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COLLEGE OF LAW

CORPORATION LAW

A COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES


AND THE REVISED CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

SUMITTED TO:
ATTY. KAREN GAVIOLA

SUBMITTED BY:
RICHARD ANGELO TIU – EH 501
The Corporation Code of the The Revised Corporation Code of the Philippines ( RA New or Key Points
Philippines (BP 68) 11232) Amended
N/A

TITLE I GENERAL TITLE I


PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS GENERAL PROVISIONS
AND CLASSIFICATIONS DEFINITIONS AND
CLASSIFICATIONS

A The new law will be known as


Section 1. Title of the Code. – SECTION 1. Title of the Code. – This Code shall be
This Code shall be known as "The known as the “Revised Corporation Code of the “Revised Corporation Code of
Corporation Code of the Philippines” the Philippines.”
Philippines." (n)

Section 2. Corporation defined. SEC. 2. Corporation Defined. – A corporation is an


– A corporation is an artificial artificial being created by operation of law, having the
being created by operation of right of succession and the powers, attributes, and
law, having the right of properties expressly authorized by law or incidental to its
succession and the powers, existence.
attributes and properties
expressly authorized by law or
incident to its existence. (2)

A Change in Form
Section 3. Classes of SEC. 3. Classes of Corporations. – Corporations formed
corporations. – Corporations or organized under this Code may be stock or nonstock
formed or organized under this corporations. Stock corporations are those which have
Code may be stock or non-stock capital stock divided into shares and are authorized to
corporations. Corporations which distribute to the holders of such shares, dividends, or
have capital stock divided into allotments of the surplus profits on the basis of the shares
shares and are authorized to held. All other corporations are nonstock corporations.
distribute to the holders of such
shares dividends or allotments of
the surplus profits on the basis of
the shares held are stock
corporations. All other
corporations are non-stock
corporations. (3a)

Section 4. Corporations created SEC. 4. Corporations Created by Special Laws or


by special laws or charters. – Charters. – Corporations created by special laws or
Corporations created by special charters shall be governed primarily by the provisions of
laws or charters shall be the special law or charter creating them or applicable to
governed primarily by the them, supplemented by the provisions of this Code, insofar
provisions of the special law or as they are applicable.
charter creating them or
applicable to them,
supplemented by the provisions
of this Code, insofar as they are
applicable. (n)

A Change in Form
Section 5. Corporators and SEC. 5. Corporators and Incorporators, Stockholders and
incorporators, stockholders and Members. – Corporators are those who compose a
members. – Corporators are corporation, whether as stockholders or shareholders in a
those who compose a stock corporation or as members in a nonstock corporation.
corporation, whether as Incorporators are those stockholders or members
stockholders or as members. mentioned in the articles of incorporation as originally
Incorporators are those forming and composing the corporation and who are
stockholders or members signatories thereof.
mentioned in
the articles of incorporation as
originally forming and
composing the corporation and
who are signatories thereof.
Corporators in a stock
corporation are called
stockholders or shareholders.
Corporators in a non-stock
corporation are called members

Section 6. Classification of shares. SEC. 6. Classification of Shares. – The classification of A - Change in corporations not
– The shares of stock of stock shares, their corresponding rights, privileges, or restrictions,
corporations may be divided into and their stated par value, if any, must be indicated in the permitted to issue no-par
classes or series of shares, or both, articles of incorporation. Each share shall be equal in all shares
any of which classes or series of respects to every other share, except as otherwise provided
shares may have such rights, in the articles of incorporation and in the certificate of stock.
privileges or restrictions as may be The shares in stock corporations may be divided into classes - Included Pre-need
stated in the articles of or series of shares, or both. No share may be deprived of companies among those not
incorporation: Provided, That no voting rights except those classified and issued as
permitted to issue no-par
share may be deprived of voting “preferred” or “redeemable” shares, unless otherwise
rights except those classified and provided in this Code: Provided, That there shall always be value shares of stock
issued as "preferred" or a class or series of shares with complete voting rights.
"redeemable" shares, unless Holders of nonvoting shares shall nevertheless be entitled to
otherwise provided in this Code: vote on the following matters:
Provided, further, That there shall (a) Amendment of the articles of incorporation;
always be a class or series of shares (b) Adoption and amendment of bylaws;
which have complete voting rights. (c) Sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, or other
Any or all of the shares or series of disposition of all or substantially all of the corporate
shares may have a par value or property;
have no par value as may be (d) Incurring, creating, or increasing bonded indebtedness;
provided for in the articles of (e) Increase or decrease of authorized capital stock;
incorporation: Provided, however, (f) Merger or consolidation of the corporation with another
That banks, trust companies, corporation or other corporations;
insurance companies, public (g) Investment of corporate funds in another corporation or
utilities, and building and loan business in accordance with this Code; and
associations shall not be permitted (h) Dissolution of the corporation.
to issue no-par value shares of Except as provided in the immediately preceding
stock. paragraph, the vote required under this Code to approve a
Preferred shares of stock issued by particular corporate act shall be deemed to refer only to
any corporation may be given stocks with voting rights.
preference in the distribution of the The shares or series of shares may or may not have a par
assets of the corporation in case of value: Provided, That banks, trust, insurance, and preneed
liquidation and in the distribution companies, public utilities, building and loan associations,
of dividends, or such other and other corporations authorized to obtain or access funds
preferences as may be stated in the from the public, whether publicly listed or not, shall not be
articles of incorporation which are permitted to issue no-par value shares of stock.
not violative of the provisions of Preferred shares of stock issued by a corporation may be
this Code: Provided, That preferred given preference in the distribution of dividends and in the
shares of stock may be issued only distribution of corporate assets in case of liquidation, or
with a stated par value. The board such other preferences: Provided, That preferred shares of
of directors, where authorized in stock may be issued only with a stated par value. The board
the articles of incorporation, may of directors, where authorized in the articles of
fix the terms and conditions of incorporation, may fix the terms and conditions of preferred
preferred shares of stock or any shares of stock or any series thereof: Provided, further, That
series thereof: Provided, That such such terms and conditions shall be effective upon filing of a
terms and conditions shall be certificate thereof with the Securities and Exchange
effective upon the filing of a Commission, hereinafter referred to as the “Commission”.
certificate thereof with the Shares of capital stock issued without par value shall be
Securities and Exchange deemed fully paid and nonassessable and the holder of such
Commission. shares shall not be liable to the corporation or to its creditors
in respect thereto: Provided, That no-par value shares must
Shares of capital stock issued be issued for a consideration of at least Five pesos (P5.00)
without par value shall be deemed per share: Provided, further, That the entire consideration
fully paid and non-assessable and received by the corporation for its no-par value shares shall
the holder of such shares shall not be treated as capital and shall not be available for
be liable to the corporation or to its distribution as dividends.
creditors in respect thereto: A corporation may further classify its shares for the purpose
Provided; That shares without par of ensuring compliance with constitutional or legal
value may not be issued for a requirements.
consideration less than the value of
five (P5.00) pesos per share:
Provided, further, That the entire
consideration received by the
corporation for its no-par value
shares shall be treated as capital
and shall not be available for
distribution as dividends.
A corporation may, furthermore,
classify its shares for the purpose of
insuring compliance with
constitutional or legal
requirements.
Except as otherwise provided in the
articles of incorporation and stated
in the certificate of stock, each share
shall be equal in all respects to
every other share.
Where the articles of incorporation
provide for non-voting shares in the
cases allowed by this Code, the
holders of such shares shall
nevertheless be entitled to vote on
the following matters:
1. Amendment of the articles of
incorporation;
2. Adoption and amendment of by-
laws;
3. Sale, lease, exchange, mortgage,
pledge or other disposition of all or
substantially all of the corporate
property;
4. Incurring, creating or increasing
bonded indebtedness;
5. Increase or decrease of capital
stock;
6. Merger or consolidation of the
corporation with another
corporation or other corporations;
7. Investment of corporate funds in
another corporation or business in
accordance with this Code; and
8. Dissolution of the corporation.
Except as provided in the
immediately preceding paragraph,
the vote necessary to approve a
particular corporate act as provided
in this Code shall be deemed to
refer only to stocks with voting
rights. (5a)

Section 7. Founders' shares. - SEC. 7. Founders’ Shares. – Founders’ shares may be given N - Exclusive rights of the
Founders' shares classified as such certain rights and privileges not enjoyed by the owners of Founders, when granted, shall
in the articles of incorporation may other stocks. Where the exclusive right to vote and be voted not be allowed if its exercise
be given certain rights and for in the election of directors is granted, it must be for a
will violate the Anti-Dummy
privileges not enjoyed by the limited period not to exceed five (5) years from the date of
Law, the Foreign Investments
owners of other stocks, provided incorporation: Provided, That such exclusive right shall not
that where the exclusive right to be allowed if its exercise will violate Commonwealth Act Acts, and other pertinent laws
vote and be voted for in the election No. 108, otherwise known as the “Anti-Dummy Law”; - 5- year duration of exclusive
of directors is granted, it must be Republic Act No. 7042, otherwise known as the “Foreign rights will start to commence
for a limited period not to exceed Investments Act of 1991”; and other pertinent laws. from the date of incorporation
five (5) years subject to the
approval of the Securities and
Exchange Commission. The five-
year period shall commence from
the date of the aforesaid approval
by the Securities and Exchange
Commission. (n)

Section 8. Redeemable shares. - SEC. 8. Redeemable Shares. – Redeemable shares may be A - added the phrase “ subject to
Redeemable shares may be issued issued by the corporation when expressly provided in the rules and regulations issued
by the corporation when expressly articles of incorporation. They are shares which may be by the Commission.”
so provided in the articles of purchased by the corporation from the holders of such
incorporation. They may be shares upon the expiration of a fixed period, regardless of
purchased or taken up by the the existence of unrestricted retained earnings in the books
corporation upon the expiration of of the corporation, and upon such other terms and
a fixed period, regardless of the conditions stated in the articles of incorporation and the
existence of unrestricted retained certificate of stock representing the shares, subject to rules
earnings in the books of the and regulations issued by the Commission.
corporation, and upon such other
terms and conditions as may be
stated in the articles of
incorporation, which terms and
conditions must also be stated in
the certificate of stock representing
said shares. (n)

Section 9. Treasury shares. - SEC. 9. Treasury Shares. – Treasury shares are shares of
Treasury shares are shares of stock stock which have been issued and fully paid for, but
which have been issued and fully subsequently reacquired by the issuing corporation through
paid for, but subsequently purchase, redemption, donation, or some other lawful
reacquired by the issuing means. Such shares may again be disposed of for a
corporation by purchase, reasonable price fixed by the board of directors.
redemption, donation or through
some other lawful means. Such
shares may again be disposed of for
a reasonable price fixed by the
board of directors. (n)

TITLE II - INCORPORATION AND TITLE II


ORGANIZATION OF PRIVATE INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION OF
CORPORATIONS PRIVATE CORPORATIONS

Section 10. Number and SEC. 10. Number and Qualifications of Incorporators. – A - partnership, association or
qualifications of incorporators. - Any person, partnership, association or corporation, singly
Any number of natural persons not or jointly with others but not more than fifteen (15) in corporation, singly or jointly
less than five (5) but not more than number, may organize a corporation for any lawful purpose with others may now form a
fifteen (15), all of legal age and a or purposes: Provided, That natural persons who are
majority of whom are residents of licensed to practice a profession, and partnerships or corporation
the Philippines, may form a private associations organized for the purpose of practicing a
corporation for any lawful purpose profession, shall not be allowed to organize as a corporation - minimum number of
or purposes. Each of the unless otherwise provided under special laws. Incorporators
incorporators of s stock corporation who are natural persons must be of legal age. incorporators has been
must own or be a subscriber to at Each incorporator of a stock corporation must own or be a deleted
least one (1) share of the capital subscriber to at least one (1) share of the capital stock.
stock of the corporation. (6a) A corporation with a single stockholder is considered a One
Person Corporation as described in Title XIII, Chapter III of
this Code.

Section 11. Corporate term. - A SEC. 11. Corporate Term. – A corporation shall have N - No more corporate term of
corporation shall exist for a period perpetual existence unless its articles of incorporation fifty (50) yrs
not exceeding fifty (50) years from provides otherwise. - Corporations, as a general
the date of incorporation unless Corporations with certificates of incorporation issued prior
rule, have perpetual existence
sooner dissolved or unless said to the effectivity of this Code, and which continue to exist,
- Perpetual existence, as a
period is extended. The corporate shall have
term as originally stated in the perpetual existence, unless the corporation, upon a vote of general rule, applies to
articles of incorporation may be its stockholders representing a majority of its outstanding existing corporations
extended for periods not exceeding capital stock, notifies the Commission that it elects to retain - Amendment of articles of
fifty (50) years in any single its specific corporate term pursuant to its articles of incorporation to extend or
instance by an amendment of the incorporation: Provided, that any change in the corporate shorten the corporate term
articles of incorporation, in term under this section is without prejudice to the appraisal
may not be done earlier than
accordance with this Code; right of dissenting stockholders in accordance with the
Provided, That no extension can be provisions of this Code. three (3) years prior to the
made earlier than five (5) years A corporate term for a specific period may be extended or original or subsequent expiry
prior to the original or subsequent shortened by amending the articles of incorporation: date(s)
expiry date(s) unless there are Provided, That no extension may be made earlier than three - Effectivity date of extension
justifiable reasons for an earlier (3) years prior to the original or subsequent expiry date(s) of corporate term shall be on
extension as may be determined by unless there are justifiable reasons for an earlier extension as the day following the original
the Securities and Exchange may be determined by the Commission: Provided, further, or subsequent expiry date(s).
Commission. (6) That such extension of the corporate term shall take effect
In effect, no more overlapping
only on the day following the original or subsequent expiry
of corporate terms and the
date(s).
A corporation whose term has expired may apply for a corporation’s life is
revival of its corporate existence, together with all the rights continuous.
and privileges under its certificate of incorporation and - A corporation whose term
subject to all of its duties, debts and liabilities existing prior has expired may apply for
to its revival. Upon approval by the Commission, the revival. Hence, expiration of
corporation shall be deemed revived and a certificate of
corporate term does not
revival of corporate existence shall be issued, giving it
perpetual existence, unless its application for revival automatically dissolve the
provides otherwise. corporation.
No application for revival of certificate of incorporation of - Applications for revival of
banks, banking and quasi-banking institutions, preneed, specified corporations, i.e.,
insurance and trust companies, nonstock savings and loan banks, preneed, insurance,
associations, pawnshops, corporations engaged in money etc., will not be approved by
service business, and other financial intermediaries shall be
SEC unless accompanied by a
approved by the Commission unless accompanied by a
favorable recommendation of the appropriate government favorable recommendation of
agency. the appropriate government
agency.

Section 12. Minimum capital stock SEC. 12. Minimum Capital Stock Not Required of Stock A - Stock corporations are no
required of stock corporations. - Corporations. – Stock corporations shall not be required to longer required to have a
Stock corporations incorporated have a minimum capital stock, except as otherwise minimum capital stock,
under this Code shall not be specifically provided by special law.
whether authorized or paid-
required to have any minimum
authorized capital stock except as up
otherwise specifically provided for
by special law, and subject to the
provisions of the following section.

Section 13. Amount of capital stock


to be subscribed and paid for the
purposes of incorporation. - At least
twenty-five percent (25%) of the
authorized capital stock as stated in
the articles of incorporation must be
subscribed at the time of
incorporation, and at least twenty-
five (25%) per cent of the total
subscription must be paid upon
subscription, the balance to be
payable on a date or dates fixed in
the contract of subscription without
need of call, or in the absence of a
fixed date or dates, upon call for
payment by the board of directors:
Provided, however, That in no case
shall the paid-up capital be less
than five Thousand (P5,000.00)
pesos. (n)

Section 14. Contents of the articles SEC. 13. Contents of the Articles of Incorporation. – All N - The articles of incorporation
of incorporation. - All corporations corporations shall file with the Commission articles of must be duly signed, AND
organized under this code shall file incorporation in any of the official languages, duly signed may be acknowledged OR
with the Securities and Exchange and acknowledged or authenticated, in such form and
authenticated
Commission articles of manner as may be allowed by the Commission, containing
incorporation in any of the official substantially the following matters, except as otherwise - Corporate Term is only
languages duly signed and prescribed by this Code or by special law: required to be stated in the
acknowledged by all of the (a) The name of the corporation; articles, if the corporate has
incorporators, containing
not elected perpetual
substantially the following matters, (b) The specific purpose or purposes for which the
existence
except as otherwise prescribed by corporation is being formed. Where a corporation has more
this Code or by special law: 1. The than one stated purpose, the articles of incorporation shall - There is no more minimum
name of the corporation; 2. The indicate the primary purpose and the secondary purpose or number of directors, as long
specific purpose or purposes for purposes: as it is not more than fifteen
which the corporation is being (15).
incorporated. Where a corporation Provided, That a nonstock corporation may not include a - The number of trustees may
has more than one stated purpose, purpose which would change or contradict its nature as
be more than fifteen (15).
the articles of incorporation shall such;
state which is the primary purpose - Articles of Incorporation
and which is/are the secondary (c) The place where the principal office of the corporation is may now contain an
purpose or purposes: Provided, to be located, which must be within the Philippines; arbitration agreement.
That a non-stock corporation may - Electronic filing of Articles of
not include a purpose which would (d) The term for which the corporation is to exist, if the Incorporation and
change or contradict its nature as corporation has not elected perpetual existence; Applications for Amendment
such; 3. The place where the
are now allowed, subject to
principal office of the corporation is (e) The names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the
to be located, which must be within incorporators; SEC’s RR on the matter. No
the Philippines; 4. The term for RR yet.
which the corporation is to exist; 5. (f) The number of directors, which shall not be more than
The names, nationalities and fifteen (15) or the number of trustees which may be more
residences of the incorporators; 6. than fifteen (15);
The number of directors or trustees,
which shall not be less than five (5) (g) The names, nationalities, and residence addresses of
nor more than fifteen (15); 7. The persons who shall act as directors or trustees until the first
names, nationalities and residences regular directors or trustees are duly elected and qualified
of persons who shall act as directors in accordance with this Code;
or trustees until the first regular
directors or trustees are duly (h) If it be a stock corporation, the amount of its authorized
elected and qualified in accordance capital stock, number of shares into which it is divided, the
with this Code; 8. If it be a stock par value of each, names, nationalities, and residence
corporation, the amount of its addresses of the original subscribers, amount subscribed
authorized capital stock in lawful and paid by each on the subscription, and a statement that
money of the Philippines, the some or all of the shares are without par value, if applicable;
number of shares into which it is
divided, and in case the share are (i) If it be a nonstock corporation, the amount of its capital,
par value shares, the par value of the names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the
each, the names, nationalities and contributors, and amount contributed by each; and
residences of the original
subscribers, and the amount (j) Such other matters consistent with law and which the
subscribed and paid by each on his incorporators may deem necessary and convenient.
subscription, and if some or all of
the shares are without par value, An arbitration agreement may be provided in the articles of
such fact must be stated; 9. If it be a incorporation pursuant to Section 181 of this Code.
non-stock corporation, the amount
of its capital, the names, The articles of incorporation and applications for
nationalities and residences of the amendments thereto may be filed with the Commission in
contributors and the amount the form of an electronic document, in accordance with the
contributed by each; and 10. Such Commission’s rules and regulations on electronic filing.
other matters as are not inconsistent
with law and which the
incorporators may deem necessary
and convenient. The Securities and
Exchange Commission shall not
accept the articles of incorporation
of any stock corporation unless
accompanied by a sworn statement
of the Treasurer elected by the
subscribers showing that at least
twenty-five (25%) percent of the
authorized capital stock of the
corporation has been subscribed,
and at least twenty-five (25%) of the
total subscription has been fully
paid to him in actual cash and/or in
property the fair valuation of which
is equal to at least twenty-five (25%)
percent of the said subscription,
such paid-up capital being not less
than five thousand (P5,000.00)
pesos.

Section 15. Forms of Articles of SEC. 14. Form of Articles of Incorporation. – Unless N - “OPC” as the suffix of the
Incorporation. - Unless otherwise otherwise prescribed by special law, the articles of name of the corporation is
prescribed by special law, articles of incorporation of all domestic corporations shall comply provided as one option.
incorporation of all domestic substantially with the following form:
- Corporation may elect
corporations shall comply
perpetual existence or specify
substantially with the following
Articles of Incorporation
form: of the corporate term, whichever
__________________________ is applicable.
ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION (Name of Corporation) - Articles must now contain
OF __________________________ The undersigned incorporators, all of legal age, have an undertaking by the
voluntarily agreed to form a (stock) (nonstock) corporation incorporators to change the
(Name of Corporation) under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines and certify
name of the corporation upon
the following:
KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE receipt of notice from SEC
PRESENTS: First: That the name of said corporation shall be that another entity is a prior
“_______________, Inc., Corporation or OPC”; user of their name, or that it is
The undersigned incorporators, all not distinguishable from
of legal age and a majority of whom Second: That the purpose or purposes for which such
another, or that the name is
are residents of the Philippines, corporation is incorporated are: (If there is more than one
contrary to law, public
have this day voluntarily agreed to purpose, indicate primary and secondary purposes);
form a (stock) (non-stock) morals, good customs or
corporation under the laws of the Third: That the principal office of the corporation is located public policy.
Republic of the Philippines; in the City/Municipality of ___________________, Province - No more requirement of a
of _________________________, Philippines; Treasurer’s Affidavit, as it
AND WE HEREBY CERTIFY: only served as proof of
Fourth: That the corporation shall have perpetual existence
compliance with the 25-25
FIRST: That the name of said or a term of ______________ years from the date of issuance
corporation shall be of the certificate of incorporation; capital stock requirement.
"_____________________, INC. or
CORPORATION"; SECOND: That Fifth: That the names, nationalities, and residence addresses
the purpose or purposes for which of the incorporators of the corporation are as follows:
such corporation is incorporated Name Nationality Residence
are: (If there is more than one __________________ ___________________
purpose, indicate primary and ____________________
secondary purposes); __________________ ___________________
____________________
THIRD: That the principal office of __________________ ___________________
the corporation is located in the ____________________
City/Municipality of __________________ ___________________
________________________, ____________________
Province of __________________ ___________________
_______________________, ____________________
Philippines;
Sixth: That the number of directors or trustees of the
FOURTH: That the term for which corporation shall be _________________; and the names,
said corporation is to exist is nationalities, and residence addresses of the first directors or
_____________ years from and after trustees of the corporation are as follows:
the date of issuance of the certificate Name Nationality Residence
of incorporation; __________________ ___________________
____________________
FIFTH: That the names, __________________ ___________________
nationalities and residences of the ____________________
incorporators of the corporation are __________________ ___________________
as follows: ____________________
__________________ ___________________
NAME NATIONALITY ____________________
RESIDENCE ___________________ __________________ ___________________
___________________ ____________________
___________________
___________________ Seventh: That the authorized capital stock of the corporation
___________________ is ______________ PESOS (P________), divided into ______
___________________ shares with the par value of ____________ PESOS
___________________ (P_______________) per share.
___________________
___________________ (In case all the shares are without par value): That the
___________________ capital stock of the corporation is _____________________
___________________ shares without par value.
___________________
___________________ Eighth: That the number of shares of the authorized capital
___________________ stock above-stated has been subscribed as follows:
___________________
Name Nationa No. of Amoun Amou
SIXTH: That the number of of lity Shares t nt
directors or trustees of the Subscri Subscri Subscri Paid
corporation shall be _______; and ber bed bed
the names, nationalities and
residences of the first directors or
trustees of the corporation are as
follows: NAME

NATIONALITY RESIDENCE
___________________ (Modify No. 8 if shares are with no-par value. In case the
___________________ corporation is nonstock, Nos. 7 and 8 of the above articles
___________________ may be modified accordingly, and it is sufficient if the
___________________ articles state the amount of capital or money contributed or
___________________ donated by specified persons, stating the names,
___________________ nationalities, and residence addresses of the contributors or
___________________ donors and the respective amount given by each.)
___________________
___________________ Ninth: That _____________________ has been elected by the
___________________ subscribers as Treasurer of the Corporation to act as such
___________________ until after the successor is duly elected and qualified in
___________________ accordance with the bylaws, that as Treasurer, authority has
___________________ been given to receive in the name and for the benefit of the
___________________ corporation, all subscriptions, contributions or donations
___________________ paid or given by the subscribers or members, who certifies
the information set forth in the seventh and eighth clauses
SEVENTH: That the authorized above, and that the paid-up portion of the subscription in
capital stock of the corporation is cash and/or property for the benefit and credit of the
______________________ corporation has been duly received.
(P___________) PESOS in lawful
money of the Philippines, divided Tenth: That the incorporators undertake to change the name
into __________ shares with the par of the corporation immediately upon receipt of notice from
value of ____________________ the Commission that another corporation, partnership or
(P_____________) Pesos per share. person has acquired a prior right to the use of such name,
(In case all the share are without that the name has been declared not distinguishable from a
par value): That the capital stock of name already registered or reserved for the use of another
the corporation is ______________ corporation, or that it is contrary to law, public morals, good
shares without par value. (In case customs or public policy.
some shares have par value and
some are without par value): That Eleventh: (Corporations which will engage in any business
the capital stock of said corporation or activity reserved for Filipino citizens shall provide the
consists of _____________ shares of following):
which ______________ shares are of
the par value of _________________ “No transfer of stock or interest which shall reduce the
(P____________) PESOS each, and ownership of Filipino citizens to less than the required
of which _________________ shares percentage of capital stock as provided by existing laws
are without par value. shall be allowed or permitted to be recorded in the proper
books of the corporation, and this restriction shall be
EIGHTH: That at least twenty five indicated in all stock certificates issued by the corporation.”
(25%) per cent of the authorized
capital stock above stated has been IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto signed these
subscribed as follows: Name of Articles of Incorporation, this ________ day of
Subscriber Nationality No of Shares _________________, 20______ in the City/Municipality of
Amount Subscribed Subscribed _________________, Province of _________________,
_________________ __________ Republic of the Philippines.
____________ ____________
_________________ __________ ____________________ ____________________
____________ ____________ ____________________ ____________________
_________________ __________ ____________________ ____________________
____________ ____________ (Names and signatures of the incorporators)
_________________ __________ (Name and signature of Treasurer)
____________ ____________
_________________ __________
____________ ____________
NINTH: That the above-named
subscribers have paid at least
twenty-five (25%) percent of the
total subscription as follows: Name
of Subscriber Amount Subscribed
Total Paid-In _________________
___________________
_______________
_________________
___________________
_______________
_________________
___________________
_______________
_________________
___________________
_______________
_________________
___________________
_______________ (Modify Nos. 8
and 9 if shares are with no par
value. In case the corporation is
non-stock, Nos. 7, 8 and 9 of the
above articles may be modified
accordingly, and it is sufficient if
the articles state the amount of
capital or money contributed or
donated by specified persons,
stating the names, nationalities and
residences of the contributors or
donors and the respective amount
given by each.)

TENTH: That
_____________________ has been
elected by the subscribers as
Treasurer of the Corporation to act
as such until his successor is duly
elected and qualified in accordance
with the by-laws, and that as such
Treasurer, he has been authorized
to receive for and in the name and
for the benefit of the corporation, all
subscription (or fees) or
contributions or donations paid or
given by the subscribers or
members.

ELEVENTH: (Corporations which


will engage in any business or
activity reserved for Filipino
citizens shall provide the
following): "No transfer of stock or
interest which shall reduce the
ownership of Filipino citizens to
less than the required percentage of
the capital stock as provided by
existing laws shall be allowed or
permitted to be recorded in the
proper books of the corporation
and this restriction shall be
indicated in all stock certificates
issued by the corporation." IN
WITNESS WHEREOF, we have
hereunto signed these Articles of
Incorporation, this __________ day
of ________________, 19 ______ in
the City/Municipality of
____________________, Province of
________________________,
Republic of the Philippines.

_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
________________________________

(Names and signatures of the


incorporators)

SIGNED IN THE PRESENCE OF:


_______________________
_______________________

(Notarial Acknowledgment)
TREASURER'S AFFIDAVIT

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES


)
CITY/MUNICIPALITY OF ) S.S.
PROVINCE OF )

I, ____________________, being
duly sworn, depose and say:

That I have been elected by the


subscribers of the corporation as
Treasurer thereof, to act as such
until my successor has been duly
elected and qualified in accordance
with the by-laws of the corporation,
and that as such Treasurer, I hereby
certify under oath that at least 25%
of the authorized capital stock of
the corporation has been subscribed
and at least 25% of the total
subscription has been paid, and
received by me, in cash or property,
in the amount of not less than
P5,000.00, in accordance with the
Corporation Code.

____________________

(Signature of Treasurer)

SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN to


before me, a Notary Public, for and
in the City/Municipality of
___________________ Province of
_____________________, this
_______ day of ___________, 19
_____; by __________________ with
Res. Cert. No. ___________ issued
at _______________________ on
____________, 19 ______

NOTARY PUBLIC

My commission expires on
_________, 19 _____

Doc. No. _________;

Page No. _________;

Book No. ________;

Series of 19____ (7a)

Section 16. Amendment of Articles SEC. 15. Amendment of Articles of Incorporation. – Unless
of Incorporation. - Unless otherwise otherwise prescribed by this Code or by special law, and for
prescribed by this Code or by legitimate purposes, any provision or matter stated in the
special law, and for legitimate articles of incorporation may be amended by a majority vote
purposes, any provision or matter of the board of directors or trustees and the vote or written
stated in the articles of assent of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds
incorporation may be amended by (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, without prejudice to
a majority vote of the board of the appraisal right of dissenting stockholders in accordance
directors or trustees and the vote or with the provisions of this Code. The articles of
written assent of the stockholders incorporation of a nonstock corporation may be amended
representing at least two-thirds by the vote or written assent of majority of the trustees and
(2/3) of the outstanding capital at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members.
stock, without prejudice to the
appraisal right of dissenting The original and amended articles together shall contain all
stockholders in accordance with the provisions required by law to be set out in the articles of
provisions of this Code, or the vote incorporation. Amendments to the articles shall be indicated
or written assent of at least two- by underscoring the change or changes made, and a copy
thirds (2/3) of the members if it be thereof duly certified under oath by the corporate secretary
a non-stock corporation. The and a majority of the directors or trustees, with a statement
original and amended articles that the amendments have been duly approved by the
together shall contain all provisions required vote of the stockholders or members, shall be
required by law to be set out in the submitted to the Commission.
articles of incorporation. Such
articles, as amended shall be The amendments shall take effect upon their approval by
indicated by underscoring the the Commission or from the date of filing with the said
change or changes made, and a Commission if not acted upon within six (6) months from
copy thereof duly certified under the date of filing for a cause not attributable to the
oath by the corporate secretary and corporation.
a majority of the directors or
trustees stating the fact that said
amendment or amendments have
been duly approved by the
required vote of the stockholders or
members, shall be submitted to the
Securities and Exchange
Commission. The amendments
shall take effect upon their approval
by the Securities and Exchange
Commission or from the date of
filing with the said Commission if
not acted upon within six (6)
months from the date of filing for a
cause not attributable to the
corporation.

Section 17. Grounds when articles SEC. 16. Grounds When Articles of Incorporation or A - Preneed, nonstock savings
of incorporation or amendment Amendment may be Disapproved. – The Commission may and loan associations
may be rejected or disapproved. - disapprove the articles of incorporation or any amendment (NSSLAs), and pawnshops are
The Securities and Exchange thereto if the same is not compliant with the requirements of
added as those required to
Commission may reject the articles this Code: Provided, That the Commission shall give the
incorporators, directors, trustees, or officers a reasonable accompany their
of incorporation or disapprove any
amendment thereto if the same is time from receipt of the disapproval within which to modify Articles/Amendments with a
not in compliance with the the objectionable portions of the articles or amendment. The favorable recommendation
requirements of this Code: following are grounds for such disapproval: from the appropriate
Provided, That the Commission (a) The articles of incorporation or any amendment thereto government agencies, in order
shall give the incorporators a is not substantially in accordance with the form prescribed to be approved by the SEC.
reasonable time within which to herein;
correct or modify the objectionable
portions of the articles or (b) The purpose or purposes of the corporation are patently
amendment. The following are unconstitutional, illegal, immoral or contrary to government
grounds for such rejection or rules and regulations;
disapproval: 1. That the articles of
incorporation or any amendment (c) The certification concerning the amount of capital stock
thereto is not substantially in subscribed and/or paid is false; and
accordance with the form
prescribed herein; 2. That the (d) The required percentage of Filipino ownership of the
purpose or purposes of the capital stock under existing laws or the Constitution has not
corporation are patently been complied with.
unconstitutional, illegal, immoral,
or contrary to government rules No articles of incorporation or amendment to articles of
and regulations; 3. That the incorporation of banks, banking and quasi-banking
Treasurer's Affidavit concerning the institutions, preneed, insurance and trust companies,
amount of capital stock subscribed nonstock savings and loan associations (NSSLAs),
and/or paid is false; 4. That the pawnshops, and other financial intermediaries shall be
percentage of ownership of the approved by the Commission unless accompanied by a
capital stock to be owned by favorable recommendation of the appropriate government
citizens of the Philippines has not agency to the effect that such articles or amendment is in
been complied with as required by accordance with law.
existing laws or the Constitution.
No articles of incorporation or
amendment to articles of
incorporation of banks, banking
and quasi-banking institutions,
building and loan associations,
trust companies and other financial
intermediaries, insurance
companies, public utilities,
educational institutions, and other
corporations governed by special
laws shall be accepted or approved
by the Commission unless
accompanied by a favorable
recommendation of the appropriate
government agency to the effect
that such articles or amendment is
in accordance with law. (n)

Section 18. Corporate name. - No SEC. 17. Corporate Name. – No corporate name shall be N - Added a provision
corporate name may be allowed by allowed by the Commission if it is not distinguishable from specifying the instances when
the Securities and Exchange that already reserved or registered for the use of another a corporate name is
Commission if the proposed name corporation, or if such name is already protected by law, or considered not
is identical or deceptively or when its use is contrary to existing law, rules and
distinguishable from other
confusingly similar to that of any regulations.
names.
existing corporation or to any other A name is not distinguishable even if it contains one or
name already protected by law or is more of the following: - After proper determination,
patently deceptive, confusing or the SEC may order the
contrary to existing laws. When a (a) The word “corporation”, “company”, “incorporated”, corporation to immediately
change in the corporate name is “limited”, “limited liability”, or an abbreviation of one of cease and desist from using a
approved, the Commission shall such words; and name that violates the
issue an amended certificate of (b) Punctuations, articles, conjunctions, contractions,
requirements.
incorporation under the amended prepositions, abbreviations, different tenses, spacing, or
name. (n) number of the same word or phrase. - The SEC shall cause the
removal of all visual effects
The Commission, upon determination that the corporate bearing such violative name.
name is: (1) not distinguishable from a name already - Failure to comply with the
reserved or registered for the use of another corporation; (2) SEC’s Order may hold the
already protected by law; or (3) contrary to law, rules and corporation and its
regulations, may summarily order the corporation to
responsible directors in
immediately cease and desist from using such name and
require the corporation to register a new one. The contempt, and/or hold them
Commission shall also cause the removal of all visible liable administratively, civilly
signages, marks, advertisements, labels, prints and other and/or criminally. It may also
effects bearing such corporate name. Upon the approval of cause the revocation of the
the new corporate name, the Commission shall issue a registration of the
certificate of incorporation under the amended name.
corporation.
If the corporation fails to comply with the Commission’s
order, the Commission may hold the corporation and its
responsible directors or officers in contempt and/or hold
them administratively, civilly and/or criminally liable
under this Code and other applicable laws and/or revoke
the registration of the corporation.

Section 19. Commencement of SEC. 18. Registration, Incorporation and Commencement N - Now provides the process of
corporate existence. - A private of Corporate Existence. – A person or group of persons verification of the intended
corporation formed or organized desiring to incorporate shall submit the intended corporate name; if it is distinguishable,
under this Code commences to name to the Commission for verification. If the Commission
the name shall be reserved in
have corporate existence and finds that the name is distinguishable from a name already
reserved or registered for the use of another corporation, not favor of the incorporators.
juridical personality and is deemed
incorporated from the date the protected by law and is not contrary to law, rules and - Articles and bylaws will
Securities and Exchange regulations, the name shall be reserved in favor of the follow after name reservation.
Commission issues a certificate of incorporators. The incorporators shall then submit their
incorporation under its official seal; articles of incorporation and bylaws to the Commission.
and thereupon the incorporators, If the Commission finds that the submitted documents and
stockholders/members and their information are fully compliant with the requirements of
successors shall constitute a body this Code, other relevant laws, rules and regulations, the
politic and corporate under the Commission shall issue the certificate of incorporation.
name stated in the articles of A private corporation organized under this Code
incorporation for the period of time commences its corporate existence and juridical personality
mentioned therein, unless said from the date the Commission issues the certificate of
period is extended or the incorporation under its official seal and thereupon the
corporation is sooner dissolved in incorporators, stockholders/members and their successors
accordance with law. (n) shall constitute a body corporate under the name stated in
the articles of incorporation for the period of time
mentioned therein, unless said period is extended or the
corporation is sooner dissolved in accordance with law.

Section 20. De facto corporations. - SEC. 19. De facto Corporations. – The due incorporation of
The due incorporation of any any corporation claiming in good faith to be a corporation
corporation claiming in good faith under this Code, and its right to exercise corporate powers,
to be a corporation under this Code, shall not be inquired into collaterally in any private suit to
and its right to exercise corporate which such corporation may be a party. Such inquiry may
powers, shall not be inquired into be made by the Solicitor General in a quo warranto
collaterally in any private suit to proceeding.
which such corporation may be a
party. Such inquiry may be made
by the Solicitor General in a quo
warranto proceeding. (n)

Section 21. Corporation by estoppel. SEC. 20. Corporation by Estoppel. – All persons who A -Change in form
- All persons who assume to act as a assume to act as a corporation knowing it to be without
corporation knowing it to be authority to do so shall be liable as general partners for all
without authority to do so shall be debts, liabilities and damages incurred or arising as a result
liable as general partners for all thereof: Provided, however, That when any such ostensible
debts, liabilities and damages corporation is sued on any transaction entered by it as a
incurred or arising as a result corporation or on any tort committed by it as such, it shall
thereof: Provided, however, That not be allowed to use its lack of corporate personality as a
when any such ostensible defense. Anyone who assumes an obligation to an ostensible
corporation is sued on any corporation as such cannot resist performance thereof on the
transaction entered by it as a ground that there was in fact no corporation.
corporation or on any tort
committed by it as such, it shall not
be allowed to use as a defense its
lack of corporate personality. On
who assumes an obligation to an
ostensible corporation as such,
cannot resist performance thereof
on the ground that there was in fact
no corporation. (n)
Section 22. Effects on non-use of SEC. 21. Effects of Non-Use of Corporate Charter and N - A deemed revocation of the
corporate charter and continuous Continuous Inoperation. – If a corporation does not certificate of incorporation
inoperation of a corporation. - If a formally organize and commence its business within five (5) only, and not a dissolution, is
corporation does not formally years from the date of its incorporation, its certificate of
the effect of failure to formally
organize and commence the incorporation shall be deemed revoked as of the day
following the end of the five (5)- year period. organize and commence
transaction of its business or the
construction of its works within However, if a corporation has commenced its business but business within five (5) years
two (2) years from the date of its subsequently becomes inoperative for a period of at least from the date of
incorporation, its corporate powers five (5) consecutive years, the Commission may, after due incorporation.
cease and the corporation shall be notice and hearing, place the corporation under delinquent - The certificate is deemed
deemed dissolved. However, if a status. revoked at the end of the 5th
corporation has commenced the A delinquent corporation shall have a period of two (2)
year.
transaction of its business but years to resume operations and comply with all
subsequently becomes continuously requirements that the Commission shall prescribe. Upon - If they commenced business,
inoperative for a period of at least compliance by the corporation, the Commission shall issue but subsequently becomes
five (5) years, the same shall be a an order lifting the delinquent status. inoperative for at least five (5)
ground for the suspension or Failure to comply with the requirements and resume consecutive years, the SEC
revocation of its corporate franchise operations within the period given by the Commission shall may, after due notice and
or certificate of incorporation. (19a) cause the revocation of the corporation’s certificate of
hearing, place the corporation
This provision shall not apply if the incorporation.
under delinquent status.
failure to organize, commence the The Commission shall give reasonable notice to, and
transaction of its businesses or the coordinate with the appropriate regulatory agency prior to -Delinquent corporations have
construction of its works, or to the suspension or revocation of the certificate of two (2) years to resume
continuously operate is due to incorporation of companies under their special regulatory operations and comply with
causes beyond the control of the jurisdiction. the requirements prescribed
corporation as may be determined by SEC.
by the Securities and Exchange
- Compliance of the
Commission.
corporation will result to
lifting the delinquent status.
- Non-compliance will cause
the revocation of the
corporation’s certificate of
incorporation.

TITLE III - BOARD OF TITLE III


DIRECTORS/TRUSTEES AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS/TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
OFFICERS

Section 23. The board of directors or SEC. 22. The Board of Directors or Trustees of a N - Trustees shall be elected for
trustees. - Unless otherwise Corporation; Qualification and Term. – Unless otherwise a term not exceeding three (3)
provided in this Code, the provided in this Code, the board of directors or trustees years.
corporate powers of all shall exercise the corporate powers, conduct all business,
- Corporations vested with
corporations formed under this and control all properties of the corporation.
Directors shall be elected for a term of one (1) year from public interest, e.g.,
Code shall be exercised, all business
conducted and all property of such among the holders of stocks registered in the corporation’s corporations covered by Sec.
corporations controlled and held by books, while trustees shall be elected for a term not 17.2 of the Securities
the board of directors or trustees to exceeding three (3) years from among the members of the Regulation Code, banks,
be elected from among the holders corporation. Each director and trustee shall hold office until quasi-banks, etc., shall have
of stocks, or where there is no stock, the successor is elected and qualified. A director who ceases independent directors,
from among the members of the to own at least one (1) share of stock or a trustee who ceases
constituting at least twenty
corporation, who shall hold office to be a member of the corporation shall cease to be such.
for one (1) year until their The board of the following corporations vested with public percent (20%) of the board.
successors are elected and qualified. interest shall have independent directors constituting at - Provides for the definition of
(28a) Every director must own at least twenty percent (20%) of such board: an “independent director”,
least one (1) share of the capital (a) Corporations covered by Section 17.2 of Republic Act and how they are to be
stock of the corporation of which he No. 8799, otherwise known as “The Securities Regulation elected.
is a director, which share shall Code”, namely those whose securities are registered with
- Independent Directors will
stand in his name on the books of the Commission, corporations listed with an exchange or
the corporation. Any director who with assets of at least Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000.00) be subject to rules and
ceases to be the owner of at least and having two hundred (200) or more holders of shares, regulations that the SEC will
one (1) share of the capital stock of each holding at least one hundred (100) shares of a class of prescribe.
the corporation of which he is a its equity shares;
director shall thereby cease to be a
director. Trustees of non-stock (b) Banks and quasi-banks, nonstock savings and loan
corporations must be members associations, pawnshops, corporations engaged in money
thereof. A majority of the directors service business, preneed, trust and insurance companies,
or trustees of all corporations and other financial intermediaries; and
organized under this Code must be
residents of the Philippines. (c) Other corporations engaged in businesses vested with
public interest similar to the above, as may be determined
by the Commission, after taking into account relevant
factors which are germane to the objective and purpose of
requiring the election of an independent director, such as
the extent of minority ownership, type of financial products
or securities issued or offered to investors, public interest
involved in the nature of business operations, and other
analogous factors.

An independent director is a person who, apart from


shareholdings and fees received from the corporation, is
independent of management and free from any business or
other relationship which could, or could reasonably be
perceived to materially interfere with the exercise of
independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities as
a director.
Independent directors must be elected by the shareholders
present or entitled to vote in absentia during the election of
directors. Independent directors shall be subject to rules and
regulations governing their qualifications, disqualifications,
voting requirements, duration of term and term limit,
maximum number of board memberships and other
requirements that the Commission will prescribe to
strengthen their independence and align with international
best practices.

Section 24. Election of directors or SEC. 23. Election of Directors or Trustees. – Except when N - Each stockholder or member
trustees. - At all elections of the exclusive right is reserved for holders of founders’ has the right to nominate any
directors or trustees, there must be shares under Section 7 of this Code, each stockholder or director or trustee who
present, either in person or by member shall have the right to nominate any director or
possesses all qualifications
representative authorized to act by trustee who possesses
and none of the
written proxy, the owners of a all of the qualifications and none of the disqualifications set
majority of the outstanding capital forth in this Code. disqualifications, except when
stock, or if there be no capital stock, At all elections of directors or trustees, there must be the exclusive right is reserved
a majority of the members entitled present, either in person or through a representative for holders of Founders’
to vote. The election must be by authorized to act by written proxy, the owners of majority Shares.
ballot if requested by any voting of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital - Remote communication or
stockholder or member. In stock stock, a majority of the members entitled to vote. When so
voting in absentia is allowed
corporations, every stockholder authorized in the bylaws or by a majority of the board of
entitled to vote shall have the right directors, the stockholders or members may also vote when authorized in the
to vote in person or by proxy the through remote communication or in absentia: Provided, bylaws or a majority of the
number of shares of stock standing, That the right to vote through such modes may be exercised board of directors.
at the time fixed in the bylaws, in in corporations vested with public interest, notwithstanding - In corporations vested with
his own name on the stock books of the absence of a provision in the bylaws of such public interest, they may vote
the corporation, or where the by- corporations. using those methods even if it
laws are silent, at the time of the A stockholder or member who participates through remote
is not stated in their bylaws.
election; and said stockholder may communication or in absentia, shall be deemed present for
vote such number of shares for as purposes of quorum. - For purposes of quorum,
many persons as there are directors The election must be by ballot if requested by any voting voters in absentia shall be
to be elected or he may cumulate stockholder or member. deemed present.
said shares and give one candidate In stock corporations, stockholders entitled to vote shall - The election of directors or
as many votes as the number of have the right to vote the number of shares of stock
trustees may be adjourned if
directors to be elected multiplied by standing in their own names in the stock books of the
no election is held, and the
the number of his shares shall corporation at the time fixed in the bylaws or where the
equal, or he may distribute them on bylaws are silent, at the time of the election. corporation shall proceed
the same principle among as many The said stockholder may: (a) vote such number of shares with the report required in
candidates as he shall see fit: for as many persons as there are directors to be elected; (b) Section 25.
Provided, That the total number of cumulate said shares and give one (1) candidate as many - Elected directors or trustees
votes cast by him shall not exceed votes as the number of directors to be elected multiplied by shall perform their duties as
the number of shares owned by him the number of the shares owned; or (c) distribute them on
prescribed by law, rules of
as shown in the books of the the same principle among as many candidates as may be
corporation multiplied by the seen fit: Provided, That the total number of votes cast shall good corporate governance
whole number of directors to be not exceed the number of shares owned by the stockholders and bylaws of the corporation.
elected: Provided, however, That no as shown in the books of the corporation multiplied by the
delinquent stock shall be voted. whole number of directors to be elected: Provided, however,
Unless otherwise provided in the That no delinquent stock shall be voted. Unless otherwise
articles of incorporation or in the provided in the articles of incorporation or in the bylaws,
by-laws, members of corporations members of nonstock corporations may cast as many votes
which have no capital stock may as there are trustees to be elected but may not cast more
cast as many votes as there are than one (1) vote for one (1) candidate. Nominees for
trustees to be elected but may not directors or trustees receiving the highest number of votes
cast more than one vote for one shall be declared elected.
candidate. Candidates receiving the If no election is held, or the owners of majority of the
highest number of votes shall be outstanding capital stock or majority of the members
declared elected. Any meeting of entitled to vote are not present in person, by proxy, or
the stockholders or members called through remote communication or not voting in absentia at
for an election may adjourn from the meeting, such meeting may be adjourned and the
day to day or from time to time but corporation shall proceed in accordance with Section 25 of
not sine die or indefinitely if, for this Code.
any reason, no election is held, or if
there are not present or represented The directors or trustees elected shall perform their duties as
by proxy, at the meeting, the prescribed by law, rules of good corporate governance, and
owners of a majority of the bylaws of the corporation.
outstanding capital stock, or if there
be no capital stock, a majority of the
member entitled to vote. (31a)

Section 25. Corporate officers, SEC. 24. Corporate Officers. – Immediately after their N - The treasurer must be a
quorum. - Immediately after their election, the directors of a corporation must formally resident.
election, the directors of a organize and elect: (a) a president, who must be a director; - The secretary must be both a
corporation must formally organize (b) a treasurer, who must be a resident; (c) a secretary, who
citizen and resident of the
by the election of a president, who must be a citizen and resident of the Philippines; and (d)
Philippines.
shall be a director, a treasurer who such other officers as may be provided in the bylaws. If the
may or may not be a director, a corporation is vested with public interest, the board shall - In corporations vested with
secretary who shall be a resident also elect a compliance officer. The same person may hold public interest, the board shall
and citizen of the Philippines, and two (2) or more positions concurrently, except that no one also elect a Compliance
such other officers as may be shall act as president and secretary or as president and Officer.
provided for in the by-laws. Any treasurer at the same time, unless otherwise allowed in this
two (2) or more positions may be Code.
held concurrently by the same
person, except that no one shall act The officers shall manage the corporation and perform such
as president and secretary or as duties as may be provided in the bylaws and/or as resolved
president and treasurer at the same by the board of directors.
time. The directors or trustees and
officers to be elected shall perform
the duties enjoined on them by law
and the by-laws of the corporation.
Unless the articles of incorporation
or the by-laws provide for a greater
majority, a majority of the number
of directors or trustees as fixed in
the articles of incorporation shall
constitute a quorum for the
transaction of corporate business,
and every decision of at least a
majority of the directors or trustees
present at a meeting at which there
is a quorum shall be valid as a
corporate act, except for the election
of officers which shall require the
vote of a majority of all the
members of the board. Directors or
trustees cannot attend or vote by
proxy at board meetings. (33a)

Section 26. Report of election of SEC. 25. Report of Election of Directors, Trustees and N - The report shall now contain
directors, trustees and officers. - Officers, Non-holding of Election and Cessation from the shareholdings of the
Within thirty (30) days after the Office. – Within thirty (30) days after the election of the elected directors, trustees and
election of the directors, trustees directors, trustees and officers of the corporation, the
officers.
and officers of the corporation, the secretary, or any other officer of the corporation, shall
submit to the Commission, the names, nationalities, - Provisions on the Non-
secretary, or any other officer of the
corporation, shall submit to the shareholdings, and residence addresses of the directors, holding of Election and the
Securities and Exchange trustees and officers elected. power of the SEC to order that
Commission, the names, The non-holding of elections and the reasons therefor shall an election be held has been
nationalities and residences of the be reported to the Commission within thirty (30) days from added.
directors, trustees, and officers the date of the scheduled election. The report shall specify a - A report in writing relating
elected. Should a director, trustee or new date for the election, which shall not be later than sixty
to the cessation from office of
officer die, resign or in any manner (60) days from the scheduled date.
a director, trustee or officer
cease to hold office, his heirs in case If no new date has been designated, or if the rescheduled shall be submitted to the SEC
of his death, the secretary, or any election is likewise not held, the Commission may, upon the within seven (7) days from
other officer of the corporation, or application of a stockholder, member, director or trustee, knowledge.
the director, trustee or officer and after verification of the unjustified non-holding of the
himself, shall immediately report election, summarily order that an election be held. The
such fact to the Securities and Commission shall have the power to issue such orders as
Exchange Commission. (n) may be appropriate, including orders directing the issuance
of a notice stating the time and place of the election,
designated presiding officer, and the record date or dates
for the determination of stockholders or members entitled to
vote.
Notwithstanding any provision of the articles of
incorporation or bylaws to the contrary, the shares of stock
or membership
represented at such meeting and entitled to vote shall
constitute a quorum for purposes of conducting an election
under this section.
Should a director, trustee or officer die, resign or in any
manner cease to hold office, the secretary, or the director,
trustee or officer of the corporation, shall, within seven (7)
days from knowledge thereof, report in writing such fact to
the Commission.

Section 27. Disqualification of SEC. 26. Disqualification of Directors, Trustees or N - 3 kinds of disqualifications,
directors, trustees or officers. - No Officers. – A person shall be disqualified from being a within five (5) years prior to
person convicted by final judgment director, trustee or officer of any corporation if, within five the election or appointment as
of an offense punishable by (5) years prior to the election or appointment as such, the
director, trustee or officer:
imprisonment for a period person was:
(a) Convicted by final judgment: A) Conviction by final
exceeding six (6) years, or a
violation of this Code committed (1) Of an offense punishable by imprisonment for a period judgment of: 1) an offense
within five (5) years prior to the exceeding six (6) years; punishable by imprisonment
date of his election or appointment, (2) For violating this Code; and for more than 6yrs
shall qualify as a director, trustee or (3) For violating Republic Act No. 8799, otherwise known as 2) violation of the RCC
officer of any corporation. (n) “The Securities Regulation Code”;
3) violation of SRC
(b) Found administratively liable for any offense involving
B) Administrative liability for
fraudulent acts; and
(c) By a foreign court or equivalent foreign regulatory any offense involving
authority for acts, violations or misconduct similar to those fraudulent acts
enumerated in paragraphs (a) and (b) above. C) By a foreign court for acts,
violations or misconduct
The foregoing is without prejudice to qualifications or other similar to A) and B)
disqualifications, which the Commission, the primary
regulatory agency, or the Philippine Competition
Commission may impose in its promotion of good corporate - This is without prejudice to
governance or as a sanction in its administrative other disqualifications which
proceedings. the SEC or the PCC may
impose.

Section 28. Removal of directors or SEC. 27. Removal of Directors or Trustees. – Any director N - The SEC now can, motu
trustees. – Any director or trustee or trustee of a corporation may be removed from office by a proprio or upon verified
of a corporation may be removed vote of the stockholders holding or representing at least complaint, after due notice
from office by a vote of the two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or in a
and hearing, order the
stockholders holding or nonstock corporation, by a vote of at least two-thirds (2/3)
representing at least two-thirds removal of a disqualified
of the members entitled to vote: Provided, That such
(2/3) of the outstanding capital removal shall take place either at a regular meeting of the director or trustee.
stock, or if the corporation be a non- corporation or at a special meeting called for the purpose, - This also applies if the
stock corporation, by a vote of at and in either case, after previous notice to stockholders or disqualification arose after or
least members of the corporation of the intention to propose such is discovered subsequent to
two-thirds (2/3) of the members removal at the meeting. A special meeting of the the election.
entitled to vote: Provided, That stockholders or members for the purpose of removing any
such removal shall take place either director or trustee must be called by the secretary on order - The removal is without
at a regular meeting of the of the president, or upon written demand of the prejudice to other sanctions
corporation or at a special meeting stockholders representing or holding at least a majority of that the SEC may impose on
called for the purpose, and in either the outstanding capital stock, or a majority of the members
the board who, with
case, after previous notice to entitled to vote.
knowledge of the
stockholders or members of the If there is no secretary, or if the secretary, despite demand,
corporation of the intention to fails or refuses to call the special meeting or to give notice disqualification, failed to
propose such removal at the thereof, the stockholder or member of the corporation remove such director or
meeting. A special meeting of the signing the demand may call for the meeting by directly trustee.
stockholders or members of a addressing the stockholders or members. Notice of the time
corporation for the purpose of and place of such meeting, as well as of the intention to
removal of directors or trustees, or propose such removal, must be given by publication or by
any of them, must be called by the written notice prescribed in this Code. Removal may be
secretary on order of the president with or without cause: Provided, That removal without
or on the written demand of the cause may not be used to deprive minority stockholders or
stockholders representing or members of the right of representation to which they may
holding at least a majority of the be entitled under Section 23 of this Code.
outstanding capital stock, or, if it be The Commission shall, motu proprio or upon verified
a non-stock corporation, on the complaint, and after due notice and hearing, order the
written demand of a majority of the removal of a director or trustee elected despite the
members entitled to vote. disqualification, or whose disqualification arose or is
Should the secretary fail or refuse to discovered subsequent to an election. The removal of a
call the special meeting upon such disqualified director shall be without prejudice to other
demand or fail or refuse to give the sanctions that the Commission may impose on the board of
notice, or if there is no secretary, the directors or trustees who, with knowledge of the
call for the meeting may be disqualification, failed to remove such director or trustee.
addressed directly to the
stockholders or members by any
stockholder or member of the
corporation signing the demand.
Notice of the time and place of such
meeting, as well as of the intention
to propose such removal, must be
given by publication or by written
notice prescribed in this Code.
Removal may be with or without
cause: Provided, That removal
without cause may not be used to
deprive minority stockholders or
members of the right of
representation to which they may
be entitled under Section 24 of this
Code. (n)

Section 29. Vacancies in the office of SEC. 28. Vacancies in the Office of Director or Trustee; N - If vacancy is due to term
director or trustee. - Any vacancy Emergency Board. – Any vacancy occurring in the board of expiration, the election should
occurring in the board of directors directors or trustees other than by removal or by expiration be held not later than the day
or trustees other than by removal of term may be filled by the vote of at least a majority of the
of expiration.
by the stockholders or members or remaining directors or trustees, if still constituting a
quorum; otherwise, said vacancies must be filled by the - If vacancy is due to removal,
by expiration of term, may be filled
by the vote of at least a majority of stockholders or members in a regular or special meeting the election may be held on
the remaining directors or trustees, called for that purpose. the same day of the removal,
if still constituting a quorum; When the vacancy is due to term expiration, the election but this fact must be stated in
otherwise, said vacancies must be shall be held no later than the day of such expiration at a the agenda and notice of the
filled by the stockholders in a meeting called for that purpose. When the vacancy arises as said meeting.
regular or special meeting called for a result of removal by the stockholders or members, the
- In all other cases, the election
that purpose. A director or trustee election may be held on the same day of the meeting
so elected to fill a vacancy shall be authorizing the removal and this fact must be so stated in must be held not later than
elected only or the unexpired term the agenda and notice of said meeting. In all other cases, the forty-five (45) days from the
of his predecessor in office. Any election must be held no later than forty-five (45) days from time the vacancy arose.
directorship or trusteeship to be the time the vacancy arose. A director or trustee elected to - The person elected to fill a
filled by reason of an increase in the fill a vacancy shall be referred to as replacement director or vacancy shall be referred to as
number of directors or trustees trustee and shall serve only for the unexpired term of the “replacement director” or
shall be filled only by an election at predecessor in office.
“trustee”, and shall serve only
a regular or at a special meeting of However, when the vacancy prevents the remaining
for the unexpired term of the
stockholders or members duly directors from constituting a quorum and emergency action
called for the purpose, or in the is required to prevent grave, substantial, and irreparable predecessor.
same meeting authorizing the loss or damage to the corporation, the vacancy may be - New provisions relating to
increase of directors or trustees if so temporarily filled from among the officers of the the creation of an “Emergency
stated in the notice of the meeting. corporation by unanimous vote of the remaining directors Board”.
(n) or trustees. The action by the designated director or trustee
shall be limited to the emergency action necessary, and the
term shall cease within a reasonable time from the
termination of the emergency or upon election of the
replacement director or trustee, whichever comes earlier.
The corporation must notify the Commission within three
(3) days from the creation of the emergency board, stating
therein the reason for its creation.
Any directorship or trusteeship to be filled by reason of an
increase in the number of directors or trustees shall be filled
only by an election at a regular or at a special meeting of
stockholders or members duly called for the purpose, or in
the same meeting authorizing the increase of directors or
trustees if so stated in the notice of the meeting.
In all elections to fill vacancies under this section, the
procedure set forth in Sections 23 and 25 of this Code shall
apply.

Section 30. Compensation of SEC. 29. Compensation of Directors or Trustees. – In the N - Now includes “trustees”.
directors. - In the absence of any absence of any provision in the bylaws fixing their - Prohibition on the part of the
provision in the by-laws fixing their compensation, the directors or trustees shall not receive any directors or trustees from
compensation, the directors shall compensation in their capacity as such, except for participating in the
not receive any compensation, as reasonable per diems: Provided, however, That the determination of their own
such directors, except for stockholders representing at least a majority of the
per diems or compensation.
reasonable per diems: Provided, outstanding capital stock or majority of the members may
- Corporations vested with
however, That any such grant directors or trustees with compensation and approve
compensation other than per diems the amount thereof at a regular or special meeting. public interest shall submit an
may be granted to directors by the In no case shall the total yearly compensation of directors annual report of the total
vote of the stockholders exceed ten percent (10%) of the net income before income compensation of each director
representing at least a majority of tax of the corporation during the preceding year. or trustee to their
the outstanding capital stock at a Directors or trustees shall not participate in the shareholders and to the SEC.
regular or special stockholders' determination of their own per diems or compensation.
meeting. In no case shall the total Corporations vested with public interest shall submit to
yearly compensation of directors, as their shareholders and the Commission, an annual report of
such directors, exceed ten (10%) the total compensation of each of their directors or trustees.
percent of the net income before
income tax of the corporation
during the preceding year. (n)

Section 31. Liability of directors, SEC. 30. Liability of Directors, Trustees or Officers. – A - Change in style only
trustees or officers. - Directors or Directors or trustees who willfully and knowingly vote for
trustees who wilfully and or assent to patently unlawful acts of the corporation or who
knowingly vote for or assent to are guilty of gross negligence or bad faith in directing the
patently unlawful acts of the affairs of the corporation or acquire any personal or
corporation or who are guilty of pecuniary interest in conflict with their duty as such
gross negligence or bad faith in directors or trustees shall be liable jointly and severally for
directing the affairs of the all damages resulting therefrom suffered
corporation or acquire any personal by the corporation, its stockholders or members and other
or pecuniary interest in conflict persons.
with their duty as such directors or A Director, Trustee or Officer shall not attempt to acquire,
trustees shall be liable jointly andor acquire any interest adverse to the corporation in respect
severally for all damages resulting of any matter which has been reposed in them in
therefrom suffered by the
confidence, and upon which, equity imposes a disability
corporation, its stockholders or upon themselves to deal in their own behalf; otherwise, the
members and other persons. said director, trustee or officer shall be liable as a trustee for
the corporation and must account for the profits which
When a director, trustee or officer otherwise would have accrued to the corporation.
attempts to acquire or acquires, in
violation of his duty, any interest
adverse to the corporation in
respect of any matter which has
been reposed in him in confidence,
as to which equity imposes a
disability upon him to deal in his
own behalf, he shall be liable as a
trustee for the corporation and
must account for the profits which
otherwise would have accrued to
the corporation. (n)

Section 32. Dealings of directors, SEC. 31. Dealings of Directors, Trustees or Officers with N - Now covers transactions of
trustees or officers with the the Corporation. – A contract of the corporation with one the corporation with the
corporation. - A contract of the (1) or more of its directors, trustees, officers or their spouses spouse and/or relatives
corporation with one or more of its and relatives within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity
within the 4th civil degree of
directors or trustees or officers is or affinity is voidable, at the option of such corporation,
unless all the following conditions are present: consanguinity or affinity of
voidable, at the option of such
corporation, unless all the following (a) The presence of such director or trustee in the board the directors, trustees and
conditions are present: 1. That the meeting in which the contract was approved was not officers.
presence of such director or trustee necessary to constitute a quorum for such meeting; - An additional condition, to
in the board meeting in which the be valid, for a dealing of a
contract was approved was not (b) The vote of such director or trustee was not necessary for director, trustee or officer of a
necessary to constitute a quorum the approval of the contract; corporation with the
for such meeting; 2. That the vote of corporation in corporations
such director or trustee was not (c) The contract is fair and reasonable under the
vested with public interest is
necessary for the approval of the circumstances;
that material contracts should
contract; 3. That the contract is fair
and reasonable under the (d) In case of corporations vested with public interest, be approved by at least 2/3 of
circumstances; and 4. That in case material contracts are approved by at least two-thirds (2/3) the entire membership of the
of an officer, the contract has been of the entire membership of the board, with at least a board, with at least a majority
previously authorized by the board majority of the independent directors voting to approve the of the independent
of directors. Where any of the first material contract; and contractors voting to approve
two conditions set forth in the
the material contract.
preceding paragraph is absent, in (e) In case of an officer, the contract has been previously
the case of a contract with a director authorized by the board of directors. - In a contract with a director
or trustee, such contract may be Where any of the first three (3) conditions set forth in the or trustee, a ratification may
ratified by the vote of the preceding paragraph is absent, in the case of a contract with be had if any of the first three
stockholders representing at least a director or trustee, such contract may be ratified by the (3) conditions are absent
two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds
capital stock or of at least twothirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of at least two-
(2/3) of the members in a meeting thirds (2/3) of the members in a meeting called for the
called for the purpose: Provided, purpose: Provided, That full disclosure of the adverse
That full disclosure of the adverse interest of the directors or trustees involved is made at such
interest of the directors or trustees meeting and the contract is fair and reasonable under the
involved is made at such meeting: circumstances.
Provided, however, That the
contract is fair and reasonable
under the circumstances. (n)
Section 33. Contracts between SEC. 32. Contracts Between Corporations with
corporations with interlocking Interlocking Directors. – Except in cases of fraud, and
directors. - Except in cases of fraud, provided the contract is fair and reasonable under the
and provided the contract is fair circumstances, a contract between two (2) or more
and reasonable under the corporations having interlocking directors shall not be
circumstances, a contract between invalidated on that ground alone: Provided, That if the
two or more corporations having interest of the interlocking director in one (1) corporation is
interlocking directors shall not be substantial and the interest in the other corporation or
invalidated on that ground alone: corporations is merely nominal, the contract shall be subject
Provided, That if the interest of the to the provisions of the preceding section insofar as the
interlocking director in one latter corporation or corporations are concerned.
corporation is substantial and his Stockholdings exceeding twenty percent (20%) of the
interest in the other corporation or outstanding capital stock shall be considered substantial for
corporations is merely nominal, he purposes of interlocking directors.
shall be subject to the provisions of
the preceding section insofar as the
latter corporation or corporations
are concerned. Stockholdings
exceeding twenty (20%) percent of
the outstanding capital stock shall
be considered substantial for
purposes of interlocking directors.
(n)
Section 34. Disloyalty of a director. - SEC. 33. Disloyalty of a Director. – Where a director, by
Where a director, by virtue of his virtue of such office, acquires a business opportunity which
office, acquires for himself a should belong to the corporation, thereby obtaining profits
business opportunity which should to the prejudice of such corporation, the director must
belong to the corporation, thereby account for and refund to the latter all such profits, unless
obtaining profits to the prejudice of the act has been ratified by a vote of the stockholders
such corporation, he must account owning or representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
to the latter for all such profits by outstanding capital stock. This provision shall be applicable,
refunding the same, unless his act notwithstanding the fact that the director risked one’s own
has been ratified by a vote of the funds in the venture.
stockholders owning or
representing at least two-thirds
(2/3) of the outstanding capital
stock. This provision shall be
applicable, notwithstanding the fact
that the director risked his own
funds in the venture. (n)

Section 35. Executive committee. - SEC. 34. Executive, Management, and Other Special N - An executive committee
The by-laws of a corporation may Committees. – If the by-laws so provide, the board may composed of at least three (3)
create an executive committee, create an executive committee composed of at least three (3) directors may be created by
composed of not less than three directors.
the board if the bylaws so
members of the board, to be Said committee may act, by majority vote of all its members,
on such specific matters within the competence of the board, provide.
appointed by the board. Said
committee may act, by majority as may be delegated to it in the bylaws or by majority vote - Other special committees,
vote of all its members, on such of the board, except with respect to the: (a) approval of any whether of temporary or
specific matters within the action for which shareholders’ approval is also required; (b) permanent nature may be
competence of the board, as may be filling of vacancies in the board; (c) amendment or repeal of created by the board of
delegated to it in the by-laws or on bylaws or the adoption of new bylaws; (d) amendment or directors.
a majority vote of the board, except repeal of any resolution of the board which by its express
- The BOD determines the
with respect to: (1) approval of any terms is not amendable or repealable; and (e) distribution of members of the special
action for which shareholders' cash dividends to the shareholders. committees term,
approval is also required; (2) the The board of directors may create special committees of composition, compensation,
filing of vacancies in the board; (3) temporary or permanent nature and determine the
powers and responsibilities.
the amendment or repeal of by- members’ term, composition, compensation, powers, and
laws or the adoption of new by- responsibilities.
laws; (4) the amendment or repeal
of any resolution of the board
which by its express terms is not so
amendable or repealable; and (5) a
distribution of cash dividends to
the shareholders.
TITLE IV - POWERS OF TITLE IV
CORPORATIONS POWERS OF CORPORATIONS
Section 36. Corporate powers and SEC. 35. Corporate Powers and Capacity. – Every A - Corporation has the power
capacity. - Every corporation corporation incorporated under this Code has the power to have perpetual existence,
incorporated under this Code has and capacity: unless a specific term is
the power and capacity: 1. To sue (a) To sue and be sued in its corporate name;
elected
and be sued in its corporate name;
- Corporations can now also
2. Of succession by its corporate (b) To have perpetual existence unless the certificate of
name for the period of time stated incorporation provides otherwise; enter into partnerships, joint
in the articles of incorporation and ventures, or any other
the certificate of incorporation; 3. (c) To adopt and use a corporate seal; commercial agreement with
To adopt and use a corporate seal; any person, natural or
4. To amend its articles of (d) To amend its articles of incorporation in accordance with juridical.
incorporation in accordance with the provisions of this Code;
- Only foreign corporations
the provisions of this Code; 5. To
adopt by-laws, not contrary to law, (e) To adopt bylaws, not contrary to law, morals or public are prohibited from donating
morals, or public policy, and to policy, and to amend or repeal the same in accordance with to political parties or
amend or repeal the same in this Code; candidates or for purposes of
accordance with this Code; 6. In partisan political activity;
case of stock corporations, to issue (f) In case of stock corporations, to issue or sell stocks to domestic corporations are no
or sell stocks to subscribers and to subscribers and to sell treasury stocks in accordance with
longer prohibited.
sell stocks to subscribers and to sell the provisions of this Code; and to admit members to the
treasury stocks in accordance with corporation if it be a nonstock corporation;
the provisions of this Code; and to
admit members to the corporation (g) To purchase, receive, take or grant, hold, convey, sell,
if it be a non-stock corporation; 7. lease, pledge, mortgage, and otherwise deal with such real
To purchase, receive, take or grant, and personal property, including securities and bonds of
hold, convey, sell, lease, pledge, other corporations, as the transaction of the lawful business
mortgage and otherwise deal with of the corporation may reasonably and necessarily require,
such real and personal property, subject to the limitations prescribed by law and the
including securities and bonds of Constitution;
other corporations, as the
transaction of the lawful business of (h) To enter into a partnership, joint venture, merger,
the corporation may reasonably consolidation, or any other commercial agreement with
and necessarily require, subject to natural and juridical persons;
the limitations prescribed by law
and the Constitution; 8. To enter (i) To make reasonable donations, including those for the
into merger or consolidation with public welfare or for hospital, charitable, cultural, scientific,
other corporations as provided in civic, or similar purposes: Provided, That no foreign
this Code; 9. To make reasonable corporation shall give donations in aid of any political party
donations, including those for the or candidate or for purposes of partisan political activity;
public welfare or for hospital,
charitable, cultural, scientific, civic, (j) To establish pension, retirement, and other plans for the
or similar purposes: Provided, That benefit of its directors, trustees, officers, and employees; and
no corporation, domestic or foreign,
shall give donations in aid of any (k) To exercise such other powers as may be essential or
political party or candidate or for necessary to carry out its purpose or purposes as stated in
purposes of partisan political the articles of incorporation.
activity; 10. To establish pension,
retirement, and other plans for the
benefit of its directors, trustees,
officers and employees; and 11. To
exercise such other powers as may
be essential or necessary to carry
out its purpose or purposes as
stated in the articles of
incorporation. (13a)

Section 37. Power to extend or SEC. 36. Power to Extend or Shorten Corporate Term. – A N - Service of written notice of
shorten corporate term. - A private private corporation may extend or shorten its term as stated the proposed action and
corporation may extend or shorten in the articles of incorporation when approved by a majority details of the meeting may be
its term as stated in the articles of vote of the board of directors or trustees, and ratified at a
sent electronically, when
incorporation when approved by a meeting by the stockholders or members representing at
allowed by the bylaws or with
majority vote of the board of least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of
directors or trustees and ratified at its members. Written notice of the proposed action and the the consent of the
a meeting by the stockholders time and place of the meeting shall be sent to stockholders stockholders.
representing at least two-thirds or members at their respective place of residence as shown
(2/3) of the outstanding capital in the books of the corporation, and must be deposited to
stock or by at least two-thirds (2/3) the addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, served
of the members in case of non-stock personally, or when allowed in the bylaws or done with the
corporations. Written notice of the consent of the stockholder, sent electronically in accordance
proposed action and of the time with the rules and regulations of the Commission on the use
and place of the meeting shall be of electronic data messages. In case of extension of corporate
addressed to each stockholder or term, a dissenting stockholder may exercise the right of
member at his place of residence as appraisal under the conditions provided in this Code.
shown on the books of the
corporation and deposited to the
addressee in the post office with
postage prepaid, or served
personally: Provided, That in case
of extension of corporate term, any
dissenting stockholder may exercise
his appraisal right under the
conditions provided in this code.
(n)

Section 38. Power to increase or SEC. 37. Power to Increase or Decrease Capital Stock; N - Service of written notice of
decrease capital stock; incur, create Incur, Create or Increase Bonded Indebtedness. – No the proposed action and
or increase bonded indebtedness. - corporation shall increase or decrease its capital stock or details of the meeting may be
No corporation shall increase or incur, create or increase any bonded indebtedness unless
sent electronically, when
decrease its capital stock or incur, approved by a majority vote of the board of directors and by
two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock at a allowed by the bylaws and/or
create or increase any bonded
indebtedness unless approved by a stockholders’ meeting duly called for the purpose. Written the SEC’s rules.
majority vote of the board of notice of the time and place of the stockholders’ meeting - “Chairperson”, instead of
directors and, at a stockholder's and the purpose for said meeting must be sent to the “chairman”.
meeting duly called for the stockholders at their places of residence as shown in the - Amount paid by each
purpose, two-thirds (2/3) of the books of the corporation and served on the stockholders subscriber, etc., regardless of
outstanding capital stock shall personally, or through electronic means recognized in the
increase or decrease, shall be
favor the increase or diminution of corporation’s bylaws and/or the Commission’s rules as a
the capital stock, or the incurring, valid mode for service of notices. stated in the certificate.
creating or increasing of any - No more requirement of
bonded indebtedness. Written A certificate must be signed by a majority of the directors of stating the actual
notice of the proposed increase or the corporation and countersigned by the chairperson and indebtedness of the
diminution of the capital stock or of secretary of the stockholders’ meeting, setting forth: corporation on the day of the
the incurring, creating, or (a) That the requirements of this section have been complied
meeting in the certificate.
increasing of any bonded with;
- Where appropriate, the
indebtedness and of the time and
place of the stockholder's meeting (b) The amount of the increase or decrease of the capital Philippine Competition
at which the proposed increase or stock; Commission’s approval must
diminution of the capital stock or be sought before any increase
the incurring or increasing of any (c) , and the amount paid by each on the subscription in
or decrease in capital stock, or
bonded indebtedness is to be cash or property, or the amount of capital stock or number
the incurring, creating or
considered, must be addressed to of shares of no-par stock allotted to each stockholder if such
each stockholder at his place of increase is for the purpose of making effective stock increasing of any bonded
residence as shown on the books of dividend therefor authorized; indebtedness.
the corporation and deposited to - The application to the SEC
the addressee in the post office with (d) Any bonded indebtedness to be incurred, created or shall be made within six (6)
postage prepaid, or served increased; months from the date of
personally. A certificate in
approval of the BOD and
duplicate must be signed by a (e) The amount of stock represented at the meeting; and
majority of the directors of the stockholders.
corporation and countersigned by (f) The vote authorizing the increase or decrease of the
the chairman and the secretary of capital stock, or the incurring, creating or increasing of any
the stockholders' meeting, setting bonded indebtedness.
forth: (1) That the requirements of
this section have been complied Any increase or decrease in the capital stock or the
with; (2) The amount of the increase incurring, creating or increasing of any bonded
or diminution of the capital stock; indebtedness shall require prior approval of the
(3) If an increase of the capital Commission, and where appropriate, of the Philippine
stock, the amount of capital stock or Competition Commission. The application with the
number of shares of no-par stock Commission shall be made within six (6) months from the
thereof actually subscribed, the date of approval of the board of directors and stockholders,
names, nationalities and residences which period may be extended for justifiable reasons.
of the persons subscribing, the Copies of the certificate shall be kept on file in the office of
amount of capital stock or number the corporation and filed with the Commission and attached
of no-par stock subscribed by each, to the original articles of incorporation. After approval by
and the amount paid by each on his the Commission and the issuance by the Commission of its
subscription in cash or property, or certificate of filing, the capital stock shall be deemed
the amount of capital stock or increased or decreased and the incurring, creating or
number of shares of no-par stock increasing of any bonded indebtedness authorized, as the
allotted to each stock-holder if such certificate of filing may declare: Provided, That the
increase is for the purpose of Commission shall not accept for filing any certificate of
making effective stock dividend increase of capital stock unless accompanied by a sworn
therefor authorized; (4) Any statement of the treasurer of the corporation lawfully
bonded indebtedness to be holding office at the time of the filing of the certificate,
incurred, created or increased; (5) showing that at least twenty-five percent (25%) of the
The actual indebtedness of the increase in capital stock has been subscribed and that at
corporation on the day of the least twenty-five percent (25%) of the amount subscribed
meeting; (6) The amount of stock has been paid in actual cash to the corporation or that
represented at the meeting; and (7) property, the valuation of which is equal to twenty-five
The vote authorizing the increase or percent (25%) of the subscription, has been transferred to
diminution of the capital stock, or the corporation: Provided, further, That no decrease in
the incurring, creating or increasing capital stock shall be approved by the Commission if its
of any bonded indebtedness. Any effect shall prejudice the rights of corporate creditors.
increase or decrease in the capital Nonstock corporations may incur, create or increase bonded
stock or the incurring, creating or indebtedness when approved by a majority of the board of
increasing of any bonded trustees and of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in a
indebtedness shall require prior meeting duly called for the purpose.
approval of the Securities and Bonds issued by a corporation shall be registered with the
Exchange Commission. One of the Commission, which shall have the authority to determine
duplicate certificates shall be kept the sufficiency of the terms thereof.
on file in the office of the
corporation and the other shall be
filed with the Securities and
Exchange Commission and
attached to the original articles of
incorporation. From and after
approval by the Securities and
Exchange Commission and the
issuance by the Commission of its
certificate of filing, the capital stock
shall stand increased or decreased
and the incurring, creating or
increasing of any bonded
indebtedness authorized, as the
certificate of filing may declare:
Provided, That the Securities and
Exchange Commission shall not
accept for filing any certificate of
increase of capital stock unless
accompanied by the sworn
statement of the treasurer of the
corporation lawfully holding office
at the time of the filing of the
certificate, showing that at least
twenty-five (25%) percent of such
increased capital stock has been
subscribed and that at least twenty-
five (25%) percent of the amount
subscribed has been paid either in
actual cash to the corporation or
that there has been transferred to
the corporation property the
valuation of which is equal to
twenty-five (25%) percent of the
subscription: Provided, further,
That no decrease of the capital stock
shall be approved by the
Commission if its effect shall
prejudice the rights of corporate
creditors. Non-stock corporations
may incur or create bonded
indebtedness, or increase the same,
with the approval by a majority
vote of the board of trustees and of
at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
members in a meeting duly called
for the purpose. Bonds issued by a
corporation shall be registered with
the Securities and Exchange
Commission, which shall have the
authority to determine the
sufficiency of the terms thereof.
(17a)
Section 39. Power to deny pre- SEC. 38. Power to Deny Preemptive Right. – All
emptive right. - All stockholders of stockholders of a stock corporation shall enjoy preemptive
a stock corporation shall enjoy pre- right to subscribe to all issues or disposition of shares of any
emptive right to subscribe to all class, in proportion to their respective shareholdings, unless
issues or disposition of shares of such right is denied by the articles of incorporation or an
any class, in proportion to their amendment thereto: Provided, That such preemptive right
respective shareholdings, unless shall not extend to shares issued in compliance with laws
such right is denied by the articles requiring stock offerings or minimum stock ownership by
of incorporation or an amendment the public; or to shares issued in good faith with the
thereto: Provided, That such pre- approval of the stockholders representing two-thirds (2/3)
emptive right shall not extend to of the outstanding capital stock, in exchange for property
shares to be issued in compliance needed for corporate purposes or in payment of a
with laws requiring stock offerings previously contracted debt.
or minimum stock ownership by
the public; or to shares to be issued
in good faith with the approval of
the stockholders representing
twothirds (2/3) of the outstanding
capital stock, in exchange for
property needed for corporate
purposes or in payment of a
previously contracted debt.
Section 40. Sale or other disposition SEC. 39. Sale or Other Disposition of Assets. – Subject to N - Sale or other disposition of
of assets. - Subject to the provisions the provisions of Republic Act No. 10667, otherwise known assets by the corporation
of existing laws on illegal as the “Philippine Competition Act”, and other related laws, should not be violative of the
combinations and monopolies, a a corporation may, by a majority vote of its board of
Philippine Competition Act,
corporation may, by a majority vote directors or trustees, sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge,
as expressly provided.
of its board of directors or trustees, or otherwise dispose of its property and assets, upon such
sell, lease, exchange, mortgage, terms and conditions and for such consideration, which - Disposal of “all or
pledge or otherwise dispose of all may be money, stocks, bonds, or other instruments for the substantially all of its
or substantially all of its property payment of money or other property or consideration, as its property and assets, including
and assets, including its goodwill, board of directors or trustees may deem expedient. its goodwill”, has been
upon such terms and conditions A sale of all or substantially all of the corporation’s deleted and replaced by
and for such consideration, which properties and assets, including its goodwill, must be
disposal “of its property and
may be money, stocks, bonds or authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at
other instruments for the payment least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock, or at assets” in Par 1; and a
of money or other property or least two-thirds (2/3) of the members, in a stockholders’ or separate paragraph sets forth
consideration, as its board of members’ meeting duly called for the purpose. the sale of all or substantially
directors or trustees may deem In nonstock corporations where there are no members with all of the corporation’s
expedient, when authorized by the voting rights, the vote of at least a majority of the trustees in properties.
vote of the stockholders office will be sufficient authorization for the corporation to - The net asset value, as
representing at least two-thirds enter into any transaction authorized by this section.
shown is its latest financial
(2/3) of the outstanding capital The determination of whether or not the sale involves all or
stock, or in case of non-stock substantially all of the corporation’s properties and assets statements, shall be the basis
corporation, by the vote of at least must be computed based on its net asset value, as shown in for determining whether or
to two-thirds (2/3) of the members, its latest financial statements. A sale or other disposition not the sale involves all or
in a stockholder's or member's shall be deemed to cover substantially all the corporate
substantially all of the
meeting duly called for the property and assets if thereby the corporation would be
corporation’s properties and
purpose. Written notice of the rendered incapable of continuing the business or
proposed action and of the time accomplishing the purpose for which it was incorporated. assets.
and place of the meeting shall be Written notice of the proposed action and of the time and - Service of written notice of
addressed to each stockholder or place for the meeting shall be addressed to stockholders or the proposed action and
member at his place of residence as members at their places of residence as shown in the books details of the meeting may be
shown on the books of the of the corporation and deposited to the addressee in the sent electronically, when
corporation and deposited to the post office with postage prepaid, served personally, or
allowed by the bylaws or with
addressee in the post office with when allowed by the bylaws or done with the consent of the
postage prepaid, or served stockholder, sent electronically: Provided, That any the consent of the
personally: Provided, That any dissenting stockholder may exercise the right of appraisal stockholders.
dissenting stockholder may exercise under the conditions provided in this Code.
his appraisal right under the
conditions provided in this Code. After such authorization or approval by the stockholders or
members, the board of directors or trustees may,
A sale or other disposition shall be nevertheless, in its discretion, abandon such sale, lease,
deemed to cover substantially all exchange, mortgage, pledge, or other disposition of
the corporate property and assets if property and assets, subject to the rights of third parties
thereby the corporation would be under any contract relating thereto, without further action
rendered incapable of continuing or approval by the stockholders or members.
the business or accomplishing the
purpose for which it was Nothing in this section is intended to restrict the power of
incorporated. After such any corporation, without the authorization by the
authorization or approval by the stockholders or members, to sell, lease, exchange, mortgage,
stockholders or members, the board pledge, or otherwise dispose of any of its property and
of directors or trustees may, assets if the same is necessary in the usual and regular
nevertheless, in its discretion, course of business of the corporation or if the proceeds of
abandon such sale, lease, exchange, the sale or other disposition of such property and assets
mortgage, pledge or other shall be appropriated for the conduct of its remaining
disposition of property and assets, business.
subject to the rights of third parties
under any contract relating thereto,
without further action or approval
by the stockholders or members.
Nothing in this section is intended
to restrict the power of any
corporation, without the
authorization by the stockholders
or members, to sell, lease, exchange,
mortgage, pledge or otherwise
dispose of any of its property and
assets if the same is necessary in the
usual and regular course of
business of said corporation or if
the proceeds of the sale or other
disposition of such property and
assets be appropriated for the
conduct of its remaining business.
In non-stock corporations where
there are no members with voting
rights, the vote of at least a majority
of the trustees in office will be
sufficient authorization for the
corporation to enter into any
transaction authorized by this
section.
Section 41. Power to acquire own SEC. 40. Power to Acquire Own Shares. – Provided that the A - Change in form
shares. - A stock corporation shall corporation has unrestricted retained earnings in its books
have the power to purchase or to cover the shares to be purchased or acquired, a stock
acquire its own shares for a corporation shall have the power to purchase or acquire its
legitimate corporate purpose or own shares for a legitimate corporate purpose or purposes,
purposes, including but not limited including the following cases:
to the following cases: Provided, (a) To eliminate fractional shares arising out of stock
That the corporation has dividends;
unrestricted retained earnings in its
books to cover the shares to be (b) To collect or compromise an indebtedness to the
purchased or acquired: 1. To corporation, arising out of unpaid subscription, in a
eliminate fractional shares arising delinquency sale, and to purchase delinquent shares sold
out of stock dividends; 2. To collect during said sale;
or compromise an indebtedness to
the corporation, arising out of and
unpaid subscription, in a (c) To pay dissenting or withdrawing stockholders entitled
delinquency sale, and to purchase to payment for their shares under the provisions of this
delinquent shares sold during said Code.
sale; and 3. To pay dissenting or
withdrawing stockholders entitled
to payment for their shares under
the provisions of this Code. (a)

Section 42. Power to invest SEC. 41. Power to Invest Corporate Funds in Another A - Service of notice of the
corporate funds in another Corporation or Business or for Any Other Purpose. – proposed investment and
corporation or business or for any Subject to the provisions of this Code, a private corporation details of the meeting may be
other purpose. - Subject to the may invest its funds in any other corporation, business, or
sent electronically, in
provisions of this Code, a private for any purpose other than the primary purpose for which it
was organized, when approved by a majority of the board accordance with the rules and
corporation may invest its funds in
any other corporation or business of directors or trustees and ratified by the stockholders regulations of the SEC, when
or for any purpose other than the representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding allowed by the bylaws or with
primary purpose for which it was capital stock, or by at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members the consent of the
organized when approved by a in the case of non-stock corporations, at a meeting duly stockholders.
majority of the board of directors or called for the purpose. Notice of the proposed investment
trustees and ratified by the and the time and place of the meeting shall be addressed to
stockholders representing at least each stockholder or member at the place of residence as
two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding shown in the books of the corporation and deposited to the
capital stock, or by at least two addressee in the post office with postage prepaid, served
thirds (2/3) of the members in the personally, or sent electronically in accordance with the
case of non-stock corporations, at a rules and regulations of the Commission on the use of
stockholder's or member's meeting electronic data message, when allowed by the bylaws or
duly called for the purpose. Written done with the consent of the stockholders: Provided, That
notice of the proposed investment any dissenting stockholder shall have appraisal right as
and the time and place of the provided in this Code: Provided, however, That where the
meeting shall be addressed to each investment by the corporation is reasonably necessary to
stockholder or member at his place accomplish its primary purpose as stated in the articles of
of residence as shown on the books incorporation, the approval of the stockholders or members
of the corporation and deposited to shall not be necessary.
the addressee in the post office with
postage prepaid, or served
personally: Provided, That any
dissenting stockholder shall have
appraisal right as provided in this
Code: Provided, however, That
where the investment by the
corporation is reasonably necessary
to accomplish its primary purpose
as stated in the articles of
incorporation, the approval of the
stockholders or members shall not
be necessary. (17 1/2a)
Section 43. Power to declare
dividends. - The board of directors SEC. 42. Power to Declare Dividends. – The board of
of a stock corporation may declare directors of a stock corporation may declare dividends out
dividends out of the unrestricted of the unrestricted retained earnings which shall be
retained earnings which shall be payable in cash, property, or in stock to all stockholders on
payable in cash, in property, or in the basis of outstanding stock held by them: Provided,
stock to all stockholders on the That any cash dividends due on delinquent stock shall first
basis of outstanding stock held by be applied to the unpaid balance on the subscription plus
them: Provided, That any cash costs and expenses, while stock dividends shall be
dividends due on delinquent stock withheld from the delinquent stockholders until their
shall first be applied to the unpaid unpaid subscription is fully paid: Provided, further, That
balance on the subscription plus no stock dividend shall be issued without the approval of
costs and expenses, while stock stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
dividends shall be withheld from outstanding capital stock at a regular or special meeting
the delinquent stockholder until his duly called for the purpose.
unpaid subscription is fully paid: Stock corporations are prohibited from retaining surplus
Provided, further, That no stock profits in excess of one hundred percent (100%) of their
dividend shall be issued without paid-in capital stock, except: (a) when justified by definite
the approval of stockholders corporate expansion projects or programs approved by the
representing not less than two- board of directors; or (b) when the corporation is
thirds (2/3) of the outstanding prohibited under any loan
capital stock at a regular or special agreement with financial institutions or creditors, whether
meeting duly called for the local or foreign, from declaring dividends without their
purpose. (16a) Stock corporations consent, and such consent has not yet been secured; or (c)
are prohibited from retaining when it can be clearly shown that such retention is
surplus profits in excess of one necessary under special circumstances obtaining in the
hundred (100%) percent of their corporation, such as when there is need for special reserve
paid-in capital stock, except: (1) for probable contingencies.
when justified by definite corporate
expansion projects or programs
approved by the board of directors;
or (2) when the corporation is
prohibited under any loan
agreement with any financial
institution or creditor, whether
local or foreign, from declaring
dividends without its/his consent,
and such consent has not yet been
secured; or (3) when it can be
clearly shown that such retention is
necessary under special
circumstances obtaining in the
corporation, such as when there is
need for special reserve for
probable contingencies. (n)
Section 44. Power to enter into SEC. 43. Power to Enter into Management Contract. – No A - Change in form
management contract. - No corporation shall conclude a management contract with
corporation shall conclude a another corporation unless such contract is approved by the
management contract with another board of directors and by stockholders owning at least the
corporation unless such contract majority of the outstanding capital stock, or by at least a
shall have been approved by the majority of the members in the case of a nonstock
board of directors and by corporation, of both the managing and the managed
stockholders owning at least the corporation, at a meeting duly called for the purpose:
majority of the outstanding capital Provided, That (a) where a stockholder or stockholders
stock, or by at least a majority of the representing the same interest of both the managing and the
members in the case of a non-stock managed corporations own or control more than one-third
corporation, of both the managing (1/3) of the total outstanding capital stock entitled to vote of
and the managed corporation, at a the managing corporation; or (b) where a majority of the
meeting duly called for the members of the board of directors of the managing
purpose: Provided, That (1) where a corporation also constitute a majority of the members of the
stockholder or stockholders board of directors of the managed corporation, then the
representing the same interest of management contract must be approved by the stockholders
both the managing and the of the managed corporation owning at least two-thirds (2/3)
managed corporations own or of the total outstanding capital stock entitled to vote, or by
control more than one-third (1/3) of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of a
the total outstanding capital stock nonstock corporation.
entitled to vote of the managing
corporation; or (2) where a majority These shall apply to any contract whereby a corporation
of the members of the board of undertakes to manage or operate all or substantially all of
directors of the managing the business of another corporation, whether such contracts
corporation also constitute a are called service contracts, operating agreements or
majority of the members of the otherwise: Provided, however, That such service contracts
board of directors of the managed or operating agreements which relate to the exploration,
corporation, then the management development, exploitation or utilization of natural resources
contract must be approved by the may be entered into for such periods as may be provided by
stockholders of the managed pertinent laws or regulations.
corporation owning at least two-
thirds (2/3) of the total outstanding No management contract shall be entered into for a period
capital stock entitled to vote, or by longer than five (5) years for any one (1) term.
at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
members in the case of a non-stock
corporation. No management
contract shall be entered into for a
period longer than five years for
any one term.

The provisions of the next


preceding paragraph shall apply to
any contract whereby a corporation
undertakes to manage or operate all
or substantially all of the business
of another corporation, whether
such contracts are called service
contracts, operating agreements or
otherwise: Provided, however, That
such service contracts or operating
agreements which relate to the
exploration, development,
exploitation or utilization of natural
resources may be entered into for
such periods as may be provided by
the pertinent laws or regulations. (n
Section 45. Ultra vires acts of SEC. 44. Ultra Vires Acts of Corporations. – No corporation
corporations. - No corporation shall possess or exercise corporate powers other than those
under this Code shall possess or conferred by this Code or by its articles of incorporation and
exercise any corporate powers except as necessary or incidental to the exercise of the
except those conferred by this Code powers conferred.
or by its articles of incorporation
and except such as are necessary or
incidental to the exercise of the
powers so conferred. (n)
TITLE V - BY LAWS TITLE V
BYLAWS
Section 46. Adoption of by-laws. - SEC. 45. Adoption of Bylaws. – For the adoption of by-laws A - Change in form
Every corporation formed under by the corporation, the affirmative vote of the stockholders - The one-month period to
this Code must, within one (1) representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital adopt bylaws, after receipt of
month after receipt of official notice stock, or of at least a majority of the members in case of non-
official notice of the issuance
of the issuance of its certificate of stock corporations, shall be necessary. The bylaws shall be
of its certificate of
incorporation by the Securities and signed by the stockholders or members voting for them and incorporation was deleted.
Exchange Commission, adopt a shall be kept in the principal office of the corporation,
code of by-laws for its government subject to the inspection of the stockholders or members
not inconsistent with this Code. For during office hours. A copy thereof, duly certified by a
the adoption of by-laws by the majority of the directors or trustees and countersigned by
corporation the affirmative vote of the secretary of the corporation, shall be filed with the
the stockholders representing at Commission and attached to the original articles of
least a majority of the outstanding incorporation.
capital stock, or of at least a
majority of the members in case of Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph,
non-stock corporations, shall be bylaws may be adopted and filed prior to incorporation; in
necessary. The by-laws shall be such case, such bylaws shall be approved and signed by all
signed by the stockholders or the incorporators and submitted to the Commission,
members voting for them and shall together with the articles of incorporation.
be kept in the principal office of the
corporation, subject to the In all cases, bylaws shall be effective only upon the issuance
inspection of the stockholders or by the Commission of a certification that the bylaws are in
members during office hours. A accordance with this Code.
copy thereof, duly certified to by a The Commission shall not accept for filing the bylaws or
majority of the directors or trustees any amendment thereto of any bank, banking institution,
countersigned by the secretary of building and loan association, trust company, insurance
the corporation, shall be filed with company, public utility, educational institution, or other
the Securities and Exchange special corporations governed by special laws, unless
Commission which shall be accompanied by a certificate of the appropriate government
attached to the original articles of agency to the effect that such bylaws or amendments are in
incorporation. Notwithstanding the accordance with law.
provisions of the preceding
paragraph, by-laws may be
adopted and filed prior to
incorporation; in such case, such
by-laws shall be approved and
signed by all the incorporators and
submitted to the Securities and
Exchange Commission, together
with the articles of incorporation. In
all cases, by-laws shall be effective
only upon the issuance by the
Securities and Exchange
Commission of a certification that
the by-laws are not inconsistent
with this Code. The Securities and
Exchange Commission shall not
accept for filing the by-laws or any
amendment thereto of any bank,
banking institution, building and
loan association, trust company,
insurance company, public utility,
educational institution or other
special corporations governed by
special laws, unless accompanied
by a certificate of the appropriate
government agency to the effect
that such by-laws or amendments
are in accordance with law. (20a)

Section 47. Contents of by-laws. - SEC. 46. Contents of By-laws. – A private corporation may N - The phrase “ Subject to the
Subject to the provisions of the provide the following in its bylaws: provisions of the Constitution,
Constitution, this Code, other (a) The time, place and manner of calling and conducting this Code, other special laws,
special laws, and the articles of regular or special meetings of the directors or trustees;
and the articles of
incorporation, a private corporation
incorporation,” was deleted.
may provide in its by-laws for: 1. (b) The time and manner of calling and conducting regular - The bylaws may now
The time, place and manner of or special meetings and mode of notifying the stockholders provide for the modes by
calling and conducting regular or or members thereof; which a stockholder, member,
special meetings of the directors or
director, or trustee may attend
trustees; 2. The time and manner of (c) The required quorum in meetings of stockholders or
meetings and cast their votes.
calling and conducting regular or members and the manner of voting therein;
special meetings of the stockholders - The bylaws may now
or members; 3. The required (d) The modes by which a stockholder, member, director, or provide for guidelines for
quorum in meetings of stockholders trustee may attend meetings and cast their votes; setting the compensation of
or members and the manner of directors or trustees and
voting therein; 4. The form for (e) The form for proxies of stockholders and members and officers, and the maximum
proxies of stockholders and the manner of voting them;
number of other board
members and the manner of voting
them; 5. The qualifications, duties (f) The directors’ or trustees’ qualifications, duties and representations that an
and compensation of directors or responsibilities, the guidelines for setting the compensation independent director or
trustees, officers and employees; 6. of directors or trustees and officers, and the maximum trustee may have, but in no
The time for holding the annual number of other board representations that an independent case shall it be more than the
election of directors of trustees and director or trustee may have which shall, in no case, be more number prescribed by the
the mode or manner of giving than the number prescribed by the Commission; SEC.
notice thereof; 7. The manner of
- Other matters necessary for
election or appointment and the (g) The time for holding the annual election of directors or
term of office of all officers other trustees and the mode or manner of giving notice thereof; the promotion of good
than directors or trustees; 8. The governance, and anti-graft
penalties for violation of the by- (h) The manner of election or appointment and the term of and corruption measures may
laws; 9. In the case of stock office of all officers other than directors or trustees; now be provided in the
corporations, the manner of issuing bylaws.
stock certificates; and 10. Such other (i) The penalties for violation of the bylaws;
- Pursuant to Sec. 181 of the
matters as may be necessary for the
RCC, an arbitration
proper or convenient transaction of (j) In the case of stock corporations, the manner of issuing
its corporate business and affairs. stock certificates; and agreement may be provided
(21a) for in the bylaws.
(k) Such other matters as may be necessary for the proper or
convenient transaction of its corporate affairs for the
promotion of good governance and anti-graft and
corruption measures.

An arbitration agreement may be provided in the bylaws


pursuant to Section 181 of this Code.
Section 48. Amendments to by- SEC. 47. Amendment to By-laws. – A majority of the board N -The new law removed the
laws. - The board of directors or of directors or trustees, and the owners of at least a majority provision on the need to attach
trustees, by a majority vote thereof, of the outstanding capital stock, or at least a majority of the the amended by laws to the
and the owners of at least a members of a non-stock corporation, at a regular or special original.
majority of the outstanding capital meeting duly called for the purpose, may amend or repeal
stock, or at least a majority of the the bylaws or adopt new bylaws. The owners of two-thirds - The corporation shall also file
members of a non-stock (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or two-thirds (2/3) of with the SEC, if applicable, the
corporation, at a regular or special the members in a non-stock corporation may delegate to the stockholders’ or members’
meeting duly called for the board of directors or trustees the power to amend or repeal resolution authorizing the
purpose, may amend or repeal any the bylaws or adopt new bylaws: Provided, That any delegation of the power to
by-laws or adopt new by-laws. The power delegated to the board of directors or trustees to amend and/or adopt new
owners of two-thirds (2/3) of the amend or repeal the bylaws or adopt new bylaws shall be bylaws.
outstanding capital stock or two- considered as revoked whenever stockholders owning or
thirds (2/3) of the members in a representing a majority of the outstanding capital stock or
non-stock corporation may delegate majority of the members shall so vote at a regular or special
to the board of directors or trustees meeting.
the power to amend or repeal any
by-laws or adopt new by-laws: Whenever the bylaws are amended or new bylaws are
Provided, That any power adopted, the corporation shall file with the Commission
delegated to the board of directors such amended or new bylaws and, if applicable, the
or trustees to amend or repeal any stockholders’ or members’ resolution authorizing the
by-laws or adopt new by-laws shall delegation of the power to amend and/or adopt new
be considered as revoked whenever bylaws, duly certified under oath by the corporate secretary
stockholders owning or and a majority of the directors or trustees.
representing a majority of the
outstanding capital stock or a The amended or new bylaws shall only be effective upon
majority of the members in non- the issuance by the Commission of a certification that the
stock corporations, shall so vote at a same is in accordance with this Code and other relevant
regular or special meeting. laws.
Whenever any amendment or new
by-laws are adopted, such
amendment or new by-laws shall
be attached to the original by-laws
in the office of the corporation, and
a copy thereof, duly certified under
oath by the corporate secretary and
a majority of the directors or
trustees, shall be filed with the
Securities and Exchange
Commission the same to be
attached to the original articles of
incorporation and original by-laws.
The amended or new by-laws shall
only be effective upon the issuance
by the Securities and Exchange
Commission of a certification that
the same are not inconsistent with
this Code. (22a and 23a)
TITLE VI - MEETINGS TITLE VI
MEETINGS
Section 49. Kinds of meetings. - SEC. 48. Kinds of Meetings. – Meetings of directors, No change
Meetings of directors, trustees, trustees, stockholders, or members may be regular or
stockholders, or members may be special.
regular or special. (n)
Section 50. Regular and special SEC. 49. Regular and Special Meetings of Stockholders or A Regular meetings of
meetings of stockholders or Members. – Regular meetings of stockholders or members stockholders or members, if not
members. - Regular meetings of shall be held annually on a date fixed in the bylaws, or if not so fixed, shall be held on any
stockholders or members shall be so fixed, on any date after April 15 of every year as date after April 15 of every year.
held annually on a date fixed in the determined by the board of directors or trustees: Provided, (The old law does not state that
by-laws, or if not so fixed, on any That written notice of regular meetings shall be sent to all it should be after every 15th of
date in April of every year as stockholders or members of record at least twenty-one (21) April.)
determined by the board of days prior to the meeting, unless a different period is
directors or trustees: Provided, That required in the bylaws, law, or regulation: Provided, Written notice of regular
written notice of regular meetings further, That written notice of regular meetings may be sent meetings shall be sent to all
shall be sent to all stockholders or to all stockholders or members of record through electronic stockholders or members of
members of record at least two (2) mail or such other manner as the Commission shall allow record at least 21 days prior to
weeks prior to the meeting, unless a under its guidelines. the meeting unless a different
different period is required by the At each regular meeting of stockholders or members, the period is required by the by
by-laws. Special meetings of board of directors or trustees shall endeavor to present to laws. (The old law required 2
stockholders or members shall be stockholders or members the following: weeks prior to meeting.)
held at any time deemed necessary (a) The minutes of the most recent regular meeting which
or as provided in the by-laws: shall include, among others: Written notice of regular
Provided, however, That at least meetings may be sent to all
one (1) week written notice shall be (1) A description of the voting and vote tabulation stockholders or members
sent to all stockholders or members, procedures used in the previous meeting; through electronic mail or such
unless otherwise provided in the other manner as the
by-laws. Notice of any meeting may (2) A description of the opportunity given to stockholders or Commission shall allow. (The
be waived, expressly or impliedly, members to ask questions and a record of the questions old law does not have a
by any stockholder or member. asked and answers given; provision regarding electronic
mail as written notice.)
Whenever, for any cause, there is (3) The matters discussed and resolutions reached;
no person authorized to call a The new law lays down the
meeting, the Securities and (4) A record of the voting results for each agenda item; agenda that the board of
Exchange Commission, upon directors or trustees must
petition of a stockholder or member (5) A list of the directors or trustees, officers and endeavor to present to the
on a showing of good cause stockholders or members who attended the meeting; and stockholders or members such
therefor, may issue an order to the as the minutes of the most
petitioning stockholder or member (6) Such other items that the Commission may require in the recent regular meeting,
directing him to call a meeting of interest of good corporate governance and the protection of member’s list for non-stock
the corporation by giving proper minority stockholders; corporations and for stock
notice required by this Code or by corporations, material
the by-laws. The petitioning (b) A members’ list for non-stock corporations and, for stock information on the current
stockholder or member shall corporations, material information on the current stockholders and their voting
preside thereat until at least a stockholders, and their voting rights; rights, among others. (This is a
majority of the stockholders or new provision.)
members present have chosen one (c) A detailed, descriptive, balanced and comprehensible
of their number as presiding officer. assessment of the corporation’s performance, which shall The new law allow the director,
(24, 26) include information on any material change in the trustee or member to propose
corporation’s business, strategy, and other affairs; any other matter for intrusion in
the agenda at any regular
(d) A financial report for the preceding year, which shall meeting of stockholders or
include financial statements duly signed and certified in members. (This is a new
accordance with this Code and the rules the Commission provision.)
may prescribe, a statement on the adequacy of the
corporation’s internal controls or risk management systems, The new law allow the
and a statement of all external audit and non-audit fees; stockholder or member to
propose the holding of a special
(e) An explanation of the dividend policy and the fact of meeting and suggest items to be
payment of dividends or the reasons for nonpayment included in the agenda. (This is
thereof; a new provision.)

(f) Director or trustee profiles which shall include, among The new law prohibits general
others, their qualifications and relevant experience, length waivers of notice in the articles
of service in the corporation, trainings and continuing of incorporation. (This is a new
education attended, and their board representations in other provision.)
corporations;
The new law makes an
(g) A director or trustee attendance report, indicating the attendance at a meeting a
attendance of each director or trustee at each of the meetings waiver of notice of such meeting
of the board and its committees and in regular or special except when the person attends
stockholder meetings; a meeting for the express
purpose of objecting to the
(h) Appraisals and performance reports for the board and transaction of any business
the criteria and procedure for assessment; because the meeting is not
lawfully called or convened.
(i) A director or trustee compensation report prepared in (This is a new provision.)
accordance with this Code and the rules the Commission
may prescribe; The new law provides for the
period where the stock and
(j) Director disclosures on self-dealings and related party transfer book or membership
transactions; and/or book shall be closed, which is at
least twenty days for regular
(k) The profiles of directors nominated or seeking election or meetings and seven days for
reelection. special meetings, unless the by
laws provide for a longer
A director, trustee, stockholder, or member may propose period. (This is a new
any other matter for inclusion in the agenda at any regular provision.)
meeting of stockholders or members.
Special meetings of stockholders or members shall be held The new law requires for a
at any time deemed necessary or as provided in the bylaws: written notice to be sent to the
Provided, however, That at least one (1) week written stockholders or members of
notice shall be sent to all stockholders or members, unless a record in case of postponement
different period is provided in the bylaws, law or of meetings at least two weeks
regulation. prior to the date of the meeting
A stockholder or member may propose the holding of a unless the by laws provide for a
special meeting and items to be included in the agenda. longer period. (This is a new
Notice of any meeting may be waived, expressly or provision.)
impliedly, by any stockholder or member: Provided, That
general waivers of notice in the articles of incorporation or The new law allows that the
the bylaws shall not be allowed: Provided, further, That right to vote may be exercised in
attendance at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of person, in proxy, or when
such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for authorized in the by laws,
the express through remote communication
purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business or in absentia. (This is a new
because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. provision.)
Whenever for any cause, there is no person authorized or
the person authorized unjustly refuses to call a meeting, the
Commission, upon petition of a stockholder or member on a
showing of good cause therefor, may issue an order,
directing the petitioning stockholder or member to call a
meeting of the corporation by giving proper notice required
by this Code or the bylaws. The petitioning stockholder or
member shall preside thereat until at least a majority of the
stockholders or members present have chosen from among
themselves, a presiding officer.
Unless the bylaws provide for a longer period, the stock
and transfer book or membership book shall be closed at
least twenty (20) days for regular meetings and seven (7)
days for special meetings before the scheduled date of the
meeting.
In case of postponement of stockholders’ or members’
regular meetings, written notice thereof and the reason
therefor shall be sent to all stockholders or members of
record at least two (2) weeks prior to the date of the
meeting, unless a different period is required under the
bylaws, law or regulation.
The right to vote of stockholders or members may be
exercised in person, through a proxy, or when so
authorized in the bylaws, through remote communication
or in absentia. The Commission shall issue the rules and
regulations governing participation and voting through
remote communication or in absentia, taking into account
the company’s scale, number of shareholders or members,
structure, and other factors consistent with the protection
and promotion of shareholders’ or members’ meetings.
Section 51. Place and time SEC. 50. Place and Time of Meetings of Stockholders or A The new law adds Metro Cebu,
of meetings of stockholders of Members. – Stockholders’ or members’ meetings, whether Metro Davao, and other
members. - Stockholder's or regular or special, shall be held in the principal office of the Metropolitan areas in the list of
member's meetings, whether corporation as set forth in the articles of incorporation, or, if place to be considered a city or
regular or special, shall be held in not practicable, in the city or municipality where the municipality. (The old law only
the city or municipality where the principal office of the corporation is located: Provided, That mentions “Metro Manila”.)
principal office of the corporation is any city or municipality in Metro Manila, Metro Cebu,
located, and if practicable in the Metro Davao, and other Metropolitan areas shall, for The new law allows notice of
principal office of the corporation: purposes of this section, be considered a city or meetings to be sent through any
Provided, That Metro Manila shall, municipality. means of communication
for purposes of this section, be Notice of meetings shall be sent through the means of provided in the by laws. (The
considered a city or municipality. communication provided in the bylaws, which notice shall old law only said notice must be
Notice of meetings shall be in state the time, place and purpose of the meetings. in writing.)
writing, and the time and place Each notice of meeting shall further be accompanied by the
thereof stated therein. All following: The new law provides for
proceedings had and any business (a) The agenda for the meeting; additional information to be
transacted at any meeting of the included in the notice of
stockholders or members, if within (b) A proxy form which shall be submitted to the corporate meeting such as the agenda, a
the powers or authority of the secretary within a reasonable time prior to the meeting; proxy form, among others. (the
corporation, shall be valid even if old law does not require these to
the meeting be improperly held or (c) When attendance, participation, and voting are allowed be included in the notice.)
called, provided all the by remote communication or in absentia, the requirements
stockholders or members of the and procedures to be followed when a stockholder or The old and new law allow
corporation are present or duly member elects either option; and proceedings and any business
represented at the meeting. (24 and transacted at a meeting to be
25) (d) When the meeting is for the election of directors or valid regardless if the meeting is
trustees, the requirements and procedure for nomination improperly held or called
and election. provided that all stockholders
or members are present or duly
All proceedings and any business transacted at a meeting of represented BUT, the new law
the stockholders or members, if within the powers or added a proviso that no one
authority of the corporation, shall be valid even if the must state at the beginning that
meeting is improperly held or called: Provided, That all the the purpose of their attendance
stockholders or members of the corporation are present or is to object to the transaction or
duly represented at the meeting and not one of them any business because the
expressly states at the beginning of the meeting that the meeting is not lawfully called or
purpose of their attendance is to object to the transaction of convened.
any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or
convened.

Section 52. Quorum in meetings. - SEC. 51. Quorum in Meetings. – Unless otherwise provided NO change
Unless otherwise provided for in in this Code or in the bylaws, a quorum shall consist of the
this Code or in the by-laws, a stockholders representing a majority of the outstanding
quorum shall consist of the capital stock or a majority of the members in the case of
stockholders representing a non-stock corporations.
majority of the outstanding capital
stock or a majority of the members
in the case of non-stock
corporations. (n)
Section 53. Regular and special SEC. 52. Regular and Special Meetings of Directors or A The new law added “quorum”
meetings of directors or trustees. - Trustees; Quorum. – Unless the articles of incorporation or in the title of this provision.
Regular meetings of the board of the bylaws provides for a greater majority, a majority of
directors or trustees of every the directors or trustees as stated in the articles of The new law provides what
corporation shall be held monthly, incorporation shall constitute a quorum to transact constitute a quorum in regular
unless the by-laws provide corporate business, and every decision reached by at least and special meetings of
otherwise. Special meetings of the a majority of the directors or trustees constituting a directors or trustees which is
board of directors or trustees may quorum, except for the election of officers which shall majority of the directors or
be held at any time upon the call of require the vote of a majority of all the members of the trustees stated in the articles of
the president or as provided in the board, shall be valid as a corporate act. incorporation, except if the
by-laws. Meetings of directors or Regular meetings of the board of directors or trustees of articles of incorporation
trustees of corporations may be every corporation shall be held monthly, unless the bylaws provides for a greater majority.
held anywhere in or outside of the provide otherwise. (This is a new provision. The old
Philippines, unless the by-laws law is silent as to quorum
provide otherwise. Notice of Special meetings of the board of directors or trustees may be during meetings.)
regular or special meetings stating held at any time upon the call of the president or as
the date, time and place of the provided in the bylaws. The new law also provides for a
meeting must be sent to every Meetings of directors or trustees of corporations may be way where directors or trustees
director or trustee at least one (1) held anywhere in or outside of the Philippines, unless the who cannot physically attend or
day prior to the scheduled meeting, bylaws provide otherwise. Notice of regular or special vote at board meetings to
unless otherwise provided by the meetings stating the date, time and place of the meeting participate and vote through
by-laws. A director or trustee may must be sent to every director or trustee at least two (2) remote communication such as
waive this requirement, either days prior to the scheduled meeting, unless a longer time videoconferencing or other
expressly or impliedly. (n) is provided in the alternative modes as to afford
bylaws. A director or trustee may waive this requirement, them reasonable opportunities
either expressly or impliedly. to participate. (This is a new
provision.)
Directors or trustees who cannot physically attend or vote at
board meetings can participate and vote through remote The new law also provides that
communication such as videoconferencing, directors or trustees who has a
teleconferencing, or other alternative modes of potential interest in any related
communication that allow them reasonable opportunities to party transaction must refuse
participate. Directors or trustees cannot attend or vote by from voting on the approval of
proxy at board meetings. the related party transaction.
A director or trustee who has a potential interest in any (This is a new provision.)
related party transaction must refuse from voting on the
approval of the related party transaction without prejudice
to compliance with the requirements of Section 31 of this
Code.
Section 54. Who shall preside at SEC. 53. Who Shall Preside at Meetings. – The chairman or, A The new law makes the
meetings. - The president shall in his absence, the president shall preside at all meetings of “chairman”, the main presider
preside at all meetings of the the directors or trustees as well as of the stockholders or of meetings. Only in his absence
directors or trustee as well as of the members, unless the bylaws provide otherwise. can the president preside.
stockholders or members, unless Under the old law, , the
the by-laws provide otherwise. (n) president is the main presider.
Section 55. Right to vote of SEC. 54. Right to Vote of Secured Creditors and A Change of title of the provisions
pledgors, mortgagors, and Administrators. – In case a stockholder grants security from “Right to vote of pledgors,
administrators. - In case of pledged interest in his or her shares in stock corporations, the mortgagors, and
or mortgaged shares in stock stockholder-grantor shall have the right to attend and vote administrators” to “Right to
corporations, the pledgor or at meetings of stockholders, unless the secured creditor is Vote of Secured Creditors and
mortgagor shall have the right to expressly given by the stockholder-grantor such right in Administrators”.
attend and vote at meetings of writing which is recorded in the appropriate corporate
stockholders, unless the pledgee or books. Pledgor, mortgagors and
mortgagee is expressly given by the administrators are changed to
pledgor or mortgagor such right in Executors, administrators, receivers, and other legal secured creditors and
writing which is recorded on the representatives duly appointed by the court may attend and administrators.
appropriate corporate books. (n) vote in behalf of the stockholders or members without need
Executors, administrators, of any written proxy. The new law provides that in
receivers, and other legal case a stockholder grants
representatives duly appointed by security interest in his or her
the court may attend and vote in shares in stock corporations, the
behalf of the stockholders or stockholder- grantor shall have
members without need of any the right to attend and vote at
written proxy. (27a) meetings UNLESS such secured
creditor is expressly given of
such right.
Section 56. Voting in case of joint SEC. 55. Voting in Case of Joint Ownership of Stock. – The NO change
ownership of stock. - In case of consent of all the co-owners shall be necessary in voting
shares of stock owned jointly by shares of stock owned jointly by two (2) or more persons,
two or more persons, in order to unless there is a written proxy, signed by all the co-owners,
vote the same, the consent of all the authorizing one (1) or some of them or any other person to
co-owners shall be necessary, vote such share or shares: Provided, That when the shares
unless there is a written proxy, are owned in an “and/or” capacity by the holders thereof,
signed by all the co-owners, any one of the joint owners can vote said shares or appoint a
authorizing one or some of them or proxy therefor.
any other person to vote such share
or shares: Provided, That when the
shares are owned in an "and/or"
capacity by the holders thereof, any
one of the joint owners can vote
said shares or appoint a proxy
therefor. (n)
Section 57. Voting right for treasury SEC. 56. Voting Right for Treasury Shares. – Treasury No change
shares. - Treasury shares shall have shares shall have no voting right as long as such shares
no voting right as long as such remain in the Treasury.
shares remain in the Treasury. (n)
Section 58. Proxies. - Stockholders SEC. 57. Manner of Voting; Proxies. – Stockholders and The new law allows the
and members may vote in person or members may vote in person or by proxy in all meetings of stockholders or members of
by proxy in all meetings of stockholders or members. corporations to vote through
stockholders or members. Proxies remote communication so long
shall in writing, signed by the When so authorized in the bylaws or by a majority of the as the bylaws or by a majority of
stockholder or member and filed board of directors, the stockholders or members of the board of directors, members
before the scheduled meeting with corporations may also vote through remote communication or stockholders authorize it and
the corporate secretary. Unless or in absentia: Provided, That the votes are received before the votes are received before the
otherwise provided in the proxy, it the corporation finishes the tally of votes. corporation finishes the tally of
shall be valid only for the meeting votes. In such case, the
for which it is intended. No proxy A stockholder or member who participates through remote stockholder or member who
shall be valid and effective for a communication or in absentia shall be deemed present for participates through remote
period longer than five (5) years at purposes of quorum. communication or in absentia
any one time. (n) shall be deemed present for
The corporation shall establish the appropriate purposes of quorum. (This is a
requirements and procedures for voting through remote new provision.)
communication and in absentia, taking into account the
company’s scale, number of shareholders or members,
structure and other factors consistent with the basic right of
corporate suffrage.

Proxies shall be in writing, signed and filed, by the


stockholder or member, in any form authorized in the
bylaws and received by the corporate secretary within a
reasonable time before the scheduled meeting. Unless
otherwise provided in the proxy form, it shall be valid only
for the meeting for which it is intended. No proxy shall be
valid and effective for a period longer than five (5) years at
any one time.

Section 59. Voting trusts. - One or SEC. 58. Voting Trusts. – One or more stockholders of a A The new law adds that no
more stockholders of a stock stock corporation may create a voting trust for the purpose voting trust agreement shall be
corporation may create a voting of conferring upon a trustee or trustees the right to vote and entered into for purposes of
trust for the purpose of conferring other rights pertaining to the shares for a period not circumventing the laws against
upon a trustee or trustees the right exceeding five (5) years at any time: Provided, That in the anti- competitive agreements,
to vote and other rights pertaining case of a voting trust specifically required as a condition in a abuse of dominant position,
to the shares for a period not loan agreement, said voting trust may be for a period anti-competitive mergers and
exceeding five (5) years at any time: exceeding five (5) years but shall automatically expire upon acquisitions, violation of
Provided, That in the case of a full payment of the loan. A voting trust agreement must be nationality and capital
voting trust specifically required as in writing and notarized, and shall specify the terms and requirements or for the
a condition in a loan agreement, conditions thereof. A certified copy of such agreement perpetra]]uation of fraud. (The
said voting trust may be for a shall be filed with the corporation and with the old law only provides for
period exceeding five (5) years but Commission; otherwise, the agreement is ineffective and monopolies and illegal
shall automatically expire upon full unenforceable. The certificate or certificates of stock combinations in restraint of
payment of the loan. A voting trust covered by the voting trust agreement shall be cancelled trade or used for purposes of
agreement must be in writing and and new ones shall be issued in the name of the trustee or fraud.)
notarized, and shall specify the trustees, stating that they are issued pursuant to said
terms and conditions thereof. A agreement. The books of the corporation shall state that the The new law adds that the
certified copy of such agreement transfer in the name of the trustee or trustees is made voting of trustee may be by
shall be filed with the corporation pursuant to the voting trust agreement. proxy or in any manner
and with the Securities and The trustee or trustees shall execute and deliver to the authorized under the by laws
Exchange Commission; otherwise, transferors, voting trust certificates, which shall be unless the agreement provides
said agreement is ineffective and transferable in the same manner and with the same effect as otherwise. (The old law does not
unenforceable. The certificate or certificates of stock. mention of any manner
certificates of stock covered by the The voting trust agreement filed with the corporation shall authorized under the by laws.)
voting trust agreement shall be be subject to examination by any stockholder of the
cancelled and new ones shall be corporation in the same manner as any other corporate book
issued in the name of the trustee or or record: Provided, That both the trustor and the trustee or
trustees stating that they are issued trustees may exercise the right of inspection of all corporate
pursuant to said agreement. In the books and records in accordance with the provisions of this
books of the corporation, it shall be Code.
noted that the transfer in the name Any other stockholder may transfer the shares to the same
of the trustee or trustees is made trustee or trustees upon the terms and conditions stated in
pursuant to said voting trust the voting trust agreement, and thereupon shall be bound
agreement. The trustee or trustees by all the provisions of said agreement.
shall execute and deliver to the No voting trust agreement shall be entered into for
transferors voting trust certificates, purposes of circumventing the laws against anti-
which shall be transferable in the competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position, anti-
same manner and with the same competitive mergers and acquisitions, violation of
effect as certificates of stock. The nationality and capital requirements, or for the
voting trust agreement filed with perpetuation of fraud.
the corporation shall be subject to Unless expressly renewed, all rights granted in a voting
examination by any stockholder of trust agreement shall automatically expire at the end of the
the corporation in the same manner agreed period. The voting trust certificates as well as the
as any other corporate book or certificates of stock in the name of the trustee or trustees
record: Provided, That both the shall thereby be deemed cancelled and new certificates of
transferor and the trustee or stock shall be reissued in the name of the trustors.
trustees may exercise the right of The voting trustee or trustees may vote by proxy or in any
inspection of all corporate books manner authorized under the bylaws unless the
and records in accordance with the agreement provides otherwise.
provisions of this Code. Any other
stockholder may transfer his shares
to the same trustee or trustees upon
the terms and conditions stated in
the voting trust agreement, and
thereupon shall be bound by all the
provisions of said agreement. No
voting trust agreement shall be
entered into for the purpose of
circumventing the law against
monopolies and illegal
combinations in restraint of trade or
used for purposes of fraud. Unless
expressly renewed, all rights
granted in a voting trust agreement
shall automatically expire at the
end of the agreed period, and the
voting trust certificates as well as
the certificates of stock in the name
of the trustee or trustees shall
thereby be deemed cancelled and
new certificates of stock shall be
reissued in the name of the
transferors. The voting trustee or
trustees may vote by proxy unless
the agreement provides otherwise.
(36a)
TITLE VII - STOCKS AND TITLE VII
STOCKHOLDERS STOCKS AND STOCKHOLDERS
Section 60. Subscription contract. - SEC. 59. Subscription Contract. – Any contract for the No change
Any contract for the acquisition of acquisition of unissued stock in an existing corporation or a
unissued stock in an existing corporation still to be formed shall be deemed a
corporation or a corporation still to subscription within the meaning of this Title,
be formed shall be deemed a notwithstanding the fact that the parties refer to it as a
subscription within the meaning of purchase or some other contract.
this Title, notwithstanding the fact
that the parties refer to it as a
purchase or some other contract. (n)
Section 61. Pre-incorporation SEC. 60. Pre-incorporation Subscription. – A subscription No change
subscription. - A subscription for of shares in a corporation still to be formed shall be
shares of stock of a corporation still irrevocable for a period of at least six (6) months from the
to be formed shall be irrevocable for date of subscription, unless all of the other subscribers
a period of at least six (6) months consent to the revocation, or the corporation fails to
from the date of subscription, incorporate within the same period or within a longer
unless all of the other subscribers period stipulated in the contract of subscription.
consent to the revocation, or unless No pre-incorporation subscription may be revoked after the
the incorporation of said articles of incorporation is submitted to the Commission.
corporation fails to materialize
within said period or within a
longer period as may be stipulated
in the contract of subscription:
Provided, That no pre-
incorporation subscription may be
revoked after the submission of the
articles of incorporation to the
Securities and Exchange
Commission. (n)
Section 62. Consideration for stocks. SEC. 61. Consideration for Stocks. – Stocks shall not be A The new law adds two more in
- Stocks shall not be issued for a issued for a consideration less than the par or issued price the enumeration of
consideration less than the par or thereof. Consideration for the issuance of stock may be: consideration for the issuance of
issued price thereof. Consideration (a) Actual cash paid to the corporation; stocks such as shares of stock in
for the issuance of stock may be any another corporation; and/or
or a combination of any two or (b) Property, tangible or intangible, actually received by the other generally accepted form of
more of the following: 1. Actual corporation and necessary or convenient for its use and consideration.
cash paid to the corporation; 2. lawful purposes at a fair valuation equal to the par or issued
Property, tangible or intangible, value of the stock issued;
actually received by the corporation
and necessary or convenient for its (c) Labor performed for or services actually rendered to the
use and lawful purposes at a fair corporation;
valuation equal to the par or issued
value of the stock issued; 3. Labor (d) Previously incurred indebtedness of the corporation;
performed for or services actually
rendered to the corporation; 4. (e) Amounts transferred from unrestricted retained earnings
Previously incurred indebtedness to stated capital;
of the corporation; 5. Amounts
transferred from unrestricted (f) Outstanding shares exchanged for stocks in the event of
retained earnings to stated capital; reclassification or conversion;
and 6. Outstanding shares
exchanged for stocks in the event of (g) Shares of stock in another corporation; and/or
reclassification or conversion.
Where the consideration is other
than actual cash, or consists of (h) Other generally accepted form of consideration.
intangible property such as patents
of copyrights, the valuation thereof Where the consideration is other than actual cash, or
shall initially be determined by the consists of intangible property such as patents or
incorporators or the board of copyrights, the valuation thereof shall initially be
directors, subject to approval by the determined by the stockholders or the board of directors,
Securities and Exchange subject to the approval of the Commission.
Commission. Shares of stock shall Shares of stock shall not be issued in exchange for
not be issued in exchange for promissory notes or future service. The same considerations
promissory notes or future service. provided in this section, insofar as applicable, may be used
The same considerations provided for the issuance of bonds by the corporation.
for in this section, insofar as they The issued price of no-par value shares may be fixed in the
may be applicable, may be used for articles of incorporation or by the board of directors
the issuance of bonds by the pursuant to authority conferred by the articles of
corporation. The issued price of no- incorporation or the bylaws, or if not so fixed, by the
par value shares may be fixed in the stockholders representing at least a majority of the
articles of incorporation or by the outstanding capital stock at a meeting duly called for the
board of directors pursuant to purpose.
authority conferred upon it by the
articles of incorporation or the by-
laws, or in the absence thereof, by
the stockholders representing at
least a majority of the outstanding
capital stock at a meeting duly
called for the purpose. (5 and 16)
Section 63. Certificate of stock and SEC. 62. Certificate of Stock and Transfer of Shares. – The A The new law adds that the
transfer of shares. - The capital capital stock of corporations shall be divided into shares for Commission may require
stock of stock corporations shall be which certificates signed by the president or vice president, corporations whose securities
divided into shares for which countersigned by the secretary or assistant secretary, and are traded in trading markets to
certificates signed by the president sealed with the seal of the corporation shall be issued in issue their securities or shares of
or vice president, countersigned by accordance with the bylaws. stocks in uncertificated or
the secretary or assistant secretary, Shares of stock so issued are personal property and may be scripless form in accordance
and sealed with the seal of the transferred by delivery of the certificate or certificates with the rules of the
corporation shall be issued in indorsed by the owner, his attorney-in-fact, or any other Commission.
accordance with the by-laws. person legally authorized to make the transfer.
Shares of stock so issued are
personal property and may be No transfer, however, shall be valid, except as between the
transferred by delivery of the parties, until the transfer is recorded in the books of the
certificate or certificates indorsed corporation showing the names of the parties to the
by the owner or his attorney-in-fact transaction, the date of the transfer, the number of the
or other person legally authorized certificate or certificates, and the number of shares
to make the transfer. No transfer, transferred.
however, shall be valid, except as
between the parties, until the The Commission may require corporations whose securities
transfer is recorded in the books of are traded in trading markets and which can reasonably
the corporation showing the names demonstrate their capability to do so to issue their securities
of the parties to the transaction, the or shares of stocks in uncertificated or scripless form in
date of the transfer, the number of accordance with the rules of the Commission.
the certificate or certificates and the
number of shares transferred. No No shares of stock against which the corporation holds any
shares of stock against which the unpaid claim shall be transferable in the books of the
corporation holds any unpaid claim corporation.
shall be transferable in the books of
the corporation. (35)
Section 64. Issuance of stock SEC. 63. Issuance of Stock Certificates. – No certificate of No change
certificates. - No certificate of stock stock shall be issued to a subscriber until the full amount of
shall be issued to a subscriber until the subscription together with interest and expenses (in case
the full amount of his subscription of delinquent shares), if any is due, has been paid.
together with interest and expenses
(in case of delinquent shares), if any
is due, has been paid. (37)
Section 65. Liability of directors for SEC. 64. Liability of Directors for Watered Stocks. – A Change in form
watered stocks. - Any director or director or officer of a corporation who:
officer of a corporation consenting (a) consents to the issuance of stocks for a consideration less
to the issuance of stocks for a than its par or issued value;
consideration less than its par or
issued value or for a consideration (b) consents to the issuance of stocks for a consideration
in any form other than cash, valued other than cash, valued in excess of its fair value; or
in excess of its fair value, or who,
having knowledge thereof, does not (c) having knowledge of the insufficient consideration, does
forthwith express his objection in not file a written objection with the corporate secretary,
writing and file the same with the shall be liable to the corporation or its creditors, solidarily
corporate secretary, shall be with the stockholder concerned for the difference between
solidarily, liable with the the value received at the time of issuance of the stock and
stockholder concerned to the the par or issued value of the same.
corporation and its creditors for the
difference between the fair value
received at the time of issuance of
the stock and the par or issued
value of the same. (n)
Section 66. Interest on unpaid SEC. 65. Interest on Unpaid Subscriptions. – Subscribers to A Change in “fixed in the by the
subscriptions. - Subscribers for stocks shall be liable to the corporation for interest on all bylaws to “change in the
stock shall pay to the corporation unpaid subscriptions from the date of subscription, if so subscription contract”.
interest on all unpaid subscriptions required by and at the rate of interest fixed in the
from the date of subscription, if so subscription contract. If no rate of interest is fixed in the
required by, and at the rate of subscription contract, the prevailing legal rate shall apply.
interest fixed in the by-laws. If no
rate of interest is fixed in the by-
laws, such rate shall be deemed to
be the legal rate. (37)
Section 67. Payment of balance of SEC. 66. Payment of Balance of Subscription. – Subject to Change in form
subscription. - Subject to the the provisions of the subscription contract, the board of
provisions of the contract of directors may, at any time, declare due and payable to the The new law adds that “the
subscription, the board of directors corporation unpaid subscriptions and may collect the same interest shall be computed from
of any stock corporation may at any or such percentage thereof, in either case, with accrued the date specified, until full
time declare due and payable to the interest, if any, as it may deem necessary. payment of the subscription”.
corporation unpaid subscriptions to Payment of unpaid subscription or any percentage thereof,
the capital stock and may collect the together with any interest accrued, shall be made on the change from “unless a different
same or such percentage thereof, in date specified in the subscription contract or on the date rate is provided in the bylaws”
either case with accrued interest, if stated in the call made by the board. to “unless a different rate is
any, as it may deem necessary. Failure to pay on such date shall render the entire balance provided in the subscription
Payment of any unpaid due and payable and shall make the stockholder liable for contract”.
subscription or any percentage interest at the legal rate on such balance, unless a different
thereof, together with the interest interest rate is provided in the subscription contract.
accrued, if any, shall be made on The interest shall be computed from the date specified, until
the date specified in the contract of full payment of the subscription. If no payment is made
subscription or on the date stated in within thirty (30) days from the said date, all stocks
the call made by the board. Failure covered by the subscription shall thereupon become
to pay on such date shall render the delinquent and shall be subject to sale as hereinafter
entire balance due and payable and provided, unless the board of directors orders otherwise.
shall make the stockholder liable
for interest at the legal rate on such
balance, unless a different rate of
interest is provided in the bylaws,
computed from such date until full
payment. If within thirty (30) days
from the said date no payment is
made, all stocks covered by said
subscription shall thereupon
become delinquent and shall be
subject to sale as hereinafter
provided, unless the board of
directors orders otherwise. (38)
Section 68. Delinquency sale. - The SEC. 67. Delinquency Sale. – The board of directors may, A Change in the manner of
board of directors may, by by resolution, order the sale of delinquent stock and shall sending notice. The new law
resolution, order the sale of specifically state the amount due on each subscription plus adds that notice may be sent
delinquent stock and shall all accrued interest, and the date, time and place of the sale “through other means provided
specifically state the amount due on which shall not be less than thirty (30) days nor more than in the bylaws”.
each subscription plus all accrued sixty (60) days from the date the stocks become delinquent.
interest, and the date, time and Notice of the sale, with a copy of the resolution, shall be sent
place of the sale which shall not be to every delinquent stockholder either personally, by
less than thirty (30) days nor more registered mail, or through other means provided in the
than sixty (60) days from the date bylaws. The same shall be published once a week for two (2)
the stocks become delinquent. consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in
Notice of said sale, with a copy of the province or city where the principal office of the
the resolution, shall be sent to every corporation is located.
delinquent stockholder either Unless the delinquent stockholder pays to the corporation,
personally or by registered mail. on or before the date specified for the sale of the delinquent
The same shall furthermore be stock, the balance due on the former’s subscription, plus
published once a week for two (2) accrued interest, costs of advertisement and expenses of
consecutive weeks in a newspaper sale, or unless the board of directors otherwise orders, said
of general circulation in the delinquent stock shall be sold at a public auction to such
province or city where the principal bidder who shall offer to pay the full amount of the balance
office of the corporation is located. on the subscription together with accrued interest, costs of
Unless the delinquent stockholder advertisement and expenses of sale, for the smallest number
pays to the corporation, on or of shares or fraction of a share. The stock so purchased shall
before the date specified for the sale be transferred to such purchaser in the books of the
of the delinquent stock, the balance corporation and a certificate for such stock shall be issued in
due on his subscription, plus the purchaser’s favor. The remaining shares, if any, shall be
accrued interest, costs of credited in favor of the delinquent stockholder who shall
advertisement and expenses of sale, likewise be entitled to the issuance of a certificate of stock
or unless the board of directors covering such shares.
otherwise orders, said delinquent Should there be no bidder at the public auction who offers
stock shall be sold at public auction to pay the full amount of the balance on the subscription
to such bidder who shall offer to together with accrued interest, costs of advertisement, and
pay the full amount of the balance expenses of sale, for the smallest number of shares or
on the subscription together with fraction of a share, the corporation may, subject to the
accrued interest, costs of provisions of this Code, bid for the same, and the total
advertisement and expenses of sale, amount due shall be credited as fully paid in the books of
for the smallest number of shares or the corporation. Title to all the shares of stock covered by
fraction of a share. The stock so the subscription shall be vested in the corporation as
purchased shall be transferred to treasury shares and may be disposed of by said corporation
such purchaser in the books of the in accordance with the provisions of this Code.
corporation and a certificate for
such stock shall be issued in his
favor. The remaining shares, if any,
shall be credited in favor of the
delinquent stockholder who shall
likewise be entitled to the issuance
of a certificate of stock covering
such shares. Should there be no
bidder at the public auction who
offers to pay the full amount of the
balance on the subscription
together with accrued interest, costs
of advertisement and expenses of
sale, for the smallest number of
shares or fraction of a share, the
corporation may, subject to the
provisions of this Code, bid for the
same, and the total amount due
shall be credited as paid in full in
the books of the corporation. Title
to all the shares of stock covered by
the subscription shall be vested in
the corporation as treasury shares
and may be disposed of by said
corporation in accordance with the
provisions of this Code. (39a-46a)
Section 69. When sale may be SEC. 68. When Sale may be Questioned. – No action to No change
questioned. - No action to recover recover delinquent stock sold can be sustained upon the
delinquent stock sold can be ground of irregularity or defect in the notice of sale, or in
sustained upon the ground of the sale itself of the delinquent stock, unless the party
irregularity or defect in the notice of seeking to maintain such action first pays or tenders to the
sale, or in the sale itself of the party holding the stock the sum for which the same was
delinquent stock, unless the party sold, with interest from the date of sale at the legal rate. No
seeking to maintain such action first such action shall be maintained unless a complaint is filed
pays or tenders to the party holding within six (6) months from the date of sale.
the stock the sum for which the
same was sold, with interest from
the date of sale at the legal rate; and
no such action shall be maintained
unless it is commenced by the filing
of a complaint within six (6) months
from the date of sale. (47a)
Section 70. Court action to recover SEC. 69. Court Action to Recover Unpaid Subscription. – No change
unpaid subscription. - Nothing in Nothing in this Code shall prevent the corporation from
this Code shall prevent the collecting through court action, the amount due on any
corporation from collecting by unpaid subscription, with accrued interest, costs and
action in a court of proper expenses.
jurisdiction the amount due on any
unpaid subscription, with accrued
interest, costs and expenses. (49a)
Section 71. Effect of delinquency. - SEC. 70. Effect of Delinquency. – No delinquent stock shall No change
No delinquent stock shall be voted be voted for, be entitled to vote, or be represented at any
for or be entitled to vote or to stockholder’s meeting, nor shall the holder thereof be
representation at any stockholder's entitled to any of the rights of a stockholder except the right
meeting, nor shall the holder to dividends in accordance with the provisions of this Code,
thereof be entitled to any of the until and unless payment is made by the holder of such
rights of a stockholder except the delinquent stock for the amount due on the subscription
right to dividends in accordance with accrued interest, and the costs and expenses of
with the provisions of this Code, advertisement, if any.
until and unless he pays the
amount due on his subscription
with accrued interest, and the costs
and expenses of advertisement, if
any. (50a)
Section 72. Rights of unpaid shares. SEC. 71. Rights of Unpaid Shares, Non-delinquent. – No change
- Holders of subscribed shares not Holders of subscribed shares not fully paid which are not
fully paid which are not delinquent delinquent shall have all the rights of a stockholder.
shall have all the rights of a
stockholder. (n)
Section 73. Lost or destroyed SEC. 72. Lost or Destroyed Certificates. – The following No change
certificates. - The following procedure shall be followed by a corporation in issuing new
procedure shall be followed for the certificates of stock in lieu of those which have been lost,
issuance by a corporation of new stolen or destroyed:
certificates of stock in lieu of those (a) The registered owner of a certificate of stock in a
which have been lost, stolen or corporation or such person’s legal representative shall file
destroyed: 1. The registered owner with the corporation an affidavit in triplicate setting forth, if
of a certificate of stock in a possible, the circumstances as to how the certificate was lost,
corporation or his legal stolen or destroyed, the number of shares represented by
representative shall file with the such certificate, the serial number of the certificate and the
corporation an affidavit in triplicate name of the corporation which issued the same. The owner
setting forth, if possible, the of such certificate of stock shall also submit such other
circumstances as to how the information and evidence as may be deemed necessary;
certificate was lost, stolen or
destroyed, the number of shares (b) After verifying the affidavit and other information and
represented by such certificate, the evidence with the books of the corporation, the corporation
serial number of the certificate and shall publish a notice in a newspaper of general circulation
the name of the corporation which in the place where the corporation has its principal office,
issued the same. He shall also once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks at the expense
submit such other information and of the registered owner of the certificate of stock which has
evidence which he may deem been lost, stolen or destroyed. The notice shall state the
necessary; 2. After verifying the name of the corporation, the name of the registered owner,
affidavit and other information and the serial number of the certificate, the number of shares
evidence with the books of the represented by such certificate, and shall state that after the
corporation, said corporation shall expiration of one (1) year from the date of the last
publish a notice in a newspaper of publication, if no contest has been presented to the
general circulation published in the corporation regarding the certificate of stock, the right to
place where the corporation has its make such contest shall be barred and the corporation shall
principal office, once a week for cancel the lost, destroyed or stolen certificate of stock in its
three (3) consecutive weeks at the books. In lieu thereof, the corporation shall issue a new
expense of the registered owner of certificate of stock, unless the registered owner files a bond
the certificate of stock which has or other security as may be required, effective for a period
been lost, stolen or destroyed. The of one (1) year, for such amount and in such form and with
notice shall state the name of said such sureties as may be satisfactory to the board of
corporation, the name of the directors, in which case a new certificate may be issued even
registered owner and the serial before the expiration of the one (1) year period provided
number of said certificate, and the herein. If a contest has been presented to the corporation or
number of shares represented by if an action is pending in court regarding the ownership of
such certificate, and that after the the certificate of stock which has been lost, stolen or
expiration of one (1) year from the destroyed, the issuance of the new certificate of stock in lieu
date of the last publication, if no thereof shall be suspended until the court renders a final
contest has been presented to said decision regarding the ownership of the certificate of stock
corporation regarding said which has been lost, stolen or destroyed.
certificate of stock, the right to
make such contest shall be barred Except in case of fraud, bad faith, or negligence on the part
and said corporation shall cancel in of the corporation and its officers, no action may be brought
its books the certificate of stock against any corporation which shall have issued certificate
which has been lost, stolen or of stock in lieu of those lost, stolen or destroyed pursuant to
destroyed and issue in lieu thereof the procedure above-described.
new certificate of stock, unless the
registered owner files a bond or
other security in lieu thereof as may
be required, effective for a period of
one (1) year, for such amount and
in such form and with such sureties
as may be satisfactory to the board
of directors, in which case a new
certificate may be issued even
before the expiration of the one (1)
year period provided herein:
Provided, That if a contest has been
presented to said corporation or if
an action is pending in court
regarding the ownership of said
certificate of stock which has been
lost, stolen or destroyed, the
issuance of the new certificate of
stock in lieu thereof shall be
suspended until the final decision
by the court regarding the
ownership of said certificate of
stock which has been lost, stolen or
destroyed. Except in case of fraud,
bad faith, or negligence on the part
of the corporation and its officers,
no action may be brought against
any corporation which shall have
issued certificate of stock in lieu of
those lost, stolen or destroyed
pursuant to the procedure above-
described. (R.A. 201a)
TITLE VIII - CORPORATE BOOKS TITLE VIII
AND RECORDS CORPORATE BOOKS AND RECORDS
Section 74. Books to be kept; stock SEC. 73. Books to be Kept; Stock Transfer Agent. – Every A Change in form
transfer agent. - Every corporation corporation shall keep and carefully preserve at its principal
shall keep and carefully preserve at office all information relating to the corporation including, The new law added in the
its principal office a record of all but not limited to: enumeration the list of
business transactions and minutes (a) The articles of incorporation and bylaws of the information to be kept and
of all meetings of stockholders or corporation and all their amendments;
preserved in the principal place
members, or of the board of
of business such as the articles
directors or trustees, in which shall (b) The current ownership structure and voting rights of the
be set forth in detail the time and corporation, including lists of stockholders or members, of incorporation and bylaws of
place of holding the meeting, how group structures, intra-group relations, ownership data, and the corporation and all their
authorized, the notice given, beneficial ownership; amendments; current
whether the meeting was regular or ownership and structure and
special, if special its object, those (c) The names and addresses of all the members of the board voting rights of corporation;
present and absent, and every act of directors or trustees and the executive officers; names and addresses of all the
done or ordered done at the
members of the board of
meeting. Upon the demand of any (d) A record of all business transactions;
directors or trustees; record of
director, trustee, stockholder or
member, the time when any (e) A record of the resolutions of the board of directors or all resolutions; copies of latest
director, trustee, stockholder or trustees and of the stockholders or members; reportorial requirements
member entered or left the meeting submitted to the commission.
must be noted in the minutes; and (f) Copies of the latest reportorial requirements submitted to
on a similar demand, the yeas and the Commission; and The new law makes the
nays must be taken on any motion inspecting or reproducing party
or proposition, and a record thereof (g) The minutes of all meetings of stockholders or members, bound by the confidentiality
carefully made. The protest of any or of the board of directors or trustees. Such minutes shall rules under prevailing laws,
director, trustee, stockholder or set forth in detail, among others: the time and place of the such as Intellectual Property
member on any action or proposed meeting held, how it was authorized, the notice given, the Code, Data Privacy Act of 2012,
action must be recorded in full on agenda therefor, whether the meeting was regular or The Securities Regulation COde
his demand. The records of all special, its object if special, those present and absent, and and the Rules of Court.
business transactions of the every act done or ordered done at the meeting. Upon the
corporation and the minutes of any demand of a director, trustee, stockholder or member, the The new law also prohibits a
meetings shall be open to time when any director, trustee, stockholder or member requesting party, not a
inspection by any director, trustee, entered or left the meeting must be noted in the minutes; stockholder or member of
stockholder or member of the and on a similar demand, the yeas and nays must be taken record or a competitor or one
corporation at reasonable hours on on any motion or proposition, and a record thereof carefully that represents the interest of a
business days and he may demand, made. The protest of a director, trustee, stockholder or competitor to inspect or demand
in writing, for a copy of excerpts member on any action or proposed action must be recorded reproduction of corporate
from said records or minutes, at his in full upon their demand. records.
expense. Any officer or agent of the The new law also penalizes the
corporation who shall refuse to Corporate records, regardless of the form in which they are stockholder who shall abuse the
allow any director, trustees, stored, shall be open to inspection by any director, trustee, rights granted under this
stockholder or member of the stockholder or member of the corporation in person or by a section.
corporation to examine and copy representative at reasonable hours on business days, and a
excerpts from its records or demand in writing may be made by such director, trustee or The new law allows
minutes, in accordance with the stockholder at their expense, for copies of such records or stockholder, who has been
provisions of this Code, shall be excerpts from said records. The inspecting or reproducing denied by the Corporation to
liable to such director, trustee, party shall remain bound by confidentiality rules under inspect/reproduce, to report
stockholder or member for prevailing laws, such as the rules on trade secrets or such denial and inaction to the
damages, and in addition, shall be processes under Republic Act No. 8293, otherwise known as Commission within 5 days from
guilty of an offense which shall be the “Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines”, as receipt of such report. The
punishable under Section 144 of amended, Republic Act No. 10173, otherwise known as the Commision will then conduct a
this Code: Provided, That if such “Data Privacy Act of 2012”, Republic Act No. 8799, summary investigation and
refusal is made pursuant to a otherwise known as “The Securities Regulation Code”, and issue an order directing the
resolution or order of the board of the Rules of Court. inspection and reproduction of
directors or trustees, the liability A requesting party who is not a stockholder or member of the requested records.
under this section for such action record, or is a competitor, director, officer, controlling
shall be imposed upon the directors stockholder or otherwise represents the interests of a The new law requires stock
or trustees who voted for such competitor shall have no right to inspect or demand corporation which transfers
refusal: and Provided, further, That reproduction of corporate records. and/or trade stock in secondary
it shall be a defense to any action Any stockholder who shall abuse the rights granted under market to have an independent
under this section that the person this section shall be penalized under Section 158 of this transfer agent.
demanding to examine and copy Code, without prejudice to the provisions of Republic Act
excerpts from the corporation's No. 8293, otherwise known as the “Intellectual Property
records and minutes has Code of the Philippines”, as amended, and Republic Act No.
improperly used any information 10173, otherwise known as the “Data Privacy Act of 2012”.
secured through any prior Any officer or agent of the corporation who shall refuse to
examination of the records or allow the inspection and/or reproduction of records in
minutes of such corporation or of accordance with the provisions of this Code shall be liable to
any other corporation, or was not such director,
acting in good faith or for a trustee, stockholder or member for damages, and in
legitimate purpose in making his addition, shall be guilty of an offense which shall be
demand. Stock corporations must punishable under Section 161 of this Code: Provided, That if
also keep a book to be known as the such refusal is made pursuant to a resolution or order of the
"stock and transfer book", in which board of directors or trustees, the liability under this section
must be kept a record of all stocks for such action shall be imposed upon the directors or
in the names of the stockholders trustees who voted for such refusal: Provided, further, That
alphabetically arranged; the it shall be a defense to any action under this section that the
installments paid and unpaid on all person demanding to examine and copy excerpts from the
stock for which subscription has corporation’s records and minutes has improperly used any
been made, and the date of information secured through any prior examination of the
payment of any installment; a records or minutes of such corporation or of any other
statement of every alienation, sale corporation, or was not acting in good faith or for a
or transfer of stock made, the date legitimate purpose in making the demand to examine or
thereof, and by and to whom made; reproduce corporate records, or is a competitor, director,
and such other entries as the by- officer, controlling stockholder or otherwise represents the
laws may prescribe. The stock and interests of a competitor.
transfer book shall be kept in the If the corporation denies or does not act on a demand for
principal office of the corporation inspection and/or reproduction, the aggrieved party may
or in the office of its stock transfer report such denial or inaction to the Commission. Within
agent and shall be open for five (5) days from receipt of such report, the Commission
inspection by any director or shall conduct a summary investigation and issue an order
stockholder of the corporation at directing the inspection or reproduction of the requested
reasonable hours on business days. records.
No stock transfer agent or one Stock corporations must also keep a stock and transfer
engaged principally in the business book, which shall contain a record of all stocks in the names
of registering transfers of stocks in of the stockholders alphabetically arranged; the installments
behalf of a stock corporation shall paid and unpaid on all stocks for which subscription has
be allowed to operate in the been made, and the date of payment of any installment; a
Philippines unless he secures a statement of every alienation, sale or transfer of stock made,
license from the Securities and the date thereof, by and to whom made; and such other
Exchange Commission and pays a entries as the bylaws may prescribe. The stock and transfer
fee as may be fixed by the book shall be kept in the principal office of the corporation
Commission, which shall be or in the office of its stock transfer agent and shall be open
renewable annually: Provided, That for inspection by any director or stockholder of the
a stock corporation is not precluded corporation at reasonable hours on business days.
from performing or making transfer
of its own stocks, in which case all A stock transfer agent or one engaged principally in the
the rules and regulations imposed business of registering transfers of stocks in behalf of a stock
on stock transfer agents, except the corporation shall be allowed to operate in the Philippines
payment of a license fee herein upon securing a license from the Commission and the
provided, shall be applicable. (51a payment of a fee to be fixed by the Commission, which shall
and 32a; P.B. No. 268.) be renewable annually: Provided, That a stock corporation
is not precluded from performing or making transfers of its
own stocks, in which case all the rules and regulations
imposed on stock transfer agents, except the payment of a
license fee herein provided, shall be applicable: Provided,
further, That the Commission may require stock
corporations which transfer and/or trade stocks in
secondary markets to have an independent transfer agent.

Section 75. Right to financial SEC. 74. Right to Financial Statements. – A corporation A Change in form
statements. - Within ten (10) days shall furnish a stockholder or member, within ten (10) days
from receipt of a written request of from receipt of their written request, its most recent The financial state must be in
any stockholder or member, the financial statement, in the form and substance of the the form and substance of the
corporation shall furnish to him its financial reporting required by the Commission. financial reporting required by
most recent financial statement, At the regular meeting of stockholders or members, the the Commission.
which shall include a balance sheet board of directors or trustees shall present to such
as of the end of the last taxable year stockholders or members a financial report of the Change in the threshold where
and a profit or loss statement for operations of the corporation for the preceding year, under the new law, if the total
said taxable year, showing in which shall include financial statements, duly signed and assets or total liabilities of the
reasonable detail its assets and certified in accordance with this Code, and the rules the Corporation are less than
liabilities and the result of its Commission may prescribe. 600,000.00, or such other
operations. At the regular meeting However, if the total assets or total liabilities of the amount determined by
of stockholders or members, the corporation are less than Six hundred thousand pesos Department of Finance, the
board of directors or trustees shall (P600,000.00), or such other amount as may be determined financial statements must be
present to such stockholders or appropriate by the Department of Finance, the financial certified under oath by the
members a financial report of the statements may be certified under oath by the treasurer and treasurer and the president.
operations of the corporation for the president. (The old law requires the paid
the preceding year, which shall up capital be less than 500,000.)
include financial statements, duly
signed and certified by an
independent certified public
accountant. However, if the paid-
up capital of the corporation is less
than P50,000.00, the financial
statements may be certified under
oath by the treasurer or any
responsible officer of the
corporation. (n)
TITLE IX - MERGER AND TITLE IX
CONSOLIDATION MERGER AND CONSOLIDATION
Section 76. Plan or merger of SEC. 75. Plan of Merger or Consolidation. – Two (2) or No change
consolidation. - Two or more more corporations may merge into a single corporation
corporations may merge into a which shall be one of the constituent corporations or may
single corporation which shall be consolidate into a new single corporation which shall be the
one of the constituent corporations consolidated corporation.
or may consolidate into a new The board of directors or trustees of each corporation, party
single corporation which shall be to the merger or consolidation, shall approve a plan of
the consolidated corporation. The merger or consolidation setting forth the following:
board of directors or trustees of (a) The names of the corporations proposing to merge or
each corporation, party to the consolidate, hereinafter referred to as the constituent
merger or consolidation, shall corporations;
approve a plan of merger or
consolidation setting forth the (b) The terms of the merger or consolidation and the mode
following: 1. The names of the of carrying the same into effect;
corporations proposing to merge or
consolidate, hereinafter referred to (c) A statement of the changes, if any, in the articles of
as the constituent corporations; 2. incorporation of the surviving corporation in case of merger;
The terms of the merger or and, in case of consolidation, all the statements required to
consolidation and the mode of be set forth in the articles of incorporation for corporations
carrying the same into effect; 3. A organized under this Code; and
statement of the changes, if any, in
the articles of incorporation of the (d) Such other provisions with respect to the proposed
surviving corporation in case of merger or consolidation as are deemed necessary or
merger; and, with respect to the desirable.
consolidated corporation in case of
consolidation, all the statements
required to be set forth in the
articles of incorporation for
corporations organized under this
Code; and 4. Such other provisions
with respect to the proposed
merger or consolidation as are
deemed necessary or desirable. (n
Section 77. Stockholder's or SEC. 76. Stockholders’ or Members’ Approval. – Upon No change
member's approval. - Upon approval by a majority vote of each of the board of directors
approval by majority vote of each or trustees of the constituent corporations of the plan of
of the board of directors or trustees merger or consolidation, the same shall be submitted for
of the constituent corporations of approval by the stockholders or members of each of such
the plan of merger or consolidation, corporations at separate corporate meetings duly called for
the same shall be submitted for the purpose. Notice of such meetings shall be given to all
approval by the stockholders or stockholders or members of the respective corporations in
members of each of such the same manner as giving notice of regular or special
corporations at separate corporate meetings under Section 49 of this Code. The notice shall
meetings duly called for the state the purpose of the meeting and include a copy or a
purpose. Notice of such meetings summary of the plan of merger or consolidation.
shall be given to all stockholders or The affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least
members of the respective two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock of each
corporations, at least two (2) weeks corporation in the case of stock corporations or at least two-
prior to the date of the meeting, thirds (2/3) of the members in the case of non-stock
either personally or by registered corporations shall be necessary for the approval of such
mail. Said notice shall state the plan. Any dissenting stockholder may exercise the right of
purpose of the meeting and shall appraisal in accordance with this Code: Provided, That if
include a copy or a summary of the after the approval by the stockholders of such plan, the
plan of merger or consolidation. board of directors decides to abandon the plan, the right of
The affirmative vote of stockholders appraisal shall be extinguished.
representing at least two-thirds Any amendment to the plan of merger or consolidation may
(2/3) of the outstanding capital be made: Provided, That such amendment is approved by a
stock of each corporation in the case majority vote of the respective boards of directors or
of stock corporations or at least trustees of all the constituent corporations and ratified by
two-thirds (2/3) of the members in the affirmative vote of stockholders representing at least
the case of non-stock corporations two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock or of two-
shall be necessary for the approval thirds (2/3) of the members of each of the constituent
of such plan. Any dissenting corporations. Such plan, together with any amendment,
stockholder in stock corporations shall be considered as the agreement of merger or
may exercise his appraisal right in consolidation.
accordance with the Code:
Provided, That if after the approval
by the stockholders of such plan,
the board of directors decides to
abandon the plan, the appraisal
right shall be extinguished. Any
amendment to the plan of merger
or consolidation may be made,
provided such amendment is
approved by majority vote of the
respective boards of directors or
trustees of all the constituent
corporations and ratified by the
affirmative vote of stockholders
representing at least two-thirds
(2/3) of the outstanding capital
stock or of two-thirds (2/3) of the
members of each of the constituent
corporations. Such plan, together
with any amendment, shall be
considered as the agreement of
merger or consolidation. (n
Section 78. Articles of merger or SEC. 77. Articles of Merger or Consolidation. – After the A Additional provisions in the
consolidation. - After the approval approval by the stockholders or members as required by the Articles of Merger or
by the stockholders or members as preceding section, articles of merger or articles of Consolidation such as the
required by the preceding section, consolidation shall be executed by each of the constituent carrying amounts and fair value
articles of merger or articles of corporations, to be signed by the president or vice president of the assets and liabilities of the
consolidation shall be executed by and certified by the secretary or assistant secretary of each respective companies as of the
each of the constituent corporation setting forth: agreef cut off date; the method
corporations, to be signed by the (a) The plan of the merger or the plan of consolidation; to be used in the merger or
president or vice-president and consolidation of accounts of the
certified by the secretary or (b) As to stock corporations, the number of shares companies; the provisional or
assistant secretary of each outstanding, or in the case of nonstock corporations, the pro-forma values, as merged or
corporation setting forth: 1. The number of members; consolidated, using the
plan of the merger or the plan of accounting method; and such
consolidation; 2. As to stock (c) As to each corporation, the number of shares or members other information as may be
corporations, the number of shares voting for or against such plan, respectively; prescribed by the Commission.
outstanding, or in the case of non-
stock corporations, the number of (d) The carrying amounts and fair values of the assets and
members; and 3. As to each liabilities of the respective companies as of the agreed cut-
corporation, the number of shares off date;
or members voting for and against
such plan, respectively. (n) (e) The method to be used in the merger or consolidation of
accounts of the companies;

(f) The provisional or pro-forma values, as merged or


consolidated, using the accounting method; and

(g) Such other information as may be prescribed by the


Commission.

Section 79. Effectivity of merger or SEC. 78. Effectivity of Merger or Consolidation. – The No change
consolidation. - The articles of articles of merger or of consolidation, signed and certified as
merger or of consolidation, signed required by this Code, shall be submitted to the
and certified as herein above Commission for its approval: Provided, That in the case of
required, shall be submitted to the merger or consolidation of banks or banking institutions,
Securities and Exchange loan associations, trust companies, insurance companies,
Commission in quadruplicate for its public utilities, educational institutions, and other special
approval: Provided, That in the case corporations governed by special laws, the favorable
of merger or consolidation of banks recommendation of the appropriate government agency
or banking institutions, building shall first be obtained. If the Commission is satisfied that the
and loan associations, trust merger or consolidation of the corporations concerned is
companies, insurance companies, consistent with the provisions of this Code and existing
public utilities, educational laws, it shall issue a certificate approving the articles and
institutions and other special plan of merger or of consolidation, at which time the merger
corporations governed by special or consolidation shall be effective.
laws, the favorable If, upon investigation, the Commission has reason to believe
recommendation of the appropriate that the proposed merger or consolidation is contrary to or
government agency shall first be inconsistent with the provisions of this Code or existing
obtained. If the Commission is laws, it shall set a hearing to give the corporations
satisfied that the merger or concerned the opportunity to be heard. Written notice of the
consolidation of the corporations date, time, and place of hearing shall be given to each
concerned is not inconsistent with constituent corporation at least two (2) weeks before said
the provisions of this Code and hearing. The Commission shall thereafter proceed as
existing laws, it shall issue a provided in this Code.
certificate of merger or of
consolidation, at which time the
merger or consolidation shall be
effective. If, upon investigation, the
Securities and Exchange
Commission has reason to believe
that the proposed merger or
consolidation is contrary to or
inconsistent with the provisions of
this Code or existing laws, it shall
set a hearing to give the
corporations concerned the
opportunity to be heard. Written
notice of the date, time and place of
hearing shall be given to each
constituent corporation at least two
(2) weeks before said hearing. The
Commission shall thereafter
proceed as provided in this Code.
(n)
Section 80. Effects of merger or SEC. 79. Effects of Merger or Consolidation. – The merger No change
consolidation. - The merger or or consolidation shall have the following effects:
consolidation shall have the (a) The constituent corporations shall become a single
following effects: 1. The constituent corporation which, in case of merger, shall be the surviving
corporations shall become a single corporation designated in the plan of merger; and, in case of
corporation which, in case of consolidation, shall be the consolidated corporation
merger, shall be the surviving designated in the plan of consolidation;
corporation designated in the plan
of merger; and, in case of (b) The separate existence of the constituent corporations
consolidation, shall be the shall cease, except that of the surviving or the consolidated
consolidated corporation corporation;
designated in the plan of
consolidation; 2. The separate (c) The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall
existence of the constituent possess all the rights, privileges, immunities, and powers
corporations shall cease, except that and shall be subject to all the duties and liabilities of a
of the surviving or the consolidated corporation organized under this Code;
corporation; 3. The surviving or the
consolidated corporation shall (d) The surviving or the consolidated corporation shall
possess all the rights, privileges, possess all the rights, privileges, immunities and franchises
immunities and powers and shall of each constituent corporation; and all real or personal
be subject to all the duties and property, all receivables due on whatever account,
liabilities of a corporation including subscriptions to shares and other choses in action,
organized under this Code; 4. The and every other interest of, belonging to, or due to each
surviving or the consolidated constituent corporation, shall be deemed transferred to and
corporation shall thereupon and vested in such surviving or consolidated corporation
thereafter possess all the rights, without further act or deed; and
privileges, immunities and
franchises of each of the constituent (e) The surviving or consolidated corporation shall be
corporations; and all property, real responsible for all the liabilities and obligations of each
or personal, and all receivables due constituent corporation as though such surviving or
on whatever account, including consolidated corporation had itself incurred such liabilities
subscriptions to shares and other or obligations; and any pending claim, action or proceeding
choses in action, and all and every brought by or against any constituent corporation may be
other interest of, or belonging to, or prosecuted by or against the surviving or consolidated
due to each constituent corporation, corporation. The rights of creditors or liens upon the
shall be deemed transferred to and property of such constituent corporations shall not be
vested in such surviving or impaired by the merger or consolidation.
consolidated corporation without
further act or deed; and 5. The
surviving or consolidated
corporation shall be responsible
and liable for all the liabilities and
obligations of each of the
constituent corporations in the
same manner as if such surviving
or consolidated corporation had
itself incurred such liabilities or
obligations; and any pending claim,
action or proceeding brought by or
against any of such constituent
corporations may be prosecuted by
or against the surviving or
consolidated corporation. The
rights of creditors or liens upon the
property of any of such constituent
corporations shall not be impaired
by such merger or consolidation.
(n)
TITLE X - APPRAISAL RIGHT TITLE X
APPRAISAL RIGHT
Section 81. Instances of appraisal SEC. 80. When the Right of Appraisal May Be Exercised. – A Additional instance, where any
right. - Any stockholder of a Any stockholder of a corporation shall have the right to stockholder of a corporation
corporation shall have the right to dissent and demand payment of the fair value of the shares shall have the right to dissent
dissent and demand payment of the in the following instances: and demand payment of the fair
fair value of his shares in the market value of the shares, is in
following instances: 1. In case any (a) In case an amendment to the articles of incorporation has the case of investment of
amendment to the articles of the effect of changing or restricting the rights of any corporate funds for any purpose
incorporation has the effect of stockholder or class of shares, or of authorizing preferences other than the primary purpose
changing or restricting the rights of in any respect superior to those of outstanding shares of any of the Corporation.
any stockholder or class of shares, class, or of extending or shortening the term of corporate
or of authorizing preferences in any existence;
respect superior to those of
outstanding shares of any class, or (b) In case of sale, lease, exchange, transfer, mortgage,
of extending or shortening the term pledge or other disposition of all or substantially all of the
of corporate existence; 2. In case of corporate property and assets as provided in this Code;
sale, lease, exchange, transfer,
mortgage, pledge or other (c) In case of merger or consolidation; and
disposition of all or substantially all
of the corporate property and assets (d) In case of investment of corporate funds for any purpose
as provided in the Code; and 3. In other than the primary purpose of the corporation.
case of merger or consolidation. (n)

Section 82. How right is exercised. - SEC. 81. How Right is Exercised. – The dissenting No change
The appraisal right may be stockholder who votes against a proposed corporate action
exercised by any stockholder who may exercise the right of appraisal by making a written
shall have voted against the demand on the corporation for the payment of the fair value
proposed corporate action, by of shares held within thirty (30) days from the date on
making a written demand on the which the vote was taken: Provided, That failure to make
corporation within thirty (30) days the demand within such period shall be deemed a waiver of
after the date on which the vote was the appraisal right.
taken for payment of the fair value If the proposed corporate action is implemented, the
of his shares: Provided, That failure corporation shall pay the stockholder, upon surrender of the
to make the demand within such certificate or certificates of stock representing the
period shall be deemed a waiver of stockholder’s shares, the fair value thereof as of the day
the appraisal right. If the proposed before the vote was taken, excluding any appreciation or
corporate action is implemented or depreciation in anticipation of such corporate action.
affected, the corporation shall pay If, within sixty (60) days from the approval of the corporate
to such stockholder, upon action by the stockholders, the withdrawing stockholder
surrender of the certificate or and the corporation cannot agree on the fair value of the
certificates of stock representing his shares, it shall be determined and appraised by three (3)
shares, the fair value thereof as of disinterested persons, one of whom shall be named by the
the day prior to the date on which stockholder, another by the corporation, and the third by
the vote was taken, excluding any the two (2) thus chosen. The findings of the majority of the
appreciation or depreciation in appraisers shall be final, and their award shall be paid by
anticipation of such corporate the corporation within thirty (30) days after such award is
action. If within a period of sixty made:
(60) days from the date the Provided, That no payment shall be made to any dissenting
corporate action was approved by stockholder unless the corporation has unrestricted retained
the stockholders, the withdrawing earnings in its books to cover such payment: Provided,
stockholder and the corporation further, That upon payment by the corporation of the
cannot agree on the fair value of the agreed or awarded price, the stockholder shall forthwith
shares, it shall be determined and transfer the shares to the corporation.
appraised by three (3) disinterested
persons, one of whom shall be
named by the stockholder, another
by the corporation, and the third by
the two thus chosen. The findings
of the majority of the appraisers
shall be final, and their award shall
be paid by the corporation within
thirty (30) days after such award is
made: Provided, That no payment
shall be made to any dissenting
stockholder unless the corporation
has unrestricted retained earnings
in its books to cover such payment:
and Provided, further, That upon
payment by the corporation of the
agreed or awarded price, the
stockholder shall forthwith transfer
his shares to the corporation. (n)
Section 83. Effect of demand and SEC. 82. Effect of Demand and Termination of Right. – No change
termination of right. - From the From the time of demand for payment of the fair value of a
time of demand for payment of the stockholder’s shares until either the abandonment of the
fair value of a stockholder's shares corporate action involved or the purchase of the said shares
until either the abandonment of the by the corporation, all rights accruing to such shares,
corporate action involved or the including voting and dividend rights, shall be suspended
purchase of the said shares by the in accordance with the provisions of this Code, except the
corporation, all rights accruing to right of such stockholder to receive payment of the fair
such shares, including voting and value thereof: Provided, That if the dissenting stockholder
dividend rights, shall be suspended is not paid the value of the said shares within thirty (30)
in accordance with the provisions days after the award, the voting and dividend rights shall
of this Code, except the right of immediately be restored.
such stockholder to receive
payment of the fair value thereof:
Provided, That if the dissenting
stockholder is not paid the value of
his shares within 30 days after the
award, his voting and dividend
rights shall immediately be
restored. (n)
Section 84. When right to payment SEC. 83. When Right to Payment Ceases. – No demand for A Change in form
ceases. - No demand for payment payment under this Title may be withdrawn unless the
under this Title may be withdrawn corporation consents thereto. If, however, such demand for
unless the corporation consents payment is withdrawn with the consent of the corporation,
thereto. If, however, such demand or if the proposed corporate action is abandoned or
for payment is withdrawn with the rescinded by the corporation or disapproved by the
consent of the corporation, or if the Commission where such approval is necessary, or if the
proposed corporate action is Commission determines that such stockholder is not
abandoned or rescinded by the entitled to the appraisal right, then the right of the
corporation or disapproved by the stockholder to be paid the fair value of the shares shall
Securities and Exchange cease, the status as the stockholder shall be restored, and
Commission where such approval all dividend distributions which would have accrued on
is necessary, or if the Securities and the shares shall be paid to the stockholder.
Exchange Commission determines
that such stockholder is not entitled
to the appraisal right, then the right
of said stockholder to be paid the
fair value of his shares shall cease,
his status as a stockholder shall
thereupon be restored, and all
dividend distributions which
would have accrued on his shares
shall be paid to him. (n)
Section 85. Who bears costs of SEC. 84. Who Bears Costs of Appraisal. – The costs and No change
appraisal. - The costs and expenses expenses of appraisal shall be borne by the corporation,
of appraisal shall be borne by the unless the fair value ascertained by the appraisers is
corporation, unless the fair value approximately the same as the price which the corporation
ascertained by the appraisers is may have offered to pay the stockholder, in which case they
approximately the same as the price shall be borne by the latter. In the case of an action to
which the corporation may have recover such fair value, all costs and expenses shall be
offered to pay the stockholder, in assessed against the corporation, unless the refusal of the
which case they shall be borne by stockholder to receive payment was unjustified.
the latter. In the case of an action to
recover such fair value, all costs and
expenses shall be assessed against
the corporation, unless the refusal
of the stockholder to receive
payment was unjustified. (n)
Section 86. Notation on certificates; SEC. 85. Notation on Certificates; Rights of Transferee. – No change
rights of transferee. - Within ten Within ten (10) days after demanding payment for shares
(10) days after demanding payment held, a dissenting stockholder shall submit the certificates of
for his shares, a dissenting stock representing the shares to the corporation for notation
stockholder shall submit the that such shares are dissenting shares. Failure to do so shall,
certificates of stock representing his at the option of the corporation, terminate the rights under
shares to the corporation for this Title. If shares represented by the certificates bearing
notation thereon that such shares such notation are transferred, and the certificates
are dissenting shares. His failure to consequently cancelled, the rights of the transferor as a
do so shall, at the option of the dissenting stockholder under this Title shall cease and the
corporation, terminate his rights transferee shall have all the rights of a regular stockholder;
under this Title. If shares and all dividend distributions which would have accrued
represented by the certificates on such shares shall be paid to the transferee.
bearing such notation are
transferred, and the certificates
consequently cancelled, the rights
of the transferor as a dissenting
stockholder under this Title shall
cease and the transferee shall have
all the rights of a regular
stockholder; and all dividend
distributions which would have
accrued on such shares shall be
paid to the transferee. (n)
TITLE XI - NON-STOCK TITLE XI
CORPORATIONS NONSTOCK CORPORATION
Section 87. Definition. - For the SEC. 86. Definition. – For purposes of this Code and subject Change in form
purposes of this Code, a non-stock to its provisions on dissolution, a non-stock corporation is
corporation is one where no part of one where no part of its income is distributable as dividends
its income is distributable as to its members, trustees, or officers: Provided, That any
dividends to its members, trustees, profit which a non-stock corporation may obtain incidental
or officers, subject to the provisions to its operations shall, whenever necessary or proper, be
of this Code on dissolution: used for the furtherance of the purpose or purposes for
Provided, That any profit which a which the corporation was organized, subject to the
non-stock corporation may obtain provisions of this Title.
as an incident to its operations The provisions governing stock corporations, when
shall, whenever necessary or pertinent, shall be applicable to non-stock corporations,
proper, be used for the furtherance except as may be covered by specific provisions of this Title.
of the purpose or purposes for
which the corporation was
organized, subject to the provisions
of this Title. The provisions
governing stock corporation, when
pertinent, shall be applicable to
non-stock corporations, except as
may be covered by specific
provisions of this Title. (n)
Section 88. Purposes. - Non-stock SEC. 87. Purposes. – Nonstock corporations may be formed No change
corporations may be formed or or organized for charitable, religious, educational,
organized for charitable, religious, professional, cultural, fraternal, literary, scientific, social,
educational, professional, cultural, civic service, or similar purposes, like trade, industry,
fraternal, literary, scientific, social, agricultural and like chambers, or any combination thereof,
civic service, or similar purposes, subject to the special provisions of this Title governing
like trade, industry, agricultural particular classes of non-stock corporations.
and like chambers, or any
combination thereof, subject to the
special provisions of this Title
governing particular classes of non-
stock corporations. (n)
CHAPTER I MEMBERS CHAPTER I MEMBERS
Section 89. Right to vote. - The right SEC. 88. Right to Vote. – The right of the members of any A The “voting by mail or other
of the members of any class or class or classes to vote may be limited, broadened, or denied similar means” has been
classes to vote may be limited, to the extent specified in the articles of incorporation or the changed to “remote
broadened or denied to the extent bylaws. communication and/or in
specified in the articles of Unless so limited, broadened, or denied, each member, absentia”, so long that it is
incorporation or the by-laws. regardless of class, shall be entitled to one (1) vote. authorized by the bylaws.
Unless so limited, broadened or Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or
denied, each member, regardless of the bylaws, a member may vote by proxy, in accordance
class, shall be entitled to one vote. with the provisions of this Code. The bylaws may likewise
Unless otherwise provided in the authorize voting through remote communication and/or in
articles of incorporation or the by- absentia.
laws, a member may vote by proxy
in accordance with the provisions
of this Code. (n) Voting by mail or
other similar means by members of
non-stock corporations may be
authorized by the by-laws of non-
stock corporations with the
approval of, and under such
conditions which may be
prescribed by, the Securities and
Exchange Commission.
Section 90. Non-transferability of SEC. 89. Non-transferability of Membership. – No change
membership. - Membership in a Membership in a nonstock corporation and all rights arising
non-stock corporation and all rights therefrom are personal and nontransferable, unless the
arising therefrom are personal and articles of incorporation or the bylaws otherwise provide.
nontransferable, unless the articles
of incorporation or the by-laws
otherwise provide. (n)
Section 91. Termination of SEC. 90. Termination of Membership. – Membership shall No change
membership. - Membership shall be be terminated in the manner and for the causes provided in
terminated in the manner and for the articles of incorporation or the bylaws. Termination of
the causes provided in the articles membership shall extinguish all rights of a member in the
of incorporation or the by-laws. corporation or in its property, unless otherwise provided in
Termination of membership shall the articles of incorporation or the bylaws.
have the effect of extinguishing all
rights of a member in the
corporation or in its property,
unless otherwise provided in the
articles of incorporation or the by-
laws. (n)
CHAPTER II TRUSTEES AND CHAPTER II
OFFICES TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
Section 92. Election and term of SEC. 91. Election and Term of Trustees. – The number of A The new law removes the
trustees. - Unless otherwise trustees shall be fixed in the articles of incorporation or provision that makes the term of
provided in the articles of bylaws which may or may not be more than fifteen (15). office of the ⅓ of their number
incorporation or the by-laws, the They shall hold office for not more than three (3) years until shall expire every year and the
board of trustees of nonstock their successors are elected and qualified. Trustees elected to need of subsequent elections of
corporations, which may be more fill vacancies occurring before the expiration of a particular trustees comprising ⅓ of the
than fifteen (15) in number as may term shall hold office only for the unexpired period. board of trustees which shall be
be fixed in their articles of Except with respect to independent trustees of nonstock held annually.
incorporation or by-laws, shall, as corporations vested with public interest, only a member of
soon as organized, so classify the corporation shall be elected as trustee. The new law allows
themselves that the term of office of Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or independent trustees of non-
one-third (1/3) of their number the bylaws, the members may directly elect officers of a stock corporation vested with
shall expire every year; and nonstock corporation. public interest to be elected as a
subsequent elections of trustees trustee.
comprising one-third (1/3) of the
board of trustees shall be held
annually and trustees so elected
shall have a term of three (3) years.
Trustees thereafter elected to fill
vacancies occurring before the
expiration of a particular term shall
hold office only for the unexpired
period. No person shall be elected
as trustee unless he is a member of
the corporation. Unless otherwise
provided in the articles of
incorporation or the by-laws,
officers of a non-stock corporation
may be directly elected by the
members. (n)
Section 93. Place of meetings. - The SEC. 92. List of Members and Proxies, Place of Meetings. – A Additional requirement for
by-laws may provide that the The corporation shall, at all times, keep a list of its members corporation to keep a list of its
members of a non-stock corporation and their proxies in the form the Commission may require. members and their proxies in
may hold their regular or special The list shall be updated to reflect the members and proxies the form the Commission may
meetings at any place even outside of record twenty (20) days prior to any scheduled election. require. The list shall be
the place where the principal office The bylaws may provide that the members of a nonstock updated to reflect the members
of the corporation is located: corporation may hold their regular or special meetings at and proxies of record twenty
Provided, That proper notice is sent any place even outside the place where the principal office (20) days prior to any scheduled
to all members indicating the date, of the corporation is located: Provided, That proper notice election.
time and place of the meeting: and is sent to all members indicating the date, time and place of
Provided, further, That the place of the meeting: Provided, further, That the place of meeting
meeting shall be within the shall be within Philippine territory.
Philippines. (n)
CHAPTER III DISTRIBUTION OF CHAPTER III
ASSETS IN NON-STOCK DISTRIBUTION OF ASSETS IN NONSTOCK
CORPORATIONS CORPORATIONS
Section 94. Rules of distribution. - SEC. 93. Rules of Distribution. – The assets of a nonstock A The new law makes Section 93
In case dissolution of a non-stock corporation undergoing the process of dissolution for applicable only when the
corporation in accordance with the reasons other than those set forth in Section 139 of this Code process of distribution are for
provisions of this Code, its assets shall be applied and distributed as follows: reasons other than those set
shall be applied and distributed as forth in Section 139 of this Code.
follows: 1. All liabilities and (a) All liabilities and obligations of the corporation shall be
obligations of the corporation shall paid, satisfied and discharged, or adequate provision shall
be paid, satisfied and discharged, or be made therefor;
adequate provision shall be made
therefore; 2. Assets held by the (b) Assets held by the corporation upon a condition
corporation upon a condition requiring return, transfer or conveyance, and which
requiring return, transfer or condition occurs by reason of the dissolution, shall be
conveyance, and which condition returned, transferred or conveyed in accordance with such
occurs by reason of the dissolution, requirements;
shall be returned, transferred or
conveyed in accordance with such (c) Assets received and held by the corporation subject to
requirements; 3. Assets received limitations permitting their use only for charitable,
and held by the corporation subject religious, benevolent, educational or similar purposes, but
to limitations permitting their use not held upon a condition requiring return, transfer or
only for charitable, religious, conveyance by reason of the dissolution, shall be transferred
benevolent, educational or similar or conveyed to one (1) or more corporations, societies or
purposes, but not held upon a organizations engaged in activities in the Philippines
condition requiring return, transfer substantially similar to those of the dissolving corporation
or conveyance by reason of the according to a plan of distribution adopted pursuant to this
dissolution, shall be transferred or Chapter;
conveyed to one or more
corporations, societies or (d) Assets other than those mentioned in the preceding
organizations engaged in activities paragraphs, if any, shall be distributed in accordance with
in the Philippines substantially the provisions of the articles of incorporation or the bylaws,
similar to those of the dissolving to the extent that the articles of incorporation or the bylaws
corporation according to a plan of determine the distributive rights of members, or any class or
distribution adopted pursuant to classes of members, or provide for distribution; and
this Chapter; 4. Assets other than
those mentioned in the preceding (e) In any other case, assets may be distributed to such
paragraphs, if any, shall be persons, societies, organizations or corporations, whether or
distributed in accordance with the not organized for profit, as may be specified in a plan of
provisions of the articles of distribution adopted pursuant to this Chapter.
incorporation or the by-laws, to the
extent that the articles of
incorporation or the by-laws,
determine the distributive rights of
members, or any class or classes of
members, or provide for
distribution; and 5. In any other
case, assets may be distributed to
such persons, societies,
organizations or corporations,
whether or not organized for profit,
as may be specified in a plan of
distribution adopted pursuant to
this Chapter. (n)
Section 95. Plan of distribution of SEC. 94. Plan of Distribution of Assets. – A plan providing Change in form
assets. - A plan providing for the for the distribution of assets, consistent with the provisions
distribution of assets, not of this Title, may be adopted by a nonstock corporation in
inconsistent with the provisions of the process of dissolution in the following manner:
this Title, may be adopted by a non-
stock corporation in the process of (a) The board of trustees shall, by majority vote, adopt a
dissolution in the following resolution recommending a plan of distribution and
manner: The board of trustees shall, directing the submission thereof to a vote at a regular or
by majority vote, adopt a resolution special meeting of members having voting rights;
recommending a plan of
distribution and directing the (b) Each member entitled to vote shall be given a written
submission thereof to a vote at a notice setting forth the proposed plan of distribution or a
regular or special meeting of summary thereof and the date, time and place of such
members having voting rights. meeting within the time and in the manner provided in this
Written notice setting forth the Code for the giving of notice of meetings; and
proposed plan of distribution or a
summary thereof and the date, time (c) Such plan of distribution shall be adopted upon approval
and place of such meeting shall be of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the members having voting
given to each member entitled to rights present or represented by proxy at such meeting.
vote, within the time and in the
manner provided in this Code for
the giving of notice of meetings to
members. Such plan of distribution
shall be adopted upon approval of
at least two-thirds (2/3) of the
members having voting rights
present or represented by proxy at
such meeting. (n
TITLE XII - CLOSE TITLE XII
CORPORATIONS CLOSE CORPORATIONS
Section 96. Definition and SEC. 95. Definition and Applicability of Title. – A close
applicability of Title. - A close corporation, within the meaning of this Code, is one whose
corporation, within the meaning of articles of incorporation provides that:
this Code, is one whose articles of (a) all the corporation’s issued stock of all classes, exclusive
incorporation provide that: (1) All of treasury shares, shall be held of record by not more than
the corporation's issued stock of all a specified number of persons, not exceeding twenty (20);
classes, exclusive of treasury shares, (b) all the issued stock of all classes shall be subject to one
shall be held of record by not more (1) or more specified restrictions on transfer permitted by
than a specified number of persons, this Title; and
not exceeding twenty (20); (2) all (c) the corporation shall not list in any stock exchange or
the issued stock of all classes shall make any public offering of its stocks of any class.
be subject to one or more specified Notwithstanding the foregoing, a corporation shall not be
restrictions on transfer permitted by deemed a close corporation when at least two-thirds (2/3)
this Title; and (3) The corporation of its voting stock or voting rights is owned or controlled
shall not list in any stock exchange by another corporation which is not a close corporation
or make any public offering of any within the meaning of this Code.
of its stock of any class. Any corporation may be incorporated as a close
Notwithstanding the foregoing, a corporation, except mining or oil companies, stock
corporation shall not be deemed a exchanges, banks, insurance companies, public utilities,
close corporation when at least two- educational institutions and corporations declared to be
thirds (2/3) of its voting stock or vested with public interest in accordance with the
voting rights is owned or controlled provisions of this Code.
by another corporation which is not The provisions of this Title shall primarily govern close
a close corporation within the corporations: Provided, That other Titles in this Code shall
meaning of this Code. Any apply suppletorily, except as otherwise provided under this
corporation may be incorporated as Title.
a close corporation, except mining
or oil companies, stock exchanges,
banks, insurance companies, public
utilities, educational institutions
and corporations declared to be
vested with public interest in
accordance with the provisions of
this Code. The provisions of this
Title shall primarily govern close
corporations: Provided, That the
provisions of other Titles of this
Code shall apply suppletorily
except insofar as this Title
otherwise provides.
Section 97. Articles of SEC. 96. Articles of Incorporation. – The articles of Same content.
incorporation. - The articles of incorporation of a close corporation may provide for: Change in form.
incorporation of a close corporation (a) A classification of shares or rights, the qualifications for
may provide: 1. For a classification owning or holding the same, and restrictions on their
of shares or rights and the transfers, subject to the provisions of the following section;
qualifications for owning or
holding the same and restrictions (b) A classification of directors into one (1) or more classes,
on their transfers as may be stated each of whom may be voted for and elected solely by a
therein, subject to the provisions of particular class of stock; and
the following section; 2. For a
classification of directors into one (c) Greater quorum or voting requirements in meetings of
or more classes, each of whom may stockholders or directors than those provided in this Code.
be voted for and elected solely by a
particular class of stock; and 3. For The articles of incorporation of a close corporation may
a greater quorum or voting provide that the business of the corporation shall be
requirements in meetings of managed by the stockholders of the corporation rather than
stockholders or directors than those by a board of directors. So long as this provision continues
provided in this Code. The articles in effect, no meeting of stockholders need be called to elect
of incorporation of a close directors: Provided, That the stockholders of the corporation
corporation may provide that the shall be deemed to be directors for the purpose of applying
business of the corporation shall be the provisions of this Code, unless the context clearly
managed by the stockholders of the requires otherwise: Provided, further, That the stockholders
corporation rather than by a board of the corporation shall be subject to all liabilities of
of directors. So long as this directors.
provision continues in effect: 1. No The articles of incorporation may likewise provide that all
meeting of stockholders need be officers or employees or that specified officers or employees
called to elect directors; 2. Unless shall be elected or appointed by the stockholders, instead of
the context clearly requires by the board of directors.
otherwise, the stockholders of the
corporation shall be deemed to be
directors for the purpose of
applying the provisions of this
Code; and 3. The stockholders of
the corporation shall be subject to
all liabilities of directors. The
articles of incorporation may
likewise provide that all officers or
employees or that specified officers
or employees shall be elected or
appointed by the stockholders,
instead of by the board of directors.
Section 98. Validity of restrictions SEC. 97. Validity of Restrictions on Transfer of Shares. –
on transfer of shares. - Restrictions Restrictions on the right to transfer shares must appear in
on the right to transfer shares must the articles of incorporation, in the bylaws, as well as in
appear in the articles of the certificate of stock; otherwise, the same shall not be
incorporation and in the by-laws as binding on any purchaser in good faith. Said restrictions
well as in the certificate of stock; shall not be more onerous than granting the existing
otherwise, the same shall not be stockholders or the corporation the option to purchase the
binding on any purchaser thereof in shares of the transferring stockholder with such reasonable
good faith. Said restrictions shall terms, conditions or period stated. If, upon the expiration of
not be more onerous than granting said period, the existing stockholders or the corporation
the existing stockholders or the fails to exercise the option to purchase, the transferring
corporation the option to purchase stockholder may sell their shares to any third person.
the shares of the transferring
stockholder with such reasonable
terms, conditions or period stated
therein. If upon the expiration of
said period, the existing
stockholders or the corporation fails
to exercise the option to purchase,
the transferring stockholder may
sell his shares to any third person
Section 99. Effects of issuance or SEC. 98. Effects of Issuance or Transfer of Stock in Breach
transfer of stock in breach of of Qualifying Conditions. –
qualifying conditions. - 1. If stock of (a) If a stock of a close corporation is issued or transferred to
a close corporation is issued or any person who is not eligible to be a holder thereof under
transferred to any person who is any provision of the articles of incorporation, and if the
not entitled under any provision of certificate for such stock conspicuously shows the
the articles of incorporation to be a qualifications of the persons entitled to be holders of record
holder of record of its stock, and if thereof, such person is conclusively presumed to have
the certificate for such stock notice of the fact of the ineligibility to be a stockholder.
conspicuously shows the
qualifications of the persons (b) If the articles of incorporation of a close corporation
entitled to be holders of record states the number of persons, not exceeding twenty (20),
thereof, such person is conclusively who are entitled to be stockholders of record, and if the
presumed to have notice of the fact certificate for such stock conspicuously states such number,
of his ineligibility to be a and the issuance or transfer of stock to any person would
stockholder. 2. If the articles of cause the stock to be held by more than such number of
incorporation of a close corporation persons, the person to whom such stock is issued or
states the number of persons, not transferred is conclusively presumed to have notice of this
exceeding twenty (20), who are fact.
entitled to be holders of record of
its stock, and if the certificate for (c) If a stock certificate of a close corporation conspicuously
such stock conspicuously states shows a restriction on transfer of the corporation’s stock and
such number, and if the issuance or the transferee acquires the stock in violation of such
transfer of stock to any person restriction, the transferee is conclusively presumed to have
would cause the stock to be held by notice of the fact that the stock was acquired in violation of
more than such number of persons, the restriction.
the person to whom such stock is
issued or transferred is conclusively (d) Whenever a person to whom stock of a close corporation
presumed to have notice of this fact. has been issued or transferred has or is conclusively
3. If a stock certificate of any close presumed under this section to have notice of: (1) the
corporation conspicuously shows a person’s ineligibility to be a stockholder of the corporation;
restriction on transfer of stock of the or (2) that the transfer of stock would cause the stock of the
corporation, the transferee of the corporation to be held by more than the number of persons
stock is conclusively presumed to permitted under its articles of incorporation; or (3) that the
have notice of the fact that he has transfer violates a restriction on transfer of stock, the
acquired stock in violation of the corporation may, at its option, refuse to register the transfer
restriction, if such acquisition in the name of the transferee.
violates the restriction. 4. Whenever
any person to whom stock of a close (e) The provisions of subsection (d) shall not be applicable
corporation has been issued or if the transfer of stock, though contrary to subsections (a),
transferred has, or is conclusively (b) or (c), has been consented to by all the stockholders of
presumed under this section to the close corporation, or if the close corporation has
have, notice either (a) that he is a amended its articles of incorporation in accordance with
person not eligible to be a holder of this Title.
stock of the corporation, or (b) that
transfer of stock to him would (f) The term “transfer”, as used in this section, is not limited
cause the stock of the corporation to to a transfer for value.
be held by more than the number of
persons permitted by its articles of (g) The provisions of this section shall not impair any right
incorporation to hold stock of the which the transferee may have to either rescind the transfer
corporation, or (c) that the transfer or recover the stock under any express or implied warranty.
of stock is in violation of a
restriction on transfer of stock, the
corporation may, at its option,
refuse to register the transfer of
stock in the name of the transferee.
5. The provisions of subsection (4)
shall not be applicable if the
transfer of stock, though contrary to
subsections (1), (2) or (3), has been
consented to by all the stockholders
of the close corporation, or if the
close corporation has amended its
articles of incorporation in
accordance with this Title. 6. The
term "transfer", as used in this
section, is not limited to a transfer
for value. 7. The provisions of this
section shall not impair any right
which the transferee may have to
rescind the transfer or to recover
under any applicable warranty,
express or implied.
Section 100. Agreements by SEC. 99. Agreements by Stockholders. –
stockholders. - 1. Agreements by (a) Agreements duly signed and executed by and among all
and among stockholders executed stockholders before the formation and organization of a
before the formation and close corporation shall survive the incorporation and shall
organization of a close corporation, continue to be valid and binding between such
signed by all stockholders, shall stockholders, if such be their intent, to the extent that such
survive the incorporation of such agreements are consistent with the articles of incorporation,
corporation and shall continue to be irrespective of where the provisions of such agreements are
valid and binding between and contained, except those required by this Title to be
among such stockholders, if such be embodied in said articles of incorporation.
their intent, to the extent that such
agreements are not inconsistent (b) A written agreement signed by two (2) or more
with the articles of incorporation, stockholders may provide that in exercising any voting
irrespective of where the provisions right, the shares held by them shall be voted as provided or
of such agreements are contained, as agreed, or in accordance with a procedure agreed upon
except those required by this Title by them.
to be embodied in said articles of
incorporation. 2. An agreement (c) No provision in a written agreement signed by the
between two or more stockholders, stockholders, relating to any phase of corporate affairs, shall
if in writing and signed by the be invalidated between the parties on the ground that its
parties thereto, may provide that in effect is to make them partners among themselves.
exercising any voting rights, the
shares held by them shall be voted (d) A written agreement among some or all of the
as therein provided, or as they may stockholders in a close corporation shall not be invalidated
agree, or as determined in on the ground that it relates to the conduct of the business
accordance with a procedure and affairs of the corporation as to restrict or interfere with
agreed upon by them. 3. No the discretion or powers of the board of directors: Provided,
provision in any written agreement That such agreement shall impose on the stockholders who
signed by the stockholders, relating are parties thereto the liabilities for managerial acts imposed
to any phase of the corporate on directors by this Code.
affairs, shall be invalidated as
between the parties on the ground (e) Stockholders actively engaged in the management or
that its effect is to make them operation of the business and affairs of a close corporation
partners among themselves. 4. A shall be held to strict fiduciary duties to each other and
written agreement among some or among themselves. The stockholders shall be personally
all of the stockholders in a close liable for corporate torts unless the corporation has
corporation shall not be invalidated obtained reasonably adequate liability insurance.
on the ground that it so relates to
the conduct of the business and
affairs of the corporation as to
restrict or interfere with the
discretion or powers of the board of
directors: Provided, That such
agreement shall impose on the
stockholders who are parties
thereto the liabilities for managerial
acts imposed by this Code on
directors. 5. To the extent that the
stockholders are actively engaged
in the management or operation of
the business and affairs of a close
corporation, the stockholders shall
be held to strict fiduciary duties to
each other and among themselves.
Said stockholders shall be
personally liable for corporate torts
unless the corporation has obtained
reasonably adequate liability
insurance.
Section 101. When board meeting is SEC. 100. When a Board Meeting is Unnecessary or Same content.
unnecessary or improperly held. - Improperly Held. – Unless the bylaws provide otherwise, Change in form.
Unless the by-laws provide any action taken by the directors of a close corporation
otherwise, any action by the without a meeting called properly and with due notice shall
directors of a close corporation nevertheless be deemed valid if:
without a meeting shall (a) Before or after such action is taken, a written consent
nevertheless be deemed valid if: 1. thereto is signed by all the directors; or
Before or after such action is taken,
written consent thereto is signed by (b) All the stockholders have actual or implied knowledge
all the directors; or 2. All the of the action and make no prompt objection in writing; or
stockholders have actual or implied
knowledge of the action and make (c) The directors are accustomed to take informal action
no prompt objection thereto in with the express or implied acquiescence of all the
writing; or 3. The directors are stockholders; or
accustomed to take informal action
with the express or implied (d) All the directors have express or implied knowledge of
acquiescence of all the stockholders; the action in question and none of them makes a prompt
or 4. All the directors have express objection in writing.
or implied knowledge of the action
in question and none of them An action within the corporate powers taken at a meeting
makes prompt objection thereto in held without proper call or notice is deemed ratified by a
writing. If a director's meeting is director who failed to attend, unless after having knowledge
held without proper call or notice, thereof, the director promptly files his written objection
an action taken therein within the with the secretary of the corporation.
corporate powers is deemed ratified
by a director who failed to attend,
unless he promptly files his written
objection with the secretary of the
corporation after having knowledge
thereof.
Section 102. Pre-emptive right in SEC. 101. Preemptive Right in Close Corporations. – The
close corporations. - The pre- preemptive right of stockholders in close corporations shall
emptive right of stockholders in extend to all stock to be issued, including reissuance of
close corporations shall extend to treasury shares, whether for money, property or personal
all stock to be issued, including services, or in payment of corporate debts, unless the
reissuance of treasury shares, articles of incorporation provide otherwise.
whether for money, property or
personal services, or in payment of
corporate debts, unless the articles
of incorporation provide otherwise.
Section 103. Amendment of articles SEC. 102. Amendment of Articles of Incorporation. – Any
of incorporation. - Any amendment amendment to the articles of incorporation which seeks to
to the articles of incorporation delete or remove any provision required by this Title or to
which seeks to delete or remove reduce a quorum or voting requirement stated in said
any provision required by this Title articles of incorporation shall require the affirmative vote of
to be contained in the articles of at least two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding capital stock,
incorporation or to reduce a whether with or without voting rights, or of such greater
quorum or voting requirement proportion of shares as may be specifically provided in the
stated in said articles of articles of incorporation for amending, deleting or removing
incorporation shall not be valid or any of the aforesaid provisions, at a meeting duly called for
effective unless approved by the the purpose.
affirmative vote of at least two-
thirds (2/3) of the outstanding
capital stock, whether with or
without voting rights, or of such
greater proportion of shares as may
be specifically provided in the
articles of incorporation for
amending, deleting or removing
any of the aforesaid provisions, at a
meeting duly called for the
purpose.
Section 104. Deadlocks. - SEC. 103. Deadlocks. – Notwithstanding any contrary
Notwithstanding any contrary provision in the close corporation’s articles of incorporation,
provision in the articles of bylaws, or stockholders’ agreement, if the directors or
incorporation or by-laws or stockholders are so divided on the management of the
agreement of stockholders of a close corporation’s business and affairs that the votes required for
corporation, if the directors or a corporate action cannot be obtained, with the consequence
stockholders are so divided that the business and affairs of the corporation can no
respecting the management of the longer be conducted to the advantage of the stockholders
corporation's business and affairs generally, the Commission, upon written petition by any
that the votes required for any stockholder, shall have the power to arbitrate the dispute.
corporate action cannot be In the exercise of such power, the Commission shall have
obtained, with the consequence that authority to make appropriate orders, such as: (a) cancelling
the business and affairs of the or altering any provision contained in the articles of
corporation can no longer be incorporation, bylaws, or any stockholders’ agreement; (b)
conducted to the advantage of the cancelling, altering or enjoining a resolution or act of the
stockholders generally, the corporation or its board of directors, stockholders, or
Securities and Exchange officers; (c) directing or prohibiting any act of the
Commission, upon written petition corporation or its board of directors, stockholders, officers,
by any stockholder, shall have the or other persons party to the action; (d) requiring the
power to arbitrate the dispute. In purchase at their fair value of shares of any stockholder,
the exercise of such power, the either by the corporation regardless of the availability of
Commission shall have authority to unrestricted retained earnings in its books, or by the other
make such order as it deems stockholders; (e) appointing a provisional director; (f)
appropriate, including an order: (1) dissolving the corporation; or (g) granting such other relief
cancelling or altering any provision as the circumstances may warrant.
contained in the articles of
incorporation, by-laws, or any A provisional director shall be an impartial person who is
stockholder's agreement; (2) neither a stockholder nor a creditor of the corporation or
cancelling, altering or enjoining any any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, and whose further
resolution or act of the corporation qualifications, if any, may be determined by the
or its board of directors, Commission. A provisional director is not a receiver of the
stockholders, or officers; (3) corporation and does not have the title and powers of a
directing or prohibiting any act of custodian or receiver. A provisional director shall have all
the corporation or its board of the rights and powers of a duly elected director, including
directors, stockholders, officers, or the right to be notified of and to vote at meetings of
other persons party to the action; directors until removed by order of the Commission or by
(4) requiring the purchase at their all the stockholders. The compensation of the provisional
fair value of shares of any director shall be determined by agreement between such
stockholder, either by the director and the corporation, subject to approval of the
corporation regardless of the Commission, which may fix the compensation absent an
availability of unrestricted retained agreement or in the event of disagreement between the
earnings in its books, or by the provisional director and the corporation.
other stockholders; (5) appointing a
provisional director; (6) dissolving
the corporation; or (7) granting such
other relief as the circumstances
may warrant. A provisional
director shall be an impartial
person who is neither a stockholder
nor a creditor of the corporation or
of any subsidiary or affiliate of the
corporation, and whose further
qualifications, if any, may be
determined by the Commission. A
provisional director is not a receiver
of the corporation and does not
have the title and powers of a
custodian or receiver. A provisional
director shall have all the rights and
powers of a duly elected director of
the corporation, including the right
to notice of and to vote at meetings
of directors, until such time as he
shall be removed by order of the
Commission or by all the
stockholders. His compensation
shall be determined by agreement
between him and the corporation
subject to approval of the
Commission, which may fix his
compensation in the absence of
agreement or in the event of
disagreement between the
provisional director and the
corporation.
Section 105. Withdrawal of SEC. 104. Withdrawal of Stockholder or Dissolution of
stockholder or dissolution of Corporation. – In addition and without prejudice to other
corporation. - In addition and rights and remedies available under this Title, any
without prejudice to other rights stockholder of a close corporation may, for any reason,
and remedies available to a compel the corporation to purchase shares held at fair
stockholder under this Title, any value, which shall not be less than the par or issued value,
stockholder of a close corporation when the corporation has sufficient assets in its books to
may, for any reason, compel the cover its debts and liabilities exclusive of capital stock:
said corporation to purchase his Provided, That any stockholder of a close corporation may,
shares at their fair value, which by written petition to the Commission, compel the
shall not be less than their par or dissolution of such corporation whenever any acts of the
issued value, when the corporation directors, officers, or those in control of the corporation are
has sufficient assets in its books to illegal, fraudulent, dishonest, oppressive or unfairly
cover its debts and liabilities prejudicial to the corporation or any stockholder, or
exclusive of capital stock: Provided, whenever corporate assets are being misapplied or wasted.
That any stockholder of a close
corporation may, by written
petition to the Securities and
Exchange Commission, compel the
dissolution of such corporation
whenever any of acts of the
directors, officers or those in control
of the corporation is illegal, or
fraudulent, or dishonest, or
oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to
the corporation or any stockholder,
or whenever corporate assets are
being misapplied or wasted.
TITLE XIII - SPECIAL TITLE XIII
CORPORATIONS SPECIAL CORPORATIONS
CHAPTER I EDUCATIONAL CHAPTER I
CORPORATIONS EDUCATIONAL CORPORATIONS
Section 106. Incorporation. - SEC. 105. Incorporation. – Educational corporations shall be
Educational corporations shall be governed by special laws and by the general provisions of
governed by special laws and by this Code.
the general provisions of this Code.
(n)
Section 107. Pre-requisites to No counterpart provision in the
incorporation. - Except upon Revised Corporation Code.
favorable recommendation of the
Ministry of Education and Culture,
the Securities and Exchange
Commission shall not accept or
approve the articles of
incorporation and by-laws of any
educational institution. (168a)
Section 108. Board of trustees. - SEC. 106. Board of Trustees. – Trustees of educational
Trustees of educational institutions institutions organized as nonstock corporations shall not be
organized as non-stock less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15): Provided, That
corporations shall not be less than the number of trustees shall be in multiples of five (5).
five (5) nor more than fifteen (15): Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or
Provided, however, That the bylaws, the board of trustees of incorporated schools,
number of trustees shall be in colleges, or other institutions of learning shall, as soon as
multiples of five (5). Unless organized, so classify themselves that the term of office of
otherwise provided in the articles of one-fifth (1/5) of their number shall expire every year.
incorporation on the by-laws, the Trustees thereafter elected to fill vacancies, occurring before
board of trustees of incorporated the expiration of a particular term, shall hold office only for
schools, colleges, or other the unexpired period.
institutions of learning shall, as
soon as organized, so classify Trustees elected thereafter to fill vacancies caused by
themselves that the term of office of expiration of term shall hold office for five (5) years. A
one-fifth (1/5) of their number shall majority of the trustees shall constitute a quorum for the
expire every year. Trustees transaction of business. The powers and authority of
thereafter elected to fill vacancies, trustees shall be defined in the bylaws.
occurring before the expiration of a For institutions organized as stock corporations, the number
particular term, shall hold office and term of directors shall be governed by the provisions on
only for the unexpired period. stock corporations.
Trustees elected thereafter to fill
vacancies caused by expiration of
term shall hold office for five (5)
years. A majority of the trustees
shall constitute a quorum for the
transaction of business. The powers
and authority of trustees shall be
defined in the by-laws. For
institutions organized as stock
corporations, the number and term
of directors shall be governed by
the provisions on stock
corporations. (169a)
CHAPTER II RELIGIOUS CHAPTER II
CORPORATIONS RELIGIOUS CORPORATIONS
Section 109. Classes of religious SEC. 107. Classes of Religious Corporations. – Religious
corporations. - Religious corporations may be incorporated by one (1) or more
corporations may be incorporated persons. Such corporations may be classified into
by one or more persons. Such corporations sole and religious societies.
corporations may be classified into Religious corporations shall be governed by this Chapter
corporations sole and religious and by the general provisions on nonstock corporations
societies. Religious corporations insofar as applicable.
shall be governed by this Chapter
and by the general provisions on
non-stock corporations insofar as
they may be applicable. (n)
Section 110. Corporation sole. - For SEC. 108. Corporation Sole. – For the purpose of
the purpose of administering and administering and managing, as trustee, the affairs,
managing, as trustee, the affairs, property and temporalities of any religious denomination,
property and temporalities of any sect or church, a corporation sole may be formed by the
religious denomination, sect or chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or other
church, a corporation sole may be presiding elder of such religious denomination, sect or
formed by the chief archbishop, church.
bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or
other presiding elder of such
religious denomination, sect or
church. (154a)
Section 111. Articles of A A- It is the religious
incorporation. - In order to become SEC. 109. Articles of Incorporation. – In order to become a denomination, sect or church
a corporation sole, the chief corporation sole, the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, which desires to become a
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder of any religious corporation sole (New). It
rabbi or presiding elder of any denomination, sect or church must file with the appears that the applicant (he)
religious denomination, sect or Commission articles of incorporation setting forth the desires to become a corporation
church must file with the Securities following: sole (Old).
and Exchange Commission articles (a) That the applicant chief archbishop, bishop, priest,
of incorporation setting forth the minister, rabbi, or presiding elder represents the religious C- The administrative function
following: 1. That he is the chief denomination, sect or church which desires to become a of chief archbishop, etc. must be
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, corporation sole; described succinctly in the
rabbi or presiding elder of his articles of incorporation (New).
religious denomination, sect or (b) That the rules, regulations and discipline of the No such requirement in the Old
church and that he desires to religious denomination, sect or church are consistent with Code.
become a corporation sole; 2. That becoming a corporation sole and do not forbid it;
the rules, regulations and discipline D- Manner of filling the
of his religious denomination, sect (c) That such chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, vacancy. No requirement that
or church are not inconsistent with rabbi, or presiding elder is charged with the administration the person who will fill up
his becoming a corporation sole and of the temporalities and the management of the affairs, belongs to the religious
do not forbid it; 3. That as such estate and properties of the religious denomination, sect, or denomination, sect or church
chief archbishop, bishop, priest, church within the territorial jurisdiction, so described (New). It is required in the Old
minister, rabbi or presiding elder, succinctly in the articles of incorporation; Cold.
he is charged with the
administration of the temporalities (d) The manner by which any vacancy occurring in the
and the management of the affairs, office of chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or
estate and properties of his presiding elder is required to be filled, according to the
religious denomination, sect or rules, regulations or discipline of the religious
church within his territorial denomination, sect or church; and
jurisdiction, describing such
territorial jurisdiction; 4. The (e) The place where the principal office of the corporation
manner in which any vacancy sole is to be established and located, which place must be
occurring in the office of chief within the territory of the Philippines.
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister,
rabbi of presiding elder is required The articles of incorporation may include any other
to be filled, according to the rules, provision not contrary to law for the regulation of the
regulations or discipline of the affairs of the corporation.
religious denomination, sect or
church to which he belongs; and 5.
The place where the principal office
of the corporation sole is to be
established and located, which
place must be within the
Philippines. The articles of
incorporation may include any
other provision not contrary to law
for the regulation of the affairs of
the corporation. (n)
Section 112. Submission of the SEC. 110. Submission of the Articles of Incorporation. – Same Content.
articles of incorporation. - The The articles of incorporation must be verified, by affidavit or Change in Form.
articles of incorporation must be affirmation of the chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister,
verified, before filing, by affidavit rabbi, or presiding elder, as the case may be, and
or affirmation of the chief accompanied by a copy of the commission, certificate of
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, election or letter of appointment of such chief archbishop,
rabbi or presiding elder, as the case bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder, duly
may be, and accompanied by a certified to be correct by any notary public.
copy of the commission, certificate From and after filing with the Commission of the said
of election or letter of appointment articles of incorporation, verified by affidavit or affirmation,
of such chief archbishop, bishop, and accompanied by the documents mentioned in the
priest, minister, rabbi or presiding preceding paragraph, such chief archbishop, bishop, priest,
elder, duly certified to be correct by minister, rabbi, or presiding elder shall become a
any notary public. From and after corporation sole and all temporalities, estate and properties
the filing with the Securities and of the religious denomination, sect or church theretofore
Exchange Commission of the said administered or managed as such chief archbishop, bishop,
articles of incorporation, verified by priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder shall be personally
affidavit or affirmation, and held in trust as a corporation sole, for the use, purpose,
accompanied by the documents exclusive benefit and on behalf of the religious
mentioned in the preceding denomination, sect or church, including hospitals, schools,
paragraph, such chief archbishop, colleges, orphan asylums, parsonages, and cemeteries
bishop, priest, minister, rabbi or thereof.
presiding elder shall become a
corporation sole and all
temporalities, estate and properties
of the religious denomination, sect
or church theretofore administered
or managed by him as such chief
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister,
rabbi or presiding elder shall be
held in trust by him as a
corporation sole, for the use,
purpose, behalf and sole benefit of
his religious denomination, sect or
church, including hospitals,
schools, colleges, orphan asylums,
parsonages and cemeteries thereof.
(n)
Section 113. Acquisition and SEC. 111. Acquisition and Alienation of Property. – A
alienation of property. - Any corporation sole may purchase and hold real estate and
corporation sole may purchase and personal property for its church, charitable, benevolent, or
hold real estate and personal educational purposes, and may receive bequests or gifts for
property for its church, charitable, such purposes. Such corporation may sell or mortgage real
benevolent or educational property held by it by obtaining an order for that purpose
purposes, and may receive bequests from the
or gifts for such purposes. Such Regional Trial Court of the province where the property is
corporation may sell or mortgage situated upon proof that the notice of the application for
real property held by it by leave to sell or mortgage has been made through publication
obtaining an order for that purpose or as directed by the Court, and that it is in the interest of
from the Court of First Instance of the corporation that leave to sell or mortgage be granted.
the province where the property is The application for leave to sell or mortgage must be made
situated upon proof made to the by petition, duly verified, by the chief archbishop, bishop,
satisfaction of the court that notice priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder acting as
of the application for leave to sell or corporation sole, and may be opposed by any member of
mortgage has been given by the religious denomination, sect, or church represented by
publication or otherwise in such the corporation sole: Provided, That in cases where the
manner and for such time as said rules, regulations, and discipline of the religious
court may have directed, and that it denomination, sect or church, religious society, or order
is to the interest of the corporation concerned represented by such corporation sole regulate the
that leave to sell or mortgage method of acquiring, holding, selling, and mortgaging real
should be granted. The application estate and personal property, such rules, regulations and
for leave to sell or mortgage must discipline shall govern, and the intervention of the courts
be made by petition, duly verified, shall not be necessary.
by the chief archbishop, bishop,
priest, minister, rabbi or presiding
elder acting as corporation sole, and
may be opposed by any member of
the religious denomination, sect or
church represented by the
corporation sole: Provided, That in
cases where the rules, regulations
and discipline of the religious
denomination, sect or church,
religious society or order concerned
represented by such corporation
sole regulate the method of
acquiring, holding, selling and
mortgaging real estate and personal
property, such rules, regulations
and discipline shall control, and the
intervention of the courts shall not
be necessary. (159a)
Section 114. Filling of vacancies. - SEC. 112. Filling of Vacancies. – The successors in office of
The successors in office of any chief any chief archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, rabbi, or
archbishop, bishop, priest, minister, presiding elder in a corporation sole shall become the
rabbi or presiding elder in a corporation sole on their accession to office and shall be
corporation sole shall become the permitted to transact business as such upon filing a copy of
corporation sole on their accession their commission, certificate of election, or letters of
to office and shall be permitted to appointment, duly certified by any notary public with the
transact business as such on the Commission.
filing with the Securities and During any vacancy in the office of chief archbishop, bishop,
Exchange Commission of a copy of priest, minister, rabbi, or presiding elder of any religious
their commission, certificate of denomination, sect or church incorporated as a corporation
election, or letters of appointment, sole, the person or persons authorized by the rules,
duly certified by any notary public. regulations or discipline of the religious denomination, sect,
During any vacancy in the office of or church represented by the corporation sole to administer
chief archbishop, bishop, priest, the temporalities and manage the affairs, estate, and
minister, rabbi or presiding elder of properties of the corporation sole shall exercise all the
any religious denomination, sect or powers and authority of the corporation sole during such
church incorporated as a vacancy.
corporation sole, the person or
persons authorized and
empowered by the rules,
regulations or discipline of the
religious denomination, sect or
church represented by the
corporation sole to administer the
temporalities and manage the
affairs, estate and properties of the
corporation sole during the vacancy
shall exercise all the powers and
authority of the corporation sole
during such vacancy. (158a)
Section 115. Dissolution. - A SEC. 113. Dissolution. – A corporation sole may be
corporation sole may be dissolved dissolved and its affairs settled voluntarily by submitting to
and its affairs settled voluntarily by the Commission a verified declaration of dissolution,
submitting to the Securities and setting forth:
Exchange Commission a verified (a) The name of the corporation;
declaration of dissolution. The
declaration of dissolution shall set (b) The reason for dissolution and winding up;
forth: 1. The name of the
corporation; 2. The reason for (c) The authorization for the dissolution of the corporation
dissolution and winding up; 3. The by the particular religious denomination, sect or church; and
authorization for the dissolution of
the corporation by the particular (d) The names and addresses of the persons who are to
religious denomination, sect or supervise the winding up of the affairs of the corporation.
church; 4. The names and addresses
of the persons who are to supervise Upon approval of such declaration of dissolution by the
the winding up of the affairs of the Commission, the corporation shall cease to carry on its
corporation. Upon approval of such operations except for the purpose of winding up its affairs.
declaration of dissolution by the
Securities and Exchange
Commission, the corporation shall
cease to carry on its operations
except for the purpose of winding
up its affairs. (n)
Section 116. Religious societies. - SEC. 114. Religious Societies. – Unless forbidden by Same Content.
Any religious society or religious competent authority, the Constitution, pertinent rules, Change in Form.
order, or any diocese, synod, or regulations, or discipline of the religious denomination, sect
district organization of any or church of which it is a part, any religious society,
religious denomination, sect or religious order, diocese, or synod, or district organization of
church, unless forbidden by the any religious denomination, sect or church, may, upon
constitution, rules, regulations, or written consent and/or by an affirmative vote at a meeting
discipline of the religious called for the purpose of at least two-thirds (2/3) of its
denomination, sect or church of membership, incorporate for the administration of its
which it is a part, or by competent temporalities or for the management of its affairs,
authority, may, upon written properties, and estate by filing with the Commission,
consent and/or by an affirmative articles of incorporation verified by the affidavit of the
vote at a meeting called for the presiding elder, secretary, or clerk or other member of such
purpose of at least two-thirds (2/3) religious society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or
of its membership, incorporate for district organization of the religious denomination, sect, or
the administration of its church, setting forth the following:
temporalities or for the (a) That the religious society or religious order, or diocese,
management of its affairs, synod, or district organization is a religious organization of
properties and estate by filing with a religious denomination, sect or church;
the Securities and Exchange
Commission, articles of (b) That at least two-thirds (2/3) of its membership has
incorporation verified by the given written consent or has voted to incorporate, at a duly
affidavit of the presiding elder, convened meeting of the body;
secretary, or clerk or other member
of such religious society or religious (c) That the incorporation of the religious society or
order, or diocese, synod, or district religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization is
organization of the religious not forbidden by competent authority or by the
denomination, sect or church, Constitution, rules, regulations or discipline of the religious
setting forth the following: 1. That denomination, sect or church of which it forms part;
the religious society or religious
order, or diocese, synod, or district (d) That the religious society or religious order, or diocese,
organization is a religious synod, or district organization desires to incorporate for the
organization of a religious administration of its affairs, properties and estate;
denomination, sect or church; 2.
That at least two-thirds (2/3) of its (e) The place within the Philippines where the principal
membership have given their office of the corporation is to be established and located; and
written consent or have voted to
incorporate, at a duly convened (f) The names, nationalities, and residence addresses of the
meeting of the body; 3. That the trustees, not less than five (5) nor more than fifteen (15),
incorporation of the religious elected by the religious society or religious order, or the
society or religious order, or diocese, synod, or district organization to serve for the first
diocese, synod, or district year or such other period as may be prescribed by the laws
organization desiring to incorporate of the religious society or religious order, or of the diocese,
is not forbidden by competent synod, or district organization.
authority or by the constitution,
rules, regulations or discipline of
the religious denomination, sect, or
church of which it forms a part; 4.
That the religious society or
religious order, or diocese, synod,
or district organization desires to
incorporate for the administration
of its affairs, properties and estate;
5. The place where the principal
office of the corporation is to be
established and located, which
place must be within the
Philippines; and 1. The names,
nationalities, and residences of the
trustees elected by the religious
society or religious order, or the
diocese, synod, or district
organization to serve for the first
year or such other period as may be
prescribed by the laws of the
religious society or religious order,
or of the diocese, synod, or district
organization, the board of trustees
to be not less than five (5) nor more
than fifteen (15). (160a)

CHAPTER III
ONE PERSON CORPORATIONS
SEC. 115. Applicability of Provisions to One Person N Prvisions primarily apply to
Corporations. – The provisions of this Title shall primarily One Person Corporations. Other
apply to One Person Corporations. Other provisions of this provisions of this Code apply
Code apply suppletorily, except as otherwise provided in suppletorily.
this Title.

SEC. 116. One Person Corporation. – A One Person N Definition of One Person
Corporation is a corporation with a single stockholder: Corporation.
Provided, That only a natural person, trust, or an estate may
form a One Person Corporation.
Banks and quasi-banks, preneed, trust, insurance, public
and publicly-listed companies, and non-chartered
government-owned and -controlled corporations may not
incorporate as One Person Corporations: Provided, further,
That a natural person who is licensed to exercise a
profession may not organize as a One Person Corporation
for the purpose of exercising such profession except as
otherwise provided under special laws.
SEC. 117. Minimum Capital Stock Not Required for One N Not required to have a
Person Corporation. – A One Person Corporation shall not minimum authorized capital
be required to have a minimum authorized capital stock stock, unless provided by a
except as otherwise provided by special law. special law.
SEC. 118. Articles of Incorporation. – A One Person N File Articles of Incorporation in
Corporation shall file articles of incorporation in accordance with article 14.
accordance with the requirements under Section 14 of this Substantially contain: a) single
Code. It shall likewise substantially contain the following: stockholder is a trust or an
(a) If the single stockholder is a trust or an estate, the name, estate, the name, etc. together
nationality, and residence of the trustee, administrator, with the proof of authority; b)
executor, guardian, conservator, custodian, or other person name, etc. of the nominee and
exercising fiduciary duties together with the proof of such alternate nominee, and the
authority to act on behalf of the trust or estate; and extent, coverage and limitation
of the authority.
(b) Name, nationality, residence of the nominee and
alternate nominee, and the extent, coverage and limitation
of the authority.

SEC. 119. Bylaws. – The One Person Corporation is not N Not required to submit or file by
required to submit and file corporate bylaws. laws

SEC. 120. Display of Corporate Name. – A One Person N Indicate “OPC” either below or
Corporation shall indicate the letters “OPC” either below or at the end of its corporate name.
at the end of its corporate name.

SEC. 121. Single Stockholder as Director, President. – The N Single stockholder shall be the
single stockholder shall be the sole director and president of sole director and president of
the One Person Corporation. the One Person Corporation.

SEC. 122. Treasurer, Corporate Secretary, and Other N Appoint a treasurer, corporate
Officers. – Within fifteen (15) days from the issuance of its secretary, and other officers as it
certificate of incorporation, the One Person Corporation may deem necessary within 15
shall appoint a treasurer, corporate secretary, and other days from issuance of Certificate
officers as it may deem necessary, and notify the of incorporation; notify
Commission thereof within five (5) days from appointment. Commission within 5 days from
appointment.
The single stockholder may not be appointed as the
corporate secretary. Single stockholder may not be
appointed as the corporate
A single stockholder who is likewise the self-appointed secretary.
treasurer of the corporation shall give a bond to the
Commission in such a sum as may be required: Provided, Single stockholder who is
That, the said stockholder/treasurer shall undertake in likewise the self-appointed
writing to faithfully administer the One Person treasurer of the corporation
Corporation’s funds to be received as treasurer, and to shall give a bond to the
disburse and invest the same according to the articles of Commission (renewed every
incorporation as approved by the Commission. The bond two years or often as required).
shall be renewed every two (2) years or as often as may be
required.

SEC. 123. Special Functions of the Corporate Secretary. – N Special Functions of the
In addition to the functions designated by the One Person Corporate Secretary: a)
Corporation, the corporate secretary shall: responsible for maintaining the
(a) Be responsible for maintaining the minutes book and/or minutes book; b) notify the
records of the corporation; nominee or alternate nominee of
the death or incapacity of the
(b) Notify the nominee or alternate nominee of the death or single stockholder (5 days from
incapacity of the single stockholder, which notice shall be occurrence); c) notify the
given no later than five (5) days from such occurrence; Commission of the death of the
single stockholder within five
(c) Notify the Commission of the death of the single (5) days from such occurrence;
stockholder within five (5) days from such occurrence and d) call the nominee or alternate
stating in such notice the names, residence addresses, and nominee and the known legal
contact details of all known legal heirs; and heirs about the election of a new
director, amendment of the
(d) Call the nominee or alternate nominee and the known articles of incorporation, and
legal heirs to a meeting and advise the legal heirs with other ancillary and/or
regard to, among others, the election of a new director, consequential matters.
amendment of the articles of incorporation, and other
ancillary and/or consequential matters.

SEC. 124. Nominee and Alternate Nominee. – The single N Single stockholder shall
stockholder shall designate a nominee and an alternate designate a nominee and an
nominee who shall, in the event of the single stockholder’s alternate nominee who shall tale
death or incapacity, take the place of the single stockholder place in the event of the single
as director and shall manage the corporation’s affairs. stockholder’s death or
The articles of incorporation shall state the names, residence incapacity
addresses and contact details of the nominee and alternate
nominee, as well as the extent and limitations of their Written consent of the nominee
authority in managing the affairs of the One Person and alternate nominee shall be
Corporation. attached to the application for
The written consent of the nominee and alternate nominee incorporation.
shall be attached to the application for incorporation. Such
consent may be withdrawn in writing any time before the
death or incapacity of the single stockholder.
SEC. 125. Term of Nominee and Alternate Nominee. – N Incapacity of the single
When the incapacity of the single stockholder is temporary, stockholder is temporary, the
the nominee shall sit as director and manage the affairs of nominee shall sit until the
the One Person Corporation until the stockholder, by self stockholder, by self
determination, regains the capacity to assume such duties. determination, regains the
In case of death or permanent incapacity of the single capacity to assume such duties.
stockholder, the nominee shall sit as director and manage Death or permanent incapacity
the affairs of the One Person Corporation until the legal of the single stockholder, the
heirs of the single stockholder have been lawfully nominee shall sit until the legal
determined, and the heirs have designated one of them or heirs of the single stockholder
have agreed that the estate shall be the single stockholder of have been lawfully determined.
the One Person Corporation.
The alternate nominee shall sit as director and manage the
One Person Corporation in case of the nominee’s inability,
incapacity, death, or refusal to discharge the functions as
director and manager of the corporation, and only for the
same term and under the same conditions applicable to the
nominee.
SEC. 126. Change of Nominee or Alternate Nominee. – The N Single stockholder at any time,
single stockholder may, at any time, change its nominee and change its nominee and
alternate nominee by submitting to the Commission the alternate nominee by submitting
names of the new nominees and their corresponding written to the Commission the names of
consent. For this purpose, the articles of incorporation need new nominees with written
not be amended. consent. The articles of
incorporation need not be
amended.
SEC. 127. Minutes Book. – A One Person Corporation shall N Maintain a minutes book which
maintain a minutes book which shall contain all actions, shall contain all actions,
decisions, and resolutions taken by the One Person decisions, and resolutions
Corporation.

SEC. 128. Records in Lieu of Meetings. – When action is N When action is needed on any
needed on any matter, it shall be sufficient to prepare a matter, it is sufficient to prepare
written resolution, signed and dated by the single a written resolution, signed and
stockholder, and recorded in the minutes book of the One dated by the single stockholder,
Person Corporation. The date of recording in the minutes and recorded in the minutes
book shall be deemed to be the date of the meeting for all book.
purposes under this Code.

SEC. 129. Reportorial Requirements. – The One Person N Reportorial Requirements: a)


Corporation shall submit the following within such period Audited annual financial
as the Commission may prescribe: statements; b) Explanations or
(a) Annual financial statements audited by an independent comments by the president on
certified public accountant: Provided, That if the total assets every qualification, reservation,
or total liabilities of the corporation are less than Six or adverse remark or disclaimer
Hundred Thousand Pesos (P600,000.00), the financial made by the auditor; c)
statements shall be certified under oath by the corporation’s Disclosure of all self-dealings
treasurer and president; and related party transactions
entered; d) Other reports.
(b) A report containing explanations or comments by the
president on every qualification, reservation, or adverse
remark or disclaimer made by the auditor in the latter’s
report;

(c) A disclosure of all self-dealings and related party


transactions entered into between the One Person
Corporation and the single stockholder; and

(d) Other reports as the Commission may require.

For purposes of this provision, the fiscal year of a One


Person Corporation shall be that set forth in its articles of
incorporation or, in the absence thereof, the calendar year.
The Commission may place the corporation under
delinquent status should the corporation fail to submit the
reportorial requirements three (3) times, consecutively or
intermittently, within a period of five (5) years.
SEC. 130. Liability of Single Shareholder. – A sole N Sole shareholder claiming
shareholder claiming limited liability has the burden of limited liability has the burden
affirmatively showing that the corporation was adequately of showing that the corporation
financed. was adequately financed.
Where the single stockholder cannot prove that the property If cannot prove, stockholder
of the One Person Corporation is independent of the shall be jointly and severally
stockholder’s personal property, the stockholder shall be liable for the debts and other
jointly and severally liable for the debts and other liabilities liabilities of the One Person
of the One Person Corporation. Corporation.
The principles of piercing the corporate veil applies with Principles of piercing the
equal force to One Person Corporations as with other corporate veil applies with
corporations. equal force to One Person
Corporations as with other
corporations.

SEC. 131. Conversion from an Ordinary Corporation to a N Single stockholder acquires all
One Person Corporation. – When a single stockholder the stocks of an ordinary stock
acquires all the stocks of an ordinary stock corporation, the corporation, the latter may
latter may apply for conversion into a One Person apply for conversion.
Corporation, subject to the submission of such documents as
the Commission may require. If the application for One Person Corporation
conversion is approved, the Commission shall issue a converted from an ordinary
certificate of filing of amended articles of incorporation stock corporation succeed the
reflecting the conversion. The One Person Corporation latter and be legally responsible
converted from an ordinary stock corporation shall succeed for all the latter’s outstanding
the latter and be legally responsible for all the latter’s liabilities as of the date of
outstanding liabilities as of the date of conversion. conversion.

SEC. 132. Conversion from a One Person Corporation to One Person Corporation
an Ordinary Stock Corporation. – A One Person converted into an ordinary stock
Corporation may be converted into an ordinary stock corporation, due notice to the
corporation after due notice to the Commission of such fact Commission of such fact (within
and of the circumstances leading to the conversion, and sixty (60) days from the
after compliance with all other requirements for stock occurrence of the circumstances
corporations under this Code and applicable rules. Such leading to the conversion.
notice shall be filed with the Commission within sixty (60)
days from the occurrence of the circumstances leading to the
conversion into an ordinary stock corporation. If all
requirements have been complied with, the Commission
shall issue a certificate of filing of amended articles of
incorporation reflecting the conversion.
In case of death of the single stockholder, the nominee or
alternate nominee shall transfer the shares to the duly
designated legal heir or estate within seven (7) days from
receipt of either an affidavit of heirship or self-adjudication
executed by a sole heir, or any other legal document
declaring the legal heirs of the single stockholder and notify
the Commission of the transfer. Within sixty (60) days from
the transfer of the shares, the legal heirs shall notify the
Commission of their decision to either wind up and dissolve
the One Person Corporation or convert it into an ordinary
stock corporation.
The ordinary stock corporation converted from a One
Person Corporation shall succeed the latter and be legally
responsible for all the latter’s outstanding liabilities as of the
date of conversion.
TITLE XIV - DISSOLUTION TITLE XIV DISSOLUTION
Section 117. Methods of dissolution. SEC. 133. Methods of Dissolution. – A corporation formed
- A corporation formed or or organized under the provisions of this Code may be
organized under the provisions of dissolved voluntarily or involuntarily.
this Code may be dissolved
voluntarily or involuntarily. (n)
Section 118. Voluntary dissolution SEC. 134. Voluntary Dissolution Where No Creditors are A Voluntary Dissolution:
where no creditors are affected. - If Affected. – If dissolution of a corporation does not prejudice affirmative vote of the
dissolution of a corporation does the rights of any creditor having a claim against it, the stockholders owning at least
not prejudice the rights of any dissolution may be effected by majority vote of the board of majority (New Code); ⅔ votes
creditor having a claim against it, directors or trustees, and by a resolution adopted by the (Old Code).
the dissolution may be effected by affirmative vote of the stockholders owning at least majority
majority vote of the board of of the outstanding capital stock or majority of the members At least twenty (20) days prior
directors or trustees, and by a of a meeting to be held upon the call of the directors or to the meeting, notice
resolution duly adopted by the trustees. shall be given to each
affirmative vote of the stockholders At least twenty (20) days prior to the meeting, notice shall shareholder or member of
owning at least two-thirds (2/3) of be given to each shareholder or member of record record (New Code); 30 days
the outstanding capital stock or of personally, by registered mail, or by any means authorized (Old Code)
at least two-thirds (2/3) of the under its bylaws, whether or not entitled to vote at the
members of a meeting to be held meeting, in the manner provided in Section 50 of this Code Additional Requirements : A
upon call of the directors or trustees and shall state that the purpose of the meeting is to vote on verified request for dissolution
after publication of the notice of the dissolution of the corporation. Notice of the time, place, shall be filed with the
time, place and object of the and object of the meeting shall be published once prior to Commission stating: (a) the
meeting for three (3) consecutive the date of the meeting in a newspaper published in the reason for the dissolution; (b)
weeks in a newspaper published in place where the principal office of said corporation is the form, manner, and time
the place where the principal office located, or if no newspaper is published in such place, in a when the notices were given; (c)
of said corporation is located; and if newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines. names of the stockholders and
no newspaper is published in such A verified request for dissolution shall be filed with the directors or members and
place, then in a newspaper of Commission stating: (a) the reason for the dissolution; (b) trustees who approved the
general circulation in the the form, manner, and time when the notices were given; (c) dissolution; (d) the date, place,
Philippines, after sending such names of the stockholders and directors or members and and time of the meeting in
notice to each stockholder or trustees who approved the dissolution; (d) the date, place, which the vote was made; and
member either by registered mail or and time of the meeting in which the vote was made; and (e) (e) details of publication.
by personal delivery at least thirty details of publication.
(30) days prior to said meeting. A The corporation shall submit the following to the
copy of the resolution authorizing Commission: (1) a copy of the resolution authorizing the
the dissolution shall be certified by dissolution, certified by a majority of the board of directors
a majority of the board of directors or trustees and countersigned by the secretary of the
or trustees and countersigned by corporation; (2) proof of publication; and (3) favorable
the secretary of the corporation. The recommendation from the appropriate regulatory agency,
Securities and Exchange when necessary.
Commission shall thereupon issue Within fifteen (15) days from receipt of the verified request
the certificate of dissolution. (62a) for dissolution, and in the absence of any withdrawal within
said period, the Commission shall approve the request and
issue the certificate of dissolution. The dissolution shall take
effect only upon the issuance by the Commission of a
certificate of dissolution.
No application for dissolution of banks, banking and quasi-
banking institutions, preneed, insurance and trust
companies, nonstock savings and loan associations,
pawnshops, and other financial intermediaries shall be
approved by the Commission unless accompanied by a
favorable recommendation of the appropriate government
agency.
Section 119. Voluntary dissolution SEC. 135. Voluntary Dissolution Where Creditors are A Voluntary Dissolution Where
where creditors are affected. - Affected; Procedure and Contents of Petition. – Where the Creditors are Affected;
Where the dissolution of a dissolution of a corporation may prejudice the rights of any Procedure and Contents of
corporation may prejudice the creditor, a verified petition for dissolution shall be filed with Petition: verified petition for
rights of any creditor, the petition the Commission. dissolution shall be filed with
for dissolution shall be filed with The petition shall be signed by a majority of the the Commission.
the Securities and Exchange corporation’s board of directors or trustees, verified by its
Commission. The petition shall be president or secretary or one of its directors or trustees, and Additional Requirements (New
signed by a majority of its board of shall set forth all claims and demands against it, and that its Code): Petition shall state: (a)
directors or trustees or other dissolution was resolved upon by the affirmative vote of the the reason for the dissolution;
officers having the management of stockholders representing at least two-thirds (2/3) of the (b) the form, manner, and time
its affairs, verified by its president outstanding capital stock or at least two-thirds (2/3) of the when the notices were given;
or secretary or one of its directors or members at a meeting of its stockholders or members called and (c) the date, place, and time
trustees, and shall set forth all for that purpose. of the meeting in which the vote
claims and demands against it, and The petition shall likewise state: (a) the reason for the was made. The corporation shall
that its dissolution was resolved dissolution; (b) the form, manner, and time when the notices submit to the Commission the
upon by the affirmative vote of the were given; and (c) the date, place, and time of the meeting following: (1) a copy of the
stockholders representing at least in which the vote was made. The corporation shall submit to resolution authorizing the
two-thirds (2/3) of the outstanding the Commission the following: (1) a copy of the resolution dissolution, certified by a
capital stock or by at least two- authorizing the dissolution, certified by a majority of the majority of the board of
thirds (2/3) of the members at a board of directors or trustees and countersigned by the directors or trustees and
meeting of its stockholders or secretary of the corporation; and (2) a list of all its creditors. countersigned by the secretary
members called for that purpose. If If the petition is sufficient in form and substance, the of the corporation; and (2) a list
the petition is sufficient in form and Commission shall, by an order reciting the purpose of the of all its creditors.
substance, the Commission shall, by petition, fix a deadline for filing objections to the petition
an order reciting the purpose of the which date shall not be less than thirty (30) days nor more Dissolution shall take effect only
petition, fix a date on or before than sixty (60) days after the entry of the order. Before such upon the issuance by the
which objections thereto may be date, a copy of the order shall be published at least once a Commission of a certificate of
filed by any person, which date week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of dissolution.
shall not be less than thirty (30) general circulation published in the municipality or city
days nor more than sixty (60) days where the principal office of the corporation is situated, or if
after the entry of the order. Before there be no such newspaper, then in a newspaper of general
such date, a copy of the order shall circulation in the Philippines, and a similar copy shall be
be published at least once a week posted for three (3) consecutive weeks in three (3) public
for three (3) consecutive weeks in a places in such municipality or city.
newspaper of general circulation Upon five (5) days’ notice, given after the date on which the
published in the municipality or right to file objections as fixed in the order has expired, the
city where the principal office of the Commission shall proceed to hear the petition and try any
corporation is situated, or if there issue raised in the objections filed; and if no such objection
be no such newspaper, then in a is sufficient, and the material allegations of the petition are
newspaper of general circulation in true, it shall render judgment dissolving the corporation
the Philippines, and a similar copy and directing such disposition of its assets as justice
shall be posted for three (3) requires, and may appoint a receiver to collect such assets
consecutive weeks in three (3) and pay the debts of the corporation.
public places in such municipality The dissolution shall take effect only upon the issuance by
or city. Upon five (5) day's notice, the Commission of a certificate of dissolution.
given after the date on which the
right to file objections as fixed in the
order has expired, the Commission
shall proceed to hear the petition
and try any issue made by the
objections filed; and if no such
objection is sufficient, and the
material allegations of the petition
are true, it shall render judgment
dissolving the corporation and
directing such disposition of its
assets as justice requires, and may
appoint a receiver to collect such
assets and pay the debts of the
corporation. (Rule 104, RCa)
Section 120. Dissolution by SEC. 136. Dissolution by Shortening Corporate Term. – A A Additional (New): In case of
shortening corporate term. - A voluntary dissolution may be effected by amending the expiration of corporate term,
voluntary dissolution may be articles of incorporation to shorten the corporate term dissolution shall automatically
effected by amending the articles of pursuant to the provisions of this Code. A copy of the take effect on the day following
incorporation to shorten the amended articles of incorporation shall be submitted to the the last day of the corporate
corporate term pursuant to the Commission in accordance with this Code. term stated in the articles of
provisions of this Code. A copy of Upon the expiration of the shortened term, as stated in the incorporation, without the need
the amended articles of approved amended articles of incorporation, the for the issuance by the
incorporation shall be submitted to corporation shall be deemed dissolved without any further Commission of a certificate of
the Securities and Exchange proceedings, subject to the provisions of this Code on dissolution.
Commission in accordance with liquidation.
this Code. Upon approval of the In the case of expiration of corporate term, dissolution shall
amended articles of incorporation automatically take effect on the day following the last day of
of the expiration of the shortened the corporate term stated in the articles of incorporation,
term, as the case may be, the without the need for the issuance by the Commission of a
corporation shall be deemed certificate of dissolution.
dissolved without any further
proceedings, subject to the
provisions of this Code on
liquidation. (n)
SEC. 137. Withdrawal of Request and Petition for N Verified withdrawal of the
Dissolution. – A withdrawal of the request for dissolution request for dissolution shall be
shall be made in writing, duly verified by any incorporator, made in writing within fifteen
director, trustee, shareholder, or member and signed by the (15) days from receipt by the
same number of incorporators, directors, trustees, Commission of the request for
shareholders, or members necessary to request for dissolution.
dissolution as set forth in the foregoing sections. The
withdrawal shall be submitted no later than fifteen (15) days
from receipt by the Commission of the request for
dissolution. Upon receipt of a withdrawal of request for
dissolution, the Commission shall withhold action on the
request for dissolution and shall, after investigation: (a)
make a pronouncement that the request for dissolution is
deemed withdrawn; (b) direct a joint meeting of the board
of directors or trustees and the stockholders or members for
the purpose of ascertaining whether to proceed with
dissolution; or (c) issue such other orders as it may deem
appropriate.
A withdrawal of the petition for dissolution shall be in the
form of a motion and similar in substance to a withdrawal
of request for dissolution but shall be verified and filed
prior to publication of the order setting the deadline for
filing objections to the petition.

Section 121. Involuntary SEC. 138. Involuntary Dissolution. – A corporation may be A Involuntary Dissolution may be
dissolution. - A corporation may be dissolved by the Commission motu proprio or upon filing of made motu proprio by the
dissolved by the Securities and a verified complaint by any interested party. The following Commission. Grounds for
Exchange Commission upon filing may be grounds for dissolution of the corporation: dissolution provided in the new
of a verified complaint and after (a) Non-use of corporate charter as provided under Section Code.
proper notice and hearing on the 21 of this Code;
grounds provided by existing laws, If Corporation is ordered
rules and regulations. (n) (b) Continuous inoperation of a corporation as provided dissolved by final judgment
under Section 21 of this Code; under subparagraph (e), its
assets, after payment of its
(c) Upon receipt of a lawful court order dissolving the liabilities, shall be forfeited in
corporation; favor of the national
government. Such forfeiture
(d) Upon finding by final judgment that the corporation shall be without prejudice to the
procured its incorporation through fraud; rights of innocent stockholders
and employees for services
(e) Upon finding by final judgment that the corporation: rendered, and to the application
of other penalty or sanction
(1) Was created for the purpose of committing, concealing under this Code or other laws.
or aiding the commission of securities violations,
smuggling, tax evasion, money laundering, or graft and Commission shall give
corrupt practices; reasonable notice to, and
coordinate with, the appropriate
(2) Committed or aided in the commission of securities regulatory agency prior to the
violations, smuggling, tax evasion, money laundering, or involuntary dissolution of
graft and corrupt practices, and its stockholders knew of the companies under their special
same; and regulatory jurisdiction.

(3) Repeatedly and knowingly tolerated the commission of


graft and corrupt practices or other fraudulent or illegal acts
by its directors, trustees, officers, or employees.

If the corporation is ordered dissolved by final judgment


pursuant to the grounds set forth in subparagraph (e)
hereof, its assets, after payment of its liabilities, shall, upon
petition of the Commission with the appropriate court, be
forfeited in favor of the national government. Such
forfeiture shall be without prejudice to the rights of innocent
stockholders and employees for services rendered, and to
the application of other penalty or sanction under this Code
or other laws.
The Commission shall give reasonable notice to, and
coordinate with, the appropriate regulatory agency prior to
the involuntary dissolution of companies under their special
regulatory jurisdiction.

Section 122. Corporate liquidation. - SEC. 139. Corporate Liquidation. – Except for banks, which A Corporate Liquidation: Except
Every corporation whose charter shall be covered by the applicable provisions of Republic for banks, every corporation
expires by its own limitation or is Act No. 7653, otherwise known as the “New Central Bank whose charter expires pursuant
annulled by forfeiture or otherwise, Act”, as amended, and Republic Act No. 3591, otherwise to its articles of incorporation, is
or whose corporate existence for known as the “Philippine Deposit Insurance Corporation annulled by forfeiture, or whose
other purposes is terminated in any Charter”, as amended, every corporation whose charter corporate existence is
other manner, shall nevertheless be expires pursuant to its articles of incorporation, is annulled terminated in any other manner,
continued as a body corporate for by forfeiture, or whose corporate existence is terminated in shall nevertheless remain as a
three (3) years after the time when any other manner, shall nevertheless remain as a body body corporate for three (3)
it would have been so dissolved, for corporate for three (3) years after the effective date of years after the effective date of
the purpose of prosecuting and dissolution, for the purpose of prosecuting and defending dissolution (New Code).
defending suits by or against it and suits by or against it and enabling it to settle and close its
enabling it to settle and close its affairs, dispose of and convey its property, and distribute its
affairs, to dispose of and convey its assets, but not for the purpose of continuing the business for
property and to distribute its assets, which it was established.
but not for the purpose of
continuing the business for which it At any time during said three (3) years, the corporation is
was established. At any time during authorized and empowered to convey all of its property to
said three (3) years, the corporation trustees for the benefit of stockholders, members, creditors
is authorized and empowered to and other persons in interest. After any such conveyance by
convey all of its property to trustees the corporation of its property in trust for the benefit of its
for the benefit of stockholders, stockholders, members, creditors and others in interest, all
members, creditors, and other interest which the corporation had in the property
persons in interest. From and after terminates, the legal interest vests in the trustees, and the
any such conveyance by the beneficial interest in the stockholders, members, creditors or
corporation of its property in trust other persons-in-interest.
for the benefit of its stockholders,
members, creditors and others in Except as otherwise provided for in Sections 93 and 94 of
interest, all interest which the this Code, upon the winding up of corporate affairs, any
corporation had in the property asset distributable to any creditor or stockholder or member
terminates, the legal interest vests who is unknown or cannot be found shall be escheated in
in the trustees, and the beneficial favor of the national government.
interest in the stockholders, Except by decrease of capital stock and as otherwise
members, creditors or other persons allowed by this Code, no corporation shall distribute any of
in interest. Upon the winding up of its assets or property except upon lawful dissolution and
the corporate affairs, any asset after payment of all its debts and liabilities.
distributable to any creditor or
stockholder or member who is
unknown or cannot be found shall
be escheated to the city or
municipality where such assets are
located. Except by decrease of
capital stock and as otherwise
allowed by this Code, no
corporation shall distribute any of
its assets or property except upon
lawful dissolution and after
payment of all its debts and
liabilities. (77a, 89a, 16a)
TITLE XV - FOREIGN TITLE XV
CORPORATIONS FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
Section 123. Definition and rights of SEC. 140. Definition and Rights of Foreign Corporations. – Same Content.
foreign corporations. - For the For purposes of this Code, a foreign corporation is one Change in Form.
purposes of this Code, a foreign formed, organized or existing under laws other than those
corporation is one formed, of the Philippines’ and whose laws allow Filipino citizens
organized or existing under any and corporations to do business in its own country or State.
laws other than those of the It shall have the right to transact business in the Philippines
Philippines and whose laws allow after obtaining a license for that purpose in accordance with
Filipino citizens and corporations to this Code and a certificate of authority from the appropriate
do business in its own country or government agency.
state. It shall have the right to
transact business in the Philippines
after it shall have obtained a license
to transact business in this country
in accordance with this Code and a
certificate of authority from the
appropriate government agency. (n)
Section 124. Application to existing SEC. 141. Application to existing foreign corporations. –
foreign corporations. - Every Every foreign corporation which on the date of the
foreign corporation which on the effectivity of this Code is authorized to do business in the
date of the effectivity of this Code is Philippines under a license issued to it shall continue to
authorized to do business in the have such authority under the terms and condition of its
Philippines under a license license, subject to the provisions of this Code and other
therefore issued to it, shall continue special laws.
to have such authority under the
terms and condition of its license,
subject to the provisions of this
Code and other special laws. (n)
Section 125. Application for a SEC. 142. Application for a License. – A foreign corporation Same Content; Change in Form
license. - A foreign corporation applying for a license to transact business in the Philippines
applying for a license to transact shall submit to the Commission a copy of its articles of
business in the Philippines shall incorporation and bylaws, certified in accordance with law,
submit to the Securities and and their translation to an official language of the
Exchange Commission a copy of its Philippines, if necessary. The application shall be under
articles of incorporation and by- oath and, unless already stated in its articles of
laws, certified in accordance with incorporation, shall specifically set forth the following:
law, and their translation to an (a) The date and term of incorporation;
official language of the Philippines,
if necessary. The application shall (b) The address, including the street number, of the
be under oath and, unless already principal office of the corporation in the country or state of
stated in its articles of incorporation;
incorporation, shall specifically set
forth the following: 1. The date and (c) The name and address of its resident agent authorized to
term of incorporation; 2. The accept summons and process in all legal proceedings and all
address, including the street notices affecting the corporation, pending the establishment
number, of the principal office of of a local office;
the corporation in the country or
state of incorporation; 3. The name (d) The place in the Philippines where the corporation
and address of its resident agent intends to operate;
authorized to accept summons and
process in all legal proceedings and, (e) The specific purpose or purposes which the corporation
pending the establishment of a local intends to pursue in the transaction of its business in the
office, all notices affecting the Philippines: Provided, That said purpose or purposes are
corporation; 4. The place in the those specifically stated in the certificate of authority issued
Philippines where the corporation by the appropriate government agency;
intends to operate; 5. The specific
purpose or purposes which the (f) The names and addresses of the present directors and
corporation intends to pursue in the officers of the corporation;
transaction of its business in the
Philippines: Provided, That said (g) A statement of its authorized capital stock and the
purpose or purposes are those aggregate number of shares which the corporation has
specifically stated in the certificate authority to issue, itemized by class, par value of shares,
of authority issued by the shares without par value, and series, if any;
appropriate government agency; 6.
The names and addresses of the (h) A statement of its outstanding capital stock and the
present directors and officers of the aggregate number of shares which the corporation has
corporation; 7. A statement of its issued, itemized by class, par value of shares, shares
authorized capital stock and the without par value, and series, if any;
aggregate number of shares which
the corporation has authority to (i) A statement of the amount actually paid in; and
issue, itemized by classes, par value
of shares, shares without par value, (j) Such additional information as may be necessary or
and series, if any; 8. A statement of appropriate in order to enable the Commission to determine
its outstanding capital stock and the whether such corporation is entitled to a license to transact
aggregate number of shares which business in the Philippines, and to determine and assess the
the corporation has issued, itemized fees payable.
by classes, par value of shares,
shares without par value, and Attached to the application for license shall be a certificate
series, if any; 9. A statement of the under oath duly executed by the authorized official or
amount actually paid in; and 10. officials of the jurisdiction of its incorporation, attesting to
Such additional information as may the fact that the laws of the country or State of the
be necessary or appropriate in applicant allow Filipino citizens and corporations to do
order to enable the Securities and business therein, and that the applicant is an existing
Exchange Commission to determine corporation in good standing. If the certificate is in a
whether such corporation is entitled foreign language, a translation thereof in English under oath
to a license to transact business in of the translator shall be attached to the application.
the Philippines, and to determine
and assess the fees payable. The application for a license to transact business in the
Attached to the application for Philippines shall likewise be accompanied by a statement
license shall be a duly executed under oath of the president or any other person authorized
certificate under oath by the by the corporation, showing to the satisfaction of the
authorized official or officials of the Commission and when appropriate, other governmental
jurisdiction of its incorporation, agencies that the applicant is solvent and in sound financial
attesting to the fact that the laws of condition, setting forth the assets and liabilities of the
the country or state of the applicant corporation as of the date not exceeding one (1) year
allow Filipino citizens and immediately prior to the filing of the application.
corporations to do business therein,
and that the applicant is an existing Foreign banking, financial, and insurance corporations shall,
corporation in good standing. If in addition to the above requirements, comply with the
such certificate is in a foreign provisions of existing laws applicable to them. In the case of
language, a translation thereof in all other foreign corporations, no application for license to
English under oath of the translator transact business in the Philippines shall be accepted by the
shall be attached thereto. The Commission without previous authority from the
application for a license to transact appropriate government agency, whenever required by law.
business in the Philippines shall
likewise be accompanied by a
statement under oath of the
president or any other person
authorized by the corporation,
showing to the satisfaction of the
Securities and Exchange
Commission and other
governmental agency in the proper
cases that the applicant is solvent
and in sound financial condition,
and setting forth the assets and
liabilities of the corporation as of
the date not exceeding one (1) year
immediately prior to the filing of
the application. Foreign banking,
financial and insurance
corporations shall, in addition to
the above requirements, comply
with the provisions of existing laws
applicable to them. In the case of all
other foreign corporations, no
application for license to transact
business in the Philippines shall be
accepted by the Securities and
Exchange Commission without
previous authority from the
appropriate government agency,
whenever required by law. (68a)
Section 126. Issuance of a license. - SEC. 143. Issuance of a License. – If the Commission is A Additional form of deposit by
If the Securities and Exchange satisfied that the applicant has complied with all the the lincensee: any financial
Commission is satisfied that the requirements of this Code and other special laws, rules and instrument determined
applicant has complied with all the regulations, the Commission shall issue a license to transact suitable by the Commission
requirements of this Code and business in the Philippines to the applicant for the purpose
other special laws, rules and or purposes specified in such license. Minimum securities or
regulations, the Commission shall Upon issuance of the license, such foreign corporation may instruments to be deposited by
issue a license to the applicant to commence to transact business in the Philippines and licensee from 100,000 pesos (old
transact business in the Philippines continue to do so for as long as it retains its authority to act code) to 500,000 pesos (new
for the purpose or purposes as a corporation under the laws of the country or State of its code)
specified in such license. Upon incorporation, unless such license is sooner surrendered,
issuance of the license, such foreign revoked, suspended, or annulled in accordance with this Additional securities or
corporation may commence to Code or other special laws. financial instruments equivalent
transact business in the Philippines in actual market value to two
and continue to do so for as long as Within sixty (60) days after the issuance of the license to percent (2%) of the amount by
it retains its authority to act as a transact business in the Philippines, the licensee, except which the licensee’s gross
corporation under the laws of the foreign banking or insurance corporations, shall deposit income for that fiscal year
country or state of its incorporation, with the Commission for the benefit of present and future exceeds Ten million pesos (new
unless such license is sooner creditors of the licensee in the Philippines, securities code) from Five million pesos
surrendered, revoked, suspended satisfactory to the Commission, consisting of bonds or other (old code)
or annulled in accordance with this evidence of indebtedness of the Government of the
Code or other special laws. Within Philippines, its political subdivisions and instrumentalities, The new code provides for the
sixty (60) days after the issuance of or of government-owned or -controlled corporations and computation of securities which
the license to transact business in entities, shares of stock or debt securities that are registered is not found in the old code, i.e.,
the Philippines, the license, except under Republic Act No. 8799, otherwise known as “The for purposes of computing the
foreign banking or insurance Securities Regulation Code”, shares of stock in domestic securities deposit, the
corporation, shall deposit with the corporations listed in the stock exchange, shares of stock in composition of gross income
Securities and Exchange domestic insurance companies and banks, any financial and allowable deductions
Commission for the benefit of instrument determined suitable by the Commission, or therefrom shall be in
present and future creditors of the any combination thereof with an actual market value of at accordance with the rules of the
licensee in the Philippines, least Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) or such Commission.
securities satisfactory to the other amount that may be set by the Commission:
Securities and Exchange Provided, however, That within six (6) months after each
Commission, consisting of bonds or fiscal year of the licensee, the Commission shall require the
other evidence of indebtedness of licensee to deposit additional securities or financial
the Government of the Philippines, instruments equivalent in actual market value to two
its political subdivisions and percent (2%) of the amount by which the licensee’s gross
instrumentalities, or of income for that fiscal year exceeds Ten million pesos
government-owned or controlled (P10,000,000.00).
corporations and entities, shares of
stock in "registered enterprises" as The Commission shall also require the deposit of additional
this term is defined in Republic Act securities or financial instruments if the actual market value
No. 5186, shares of stock in of the deposited securities or financial instruments has
domestic corporations registered in decreased by at least ten percent (10%) of their actual
the stock exchange, or shares of market value at the time they were deposited. The
stock in domestic insurance Commission may, at its discretion, release part of the
companies and banks, or any additional deposit if the gross income of the licensee has
combination of these kinds of decreased, or if the actual market value of the total deposit
securities, with an actual market has increased, by more than ten percent (10%) of their actual
value of at least one hundred market value at the time they were deposited.
thousand (P100,000.) pesos;
Provided, however, That within six The Commission may, from time to time, allow the licensee
(6) months after each fiscal year of to make substitute deposits for those already on deposit as
the licensee, the Securities and long as the licensee is solvent. Such licensee shall be
Exchange Commission shall require entitled to collect the interest or dividends on such
the licensee to deposit additional deposits. In the event the licensee ceases to do business in
securities equivalent in actual the Philippines, its deposits shall be returned, upon the
market value to two (2%) percent of licensee’s application and upon proof to the satisfaction of
the amount by which the licensee's the Commission that the licensee has no liability to
gross income for that fiscal year Philippine residents, including the Government of the
exceeds five million (P5,000,000.00) Republic of the Philippines. For purposes of computing the
pesos. The Securities and Exchange securities deposit, the composition of gross income and
Commission shall also require allowable deductions therefrom shall be in accordance
deposit of additional securities if with the rules of the Commission.
the actual market value of the
securities on deposit has decreased
by at least ten (10%) percent of their
actual market value at the time they
were deposited. The Securities and
Exchange Commission may at its
discretion release part of the
additional securities deposited with
it if the gross income of the licensee
has decreased, or if the actual
market value of the total securities
on deposit has increased, by more
than ten (10%) percent of the actual
market value of the securities at the
time they were deposited. The
Securities and Exchange
Commission may, from time to
time, allow the licensee to
substitute other securities for those
already on deposit as long as the
licensee is solvent. Such licensee
shall be entitled to collect the
interest or dividends on the
securities deposited. In the event
the licensee ceases to do business in
the Philippines, the securities
deposited as aforesaid shall be
returned, upon the licensee's
application therefor and upon proof
to the satisfaction of the Securities
and Exchange Commission that the
licensee has no liability to
Philippine residents, including the
Government of the Republic of the
Philippines. (n)
Section 127. Who may be a resident SEC. 144. Who May be a Resident Agent. – A resident A Additional requirement for a
agent. - A resident agent may be agent may be either an individual residing in the domestic corporation as resident
either an individual residing in the Philippines or a domestic corporation lawfully transacting agent that it must likewise be
Philippines or a domestic business in the Philippines: Provided, That an individual of sound financial standing
corporation lawfully transacting resident agent must be of good moral character and of and must show proof that it is
business in the Philippines: sound financial standing: Provided, further, That in case of in good standing as certified by
Provided, That in the case of an a domestic corporation who will act as a resident agent, it the Commission.
individual, he must be of good must likewise be of sound financial standing and must
moral character and of sound show proof that it is in good standing as certified by the
financial standing. (n) Commission.

Section 128. Resident agent; service SEC. 145. Resident Agent; Service of Process. – As a Same Content; Change in Form
of process. - The Securities and condition to the issuance of the license for a foreign
Exchange Commission shall require corporation to transact business in the Philippines, such
as a condition precedent to the corporation shall file with the Commission a written
issuance of the license to transact power of attorney designating a person who must be a
business in the Philippines by any resident of the Philippines, on whom summons and other
foreign corporation that such legal processes may be served in all actions or other legal
corporation file with the Securities proceedings against such corporation, and consenting that
and Exchange Commission a service upon such resident agent shall be admitted and held
written power of attorney as valid as if served upon the duly authorized officers of the
designating some person who must foreign corporation at its home office. Such foreign
be a resident of the Philippines, on corporation shall likewise execute and file with the
whom any summons and other Commission an agreement or stipulation, executed by the
legal processes may be served in all proper authorities of said corporation, in form and
actions or other legal proceedings substance as follows:
against such corporation, and “The (name of foreign corporation) hereby stipulates and
consenting that service upon such agrees, in consideration of being granted a license to
resident agent shall be admitted transact business in the Philippines, that if the corporation
and held as valid as if served upon shall cease to transact business in the Philippines, or shall be
the duly authorized officers of the without any resident agent in the Philippines on whom any
foreign corporation at its home summons or other legal processes may be served, then
office. Any such foreign corporation service of any summons or other legal process may be made
shall likewise execute and file with upon the Commission in any action or proceeding arising
the Securities and Exchange out of any business or transaction which occurred in the
Commission an agreement or Philippines and such service shall have the same force and
stipulation, executed by the proper effect as if made upon the duly authorized officers of the
authorities of said corporation, in corporation at its home office.”
form and substance as follows: "The
(name of foreign corporation) does Whenever such service of summons or other process is
hereby stipulate and agree, in made upon the Commission, the Commission shall, within
consideration of its being granted ten (10) days thereafter, transmit by mail a copy of such
by the Securities and Exchange summons or other legal process to the corporation at its
Commission a license to transact home or principal office. The sending of such copy by the
business in the Philippines, that if Commission shall be a necessary part of and shall complete
at any time said corporation shall such service. All expenses incurred by the Commission for
cease to transact business in the such service shall be paid in advance by the party at whose
Philippines, or shall be without any instance the service is made.
resident agent in the Philippines on
whom any summons or other legal It shall be the duty of the resident agent to immediately
processes may be served, then in notify the Commission in writing of any change in the
any action or proceeding arising resident agent’s address.
out of any business or transaction
which occurred in the Philippines,
service of any summons or other
legal process may be made upon
the Securities and Exchange
Commission and that such service
shall have the same force and effect
as if made upon the dulyauthorized
officers of the corporation at its
home office." Whenever such
service of summons or other
process shall be made upon the
Securities and Exchange
Commission, the Commission shall,
within ten (10) days thereafter,
transmit by mail a copy of such
summons or other legal process to
the corporation at its home or
principal office. The sending of
such copy by the Commission shall
be necessary part of and shall
complete such service. All expenses
incurred by the Commission for
such service shall be paid in
advance by the party at whose
instance the service is made. In case
of a change of address of the
resident agent, it shall be his or its
duty to immediately notify in
writing the Securities and Exchange
Commission of the new address.
(72a; and n
Section 129. Law applicable. - Any SEC. 146. Law Applicable. – A foreign corporation lawfully Same
foreign corporation lawfully doing doing business in the Philippines shall be bound by all laws,
business in the Philippines shall be rules and regulations applicable to domestic corporations of
bound by all laws, rules and the same class, except those which provide for the creation,
regulations applicable to domestic formation, organization or dissolution of corporations or
corporations of the same class, those which fix the relations, liabilities, responsibilities, or
except such only as provide for the duties of stockholders, members, or officers of corporations
creation, formation, organization or to each other or to the corporation.
dissolution of corporations or those
which fix the relations, liabilities,
responsibilities, or duties of
stockholders, members, or officers
of corporations to each other or to
the corporation. (73a
Section 130. Amendments to articles SEC. 147. Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Same
of incorporation or by-laws of Bylaws of Foreign Corporations. – Whenever the articles of
foreign corporations. - Whenever incorporation or bylaws of a foreign corporation authorized
the articles of incorporation or by- to transact business in the Philippines are amended, such
laws of a foreign corporation foreign corporation shall, within sixty (60) days after the
authorized to transact business in amendment becomes effective, file with the Commission,
the Philippines are amended, such and in proper cases, with the appropriate government
foreign corporation shall, within agency, a duly authenticated copy of the amended articles
sixty (60) days after the amendment of incorporation or bylaws, indicating clearly in capital
becomes effective, file with the letters or underscoring the change or changes made, duly
Securities and Exchange certified by the authorized official or officials of the
Commission, and in the proper country or state of incorporation. Such filing shall not in
cases with the appropriate itself enlarge or alter the purpose or purposes for which
government agency, a duly such corporation is authorized to transact business in the
authenticated copy of the articles of Philippines.
incorporation or by-laws, as
amended, indicating clearly in
capital letters or by underscoring
the change or changes made, duly
certified by the authorized official
or officials of the country or state of
incorporation. The filing thereof
shall not of itself enlarge or alter the
purpose or purposes for which such
corporation is authorized to
transact business in the Philippines.
(n)
Section 131. Amended license. - A SEC. 148. Amended License. – A foreign corporation Same
foreign corporation authorized to authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall
transact business in the Philippines obtain an amended license in the event it changes its
shall obtain an amended license in corporate name, or desires to pursue other or additional
the event it changes its corporate purposes in the Philippines, by submitting an application
name, or desires to pursue in the with the Commission, favorably endorsed by the
Philippines other or additional appropriate government agency in the proper cases.
purposes, by submitting an
application therefor to the
Securities and Exchange
Commission, favorably endorsed
by the appropriate government
agency in the proper cases. (n)
Section 132. Merger or SEC. 149. Merger or Consolidation Involving a Foreign Same
consolidation involving a foreign Corporation Licensed in the Philippines. – One or more
corporation licensed in the foreign corporations authorized to transact business in the
Philippines. - One or more foreign Philippines may merge or consolidate with any domestic
corporations authorized to transact corporation or corporations if permitted under Philippine
business in the Philippines may laws and by the law of its incorporation: Provided, That the
merge or consolidate with any requirements on merger or consolidation as provided in this
domestic corporation or Code are followed.
corporations if such is permitted Whenever a foreign corporation authorized to transact
under Philippine laws and by the business in the Philippines shall be a party to a merger or
law of its incorporation: Provided, consolidation in its home country or state as permitted by
That the requirements on merger or the law authorizing its incorporation, such foreign
consolidation as provided in this corporation shall, within sixty (60) days after the effectivity
Code are followed. Whenever a of such merger or consolidation, file with the
foreign corporation authorized to Commission, and in proper cases, with the appropriate
transact business in the Philippines government agency, a copy of the articles of merger or
shall be a party to a merger or consolidation duly authenticated by the proper official or
consolidation in its home country officials of the country or state under whose laws the
or state as permitted by the law of merger or consolidation was effected: Provided, however,
its incorporation, such foreign That if the absorbed corporation is the foreign corporation
corporation shall, within sixty (60) doing business in the Philippines, the latter shall at the same
days after such merger or time file a petition for withdrawal of its license in
consolidation becomes effective, file accordance with this Title.
with the Securities and Exchange
Commission, and in proper cases
with the appropriate government
agency, a copy of the articles of
merger or consolidation duly
authenticated by the proper official
or officials of the country or state
under the laws of which merger or
consolidation was effected:
Provided, however, That if the
absorbed corporation is the foreign
corporation doing business in the
Philippines, the latter shall at the
same time file a petition for
withdrawal of its license in
accordance with this Title. (n)
Section 133. Doing business without SEC. 150. Doing Business Without a License. – No foreign Same
a license. - No foreign corporation corporation transacting business in the Philippines without
transacting business in the a license, or its successors or assigns, shall be permitted to
Philippines without a license, or its maintain or intervene in any action, suit or proceeding in
successors or assigns, shall be any court or administrative agency of the Philippines; but
permitted to maintain or intervene such corporation may be sued or proceeded against before
in any action, suit or proceeding in Philippine courts or administrative tribunals on any valid
any court or administrative agency cause of action recognized under Philippine laws.
of the Philippines; but such
corporation may be sued or
proceeded against before Philippine
courts or administrative tribunals
on any valid cause of action
recognized under Philippine laws.
(69a)
Section 134. Revocation of license. - SEC. 151. Revocation of License. – Without prejudice to Same
Without prejudice to other grounds other grounds provided under special laws, the license of a
provided by special laws, the foreign corporation to transact business in the Philippines
license of a foreign corporation to may be revoked or suspended by the Commission upon any
transact business in the Philippines of the following grounds:
may be revoked or suspended by (a) Failure to file its annual report or pay any fees as
the Securities and Exchange required by this Code;
Commission upon any of the
following grounds: (b) Failure to appoint and maintain a resident agent in the
Philippines as required by this Title;
1. Failure to file its annual report or
pay any fees as required by this (c) Failure, after change of its resident agent or address, to
Code; submit to the Commission a statement of such change as
required by this Title;
2. Failure to appoint and maintain a
resident agent in the Philippines as (d) Failure to submit to the Commission an authenticated
required by this Title; copy of any amendment to its articles of incorporation or
bylaws or of any articles of merger or consolidation within
3. Failure, after change of its the time prescribed by this Title;
resident agent or of his address, to
submit to the Securities and (e) A misrepresentation of any material matter in any
Exchange Commission a statement application, report, affidavit or other document submitted
of such change as required by this by such corporation pursuant to this Title;
Title;
(f) Failure to pay any and all taxes, imposts, assessments or
4. Failure to submit to the penalties, if any, lawfully due to the Philippine Government
Securities and Exchange or any of its agencies or political subdivisions;
Commission an authenticated copy
of any amendment to its articles of (g) Transacting business in the Philippines outside of the
incorporation or by-laws or of any purpose or purposes for which such corporation is
articles of merger or consolidation authorized under its license;
within the time prescribed by this
Title; (h) Transacting business in the Philippines as agent of or
acting on behalf of any foreign corporation or entity not
5. A misrepresentation of any duly licensed to do business in the Philippines; or
material matter in any application,
report, affidavit or other document (i) Any other ground as would render it unfit to transact
submitted by such corporation business in the Philippines.
pursuant to this Title;

6. Failure to pay any and all taxes,


imposts, assessments or penalties, if
any, lawfully due to the Philippine
Government or any of its agencies
or political subdivisions;
7. Transacting business in the
Philippines outside of the purpose
or purposes for which such
corporation is authorized under its
license;

8. Transacting business in the


Philippines as agent of or acting for
and in behalf of any foreign
corporation or entity not duly
licensed to do business in the
Philippines; or

9. Any other ground as would


render it unfit to transact business
in the Philippines. (n)
Section 135. Issuance of certificate SEC. 152. Issuance of Certificate of Revocation. – Upon the Same Content; Change in Form
of revocation. - Upon the revocation revocation of the license to transact business in the
of any such license to transact Philippines, the Commission shall issue a corresponding
business in the Philippines, the certificate of revocation, furnishing a copy thereof to the
Securities and Exchange appropriate government agency in the proper cases.
Commission shall issue a The Commission shall also mail the notice and copy of the
corresponding certificate of certificate of revocation to the corporation, at its registered
revocation, furnishing a copy office in the Philippines.
thereof to the appropriate
government agency in the proper
cases. The Securities and Exchange
Commission shall also mail to the
corporation at its registered office
in the Philippines a notice of such
revocation accompanied by a copy
of the certificate of revocation. (n)
Section 136. Withdrawal of foreign SEC. 153. Withdrawal of Foreign Corporations. – Subject to Same
corporations. - Subject to existing existing laws and regulations, a foreign corporation licensed
laws and regulations, a foreign to transact business in the Philippines may be allowed to
corporation licensed to transact withdraw from the Philippines by filing a petition for
business in the Philippines may be withdrawal of license. No certificate of withdrawal shall be
allowed to withdraw from the issued by the Commission unless all the following
Philippines by filing a petition for requirements are met:
withdrawal of license. No certificate
of withdrawal shall be issued by the (a) All claims which have accrued in the Philippines have
Securities and Exchange been paid, compromised or settled;
Commission unless all the
following requirements are met; (b) All taxes, imposts, assessments, and penalties, if any,
lawfully due to the Philippine Government or any of its
1. All claims which have accrued in agencies or political subdivisions, have been paid; and
the Philippines have been paid,
compromised or settled; (c) The petition for withdrawal of license has been
published once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a
2. All taxes, imposts, assessments, newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines.
and penalties, if any, lawfully due
to the Philippine Government or
any of its agencies or political
subdivisions have been paid; and

3. The petition for withdrawal of


license has been published once a
week for three (3) consecutive
weeks in a newspaper of general
circulation in the Philippines.
TITLE XVI INVESTIGATIONS, OFFENSES, AND
PENALTIES
SEC. 154. Investigation and Prosecution of Offenses. – The N The power of the SEC to
Commission may investigate an alleged violation of this investigate violation of the code,
Code, or of a rule, regulation, or order of the Commission. publish, and give notice and
The Commission may publish its findings, orders, opinions, coordinate with appropriate
advisories, or information concerning any such violation, as regulatory agency
may be relevant to the general public or to the parties
concerned, subject to the provisions of Republic Act No.
10173, otherwise known as the “Data Privacy Act of 2012”,
and other pertinent laws.
The Commission shall give reasonable notice to and
coordinate with the appropriate regulatory agency prior to
any such publication involving companies under their
regulatory jurisdiction.
SEC. 155. Administration of Oaths, Subpoena of N SEC may administer oaths, issue
Witnesses and Documents. – The Commission, through its subpoena, and other acts
designated officer, may administer oaths and affirmations,
issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum, take testimony
in any inquiry or investigation, and may perform other acts
necessary to the proceedings or to the investigation.

SEC. 156. Cease and Desist Orders. – Whenever the N SEC may issue cease and desist
Commission has reasonable basis to believe that a person order
has violated, or is about to violate this Code, a rule,
regulation, or order of the Commission, it may direct such
person to desist from committing the act constituting the
violation.
The Commission may issue a cease and desist order ex parte
to enjoin an act or practice which is fraudulent or can be
reasonably expected to cause significant, imminent, and
irreparable danger or injury to public safety or welfare. The
ex parte order shall be valid for a maximum period of
twenty (20) days, without prejudice to the order being made
permanent after due notice and hearing.
Thereafter, the Commission may proceed administratively
against such person in accordance with Section 158 of this
Code, and/or transmit evidence to the Department of
Justice for preliminary investigation or criminal prosecution
and/or initiate criminal prosecution for any violation of this
Code, rule, or regulation.
SEC. 157. Contempt. – Any person who, without justifiable N SEC has power to punish for
cause, fails or refuses to comply with any lawful order, contempt
decision, or subpoena issued by the Commission shall, after
due notice and hearing, be held in contempt and fined in
an amount not exceeding Thirty thousand pesos
(P30,000.00). When the refusal amounts to clear and open
defiance of the Commission’s order, decision, or subpoena,
the Commission may impose a daily fine of One thousand
pesos (P1,000.00) until the order, decision, or subpoena is
complied with.

SEC. 158. Administrative Sanctions. – If, after due notice N SEC may impose administrative
and hearing, the Commission finds that any provision of sanctions
this Code, rules or regulations, or any of the Commission’s
orders has been violated, the Commission may impose any
or all of the following sanctions, taking into consideration
the extent of participation, nature, effects, frequency and
seriousness of the violation:

(a) Imposition of a fine ranging from Five thousand pesos


(P5,000.00) to Two million pesos (P2,000,000.00), and not
more than One thousand pesos (P1,000.00) for each day of
continuing violation but in no case to exceed Two million
pesos (P2,000,000.00);
(b) Issuance of a permanent cease and desist order;

(c) Suspension or revocation of the certificate of


incorporation; and

(d) Dissolution of the corporation and forfeiture of its assets


under the conditions in Title XIV of this Code.

SEC. 159. Unauthorized Use of Corporate Name; Penalties. N Penalty for unauthorized use of
– The unauthorized use of a corporate name shall be corporate name
punished with a fine ranging from Ten thousand pesos
(P10,000.00) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00).

SEC. 160. Violation of Disqualification Provision; N Penalty for violating the


Penalties. – When, despite the knowledge of the existence disqualification provision
of a ground for disqualification as provided in Section 26
of this Code, a director, trustee or officer willfully holds
office, or willfully conceals such disqualification, such
director, trustee or officer shall be punished with a fine
ranging from Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) to Two
hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) at the discretion of
the court, and shall be permanently disqualified from being
a director, trustee or officer of any corporation. When the
violation of this provision is injurious or detrimental to the
public, the penalty shall be a fine ranging from Twenty
thousand pesos (P20,000.00) to Four hundred thousand
pesos (P400,000.00).

SEC. 161. Violation of Duty to Maintain Records, to Allow N Penalty for violation of
their Inspection or Reproduction; Penalties. – The maintaining corporate records
unjustified failure or refusal by the corporation, or by those
responsible for keeping and maintaining corporate records,
to comply with Sections 45, 73, 92, 128, 177 and other
pertinent rules and provisions of this Code on inspection
and reproduction of records shall be punished with a fine
ranging from Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) to Two
hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00), at the discretion of
the court, taking into consideration the seriousness of the
violation and its implications. When the violation of this
provision is injurious or detrimental to the public, the
penalty is a fine ranging from Twenty thousand pesos
(P20,000.00) to Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00).

The penalties imposed under this section shall be without


prejudice to the Commission’s exercise of its contempt
powers under Section 157 hereof.
SEC. 162. Willful Certification of Incomplete, Inaccurate, N Penalty for incomplete,
False, or Misleading Statements or Reports; Penalties. – inaccurate, false, or misleading
Any person who willfully certifies a report required under information or statements
this Code, knowing that the same contains incomplete,
inaccurate, false, or misleading information or statements,
shall be punished with a fine ranging from Twenty
thousand pesos (P20,000.00) to Two hundred thousand
pesos (P200,000.00). When the wrongful certification is
injurious or detrimental to the public, the auditor or the
responsible person may also be punished with a fine
ranging from Forty thousand pesos (P40,000.00) to Four
hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00).

SEC. 163. Independent Auditor Collusion; Penalties. – An N Penalty for independent auditor
independent auditor who, in collusion with the collusion with corporation’s
corporation’s directors or representatives, certifies the directors or representatives
corporation’s financial statements despite its incompleteness
or inaccuracy, its failure to give a fair and accurate
presentation of the corporation’s condition, or despite
containing false or misleading statements, shall be punished
with a fine ranging from Eighty thousand pesos (P80,000.00)
to Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00). When the
statement or report certified is fraudulent, or has the effect
of causing injury to the general public, the auditor or
responsible officer may be punished with a fine ranging
from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Six
hundred thousand pesos (P600,000.00).

SEC. 164. Obtaining Corporate Registration Through N Penalty for the formation of a
Fraud; Penalties. – Those responsible for the formation of a corporation through fraud, or
corporation through fraud, or who assisted directly or who assisted directly or
indirectly therein, shall be punished with a fine ranging indirectly therein
from Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) to Two
million pesos (P2,000,000.00). When the violation of this
provision is injurious or detrimental to the public, the
penalty is a fine ranging from Four hundred thousand pesos
(P400,000.00) to Five million pesos (P5,000,000.00).

SEC. 165. Fraudulent Conduct of Business; Penalties. – A N Penalty for a corporation that
corporation that conducts its business through fraud shall conducts its business through
be punished with a fine ranging from Two hundred fraud
thousand pesos (P200,000.00) to Two million pesos
(P2,000,000.00). When the violation of this provision is
injurious or detrimental to the public, the penalty is a fine
ranging from Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00) to
Five million pesos (P5,000,000.00).

SEC. 166. Acting as Intermediaries for Graft and Corrupt N Penalty for a corporation used
Practices; Penalties. –A corporation used for fraud, or for for fraud, or for committing or
committing or concealing graft and corrupt practices as concealing graft and corrupt
defined under pertinent statutes, shall be liable for a fine practices as defined under
ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to pertinent statutes
Five million pesos (P5,000,000.00).
When there is a finding that any of its directors, officers,
employees, agents, or representatives are engaged in graft
and corrupt practices, the corporation’s failure to install: (a)
safeguards for the transparent and lawful delivery of
services; and (b) policies, code of ethics, and procedures
against graft and corruption shall be prima facie evidence of
corporate liability under this section.

SEC. 167. Engaging Intermediaries for Graft and Corrupt N Penalty for a corporation that
Practices; Penalties. – A corporation that appoints an appoints an intermediary who
intermediary who engages in graft and corrupt practices for engages in graft and corrupt
the corporation’s benefit or interest shall be punished with a practices for the corporation’s
fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos benefit or interest
(P100,000.00) to One million pesos (P1,000,000.00).

SEC. 168. Tolerating Graft and Corrupt Practices; N Penalty for a director, trustee, or
Penalties. – A director, trustee, or officer who knowingly officer who knowingly fails to
fails to sanction, report, or file the appropriate action with sanction, report, or file the
proper agencies, allows or tolerates the graft and corrupt appropriate action with proper
practices or fraudulent acts committed by a corporation’s agencies
directors, trustees, officers, or employees shall be punished
with a fine ranging from Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00) to One million pesos (P1,000,000.00).
SEC. 169. Retaliation Against Whistleblowers. – A N Penalty for retaliating against a
whistleblower refers to any person who provides truthful whistleblower; definition of a
information relating to the commission or possible whistleblower as any person
commission of any offense or violation under this Code. who provides truthful
Any person who, knowingly and with intent to retaliate, information relating to the
commits acts detrimental to a whistleblower such as commission or possible
interfering with the lawful employment or livelihood of the commission of any offense or
whistleblower, shall, at the discretion of the court, be violation under this Code
punished with a fine ranging from One hundred thousand
pesos (P100,000.00) to One million pesos (P1,000,000.00).

SEC. 170. Other Violations of the Code; Separate Liability. N Violations of other provisions
– Violations of any of the other provisions of this Code or its not specifically penalized
amendments not otherwise specifically penalized therein therein; Liability for any of the
shall be punished by a fine of not less than Ten thousand foregoing offenses shall be
pesos (P10,000.00) but not more than One million pesos separate
(P1,000,000.00). If the violation is committed by a
corporation, the same may, after notice and hearing, be
dissolved in appropriate proceedings before the
Commission: Provided, That such dissolution shall not
preclude the institution of appropriate action against the
director, trustee, or officer of the corporation responsible for
said violation: Provided, further, That nothing in this
section shall be construed to repeal the other causes for
dissolution of a corporation provided in this Code.

Liability for any of the foregoing offenses shall be separate


from any other administrative, civil, or criminal liability
under this Code and other laws.
SEC. 171. Liability of Directors, Trustees, Officers, or N Liability of Directors, Trustees,
Other Employees. – If the offender is a corporation, the Officers, or other Employees
penalty may, at the discretion of the court, be imposed upon
such corporation and/or upon its directors, trustees,
stockholders, members, officers, or employees responsible
for the violation or indispensable to its commission.
SEC. 172. Liability of Aiders and Abettors and Other
Secondary Liability. – Anyone who shall aid, abet, counsel, N Liability of anyone who shall
command, induce, or cause any violation of this Code, or aid, abet, counsel, command,
any rule, regulation, or order of the Commission shall be induce, or cause any violation of
punished with a fine not exceeding that imposed on the this Code, or any rule,
principal offenders, at the discretion of the court, after regulation, or order of the
taking into account their participation in the offense. Commission

TITLE XVI - MISCELLANEOUS TITLE XVII


PROVISIONS MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Section 137. Outstanding capital SEC. 173. Outstanding Capital Stock Defined. – The term Same
stock defined. - The term “outstanding capital stock”, as used in this Code, shall mean
"outstanding capital stock", as used the total shares of stock issued under binding subscription
in this Code, means the total shares contracts to subscribers or stockholders, whether fully or
of stock issued under binding partially paid, except treasury shares.
subscription agreements to
subscribers or stockholders,
whether or not fully or partially
paid, except treasury shares. (n)
Section 138. Designation of SEC. 174. Designation of Governing Boards. – The Same
governing boards. - The provisions provisions of specific provisions of this Code to the contrary
of specific provisions of this Code notwithstanding, nonstock or special corporations may,
to the contrary notwithstanding, through their articles of incorporation or their bylaws,
non-stock or special corporations designate their governing boards by any name other than as
may, through their articles of board of trustees.
incorporation or their by-laws,
designate their governing boards
by any name other than as board of
trustees. (n)
Section 139. Incorporation and SEC. 175. Collection and Use of Registration, A The new code adds a proviso on
other fees. - The Securities and Incorporation and Other Fees. – For a more effective the use of registration and other
Exchange Commission is hereby implementation of this Code, the Commission is hereby fees collected by SEC, i.e., it
authorized to collect and receive authorized to collect, retain, and use fees, fines, and other shall be deposited and
fees as authorized by law or by charges pursuant to this Code and its rules and regulations. maintained in a separate
rules and regulations promulgated The amount collected shall be deposited and maintained in account which shall form a fund
by the Commission. (n) a separate account which shall form a fund for its for its modernization and to
modernization and to augment its operational expenses augment its operational
such as, but not limited to, capital outlay, increase in expenses
compensation and benefits comparable with prevailing rates
in the private sector, reasonable employee allowance,
employee health care services, and other insurance,
employee career advancement and professionalization, legal
assistance, seminars, and other professional fees.

Section 140. Stock ownership in SEC. 176. Stock Ownership in Corporations. – Pursuant to A “Batasang Pambansa” (old
certain corporations. - Pursuant to the duties specified by Article XIV of the Constitution, the code) is now replaced with
the duties specified by Article XIV National Economic and Development Authority shall, from “Congress” (new code). The
of the Constitution, the National time to time, determine if the corporate vehicle has been code also made a reference to
Economic and Development used by any corporation, business, or industry to frustrate Republic Act No. 10667,
Authority shall, from time to time, the provisions of this Code or applicable laws, and shall otherwise known as the
make a determination of whether submit to Congress, whenever deemed necessary, a report “Philippine Competition Act” as
the corporate vehicle has been used of its findings, including recommendations for their regards limits for stock
by any corporation or by business prevention or correction. ownership.
or industry to frustrate the
provisions thereof or of applicable The Congress of the Philippines may set maximum limits
laws, and shall submit to the for stock ownership of individuals or groups of individuals
Batasang Pambansa, whenever related to each other by consanguinity, affinity, or by close
deemed necessary, a report of its business interests, in corporations declared to be vested
findings, including with public interest pursuant to the provisions of this
recommendations for their section, or whenever necessary to prevent anti-competitive
prevention or correction. Maximum practices as provided in Republic Act No. 10667, otherwise
limits may be set by the Batasang known as the “Philippine Competition Act”, or to
Pambansa for stockholdings in implement national economic policies designed to promote
corporations declared by it to be general welfare and economic development, as declared in
vested with a public interest laws, rules, and regulations.
pursuant to the provisions of this
section, belonging to individuals or In recommending to the Congress which corporations,
groups of individuals related to businesses and industries will be declared as vested with
each other by consanguinity or public interest, and in formulating proposals for limitations
affinity or by close business on stock ownership, the National Economic and
interests, or whenever it is Development Authority shall consider the type and nature
necessary to achieve national of the industry, size of the enterprise, economies of scale,
objectives, prevent illegal geographic location, extent of Filipino ownership, labor
monopolies or combinations in intensity of the activity, export potential, as well as other
restraint or trade, or to implement factors which are germane to the realization and promotion
national economic policies declared of business and industry.
in laws, rules and regulations
designed to promote the general
welfare and foster economic
development. In recommending to
the Batasang Pambansa
corporations, businesses or
industries to be declared vested
with a public interest and in
formulating proposals for
limitations on stock ownership, the
National Economic and
Development Authority shall
consider the type and nature of the
industry, the size of the enterprise,
the economies of scale, the
geographic location, the extent of
Filipino ownership, the labor
intensity of the activity, the export
potential, as well as other factors
which are germane to the
realization and promotion of
business and industry
Section 141. Annual report or SEC. 177. Reportorial Requirements of Corporations. – A First, the new code provides
corporations. - Every corporation, Except as otherwise provided in this Code or in the rules that the financial statements
domestic or foreign, lawfully doing issued by the Commission, every corporation, domestic or shall be certified under oath by
business in the Philippines shall foreign, doing business in the Philippines shall submit to the the corporation’s treasurer or
submit to the Securities and Commission: chief financial officer if the total
Exchange Commission an annual assets or total liabilities of the
report of its operations, together (a) Annual financial statements audited by an independent corporation are less than
with a financial statement of its certified public accountant: Provided, That if the total assets P600,000.00.
assets and liabilities, certified by or total liabilities of the corporation are less than Six
any independent certified public hundred thousand pesos (P600,000.00), the financial Second, additional requirements
accountant in appropriate cases, statements shall be certified under oath by the corporation’s for corporations vested with
covering the preceding fiscal year treasurer or chief financial officer; and public interest, such as
and such other requirements as the compensation report and
Securities and Exchange (b) A general information sheet. appraisal or performance report.
Commission may require. Such
report shall be submitted within Corporations vested with public interest must also submit Third, SEC may place the
such period as may be prescribed the following: corporation under delinquent
by the Securities and Exchange status in case of failure to
Commission. (n) (1) A director or trustee compensation report; submit the reportorial
requirements three (3) times,
(2) A director or trustee appraisal or performance report and consecutively or intermittently,
the standards or criteria used to assess each director or within a period of five (5) years,
trustee. after prior notice.

The reportorial requirements shall be submitted annually Fourth, there is now a provision
and within such period as may be prescribed by the on filing of confidential
Commission. information.

The Commission may place the corporation under


delinquent status in case of failure to submit the reportorial
requirements three (3) times, consecutively or
intermittently, within a period of five (5) years. The
Commission shall give reasonable notice to and coordinate
with the appropriate regulatory agency prior to placing on
delinquent status companies under their special regulatory
jurisdiction.

Any person required to file a report with the Commission


may redact confidential information from such required
report: Provided, That such confidential information shall
be filed in a supplemental report prominently labelled
“confidential”, together with a request for confidential
treatment of the report and the specific grounds for the
grant thereof.

Section 142. Confidential nature of SEC. 178. Visitorial Power and Confidential Nature of A First, SEC exercises visitorial
examination results. - All Examination Results. – The Commission shall exercise powers which include
interrogatories propounded by the visitorial powers over all corporations, which powers shall examination and inspection of
Securities and Exchange include the examination and inspection of records, records.
Commission and the answers regulation and supervision of activities, enforcement of
thereto, as well as the results of any compliance, and imposition of sanctions in accordance Second, refusal without
examination made by the with this Code. justifiable cause is a ground to
Commission or by any other official revoke certificate of
authorized by law to make an Should the corporation, without justifiable cause, refuse or incorporation without prejudice
examination of the operations, obstruct the Commission’s exercise of its visitorial powers, to the imposition of other
books and records of any the Commission may revoke its certificate of incorporation, penalties and sanctions under
corporation, shall be kept strictly without prejudice to the imposition of other penalties and this Code.
confidential, except insofar as the sanctions under this Code.
law may require the same to be
made public or where such All interrogatories propounded by the Commission and the
interrogatories, answers or results answers thereto, as well as the results of any examination
are necessary to be presented as made by the Commission or by any other official authorized
evidence before any court. (n) by law to make an examination of the operations, books,
and records of any corporation, shall be kept strictly
confidential, except when the law requires the same to be
made public, when necessary for the Commission to take
action to protect the public or to issue orders in the exercise
of its powers under this Code, or where such
interrogatories, answers or results are necessary to be
presented as evidence before any court.
Section 143. Rule-making power of SEC. 179. Powers, Functions, and Jurisdiction of the A First, SEC now has expanded
the Securities and Exchange Commission. – The Commission shall have the power and powers, functions and
Commission. - The Securities and authority to: jurisdiction enumerated herein.
Exchange Commission shall have (a) Exercise supervision and jurisdiction over all
the power and authority to corporations and persons acting on their behalf, except as Second, SEC shall take into
implement the provisions of this otherwise provided under this Code; consideration the size, nature of
Code, and to promulgate rules and the business, and capacity of the
regulations reasonably necessary to (b) Pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 902-A, retain corporation in imposing
enable it to perform its duties jurisdiction over pending cases involving intracorporate penalties.
hereunder, particularly in the disputes submitted for final resolution. The Commission
prevention of fraud and abuses on shall retain jurisdiction over pending suspension of Third, the Court of Appeals
the part of the controlling payment/ rehabilitation cases filed as of 30 June 2000 until cannot interfere with the
stockholders, members, directors, finally disposed; exercise of the powers, duties
trustees or officers. (n) and responsibilities of the SEC
(c) Impose sanctions for the violation of this Code, its that falls exclusively within its
implementing rules and orders of the Commission; jurisdiction.

(d) Promote corporate governance and the protection of


minority investors, through, among others, the issuance of
rules and regulations consistent with international best
practices;

(e) Issue opinions to clarify the application of laws, rules


and regulations;

(f) Issue cease and desist orders ex parte to prevent


imminent fraud or injury to the public;

(g) Hold corporations in direct and indirect contempt;

(h) Issue subpoena duces tecum and summon witnesses to


appear in proceedings before the Commission;

(i) In appropriate cases, order the examination, search and


seizure of documents, papers, files and records, and books
of accounts of any entity or person under investigation as
may be necessary for the proper disposition of the cases,
subject to the provisions of existing laws;

(j) Suspend or revoke the certificate of incorporation after


proper notice and hearing;

(k) Dissolve or impose sanctions on corporations, upon final


court order, for committing, aiding in the commission of, or
in any manner furthering securities violations, smuggling,
tax evasion, money laundering, graft and corrupt practices,
or other fraudulent or illegal acts;

(l) Issue writs of execution and attachment to enforce


payment of fees, administrative fines, and other dues
collectible under this Code;

(m) Prescribe the number of independent directors and the


minimum criteria in determining the independence of a
director;

(n) Impose or recommend new modes by which a


stockholder, member, director, or trustee may attend
meetings or cast their votes, as technology may allow,
taking into account the company’s scale, number of
shareholders or members, structure, and other factors
consistent with the basic right of corporate suffrage;

(o) Formulate and enforce standards, guidelines, policies,


rules, and regulations to carry out the provisions of this
Code; and

(p) Exercise such other powers provided by law or those


which may be necessary or incidental to carrying out the
powers expressly granted to the Commission.

In imposing penalties and additional monitoring and


supervision requirements, the Commission shall take into
consideration the size, nature of the business, and capacity
of the corporation.
No court below the Court of Appeals shall have jurisdiction
to issue a restraining order, preliminary injunction, or
preliminary mandatory injunction in any case, dispute, or
controversy that directly or indirectly interferes with the
exercise of the powers, duties and responsibilities of the
Commission that falls exclusively within its jurisdiction.

SEC. 180. Development and Implementation of Electronic N SEC shall develop and
Filing and Monitoring System. – The Commission shall implement an electronic filing
develop and implement an electronic filing and monitoring and monitoring system.
system. The Commission shall promulgate rules to facilitate
and expedite, among others, corporate name reservation
and registration, incorporation, submission of reports,
notices, and documents required under this Code, and
sharing of pertinent information with other government
agencies.

SEC. 181. Arbitration for Corporations. – An arbitration N First, an arbitration agreement


agreement may be provided in the articles of may be provided in the articles
incorporation or bylaws of a corporation. When such an of incorporation or bylaws of a
agreement is in place, disputes between the corporation, corporation which is binding on
its stockholders or members, which arise from the the corporation, its directors,
implementation of the articles of incorporation or bylaws, trustees, officers, and executives
or from intracorporate relations, shall be referred to or managers.
arbitration. A dispute shall be non-arbitrable when it
involves criminal offenses and interests of third parties. Second, the arbitral tribunal
shall have the power to rule on
The arbitration agreement shall be binding on the its own jurisdiction and on
corporation, its directors, trustees, officers, and executives questions relating to the validity
or managers. of the arbitration agreement.

To be enforceable, the arbitration agreement should indicate Third, SEC shall formulate the
the number of arbitrators and the procedure for their rules and regulations, which
appointment. The power to appoint the arbitrators forming shall govern arbitration.
the arbitral tribunal shall be granted to a designated
independent third party. Should the third party fail to
appoint the arbitrators in the manner and within the period
specified in the arbitration agreement, the parties may
request the Commission to appoint the arbitrators. In any
case, arbitrators must be accredited or must belong to
organizations accredited for the purpose of arbitration.

The arbitral tribunal shall have the power to rule on its


own jurisdiction and on questions relating to the validity
of the arbitration agreement. When an intracorporate
dispute is filed with a Regional Trial Court, the court shall
dismiss the case before the termination of the pretrial
conference, if it determines that an arbitration agreement
is written in the corporation’s articles of incorporation,
bylaws, or in a separate agreement.

The arbitral tribunal shall have the power to grant interim


measures necessary to ensure enforcement of the award,
prevent a miscarriage of justice, or otherwise protect the
rights of the parties.

A final arbitral award under this section shall be executory


after the lapse of fifteen (15) days from receipt thereof by the
parties and shall be stayed only by the filing of a bond or the
issuance by the appellate court of an injunctive writ.

The Commission shall formulate the rules and regulations,


which shall govern arbitration under this section, subject to
existing laws on arbitration.
SEC. 182. Jurisdiction over Party-List Organizations. – The N COMELEC now has jurisdiction
powers, authorities, and responsibilities of the Commission over party-list organizations
involving party-list organizations are transferred to the within 6 months after effectivity
Commission on Elections (COMELEC). of the new code.
Within six (6) months after the effectivity of this Act, the
monitoring, supervision, and regulation of such
corporations shall be deemed automatically transferred to
the COMELEC.
For this purpose, the COMELEC, in coordination with the
Commission, shall promulgate the corresponding
implementing rules for the transfer of jurisdiction over the
abovementioned corporations.
SEC. 183. Applicability of the Code. – Nothing in this Act N Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas and
shall be construed as amending existing provisions of the Insurance Commission shall
special laws governing the registration, regulation, exercise primary authority over
monitoring and supervision of special corporations such as special corporations such as
banks, nonbank financial institutions and insurance banks, nonbank financial
companies. institutions, and insurance
companies under their
Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary, regulators supervision and regulation.
such as the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas and the Insurance
Commission shall exercise primary authority over special
corporations such as banks, nonbank financial institutions,
and insurance companies under their supervision and
regulation.
Section 144. Violations of the Code. The new code has provisions on
- Violations of any of the provisions violations and penalties, which
of this Code or its amendments not are not found in one section,
otherwise specifically penalized unlike the old code.
therein shall be punished by a fine
of not less than one thousand
(P1,000.00) pesos but not more than
ten thousand (P10,000.00) pesos or
by imprisonment for not less than
thirty (30) days but not more than
five (5) years, or both, in the
discretion of the court. If the
violation is committed by a
corporation, the same may, after
notice and hearing, be dissolved in
appropriate proceedings before the
Securities and Exchange
Commission: Provided, That such
dissolution shall not preclude the
institution of appropriate action
against the director, trustee or
officer of the corporation
responsible for said violation:
Provided, further, That nothing in
this section shall be construed to
repeal the other causes for
dissolution of a corporation
provided in this Code. (190 1/2 a)
Section 145. Amendment or repeal. Sec. 184. Effect of Amendment or Repeal of This Code, or Same
- No right or remedy in favor of or the Dissolution of a Corporation. – No right or remedy in
against any corporation, its favor of or against any corporation, its stockholders,
stockholders, members, directors, members, directors, trustees, or officers, nor any liability
trustees, or officers, nor any liability incurred by any such corporation, stockholders, members,
incurred by any such corporation, directors, trustees, or officers, shall be removed or impaired
stockholders, members, directors, either by the subsequent dissolution of said corporation or
trustees, or officers, shall be by any subsequent amendment or repeal of this Code or of
removed or impaired either by the any part thereof.
subsequent dissolution of said
corporation or by any subsequent
amendment or repeal of this Code
or of any part thereof. (n
Section 146. Repealing clause. - SEC. 187. Repealing Clause. – Batas Pambansa Blg. 68, A Batas Pambansa Blg. 68,
Except as expressly provided by otherwise known as “The Corporation Code of the otherwise known as “The
this Code, all laws or parts thereof Philippines”, is hereby repealed. Any law, presidential Corporation Code of the
inconsistent with any provision of decree or issuance, executive order, letter of instruction, Philippines” is expressly
this Code shall be deemed repealed. administrative order, rule or regulation contrary to or repealed.
(n) inconsistent with any provision of this Act is hereby
repealed or modified accordingly.

Section 147. Separability of SEC. 186. Separability Clause. – If any provision of this Act Same
provisions. - Should any provision is declared invalid or unconstitutional, the other provisions
of this Code or any part thereof be hereof which are not affected thereby shall continue to be in
declared invalid or full force and effect.
unconstitutional, the other
provisions, so far as they are
separable, shall remain in force. (n)
Section 148. Applicability to SEC. 185. Applicability to Existing Corporations. – A A Existing corporations are given
existing corporations. - All corporation lawfully existing and doing business in the a period of not more than two
corporations lawfully existing and Philippines affected by the new requirements of this Code (2) years from the effectivity of
doing business in the Philippines shall be given a period of not more than two (2) years from this Act within which to comply
on the date of the effectivity of this the effectivity of this Act within which to comply. with the new requirements
Code and heretofore authorized, provided in the new code.
licensed or registered by the
Securities and Exchange
Commission, shall be deemed to
have been authorized, licensed or
registered under the provisions of
this Code, subject to the terms and
conditions of its license, and shall
be governed by the provisions
hereof: Provided, That if any such
corporation is affected by the new
requirements of this Code, said
corporation shall, unless otherwise
herein provided, be given a period
of not more than two (2) years from
the effectivity of this Code within
which to comply with the same. (n)
Section 149. Effectivity. - This Code SEC. 188. Effectivity. – This Act shall take effect upon A The new code is effective upon
shall take effect immediately upon completion of its publication in the Official Gazette or in at completion of its publication in
its approval. least two (2) newspapers of general circulation. the Official Gazette or in at least
two (2) newspapers of general
circulation.
Approved, May 1, 1980 Approved,