse Joints

Transverse joints are constructed at right angles to the

longitudinal pavement joint in new JPCP construction as seen in Figure
2. On old previously built non-doweled rigid pavements, transverse
joints were skewed. Caltrans has adopted short random patterned
transverse joint spacing to reduce thermal movement at each joint and
reduce the possibility of mid-panel cracking. The staggered joint
spacing of 12, 15, 13 and 14 feet is utilized to reduce harmonic
induced ride quality problems.

According to the Caltrans HDM Index 622.4, doweled JPCP shall

be used for all new state highway construction, lane widening, lane
replacement, and reconstruction, especially for truck and HOV lanes.
According to HDM Index 622.4, dowel bars are not required when:

(1) Rigid shoulders placed or reconstructed next to a non-

doweled existing concrete lane (See Standard Plan P-3)
(2) Rigid shoulders placed or reconstructed next to a widened
slab (See Standard Plan P-2)
(3) Some individual slab replacements (see Standard Plan P-8)

Because mechanical load transfer devices (dowel bars) are

required in all new JPCPs, skewed transverse joints are not permitted.
Dowel bars handle the load transfer and the need for skewing does not
provide any significant benefit. Skewing also makes it difficult to place
dowels along the transverse joint. Section 4.5 of this Guide provides
additional information on load transfer across transverse joints.

For lane/shoulder addition or reconstruction, when providing

transverse joints, there are cases where the new joints may not line up
with the existing transverse joint spacing in the adjacent lane.
Standard Plan P18 shows three different cases of existing and new
transverse joints alignment that can be encountered when
reconstructing or adding concrete lane/shoulder adjacent to existing
concrete pavement. To prevent translation of the existing transverse
joints over to the new and weaker transverse joints, longitudinal
isolation joints (see Section 4.3.1 for this topic) are provided.
Figure 2. Transverse Joints Perpendicular to Lane Lines and Longitudinal
Joints Longitudinal Joints

Longitudinal joints (see Figure 3) are necessary to control

cracking in the longitudinal direction where two or more lane widths
are placed at one time. They are constructed at lane lines, typically in
multiples of 12 feet. Tie bars (see Section 4.4) are placed at these
joints to hold two abutting rigid pavement faces in contact.

Figure 3. Longitudinal Joint at Lane Line

4.3 Other Joints

4.3.1 Isolation Joint

An isolation joint is a special longitudinal joint that is placed to prevent

existing transverse joints or transverse working joints (joints that
accommodate movements) from extending into the weaker newly placed rigid
pavement. Isolation joints should be used when matching the existing
transverse joints is not practical. They are placed to separate dissimilar rigid
pavements/structures in order to reduce compressive stresses that could
cause uncontrolled cracking.

An isolation joint is required in (1) lane/shoulder addition or

reconstruction where transverse joints do not align between new and existing,
for which tie bars are required at the isolation joint, (2) interior lane
replacement where joints do not align between new and existing, and (3)
lane/shoulder addition or reconstruction where transverse joints align
between new and existing, where tie bars are not required for the isolation

When adding the new lane, in many instances, an asphalt shoulder is

removed. This may leave the abutting edge of concrete slab surface rough
that will require saw cutting to remove any protruding pockets of concrete.
This sawing requirement is covered in SSP 40-010.

The isolation joint prevents the joints and cracks in the adjacent lane
from propagating to the new added lane. A joint filler material is used to fill
the isolation joint to prevent infiltration of incompressible materials. The filler
material should be continuous from one edge of the slab to the other. The top
of the filler material should be recessed below the surface of the slab to allow
space for joint sealant application.

4.3.2 Construction Joint

A construction joint is either (1) a transverse joint that joins together

two consecutive slabs constructed at two different times, or (2) a longitudinal
joint that joins two lanes that are paved in two separate passes. For
nondowelled JPCPs (when permitted), tie bars are usually used to connect the
two adjoining slabs together so as to act as one slab. It is important to have
an adequate slab section to tie into as shown on the plans. Construction joint
for doweled pavement shall coincide with the new joint spacing.

4.4 Tie Bars

Tie bars are typically used at longitudinal joints (see Figure 4) and transverse
construction joint in a nondoweled shoulder addition/reconstruction (see Standard
Plan P-3) to hold tight the faces of abutting concrete in contact.
Figure 4. Tie Bars in a Longitudinal Joint

Tie bars used in JPCP construction are 30-inch long Grade 60 No. 6
deformed steel bars, placed in the mid depth of the JPCP slab, perpendicular
to the longitudinal construction and contraction joints. Tie bars are placed a
minimum of 15 inches from transverse joint location in between slabs and at
18-inch spacing thereafter. The use of epoxy-coated tie bars is not necessary
for JPCP, except in areas where corrosion is known to be a problem (e.g.,
because of the presence of salts or the application of de-icing salts).

In California, tie bars are epoxy-coated as specified under SSP 40-010

and in conformance with Section 52-1.02B, “Epoxy-coated Reinforcement” in
the Standard Specification.

There is a limit of 50 ft wide tied JPCP lanes, based on national

experience. When more lanes are tied together, there seems to be a tendency
for the concrete slab to crack longitudinally. When the slabs are tied together
they act as one slab and the friction between the base and the slabs is high
enough to restrain movement, thus causing cracking in some cases.
Therefore, tie bars should be omitted at one of the longitudinal joints when
more than 4 lanes (or 3 lanes and a shoulder) are being tied together. The
preferred longitudinal joint to omit tie bars would be an inside lane where
truck or bus traffic will not occur. Standard Plan P18 includes lane schematics
that cover most cases for isolation joint placement.

Tie bars are recommended at longitudinal construction joints for

lane/shoulder addition or reconstruction, but not recommended where
isolation joints are required. Dowel bars (see below) at longitudinal joints
without tie bars may be useful when there is a need to obtain some limited
load transfer across the longitudinal joint. Standard Plan P-18 provides
schematics on when and how to apply contact joints, isolation joints, and
when to use dowel bars in lieu of tie bars.
4.5 Load Transfer

Load transfer is the ability of a joint to transfer a portion of an applied load

(the truck wheel) from one side of the joint to the other. Joint transfer is achieved
by (1) mechanical load transfer devices such as dowel bars, (2) aggregate interlock
across abutting edges of concrete, and (3) friction between concrete and stabilized
base [lean concrete base, hot mixed asphalt, asphalt treated base, cement treated
base, etc.]. The ideal transverse joint is one that has all three mechanisms available.
The current Caltrans standard practice utilizes lean concrete or hot mixed asphalt as
the base, dowel bars, and aggregate interlock. In the following a brief discussion of
each mechanism is provided.

4.5.1 Dowel Bars

Dowel bars are made of smooth, round, epoxy-coated Grade 60 steel

bars that allow load transfer across the joint without restricting horizontal
movement (see Figure 5). Dowel bars provide lower deflection, prevent
pumping, corner breaks, and excessive slab curling and reduce the potential
for faulting; thus keeping a smooth-riding pavement. Slab movements
(rocking) are significantly reduced with the use of dowel bars as schematically
seen in Figures 6 and 7 for dowelled and non-dowelled transverse joints.
Generally, the number of dowel bars required along the transverse joint is
dictated by the width of the slab.

Figure 5. Dowel Bars in a Transverse Joint

Figure 6. Slab Movements in Doweled Slab

Figure 7. Slab Movements in Non-doweled Slab

Dowel bars also limit slab curling over time. Slab curling is defined as
when the edges of the slab curl up or down as the temperature changes
throughout the day and night causing rougher pavement profile and increased
stresses on the edges of the concrete slabs, which accelerates spalling and
cracking of the slab. Slab curling is caused by the temperature difference
between the top and bottom of the concrete slab. Because the underside is
insulated from temperature changes, the surface expands and contracts at a
different rate compared to that of the underside of the slab. This causes the
slab to become larger on the surface than the underside during the day
resulting in the slab curling down on the edges as shown in Figure 8 (top
drawing). At night, the process reverses and the surface shrinks compared to
the underside causing the slab to curl up at the edges as shown in Figure 8
(bottom drawing). Warping is defined as the moisture fluctuations throughout
the depth of the slab. Due to warping, slabs deform in the same manner as
with curling as affected by the degree of moisture saturation, as shown in
Figure 8.

Again, dowel bars help prevent excessive warping and curling that can
develop due to these moisture fluctuation and temperature differentials, thus
keeping the pavement smoother (flatter).
Figure 8. Slab Curling and Warping Concept

4.5.2 Aggregate Interlock

Aggregate interlock is the interlocking action between exposed

aggregate particles in the opposing joint faces beneath the sawn joint (see
Figure 9).

Figure 9. Aggregate Interlock Across Transverse Joint

For non-doweled JPCP, aggregate interlock (jagged crack area)
beneath the saw cut portion of the joint provides most of the load transfer.
Over time these aggregate interlock faces can wear and load transfer can
drop. Because aggregate interlock deteriorates over time, especially when
there are no dowel bars and/or stabilized base, Caltrans current practice
requires dowel bars in all but a limited number of cases. Where truck volumes
are low, there are standard designs available that do not require the stabilized

4.5.3 Stabilized Base

Stabilized bases utilize a small percentage of cement or asphalt binder

to stiffen the base, and can provide friction with the concrete slabs resting on
them; thus helping in transferring the load from one side of the joint to the
other. Historically, Caltrans used stabilized base (primarily cement treated
base) with its pavements, which were non-doweled. Experience, however, has
shown that these pavements fault prematurely requiring increased
maintenance and earlier rehabilitation. Current design practice requires both
dowel bars and stabilized base for pavements subject to high truck volumes.
Because pavements with dowel bars have shown to be more cost effective
and provide better performance than no-doweled pavements, current design
practice for low volume routes still requires dowel bars but does provide
designs that do not require a stabilized base.

4.6 Subgrade, Subbase and Base

Rigid pavements require base and, in some cases, subbase layer for structural
support since the applied traffic loads is transferred across the rigid structure by
providing only bearing stress applied to the underlying foundation. Base and
subbase provide a working platform during construction.

The majority of rigid pavements fail not because of concrete slab failure but
by failure of materials below the concrete slab due to unstable or non-uniform
materials, poor compaction, or poor drainage (e.g., either underground water
percolating into the base or surface water leaching through the concrete and
becoming trapped in the base).

4.6.1 Subgrade

The load-bearing capacity of the subgrade soil has a significant impact

on the performance of a JPCP. Anything that can be done to increase the
load-bearing capacity or structural support of the subgrade will likely improve
the overall strength and performance of the pavement. Generally, greater
subgrade structural capacity can result in more economical pavement
structures. The subgrade is the natural ground, graded and compacted, on
which the pavement is built. Preparation of the subgrade includes:
1. Compacting soils at moisture contents and densities that will ensure
uniform and stable pavement support.
2. Whenever possible, setting gradelines high enough and making
side ditches deep enough to increase the distance between water
table and pavement.
3. Crosshauling and mixing of soils to achieve uniform conditions in
areas where there are abrupt horizontal changes in soil type.
4. Using selective grading in cut and fill areas to place the better soils
nearer to the top of the final subgrade elevation
5. Improving extremely poor soils by treatment with or lime, or
importing better soils, whichever is more economical.

Subgrade soil can vary widely over a short distance. Poor subgrade can
be described as expansive (plasticity index greater than 12 and/or R-value of
less than 10). Index 614.2 in the HDM states that organic and peat soils are
compressible and not recommended for roadway construction. They should
be removed, wherever possible, prior to placing the pavement structure.
Subgrade stabilization is desirable for poor subgrade material under a rigid
pavement. For example, lime may be used with expansive soils, cement with
less plastic soils (plasticity index less than 10), and emulsified asphalt can be
used with sandy soils. The binding characteristics of these materials generally
increase the subgrade load bearing capacity. To eliminate or reduce subgrade
moisture, installation of subdrains is necessary. Topic 614 in the HDM
explains soil characteristics, testing, and available treatment options.

Where subgrade conditions are not reasonably uniform, corrections is

most economically and effectively achieved by proper subgrade preparation
techniques, such as selective grading, crosshauling mixing at abrupt
transitions, and moisture –density control of subgrade compaction. Particular
attention is needed for the control of expansive soils and excessive differential
frost heave.


Excessive differential shrink and swell of expansive soils cause non-uniform

subgrade support. As a result, concrete pavements may become distorted enough to
impair riding quality. Several conditions can lead to pavement distortion and

1.If expansive soils are compacted when too dry or are allowed to dry out
prior to paving, subsequent expansion may cause high joints and loss of crown.
2. when concrete pavements are placed on expansive soils with widely
varying moisture contents, subsequent shrink and swell may cause bumps,
depressions, or waves on the pavement.
3. Similar waves may occur where there are abrupt changes in the volume-e
Experience has reveals that the volume changes of clays with a medium or low
degree of expansion with a plasticity index of 15-28 and shrinkage limit of 10-16,
and plasticity of less than 18 and shrinkage limit of 15, respectively has usually
cause no problems for concrete pavements. Most soils sufficiently expansive to
cause pavement distortion are in the AASHTO A-6 or A-7 groups.


The amount of volume change that will occur with a given expansive soil depends on
several factors:

1. Climate- degree of moisture change that will take place in the subgrade
throughout the year or from year to year. It is generally true that placement
of a pavement will reduce the degree of moisture change in the underlying

2. Load conditions- surcharge effect of the weight of soil, subbase, and

pavement above the expansive soil.

3. Moisture and density conditions of the expansive subgrade at the time of


Knowledge of the enterrelationship of these factors leads to the selection of

economical control methods.

Subgrade Grading Operations- Test indicate that soil swell can be reduced by
surcharge loads. Field measurements show that excessive swell at depths of 1 to 2 ft
gradually decreases to a negligible amount at depths of 15 ft or more. Thus,
excessive swell can be controlled by placing the more expansive soils in the lower
part of the embankments and crosshauling less expansive soils for the upper part of
the subgrade in both embankments and excavations. Selective grading and mixing of
soils provide reasonably uniform conditions in the upper part of the subgrade and
gradual transitions between soils with varying volume change properties. These
operations are also used at cut-fill transitions to correct abrupt changes in soil type.

In deep-cut sections of highly expansive soils, considerable expansion may occur

due to the removal of the natural surcharge load and the consequent absorption of
additional moisture. Since this expansion takes place slowly, it is essential to
excavate these deep cuts well in advance of other grading work.

Compaction and Moisture Control- Volume changes are further reduced by

adequate moisture and density controls during compaction. To reduce volume
changes, it is critical to compact highly expansive soils at 1 to 3 percent above
optimum moisture, AASHTO T99. Where embankments are considerable height,
compaction moisture contents can be increased from slightly below optimum in the
lower part of the embankment to above optimum in the top 1 to 3 ft.

Research verifies that expansion is greatly reduced for most plastic soils when
compacted at moisture contents exceeding AASHTO T99 optimum.

Reseach also shows the strong influen

4.6.2 Subbase Layer

The subbase layer is a planned thickness of specified material that is

placed on the subgrade or under the basement material. This layer is not
always used, but when it is needed it can provide for structural strength
and/or a working platform. The essential function of a subbases is to prevent
mud-pumping of fined-grained soils .A subbase layer is mandatory under the
combination of soils, water, and traffic that is conducive to mud-pumping.
Such conditions frequently exist in the design situation for major, heavily
travelled pavements. Mud pumping is the forceful displacement of a mixture
of soil and water that occurs under slab joints, cracks and pavement edges.
Mud pumping can occur when concrete pavements are placed directly on fine-
grained, plastic soils and erodible subbases. Mud pumping necessary to occur
due to following

1. Subgrade soil that will go into suspension

2. Free water between pavement and subgrade or subbase.
3. Frequent passage of heavy axle loads.

The other function of subbase is use as secondary, it aid in controlling

of volume changes for severe conditions of high-volume subgrades. It also aid
in reducing excessive differential frost heave. It provide drainage layer and a
more stable working flat form for pavement construction.

4.6.3 Base Layer

The base layer is immediately placed beneath the surface course. It

can be treated (stabilized, bound) or untreated (unbound, unstabilized). It
can provide a stable platform for the concrete paving, provides for additional
load distribution, and contributes to drainage (if permeable base is used) and
frost resistance. The primary purpose of the unbound aggregate or granular
material is for structural support, but other uses include (1) improve drainage,
(2) minimize frost action damage and (3) minimize intrusion of fines from the
subgrade into the pavement structure. Base courses constructed of stone
fragments, slag and soil-aggregate mixture lie close to the surface; hence,
they must posses high resistance to deformation in order to withstand the
high pressure imposed upon them. The functions of a base course are
prevention of pumping, drainage ,prevention of volume change of sub-grade,
increased structural capacity and expedition of construction.

Stabilized bases are the standard for all JPCPs with a Traffic Index (TI)
greater than 11. For lower TI values, unstabilized aggregate base maybe
used. The Department uses stabilized bases to provide a construction
platform for the concrete paving machine and to minimize base erosion and
the development of voids underneath the concrete slabs. Current standard
designs use either lean concrete base or Hot Mix Asphalt–Type A (HMA-A).


Base course Class A is a layer composed of coarse aggregate, fine

aggregate and fines, i.e. material finer than 75 μm. The coarse aggregate
fraction is material retained on the 4.75 mm sieve and is required to consist
of hard, durable particles or fragments of crushed rock or gravel; the fine
aggregate fraction is material passing the 4.75 mm sieve and retained on
sieve No. 200 and consists of natural or crushed sand and fine mineral

Table 2. Class “A” Base Course Gradation

Figure 3. SNI Specification for Base Course Class A

In this investigation, the coarse and fine aggregate used in the

preparation of samples was 100% crushed rock; for the fines (material
passing No. 200), materials having different Plasticity Index values were used.
Crushed rock fines (Banjaran provided material having 0% Plasticity Index).
As discussed before that materials having a PI values in the range of 6% -
25% were obtained after sampling and characterizing samples from nine
locations. Samples of base course Class A were prepared based on the
median of the SNI specification as shown on Table 2 and Figure3.

Mixed were prepared with 0%, 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% material
passing sieve No. 200, i.e. finer than 75 μm. The gradations obtained are
shown in Figure 4. A total of 15 mixture types were investigated, i.e. 5 fines
contents and 3 values of Plasticity Index. Mixes are labeled as A, B and C in
order of increasing Plasticity Index and 1 to 5 in order of increasing fines
Figure 4. Particle Size Distribution of Grading Investigated


One objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of the

plasticity of the fines on the strength and permeability characteristics of
unbound road-base Class A. Because of time constraints only three values of
plasticity were investigated, i.e. soil with a PI value of 0% and 2 others in the
range of 6 to 25%. Soil was sampled at a number of locations in Kabupaten
Bandung (Bandung Municipality) and soils with the appropriate plasticity
values were selected for the investigation. The tests were done in the
Highway Laboratory and Soil Mechanics Laboratory of Bandung Institute of

4.1 Properties of Natural Soils

The soil property of particular interest was the Plasticity Index,

montmorillonite content was also determined on selected soils to avoid soils
that have a high swelling potential. To determine the montmorillonite content,
the methylene blue test was performed (done outside of Bandung Institute of
Technology and helped by Material and Chemical Laboratory of the
Department of Energy and Mineralogy Resources). After field investigations at
nine locations, the Plasticity Index of the soil at the nine locations and the
montmorillonite content of the soil at 4 locations were determined and the
results are shown on Table 3 and Table 4.
The main criterion for soil selection was PI and the objective was to select 2
soils with widely different PI values but with acceptable montmorillonite content.
Based on the Plasticity Chart developed by Casagrande, Cimareme soil is classified
as an inorganic clay of medium plasticity and the Cipakem sol is classified as an
inorganic clay of high plasticity and according the activity, soils from Cimareme and
Cipakem are inactive clays.

4.2 Classification of the Aggregate Mixtures

The grading curve of the mixtures investigated are shown in Figure 4

and the grading investigated are summarized in Table 5, again the number of
1 to 5 are represented the fine content of 0%, 4%, 8%, 12% and 16%.
Classification of the mixtures investigated on the basis of the AASHTO system
is given in Table 6.
SNI specifies that the Plasticity Index of the aggregate base course
should not exceed 6%. Based on the Atterberg limits test results, value of
Plasticity Index determine for mixtures Type B4, B5, C3, C4 and C5 are
6.35%, 7.23%, 6.31%, 9.20% and 12.64% respectively. These values exceed
the maximum value of PI, the other mixtures are acceptable.

Figure 5. Effect of Quantity and Type of Fines on the Plasticity Index.

The results of the LL test gave values for mixtures Type B4, B5, C4 and
C5 of 25%, 25.5%, 28% and 30% respectively. These exceed of the
maximum value of 25% specified by standard but the other mixtures satisfy
this requirement.

Figure 6. Effect of Quantity and Type of Fines on the Specific Gravity of the
Combined Aggregate Fractions in the Mixtures

4.3 Compaction Test

The maximum dry density of each mixture at the optimum water

content was determined using the modified ASHTO compaction procedure.
Material was compacted in the 6 in. diameter mold in five approximately
equal layers to give a total compacted depth of about 5 in. Each layer was
compacted by 56 uniformly distributed blows of a 10-lb hammer dropping
freely from a height of 18 in. The influence of the fines content on the
maximum dry density is shown on Figure 7 for mixture containing fines Type
A, B and C,
Figure 7. Results of Modified Compaction Test on Unbound Aggregate Base

The modified compaction test results shown in Figure 7 show that

maximum dry density of aggregate base mixture Type A, i.e. material with
non-plastic crushed stone fines, increases up to 8% fines content and then
decreases with increased amount of fines. For mixtures containing plastic
fines, mixtures Type B and C, maximum dry density is obtained at a fines
content of 4%. At this fines content the maximum dry densities for mixtures
Type A and Type C (high PI) are almost identical; the highest dry density is
achieved by mixture B (medium PI).

As fines content is increased above 4%, maximum dry density reduces.

In the case of the mixture containing fines of high plasticity the reduction is
most evident when of the mixture containing fines of medium plasticity,
increasing the fines from 12% to 16% causes the most significant reduction
in the maximum dry density.

4.4 CBR Test

This test is used in determining the bearing capacity of unbound

pavement layers. The test is useful for evaluating sub-grade soil, sub-base
and road-base course material containing only a small amount of material
retained on the 19.0 mm sieve. Samples of soil-aggregate mixture for the
CBR test were prepared at optimum moisture content and soaked for 9 hours
before the test was carried out. The influence of fines content on the
maximum dry density is shown on Figure 7 for mixtures containing fins type
A, B and C.

In all cases, the CBR value at 0.2” penetration exceeded the value at
0.1” penetration. The influence of the fines content on the soaked CBR value
of the samples compacted at maximum density is shown on Figure 8.

Figure 8. Results of California Bearing Ratio Test on Unbound Aggregate Base

Variation in soaked CBR with fines content follows a similar pattern to

tat observed for maximum dry density. In the case of mixture Type A (non-
plastic fines) the CBR value peaks at a fines content of 8%; in the case of
mixtures Type B and C (medium and high plasticity fines, respectively)
maximum CBR is achieved at a fines content of 5%. A minimum soaked CBR
value of 80% is specified by standard and the mixture with 0% fines content
does not meet this specification. The mixtures with non-plastic fines meet the
specification up to a fines content of 16%, the maximum fines content
investigated. The mixture with fines of medium plasticity meets the
specification at fines contents of 4% and 8% while the mixture containing
highly plastic fines just meets the specification at a fines content of 4%. The
CBR of the mixture with highly plastic fines reduces very significantly as fines
content is increased to 16%.

4.5 Permeability Test

The permeability of a soil is a measure of its capacity to allow the

passage of fluid through the soil. Procedure for the measurement of the
permeability of a soil in the laboratory are of two types, Constant Head and
Falling Head Tests. In this investigation the falling head method was used.
Preparation of samples used the modified compaction procedure. The
diameter of the mold was 6 in. and the sample was compacted in 5
approximately equal layers by applying 56 uniformly distributed blows of a
4.54 kg hammer dropping freely from a height of a 8 in. to each layer.

The degree of permeability of Type A material (non-plastic fines) is

classified as medium over the range of fines contents investigated and has a
good drainage characteristics. Type B material (medium plastic fines) is also
indicated to have a medium degree of permeability and good drainage
characteristics over the range in fines content investigated. However at fines
content of 12% and 16%, drainage characteristics are close to the boundary
between good and poor. In the case of Type C material (highly plastic fines),
the drainage characteristics of material containing 4% and 8% fines can be
described as good although material with 8% fines is close to the boundary
between good and poor. Material with 12% fines is on the boundary between
good and poor while the drainage characteristics of material containing 16%
fines fall into the poor category.

Looking at the criteria for classification of permeability, all of the Type

A materials and material Type B1 can be classified as having medium
permeability; material Types B2, B3 and B4 and Type C1, C2 and C3 have low
permeability and Type C4 is on the borderline between low and very low.
Selection of the mixture should consider minimum soaked CBR value.
However if the coefficient of permeability is also a criterion, mixture Type C2
with 4% of highly plastic fines and mixtures Type B2 and B3 with 4% and 8%
medium plasticity fines are also acceptable.
Figure 9. Results of Permeability Test on Unbound Aggregate Base


In this investigation, mixture of aggregate base Class A containing 0, 4,

8, 12 and 16% fines were investigated. The fines were of 3 type, i.e. non-
plastic fines and fines with PI values of 9.47% (medium plasticity) and
24.09% (high plasticity). The conclusions reached are summarized as follows:

a. Mixture containing 12% and 16% medium plasticity fines and 8%,
12% and 1% high plasticity fines have values of PI that exceed the 6%
maximum specified by Indonesian standard.

b. The maximum LL value of 25% specified by the Indonesian standard

is exceeded by the mixture containing 16% medium plasticity fines and 12%
and 16% high plasticity fines.

c. A peak value of maximum dry density is evident as the fines content

of the mixture is increased. In the case of the mixture containing non-plastic
fines, maximum dry density has a peak value at 8% fines content. In the case
of mixtures containing plastic fines, maximum dry density peaks at a fines
content of 4%.

d. The variation in soaked CBR with increase in fines content follows a

pattern similar to that observed for maximum dry density. Mixture containing
non-plastic fines has a peak CBR value at 8% fines, the CBR of mixtures
containing plastic fines peaks at 4% fines.

e. The introduction of 4% fines to the mixture causes a very significant

reduction in the permeability; there is a less dramatic reduction in
permeability with further increase in the amount of fines. At any fines is
considerably more permeable than the mixture made with plastic fines.

Lean concrete base (LCB) is the typical type of base for JPCP primarily
because it not only provides a stable platform for the rigid slab but is also
constructed using the same plants and equipment as concrete. Lean concrete
base is more rigid and less erodible than cement treated base (CTB). The
September 1, 2006 Caltrans HDM edition (June 26, 2006 Metric edition) states
that concrete can be substituted for LCB when justified for constructability or
traffic handling. JPCP should not be bonded with LCB. A 1-inch thick interlayer
of HMA-A should be placed between the JPCP and LCB.

Hot Mix Asphalt–A (HMA-A) is another alternative to lean concrete

base. It provides a smooth base layer, reduces friction, and provides a good
bond breaker layer. HMA-A base layer consists of a combination of mineral
aggregates and asphalt materials mixed mechanically in a plant. HMA-A
provides flexibility to expand and contract with temperature fluctuations.
HMA-A typically performs better than LCB in hotter climate regions like the
desert environments and southern central valley because it provides more
flexibility for concrete to expand and contract with temperature fluctuation.

Asphalt Treated Permeable Bases (ATPB) has been used in the past to
address water infiltration. This type of permeable base is useful where it is
necessary to drain water beneath the pavement (see Figure 10). Water can
enter the pavement as surface water through cracks, joints, and pavement
infiltration. Saturation of the pavement or underlying subgrade, or both,
generally results in a decrease in strength or ability to support heavy axle
loads. Treated permeable base requires the use of edge drains or some other
method of draining water out and away from the pavement. Otherwise, the
collected water will become trapped. Trapping water beneath the concrete
could create an undesirable condition known as pumping. Pumping removes
fines from the saturated base layer (especially untreated ones) by creating
dynamic upward and downward movements due to wheel loads at joints and
cracks. This pumping action develops voids under the concrete slabs that
eventually lead to faulting and premature cracking. It should be noted that if
the edge drains are not maintained in good operating condition, entrapped
water will create conditions that are typically worse than if no permeable base
was provided. For these reasons, treated permeable bases are not
recommended if edge drains could not be maintained, except where there is
an existing treated permeable base that needs to be propagated for drainage
Figure 10. Difference Between Dense Graded (left) and Permeable
(right) Bases

One might consider an ATPB layer for low truck traffic locations if adequate
low maintenance drainage is to be included in the design. If ATPB is desired in these
locations, the designer should make sure that edge drains or other drainage systems
can be maintained by field maintenance crews and should even include the costs to
maintain drains in the report (separate from the construction cost estimate) so
maintenance can pursue the resources and equipment needed to maintain the
pavement drainage.

Stripping (water washing away cement paste, binders, and fines) can be an
issue for stabilized bases if care is not taken to specify materials that will not strip in
the presence of water. As a precautionary measure, the Department no longer uses
cement treated base (CTB) or cement treated permeable base (CTPB) as a base in
JPCP construction. LCB is more tolerant to moisture and less susceptible to pumping
and stripping so it should be used in lieu of CTB when widening next to a CTB layer.
ATPB should be used in lieu of CTPB when widening next to an existing CTPB layer.