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Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011) 1668e1675

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A new process of combined pretreatment and dyeing: REST

Erhan Öner*, Burcu Yilmaz Sahinbaskan
Marmara University, Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Textile Education, Goztepe-Istanbul 34722, Turkey

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Use of enzymes in textile processes has many advantages as far as the environmentally friendly processes
Received 27 January 2011 are concerned. These advantages include water and energy savings, less chemical use, less fabric damage,
Received in revised form mild and environmentally friendly process conditions. In this work, C.I. Reactive Yellow 15, C.I. Reactive
7 May 2011
Red 21 and C.I. Reactive Blue 19 were used to dye untreated woven cotton fabric in a laboratory scale
Accepted 11 May 2011
dyeing machine, on a pilot scale jig and on a pilot scale winch by using a single bath combined process, in
Available online 26 May 2011
which various enzymes, namely, amylase, pectinase, and catalase were employed. This new process was
named as the “Rapid Enzymatic Single-bath Treatment” (REST), since it was completed almost in half of
the conventional dyeing time, and all of the stages, namely, desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing
Combined-dyeing were carried out in a single bath without replacing the process water with fresh water until the end of
Environmentally friendly dyeing process the dyeing. In the REST process, the untreated, starch-sized fabric was first desized by amylase enzyme,
Reactive dyeing of cotton and this was followed by a pectinase treatment in the same bath. The fabric was then bleached by H2O2
in the same bath, and after the hydrogen peroxide bleaching; the catalase enzyme was added to the bath
to remove H2O2 residues before reactive dyeing. Without carrying out intermediate washings/rinsings
between these processes, the reactive dyeing was carried out in a conventional way in the same bath,
and finally, the fabric was taken from the bath and washed out. The colour yield was compared with the
dyeings which were carried out conventionally in separate baths. Finally, the REST has many benefits in
terms of water saving, reduced process time and energy consumptions compared to the conventional
preparatory and dyeing process of cotton fabrics.
Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction carried out a study on cotton scouring with various enzymes,

namely pectinase, lipase, protease and cellulase. They compared
The preparatory processes of cellulosic materials by the use of the results with those obtained with the alkaline scouring process.
enzymes have generated a great deal of interest in the light of The pectinase-scoured cotton fabric showed the same whiteness as
reducing the cost, shortening the process time and minimizing the the caustic-soda scoured fabric did. Cotton-based substrates in the
chemical damage to the fibre and growing environmental concerns fabric form were also bioscoured by alkaline pectinase and cellulase
(Aly et al., 2004; Tanapongpipat et al., 2008). Several books on how enzymes (Hebeish et al., 2009; Shafie et al., 2009). Aly et al. (2010)
to process textile materials with different enzymes are also avail- studied one-step process for enzymatic desizing and bioscouring of
able (Cavaco-Paulo and Gübitz, 2003; Eriksson and Cavaco-Paulo, cotton by a mixture of amylase and polygalacturonase enzymes.
1998). The use of amylases for desizing of starch-sized cotton A few research works on the dyeing of raw cotton in a single
fabrics is a very common technique today. The control of pH, bath using enzymes are available in the literature. Quandt and Kuhl
enzyme concentration, temperature and electrolyte are essential (2000) discussed the possibilities of enzymatic processes in detail
for effective desizing (Preston, 1986; Shore, 1995). The bio- and suggested using various types of enzymes, namely amylase,
preparation of cotton fabrics was studied by Tzanov et al. protease, lipase, pectinase, laccase, glucose oxidase, catalase and
(2001a), and the efficiency of different types of pectinases and a cellulase, from the beginning to the end of the finishing processes
single step scouring and bleaching with enzyme-generated of textile substrates. Novo Nordisk (2000) proposed a single-bath
peroxide were investigated. Sangwatanaroj et al. (2003) also bioscouring and dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics. Duran and
Toloui (1998) also attempted to dye 100% cotton knits with reac-
tive dyes in catalase-treated hydrogen peroxide bleaching baths
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ90 216 3365770x413; fax: þ90 216 3378987.
with intermediate washings and rinsings. Tzanov et al. (2001b,
E-mail addresses: (E. Öner), 2001c, 2001d) used 100% woven cotton fabrics and studied the
tr (B.Y. Sahinbaskan). reactive dyeing in catalase-treated bleaching baths and the effects

0959-6526/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
E. Öner, B.Y. Sahinbaskan / Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011) 1668e1675 1669

Fig. 1. The REST timeetemperature diagram.

Fig. 2. The pH profile in the REST.

1670 E. Öner, B.Y. Sahinbaskan / Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011) 1668e1675

Table 1 (Oner and Yilmaz, 2005a, 2005b; Sahinbaskan, 2010), since all the
The Rapid Enzymatic Single-bath Treatment (REST). processes were carried out in a single bath without any interme-
Concentration/Process Condition diate washings or rinsings until the end of the reactive dyeing. The
Desizing Scouring Bleaching Anti-peroxide Dyeing
dyeings were carried out in an atmospheric sample dyeing
process machine, on a pilot jigger and on a pilot winch. The results were
Wetting agent (mL/L) 0.5 e e e e compared with those obtained by the conventional process in
Amylase Enzyme (g/L) 1.3 e e e e separate baths.
Pectinase Enzyme (%o.w.f.) e 1 e e e
NaOH (pellet, g/L) e e 1 e e
2.2. Fabric
Organic Stabiliser (g/L) e e 2 e e
H2O2 (%50) (mL/L) e e 8 e e
Catalase Enzyme (g/L) e e e 4 e Throughout this experimental work, starch-sized, untreated
NaOH(50 Bé) mL/L e e e e 1.7 100% cotton plain woven fabric was used. The weight of the fabric
e e e e
Sodium Sulphate (g/L) 70
was 164 g m2 (47 ends/cm and 36 picks/cm). The samples of 6.5 g
Dye (%o.w.f.) e e e e 4a
Process temperature( C) 55 55 80 30 60
were used in the atmospheric dyeings. For the jig dyeing, the
Process time (minute) 15 20 45 20 80 sample sizes were 600 cm  20 cm (197 g) and for the winch
Liquor ratio 40:1 dyeing, 900 cm  25 cm (369 g).
%1 .w.f. dyeings only with “Mixture 190” samples. TEGEWA [Association of textile auxiliaries (TExtilhilfsmittel),
leather auxiliaries, tanning agents (GErbstoffe) and detergent
raw materials (WAschrohstoffe) Industries] test was carried out
on the untreated fabric and the amount of size was determined as
of residual hydrogen peroxide concentration on the colour yield.
2.5% o.w.f.
Losonczi et al. (2004) carried out bio-preparation and conventional
scouring processes of cotton fabrics and studied the bleachability
2.3. Equipment used for the treatments and for the tests
and dyeing with reactive dyes of such pre-treated fabrics. Kokol and
Golob (2004) used different cellulase enzymes for the bio-
The equipment used for the dyeings were Atmospheric Sample
preparation of raw cotton and carried out the reactive dyeings in
Dyeing Machine with 16 tubes (Roaches), Pilot Scale Jigger (Konrad
the same bath. In this work, we take further steps to challenge the
Peter A.G. Liestal) and Pilot Scale Winch (Roaches). For the fastness
conventional preparatory and the dyeing processes by the REST
tests, the Wash Fastness Tester [Gyrowash] (James H.Heal) and the
(Rapid Enzymatic Single-bath Treatment), and our laboratory
Rubbing Fastness Tester [Crockmeter] (James H.Heal) were used,
works (Yilmaz, 2004; Yilmaz and Oner, 2005; Sahinbaskan, 2010;
and the reflectance values of the samples were measured by
Oner and Yilmaz, 2005a,b) were proceeded to the pilot scales for
Datacolor Spectraflash SF 600 þ instrument with specular included
longer batches using a pilot scale jig and winch.
mode and LAV (30 mm) viewing aperture. The colour values of the
fabrics were calculated with D65 illuminant/10 observer values,
2. Experimental and the CIELab 1976 Colour Difference Formula was used to express
the colour differences.
2.1. The aim of the research
2.4. Dyes, enzymes and auxiliaries
The aim of this work was to dye an untreated, starch-sized 100%
woven cotton fabric after carrying out various enzymatic processes The chemical structures of the dyes used were monoazo, mon-
and dyeing in the same bath. This new process of dyeing was oazo/vinylsulphone and anthraquinone/vinylsulphone, namely C.I.
named as “The REST” (The Rapid Enzymatic Single-bath Treatment) Reactive Yellow 15, C.I. Reactive Red 21 and C.I. Reactive Blue 19.

Fig. 3. K/S values of the dyed fabrics.(*) %1.w.f. dyeings only with “Mixture 190” samples. (A) Atmospheric dyeing, (J) Jigger dyeing and (W) Winch dyeing.
E. Öner, B.Y. Sahinbaskan / Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011) 1668e1675 1671

Table 2 Table 4
The CIELab values of samples dyed in the atmospheric laboratory dyeing machine.a The CIELab values of the fabrics dyed on a pilot scale winch.a

CIELab Fabrics CIELab Fabrics

Values Values
C.I. Reactive Yellow C.I. Reactive Red 21 C.I. Reactive Blue 19 C.I. Reactive Red 21
15 Conventional REST

Conventional REST Conventional REST Conventional REST L* 48.97 46.46

a* 58.37 60.12
L* 80.23 79.96 45.92 45.84 35.38 38.45
b* 2.59 5.81
a* 18.23 17.25 59.82 59.39 3.00 3.20
C* 58.43 60.40
b* 87.00 87.29 6.05 5.01 41.87 41.36
h 2.54 5.52
C* 88.89 88.98 60.13 59.60 41.98 41.48
X 29.39 27.09
h 78.17 78.82 5.77 4.82 274.10 274.42
Y 17.57 51.61
X 61.58 60.68 26.46 26.27 8.58 10.21
Z 17.58 14.18
Y 57.09 56.62 15.21 15.15 8.69 10.34
DE* 4.44
Z 6.59 6.41 13.71 14.08 29.79 33.19
DH* (þ) 3.09
DE* 1.16 1.13 3.12
DH* (þ) 1.12 () 0.99 (þ) 0.23 a
The conventional dyeings were taken as ‘standard.
The conventional dyeings were taken as ‘standard’.

Aquazyme 240 L (Novozymes) is an a-amylase enzyme and can 40:1. The treatment time for scouring excludes the heating up time
be used at pH 6e7 range, between 30 and 70  C temperatures. to 95  C, which is 15 min at a heating rate 5  C min1. After
Scourzyme L (Novozymes) can be used at pH 8e9, between 50 and scouring, a hot washing at 95  C for 10 min, a warm rinsing at 55  C
65  C temperatures and Terminox Ultra 10 L (Novozymes) is for 10 min and finally, a cold rinsing at 25  C for 10 min were
a stabilized catalase enzyme for anti-peroxide treatment and can be applied to the fabric, with a liquor ratio of 20:1 at each stage
employed at pH 6.5e8.5, between 30 and 50  C temperatures for (Washing 2). The desized and scoured fabric was eventually
15e30 min. bleached at 80  C for 45 min in a bleaching bath comprised of
Uniwett HGA (Alfa Kimya) is a non-ionic/anionic wetting agent 0.2 mL L1 wetting agent, 1 g L1 NaOH, 2 g L1 organic stabiliser,
for preparatory processes with a fast wetting agent capability, high 8 mL L1 H2O2 (50%). The heating up of the bath was 10 min. After
alkali stability, emulsification and dispersion power. Prestogen P the conventional bleaching process, the bleached fabric was
(BASF) is a surfactant-free organic stabiliser for alkaline peroxide washed at 70  C for 20 min and neutralized, and then, treated with
bleach baths and permits silicate-free bleaching. Perlavin NIC (Dr. 1 g L1 washing agent at 95  C for 10 min. This was followed by two
Petry) is a non-ionic washing agent. The other chemicals used were rinses at 70  C for 10 min each and finally, a cold rinse was applied
obtained from Merck. for 10 min (Washing 3).
Having carried out the desizing, scouring and bleaching
2.5. Conventional process processes conventionally in separate baths, the fabrics were dyed
with reactive dyes and each bath was comprised of 4% o.w.f. dye (1%
The untreated fabric was desized, scoured and bleached in for Mixture 190), 70 g L1 sodium sulphate and 1.7 mL L1 NaOH
separate baths in accordance with the conventional procedures (50 Bé). The dyeings were carried out at 60  C for 80 min.
described in the literature (Shore, 1995). The cotton fabric was The amount of dye used was 4% o.w.f. at a liquor ratio of 40:1. 1%
desized in a bath containing 0.5 mL L1 wetting agent and 1.3 g L1 o.w.f. dyeings were carried out only in the binary mixtures of Red
amylase enzyme at 55  C for 15 min, with a liquor ratio of 40:1. The 21 and Yellow 15 dyes (designated as “Mixture 190” samples). The
treatment time excludes the heating up time to 55  C, which is dyeing process was initiated at 30  C and involved the sequences of
5 min at a heating rate 5  C min1. After desizing, a hot washing at addition of salt (70 g L1 Na2SO4), addition of the dye, the first
95  C for 10 min, a warm rinsing at 55  C for 10 min and finally, portion of alkali addition, raising the temperature to 60  C at
a cold rinsing at 25  C for 10 min were applied to the fabric, with a 5  C min1 heating rate, the second portion of alkali (Total;
a liquor ratio of 20:1 at each stage (Washing 1). The scouring of the 1.7 mL L1 NaOH (50 Bé)) addition, the fixation stage for 45 min,
fabric was carried out in a bath containing 0.2 mL L1 wetting agent and finally, cooling the bath to 30  C. The total dyeing time,
and 10 g L1 NaOH, at 95e98  C for 60 min with a liquor ratio of including the heating and cooling stages, was 80 min. The dyed

Table 3
The CIELab values of the fabrics dyed on a pilot scale jigger.a
Table 5
CIELab Fabrics The CIELab values of the fabric dyed with a binary dye mixture (Mixture ‘190’).a
C.I. Reactive Yellow C.I. Reactive Red 21 C.I. Reactive Blue 19 CIELab Values Fabrics
Dye Mixture ‘190’
Conventional REST Conventional REST Conventional REST Conventional REST
L* 77.81 79.63 42.63 43.73 39.77 43.64 L* 72.36 73.26
a* 21.02 18.35 58.91 59.95 0.45 0.15 a* 24.31 23.34
b* 90.71 87.67 7.91 6.70 39.73 36.34 b* 38 86 40.43
C* 93.12 89.57 59.44 60.32 39.74 36.34 C* 45.84 46.77
H 76.95 78.18 7.64 6.38 270.65 270.23 h 57.97 60.06
X 58.38 60.53 22.96 24.25 10.59 12.91 X 50.45 51.55
Y 52.89 56.03 12.91 13.65 11.11 13.59 Y 44.20 45.57
Z 4.81 6.17 10.86 11.97 33.66 36.15 Z 19.61 19.55
DE* 4.44 1.94 5.16 DE* 2.05
DH* (þ) 1.95 () 1.78 () 0.29 DH* (þ) 2.53
a a
The conventional dyeings were taken as ‘standard’. The conventional dyeings were taken as ‘standard’.
1672 E. Öner, B.Y. Sahinbaskan / Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011) 1668e1675

Fig. 4. Comparison of Processing Time (min.).

fabric was then rinsed six times, for 10 min at each stage, with (Conventional-A and REST-A), a pilot scale jigger (Conventional-J
a sequence of a warm rinsing at 70  C, a second warm rinse at 70  C and REST-J) and also a pilot scale winch (Conventional-W and REST-
and neutralizing with acetic acid, soaping at the boil, a third warm W). C.I. Reactive Yellow 15, C.I. Reactive Red 21 and C.I. Reactive
rinse at 70  C, a final rinse at 50  C, and eventually, a cold rinse Blue 19 dyes were used throughout in the laboratory scale atmo-
(Washing 4). spheric dyeing machine and on the pilot scale jigger; C.I. Reactive
Red 21 and also a binary mixture of 0.1% Red 21 and 0.9% Yellow 15
2.6. The Rapid Enzymatic Single-bath Treatment (REST) dyes (designated as “Mixture 190”) were used on the winch
The timeetemperature diagram and the diagram showing the The small samples were taken out in the repeated experiments
changes in the pH during the REST are given in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, and during the pretreatment processes and the CIE Whiteness Indexes
the amount of the added chemicals during the process stages is of the samples were measured in accordance with AATCC 110-2005
given in Table 1. During this process, no fresh water was added to Method. The CIE Whiteness Indexes of the untreated (raw) and the
the bath, and all the applications were carried out in the same bath enzymatically desized samples were 9.9 and 11, respectively. The
throughout. The dyed fabrics were finally washed and rinsed as conventionally and the combined pre-treated (the desized and the
described earlier. The pH was monitored and adjusted by small scoured in the same bath) materials have 36.2 and 28 CIE WI values.
amounts of acid and base additions during the process. The conventionally and the combined bleached fabrics (A-I process
steps in the REST in Fig. 1) were almost equal and being in the range
3. Results of 72e75. The absorbency of the bleached samples were checked in
accordance with AATCC 79-2000 Method, and the wetting time was
The following results were obtained from the experimental found to be less than 1 s.
work carried out on a laboratory scale atmospheric dyeing machine
3.1. Colour measurement values of dyed samples
Table 6
Washing fastnesses of the dyed fabrics. The colour strength (K/S) values of the dyed fabrics were
calculated in accordance with AATCC Evaluation Procedure 6 and
Fabrics Process
are given in Fig. 3. The CIELab values of the dyed materials, the
Conventional REST colour differences (DE*) and the hue differences (DH*) were
4% C.I. Reactive Yellow 15 A 4 4 calculated in accordance with AATCC Evaluation Procedure 7 and
J 4e5 4e5 these are given in Tables 2e5.
4% C.I. Reactive Red 21 A 4e5 4e5
In the atmospheric machine dyeings with Yellow 15, the
J 4e5 4
W 4 4 K/S values are almost the same; with the Red 21 dyed fabrics, the
4% C.I. Reactive Blue 19 A 4e5 5 K/S value of the conventional dyeing is slightly higher than the REST
J 4e5 4 dyed fabric; but it is somehow lower for the Blue 19 dyeing and also
1% Mixture ‘190’ J 4e5 4e5 in the winch dyeing with Red 21. In the jigger dyeings, for all of the
(A) Atmospheric dyeing, (J) Jigger dyeing and (W) Winch dyeing. three dyes, the K/S values are slightly higher for the conventionally
E. Öner, B.Y. Sahinbaskan / Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011) 1668e1675 1673

Table 7
Staining fastness results of the dyed fabrics on various fibres.

Material Process

Conventional REST

Yellow 15 Red 21 Blue 19 M 190 Yellow 15 Red 21 Blue 19 M 190

Secondary Cellulose Acetate 4e5 4 5 3e4 4e5 5 3e4 4 5 4 5 4e5 4e5 4e5 3e4 4e5
Bleached Unmercerized Cotton 5 4e5 4e5 3e4 5 4e5 4e5 4e5 5 4e5 4 4e5 4e5 4e5 4e5 4e5
Nylon 6.6 4e5 5 4e5 5 5 5 3e4 5 4e5 5 5 4e5 4e5 4 3e4 4e5
Polyester (Terylene) 5 4e5 5 4e5 5 5 4e5 4e5 5 4e5 5 5 5 5 4e5 5
Acrylic (Courtelle) 4e5 5 4e5 5 5 4e5 5 5 4e5 5 4e5 5 5 4e5 5 5
Wool Worsted 4e5 4 5 4 5 5 3 4 4e5 4 4e5 4e5 5 5 3 4e5

(A) Atmospheric dyeing, (J) Jigger dyeing and (W) Winch dyeing.

dyed fabrics. The chroma values (C*) of the batches (REST-J dyeings) On the other hand, the total process time for the REST, excluding
are lower than those of the standards (Conventional-J). When the the time for wetting, heating up and cooling down, was 240 min.
CIELab values of the REST dyed fabrics are compared with the The time allocated for each step was 15 min for desizing, 20 min
conventionally dyed fabrics (Tables 2e5), colour differences are for scouring, 45 min for bleaching, 20 min for anti-peroxide treat-
present; however, these colour differences are not more than 6 ment and 140 min (80 min dyeing and 60 min washing time) for
CIELab DE units for the most applications. This means that these dyeing.
colour differences could be compensated by adding small amounts As a result, the REST was about 170 min shorter than the
of dyes to the bath initially. The hue differences (DH*) are less or conventional process, since there was no washing process after
slightly over 1 in most cases, but less than 3.1 units. This indicates desizing, scouring and bleaching.
that there are negligible hue changes in dyeings. The CIELab values
of the jigger dyeings are given in Table 3. The CIELab values of the 3.4. Amount of water used in the processes
winch dyed fabrics with Red 21 and a binary mixture of Red 21 and
Yellow 15 (Mixture 190) are given Table 4 and Table 5. The water used in the REST Process was 69% less than the
conventional process. The amounts of water used for each
3.2. Colour fastness test results of the dyed fabrics processes are summarized in Table 9.

The colour fastness test results are summarized in Tables 6e8. 3.5. Tensile strength test results of the dyed fabrics
The washing fastness tests are carried out in accordance with the
method described in ISO 105-C06 (A1S test conditions; 40  C To investigate the loss of the fabric’s tensile strength after the
temperature, 30 min and 10 steel balls) and the rubbing fastness processes, the fabrics were tested by Instron 4411 in accordance
test were carried out in accordance with ISO 105-X12. with ISO 13934-1 and the % changes in the tensile strength of the
As shown in the tables, the fastness results of the REST dyed dyed materials in the warp and the weft directions are summarized
fabrics are quite good, when compared to those of the conven- in Table 10. As shown in Table 10, the conventionally dyed fabrics
tionally dyed fabrics. have higher loss of strength values than the REST process dyed
fabrics, both in the warp and the weft directions. This is an expected
effect of the mild processing conditions in the REST Processes on
3.3. Comparison of processing times
the conventional processes.
The total conventional processing time, excluding the time for
heating up and cooling down of the baths, was 410 min. The time
Table 9
allocated for each step was 50 min for the conventional desizing
The use of water for the REST and conventional processes in the atmospheric
(20 min process and 30 min washing time), 105 min (75 min process machine, jig and winch dyeing machines.
and 30 min washing time) for scouring, 115 min (55 min process and
Processes Process Steps Relative Amounts of
60 min washing time) for bleaching and 140 min (80 min dyeing and
Water Used in The
60 min washing time) for dyeing (Fig. 4). Processes (unita)

Table 8 Conventional Desizing þ Washing 1 0.25 0.96 19
Rubbing fastness results of the dyed fabrics. Scouring þ Washing 2 0.25 0.96 19
Bleaching þ Washing 3 0.4 1.54 31
Fabrics Processes
Dyeing þ Washing 4 0.4 1.54 31
Conventional REST SAmount of water used 1.3 5 100
in the Conventional Process
Dry Wet Dry Wet REST Desizing 0.1 0.38 8
4% C.I. Reactive Yellow 15 A 5 4e5 5 4e5 Scouring e e e
J 4 4e5 5 5 Bleaching e e e
4% C.I. Reactive Red 21 A 5 4e5 4e5 4e5 Anti-peroxide Treatment e e e
J 5 4 4e5 4 Dyeing e e e
W 5 4 4e5 4 Washing 4 0.3 1.16 23
4% C.I. Reactive Blue 19 A 4e5 4 5 4e5 SAmount of water used 0.4 1.54 31
J 4e5 4e5 4e5 4e5 in the REST Process
1% Mixture ‘190’ J 5 4e5 5 4e5 a
260 L ¼ 100 units. Amounts of water used in atmospheric dyeing (A), jigger
Atmospheric dyeing, (J) Jigger dyeing and (W) Winch dyeing. dyeing (J) and winch dyeing (W) are given respectively.
1674 E. Öner, B.Y. Sahinbaskan / Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011) 1668e1675

Table 10
% Change in the tensile strength of dyed materials.a

Material Warp Direction Weft Direction

Conventional REST Conventional REST

Newton % Change Newton % Change Newton % Change Newton % Change

Untreated (raw) 965.9 e 965.9 e 560.0 e 560.0 e
%4C.I. Reactive Yellow 15 779.9 19.26Y 932.0 3.51Y 474.4 15.27Y 536.3 4.22Y
%4C.I. Reactive Red 21 875.6 9.35Y 927.2 4.01Y 424.6 24.17Y 528.5 5.62Y
%4C.I. Reactive Blue 19 862.3 10.73Y 906.6 6.14Y 513.5 8.30Y 542.6 3.09Y
Average values.

4. Conclusion will make the REST process slightly longer but the dyed fabrics
with much better colouristic properties could be achieved and
The following conclusions can be reached in the light of data the colour matching could be easier.
obtained from the experimental work carried out in a laboratory
scale atmospheric dyeing machine, on a pilot scale jig and also on Acknowledgements
a pilot scale winch:
The authors express their sincere thanks to Alfa Kimya (Turkey),
- Each experiment was carried out in triplicates. The REST Novozymes (Turkey) for providing the enzymes, DyStar (Turkey) for
process are repeatable, as long as the precise controls of the pH supplying the dyes and Dr. Petry for supplying the washing agent.
and the temperature of the dyebath are maintained. The
enzymes used in this experimental work showed compatibility
with the auxiliaries used in this work and as a result of this,
level dyed fabrics were obtained. The colour uniformity of the Aly, A.S., Sayed Sh, M., Zahran, M.K., 2010. One-step process for enzymatic desizing
dyed materials were controlled by colour measurements and and bioscouring of cotton fabrics. Journal of Natural Fibers 7, 71e92.
was found to be in the limits (DE < 0.4). Aly, A.S., Moustafa, A.B., Hebeish, A., 2004. Bio-technological treatment of cellulosic
textiles. Journal of Cleaner Production 12, 697e705.
- To minimize the colour differences and the hue differences to Cavaco-Paulo, A., Gübitz, G.M. (Eds.), 2003. Textile Processing with Enzymes.
some extent between the conventionally and the REST dyed Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, England.
fabrics, a further investigation is required as far as the struc- Dovi, V.G., Friedler, F., Huisingh, D., Klemes, J.J., 2009. Cleaner energy for sustainable
future. Journal of Cleaner Production 17, 889e895.
tures of the dyes, the enzyme/dye interactions, and the process Duran, K., Toloui, A., 1998. The bleaching and dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics in the
conditions are concerned. More variations of the REST process same bath using antiperoxide agents. Tekstil Ve Konfeksiyon 5, 324e327.
conditions with the use of different dyes and enzyme systems Eriksson, K., Cavaco-Paulo, A. (Eds.), 1998. Enzyme Applications in Fiber Processing.
American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., USA.
were also carried out and published elsewhere (Sahinbaskan, Hebeish, A., Hashem, M., Shaker, N., Ramadan, M., El-Sadek, B., 2009. New devel-
2010). opment for combined bioscouring and bleaching of cotton-based fabrics.
- To stabilize the baths during the dyeing stage, various chemicals Carbohydrate Polymers 78, 961e972.
Jiang, W., Yuan, Z., Bi, J., Sun, L., 2010. Conserving water by optimizing produc-
can be added to the bath. The decrease in the effectiveness of the tion schedules in the dyeing industry. Journal of Cleaner Production 18,
reactive dyes as a result of reduction and hydrolysis may also be 1696e1702.
compensated by adding small amounts of dyes to the bath. Kokol, V., Golob, V., 2004. The effect of single bath treatment on reactive dyeing
and bio-finishing of cotton fabric. In: Proceedings of the Textile Institute 83rd
- The REST dyed fabrics showed good washing, staining, wet and
World Conference (83rd TIWC), May 23e27, pages 757e762, 2004 Shanghai,
dry rubbing fastness properties, compared with those of the China.
conventionally dyed fabrics. Losonczi, A., Csiszar, E., Szakacs, G., 2004. Bleachability and dyeing properties of
biopretreated and conventionally scoured cotton fabrics. Textile Research
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