Anda di halaman 1dari 7

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

FULL INFINITIVE
Complete the sentences using the words given. Use two to five words

We use the full infinitive after some verbs: advise, afford, agree, appear, ask, plan, promise, refuse, beg,
allow are some examples.

1. I think you should study harder for the test. ADVISE


I _________________________________ harder for the test.
2. Marian often gets angry very easily. TENDS
Marian ______________________________ angry very easily.
3. I don’t have money to go to the Bahamas. AFFORD
I can’t ___________________________ to the Bahamas.
4. It seems that Jon has accepted the job offer. TO
Jon seems _______________________________ the job offer.
5. I spent a year to write my final essay for university. TOOK
It ____________________________ write my final essay for university.

With the syntax it + to be + adjective

6. Learning to drive is easy. TO


It ______________________ to drive.
7. People often go on holiday abroad. COMMON
It ______________________________ go on holiday abroad.

We can use the full infinitive after the words TOO and ENOUGH

8. These jeans are too small for me. ENOUGH


These jeans _________________________________ for me.
9. The teenagers weren’t old enough to get into the club. TOO
The teenagers _______________________________ into the club.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

10. The instructions of the vacuum cleaner were so complicated that I couldn’t follow
them. TOO
The instructions of the vacuum cleaner were ____________________________ follow.
11. Marcos was driving too carelessly to avoid the accident. CAREFULLY
Marcos was __________________________________________ avoid the accident.
12. Andres felt too ill to go to the gym. WELL
Andres _______________________________ to go to the gym.

Some verbs such as say, think, believe, expect, estimate, know, understand etc. could form the passive voice
with a full infinitive structure: SUBJECT + PASSIVE VERB+ INFINITIVE

13. It is believed that Maider has moved to Bilbao. TO


Maider ______________________________ to Bilbao.
14. People say that more tourists visit San Juan de Gaztelugatxe after its appearance in
Games of Thrones. SAID
More tourists ______________________________ San Juan de Gaztelugatxe after its
appearance in Games of Thrones.
15. It is reported that the bank robbers had escaped before the police arrived. TO
The bank robbers ____________________________ before the police arrived.
16. People think that he has written a book about Basque traditions. THOUGHT
He __________________________________ a book about Basque traditions.
17. It is known that Nadal is one of the best tennis players in the world. TO
Nadal ______________________________ one of the best tennis players in the world.

BARE INFINITIVE
Complete the sentences using the words given. Use two to five words

We use the bare infinitive after modals

18. I’m sure Jon didn’t cheat in the exam. CHEATED


Jon ____________________________________________ in the exam.
19. It would be a good idea to go on a diet before summer. SHOULD
You _________________________ on a diet before summer.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

20. It is forbidden to touch the paintings and statues in the Guggenheim museum. TOUCH
You _________________________________________ the paintings and statues in the
Guggenheim museum.
21. Perhaps the fog caused the accident in the motorway yesterday. HAVE
The fog _____________________________________ in the motorway yesterday.
22. I’m sure he has cheated in the exam. MUST
He _______________________________________ in the exam.

The verbs LET and MAKE are followed by the bare infinitive. But, watch out! In the passive voice, the verb make is
followed by the full infinitive and the verb let is not used in the passive voice. Instead, we use the verb allow,
which is followed by the full infinitive.

23. Our teacher wants us to work very hard. MAKES


Our teacher ______________________________________________ very hard.
24. My parents don’t allow me to go out alone after midnight. LET
My parents _________________________________ out alone after midnight.
25. They made me pay 200 euros for speeding. WAS
I _____________________________________ 200 euros for speeding.
26. Jon’s mother made him apologize. WAS
Jon ________________________________ mother.
27. My brother doesn’t mind if I use his car on Mondays. LETS
My brother _____________________________ his car on Mondays

We use the bare infinitive after the expression would rather (=would prefer) and had better (=should)

28. I would prefer to take a taxi rather than go by bus. RATHER


I’d _________________________________ go by bus.
29. I prefer going out to staying at home. RATHER
I’d _________________________________________ than stay at home.
30. My advice to you is to take a day off. BETTER
You’d _____________________________ day off.
31. I’d rather have some tea than drink more coffee. TO
I prefer ____________________________________ more coffee.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

32. If I were you, I would study harder. BETTER


You __________________________________ harder.
33. I would prefer to wait here rather than go upstairs. RATHER
I’d ________________________________________ upstairs.

GERUND

Complete the sentences using the words given. Use two to five words

We use the gerund as a noun, either as the subject of as the object of a verb.

34. During the rush hour, it takes me over an hour to get to work. GETTING
During the rush hour, ______________________________ over an hour.
35. Doing sports is important to keep fit. TO
It ____________________________________ to keep fit.

We use the gerund after some verbs such as admit, avoid, mind, miss, deny, suggest, consider, fancy, enjoy,
etc.

36. Could you turn down the radio? MIND


Would you _________________________________________ down the radio?
37. I try not to drink sugary drinks. AVOID
I ______________________________ sugary drinks.
38. Marisa said “Let’s go to the cinema” SUGGESTED
Marisa _________________________________ to the cinema.
39. Roberto said, “yes, I stole the necklace” STEALING
Roberto _______________________________________ the necklace.
40. Could you run through the details of the reception once more? MIND
Would you ___________________________ the details of the reception once more?

After prepositions

41. Iker didn’t manage to finish the race. SUCCEED


Iker _____________________________________ the race.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

42. It’s Marian’s duty to deal with students’ parents. RESPONSIBLE


Marian __________________________________ with students’ parents.
43. Itziar hates it when people criticize her. OBJETS
Itziar ____________________________________________ her.
44. Oier said , “I am so sorry I spoilt our trip” APOLOGISED
Oier __________________________________________________ trip.
45. Shall we take the children to the Guggenheim museum on Sunday? ABOUT
How _________________________ to the Guggenheim museum on Sunday?
46. She didn’t intend to hurt you. INTENTION
She ________________________________ you.
47. I can’t wait to see him again next summer. FORWARD
I’m ________________________________ him again next summer.
48. She finds it normal now to drive on the left. USED
She has _______________________________________ on the left.

We use the gerund after expressions: can’t stand, can’t help, feel like, it’s no use, it’s not worth, there is no
point (in), have difficulty (in), and so on.

49. The cyclist could hardly keep up with the others. HAD
The cyclist _____________________________________________ up with the others.
50. I would rather not drive to Bilbao. FEEL
I _____________________________________________ to Bilbao.
51. It won’t help if you shout at her like that. USE
It _____________________________ at her like that.
52. In my opinion, worrying about the exams won’t do any good. POINT
I don’t think _________________________________________ worrying about the
exams.
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

KEY.

1. ADVISE YOU TO STUDY


2. TENDS TO GET
3. AFFORD TO GO
4. TO HAVE ACCEPTED
5. TOOK ME A YEAR TO
6. IS EASY TO LEARN
7. IS COMMON FOR PEOPLE TO
8. AREN’T BIG ENOUGH
9. WERE TOO YOUNG TO GET
10. TOO COMPLICATED FOR ME TO
11. NOT DRIVING CAREFULL ENOUGH TO
12. DID NOT FEEL WELL ENOUGH
13. IS BELIEVED TO HAVE MOVED
14. ARE SAID TO VISIT
15. ARE REPORTED TO HAVE ESCAPED
16. IS THOUGHT TO HAVE WRITTEN
17. IS KNOWN TO BE
18. CAN’T HAVE CHEATED
19. SHOULD GO
20. MUSTN’T TOUCH
21. MAY / MIGHT HAVE CAUSED THE ACCIDENT
22. MUST HAVE CHEATED
23. MAKES US WORK
24. DON’T LET ME GO
25. WAS MADE TO PAY
26. WAS MADE TO APOLOGIZE BY
27. LETS ME USE
28. RATHER TAKE A TAXI THAN
29. RATHER GO OUT
30. BETTER TAKE A
31. HAVING SOME TEA TO DRINKING
32. HAD BETTER STUDY HARDER
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS: GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

33. RATHER WAIT HERE THAN GO


34. GETTING TO WORK TAKES ME
35. IS IMPORTANT TO DO SPORTS
36. MIND TURNING
37. TRY TO AVOID DRINKING
38. SUGGESTED GOING
39. ADMITTED STEALING
40. MIND RUNNING THROUGH
41. DID NOT SUCCEED IN FINISHING
42. IS RESPONSIBLE FOR DEALING
43. OBJETS TO PEOPLE CRITICIZING
44. APOLOGISED FOR SPOILING THEIR
45. ABOUT TAKING THE CHILDREN
46. HAD NO INTENTION OF HURTING
47. LOOKING FORWARD TO SEEING
48. GOT USED TO DRIVING
49. HAD DIFFICULTY KEEPING
50. DON’T FEEL LIKE DRIVING
51. IS NO USE SHOUTING
52. THERE IS ANY POINT IN