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Prove some more statements about sets and subsets

by RoRi Ju n e 21 , 2 01 5

a. Prove that if and , then .


b. Prove that if and , then .
c. If and then we claim .
d. If and , then .
e. What can you say if and ?

a. Proof. Let be any element in . Then, since . Further, there is some such that
(since means that is a proper subset of ). Then, since we have both . Hence,
(since every element of is in , and there is at least one element of not in , so ).∎
b. Proof. Let be any element of . Then, since . Further, implies since .
Thus, .∎
c. Proof. This was established in part (a) since we didn’t need in that proof. (Since a proper subset of
guaranteed there was some in that wasn’t in , and since is a subset, proper or otherwise, of , this is in
; hence, is a proper subset of .)∎
d. Proof. Since we know every element of is in . Hence, if , then .∎
e. If and , then we cannot conclude that . For example, let and . Then,
(since is the set and contains this set). However, , but (since contains the set
which contains 1, but does not contain the element 1).

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If you are having trouble with math proofs a great book to learn from is How to Prove It by Daniel Velleman:

A really awesome book that I highly recommend on how to study math and be a math major is Laura Alcock's, How to
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