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Additional Mathematics Form 4

1 FUNCTIONS

1.1 RELATIONS

Notes:
(i) Four types of relations: one-to-one, many-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many.
(ii) Three ways to represent relations: arrowed diagram, set of ordered pairs and graph.
(iii) The arrow diagram representation is of the form below:

One to many relation


One to one relation
x x
x x+2
2
1 3 4 2
2 4 9 3
3 5 3

Many to many relation


Many to one relation

x x2 360 min
6 hours
1 min 3600 sec
2 60 sec
2160 sec
2 4 0.25 day
1 hour
3 9
3

2. Ordered Pairs
(a) {( 1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5)} (c) {
(b) {( , ), ( , ), ( , ), ( , )} (d) {

3. Graphs
(a) (b)
××
5 ×
4 ×

3 ×

1 3 5
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Additional Mathematics Form 4

P :Domain Q : Codomain A : Domain B : Codomain


P Q
A B
_4
_5
a 1_
• • b
_
3 6

a is the b is the Set { 4, 6 } is the RANGE


object image for the mapping from A to B

Exercises
1. 2.
Question 2
P = { 1, 2, 3} P = { 2, 4, 6}
Q = {2, 4, 6, 7, 10} Q = {2, 3, 6, 7, 10}

A relation from P into Q is defined by the set of A relation from P into Q is defined by the set of ordered
ordered pairs pairs
{ (1, 4), (1, 6), (2, 6), (3, 7) }. { (2, 2), (4, 2), (6, 7) }.

State State
(a) the image of 1, Ans: (a) the image of 4, Ans:
(b) the object of 4, Ans: (b) the objects of 2, Ans:
(c) the domain, Ans: (c) the domain, Ans:
(d) the codomain, Ans: (d) the codomain, Ans:
(e) the range, Ans: (e) the range, Ans:
(f) the type of relation Ans: (f) the type of relation Ans:

3.
State
0 (a) Domain Ans:
-2 4 (b) Codomain Ans:
8 (c) Images Ans:
0 (d) Objects Ans:
2 10 (e) Range Ans:
(f) Image of 4 Ans:
16
4 (g) Obejct of 4 Ans:
0
(h) Type of relattion Ans:

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Additional Mathematics Form 4

1.2 Functions

Notes:
(i) Function is a special relation where every object in a domain has only one image.
A function is also known as a mapping.
(ii) From the types of relation we have learned, only one to one relation and many
to one relation are function.
(iii) Function notation f : x → 2x, read as ‘function f maps x to 2x’ or f(x)=2x.

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Additional Mathematics Form 4