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Anda di halaman 1dari 68

PHYSICS

FIITJEE

PINNACLE

For – JEE (Main/Advanced)

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Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws, Induced emf and current, Lenz’s law.

Eddy currents, self and mutual inductance.

Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance

and impedance; LC oscillations, LCR series circuit (Phasor diagram)Resonant

circuits and Qfactor; power in AC circuits, wattless current

AC generator and Transformer.

Electromagnetic Induction

We have studied that moving charges or current produces magnetic field. Then normally we get

a doubt whether the converse of this is also true? Does nature permit such a symmetrical

relation? Two physicists Micheal Faraday and Josheph Henry demonstrated the fact that

changing magnetic fields and electric currents with the help of the following simple experiments.

galvanometer, the galvanometer shows deflection indicating N S

flow of current in the coil. This current flow as long as the

magnet is moving, i.e. the magnetic flux through the coil is

changing. Once the magnet becomes stationary, the current

stops.

battery and a switch, the other fitted with a galvanometer, when S

showing flow of current. The changing currents in coil (1) gives 1

rise to a changing magnetic field which induces an emf and a

G

current in the coil (2). This phenomenon of inducing electricity

by changing magnetic field is known as electromagnetic

induction.

Magnetic Flux

The magnetic flux B through an area dS in a

B

magnetic field B is defined as, B = B.dS

ds

`

Find the flux associated with the shell.

Illustration 1. At a given place, horizontal and vertical components of earth’s magnetic field BH

and BV are along x and y axes respectively as shown in the figure. What is the

total flux of earth’s magnetic field associated with an area S, if the area S is in

the

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y

Solution: The earth’s magnetic field

Bv

B BH ˆi Bv ˆj

S

(a) Given the area A Skˆ BH x

xy = B.A = BH ˆi Bv ˆj .Skˆ 0 z

y

(b) For the case A Siˆ Bv

yz = BH ˆi

B v ˆj .S ˆi BHS S

x

BH

FARADAY’S LAWS z

(i) When the flux of magnetic induction through a loop is changing, an electromotive force

(emf) is induced in the loop. It lasts as long as the magnetic flux changes.

(ii) This induced e.m.f. is equal to the negative rate of change of flux, i.e.,

d

dt

. where = n B.dS , n = number of turns

B = magnetic induction , dS = area element

1 d

If the resistance of the loop is R, the current in the loop will be i = = .

R R dt

Illustration 2. A conducting circular loop having a radius of 5.0 cm, is placed perpendicular to a

magnetic field of 0.50 T. It is removed from the field in 0.50 s. Find the average

emf produced in the loop during this time.

Solution: Radius = 5 cm

Area (S) = 25 104m2

= B.S = BS cos 00

= 3.927 103

Average induced emf = 7.85 103 volt

t

2

Illustration 3. A coil of area 500 cm having 1000 turns is placed such that the plane of the coil

is perpendicular to a magnetic field of magnitude 4 105 weber/m2. If it is

rotated by 180 about an axis passing through one of its diameter in 0.1 sec, find

the average induced emf.

(A) zero (B) 30 mV

(C) 40 mV (D) 50 mV

Solution: (C)

Total flux through the loop is

= B.NA = 4 105 1000 500 104

Since loop is rotated by 180

Total change in flux = 2

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2 4 5 104

i.e. emf = 2/0.1 = change in flux / time = = 40 mV

0.1

the rate of 10 tesla/sec. The electric field intensity at any point on the

circumference of the ring is

(A) 1 N/C (B) 1.5 N/C

(C) 0.5 N/C (D) zero

Solution: (C)

Magnetic flux = B A

d dB

e= r 2 and

dt dt

e = E.d 2rE

1 dB

E r 0.5 N/C

2 dt

Lenz's law

It states that the polarity of the induced e.m.f. and the

direction of induced current is such that it opposes the very B C

cause which produces it. Consider the figure shown. A

rectangular loop ABCD is being pulled out of the magnetic B V

field directed into the plane of the paper and perpendicular

to the plane of the paper. As the loop is dragged out of the A D

field the flux associated with the loop which is directed into

The induced current will flow in the loop in the sense to oppose the decreasing of this flux. For

this to happen magnetic field due to induced current in the loop must be directed into the plane

of the paper. Hence the current in the loop must flow in the clockwise sense.

Exercises 2. (i) A metal ring is held horizontally and a bar magnet is dropped

through the ring with its length along the axis of the ring. Will the

acceleration of the falling magnet be equal to, greater than, or less

than due to gravity?

(ii) What is the direction of induced current loop

in the loop as shown in figure, if the

current in the straight wire from A to B

is A Wire B

(a) Constant (b) Increasing

(c) Decreasing

Illustration 5. A circular loop of a radius a having n turns is kept in a horizontal plane. A uniform

magnetic field B exists in a vertical direction as shown in the figure. Find the

e.m.f. induced in loop if the loop is rotated with a uniform angular velocity

about

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(a) an axis passing through the centre and perpendicular to the plane of the

loop.

(b) a diameter.

Solution: (a) The e.m.f. induces when there is change of flux. As in this case there is no

change of flux, hence no e.m.f. will be induced in the coil.

(b) If the loop is rotated about a diameter there x x x x x x x x

will be a change of flux with time. In this x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

case e.m.f. will be induced in the coil. The

2 x x x x x x x x

area of the loop is A = a . If the normal of x x x x x x x x

the loop makes an angle = 0 with the

magnetic field at t = 0, this angle will become

= t at time t. The flux of the magnetic x x x x x x x x

field at this time is = n.B.a2 cos x x x x x x x x

2

= n.B.a cost x x x x x x x x

The induced e.m.f. is x x x x x x x x

d x x x x x x x x

2

= na B sint

dt

Illustration 6. A squareshaped copper coil has edges of length 50 cm and contains 50 turns .

It is placed perpendicular to a 1.0 T magnetic field. It is removed from the

magnetic field in 0.25 s and restored in its original place in the next 0.25 s. Find

the magnitude of the average emf induced in the loop during

(a) Its removal,

(b) its restoration

(c) its entire motion in the field

Magnitude of magnetic field = 1 T

(a) Average rate of complete removal = s / t = 1m/s2

S

average induced emf = NB = 50 volt

t

(b) Average rate of complete restoration = s / t = 1m/s2

S

average induced emf = NB = 50 volt

t

(c) For entire motion in the field S = 0

S

average induced emf = NB = 0 volt

t

Illustration 7. A rectangular flat loop of wire with P Q P Q

× × × × × × ×

dimensions and b has N turns

× × × × × × ×

and a total resistance R. The loop

× × × × × × ×

moves with constant velocity v from

× × × × × × × R

position PQRS to PQRS through S

b R 2b

S b

a region of constant magnetic field x=0 x = 2b

B as shown in figure

(a) Plot the graph of the flux linked

with loop vs x. (Where x is the

distance moved by the loop)

(b) Plot the graph of the emf induced in the loop vs x

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Solution : (a) = B.dS = B.S

d B.dS

(b) =

dt dt

e

e = +BNl v

BN b

2b 3b x

x

0 b e = -BN/v

3b

figure magnetic field is directed along

negative

zaxis and its magnitude varies as B =B0/x , D

A

where B0 is a positive constant. A square

X

loop ABCD of side ‘a’ and resistance per unit

length ‘’ is moved with constant speed v Z

side AB was on the yaxis. Find the current

induced in the loop as a function of time.

ax

B0 a x

Solution: = ad B0 a n

x

x I x v

a

= B0a n1

vt d

vt a

= B B0a

dt a vt vt 2

B0 a

I= .

4(a vt )t

Motional e.m.f.

Consider a straight conductor PQ moving in a P B

magnetic field. The electrons inside it

V

experience a force F ev x B and

Q

Q. Thus, an electric field

is established across

its ends. Then ev x B is balanced by

e E in the opposite direction, at

equilibrium.

ev xB eE 0 ,

E.d vxB .d = B.(d x v)

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P

As d v is the area swept per unit time by length d and hence B.(d v) is

the flux of induction through this area. Therefore, the motional emf is equal to

vB

the flux of induction cut by the conductor per unit time. If the , B and v are

Q

mutually perpendicular to each other then = Bv

We can replace the moving rod by a battery of emf vB with positive terminal

at P and the negative terminal at Q.

Exercise 3. A rod of length is dropped along the axis of a

circular current carrying conductor of radius r

with current I. What is the e.m.f. developed

i

across the length of the rod?

Illustration 9. An angle AOB made of a conducting wire moves A

along its bisector through a magnetic field B as

O v

suggested by figure. Find the emf induced

between the two free ends if the magnetic field is B

perpendicular to the plane at the angle.

A

Solution: The rod OA is equivalent to a cell of emf

vB sin /2. The positive charges shift towards 'A' = vBsin /2

O

due to the force qv B . The positive terminal of the

= vBsin /2

equivalent cell appears towards A. Similarly, the B

rod OB is equivalent to a cell of emf vB sin /2

with the positive terminal towards O. The

equivalent circuit is shown in figure. Clearly, the

emf between the points A and B is 2 Bv sin /2.

Illustration 10. A copper rod of length '' rotates at an angular B

velocity '' in a uniform magnetic field B as

shown. What is the induced emf across its ends? dl

A

Solution: E.d (v B).d Bvd

1

As v = , B 0 d B 2

2

1

The rod AB may be replaced by a battery of emf = B2 with positive terminal

2

towards A.

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x V

'i'. Calculate the induced emf in the rod, if the b

ends of the rod from the wire are at distances 'a' +

a I

and 'b'.

b oi iv b

Solution: B.(d l v) v dx = o .ln

a 2 x 2 a

x x

Illustration 12. A conducting rod of length is rotating with x x

constant angular velocity about point O in a x

x

/4 3/4

uniform magnetic field B as shown in the figure. Q

P O x

The emf induced between ends P and Q will be x

x

1 5 x x x x

(A) B 2 (B) B 2

4 10

1 2

(C) zero (D) B

2

Solution: (A)

3 / 4

1

= Bxdx B2

/ 4 4

connected through a capacitor of capacitance C

as shown in the figure. A conductor of length v0

is moved with constant speed v0. Which of the

following graph truly depicts the variation of

current through the conductor with time ?

(A) (B)

Current Current

I (t) I (t)

t (time) t (time)

(C) (D)

Current Current

I (t) I (t)

I=0

t (time) t (time)

Solution: (C)

q = C (Bv 0) = const.

q is constant

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dq

I= 0

dt

Current is zero.

Stretch your right hand thumb, the index finger and middle finger such that all the three are

mutually perpendicular to each other. If the thumb represents the direction of the motion of

conductor, the index finger the direction of magnetic field, then the middle finger represents the

direction of the current.

If a conducting loop is placed in a time varying magnetic field, this changing magnetic field acts

as a source of electric field and hence induces an emf; infact the electric field is induced even

when no conductor is present. Faraday discovered that

d

E. d

dt

This field E differs from an electrostatic field, it is nonconservative. × E× × ×

We can not define the potential corresponding to this field in the usual × × × × ×E ×

× × × × × × ×

sense i.e..dV = E .d r does not hold here. ×

E

E

× × × × ×R× ×

E has to have a direction shown when B is increasing,

×

d

because E .d has to be negative when is positive. × × Er × × E × ×

dt × × × × × × ×

curves? × × × ×r P× ×

× × × × × × × 10 r

(ii) Consider a cylindrical magnetic field × × × × × × ×

which is increasing with time. How are the × × × ×R × × ×

electric field at points P and Q related? × × × × ×× Q

× × ×

increases with time. Find out the electric field at a × × × × ×

× × × × ×

distance r from its centre (i) r < R, and (ii) r > R. × × × R× ×

××× × × ×

× ×× × ×

× ×

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× × × × × ×E ×

E at all points in the loop has the same value due

× × × × × × ××

to symmetry. E

× × × × × × × ×

d E

× × r× × R××x

Usin g E.d l x

dt

× × ×E

× × E× × x

dB × × × × ×

E(2r) (r 2 )

dt

r dB

or E (for cylindrical region only)

2 dt

(ii) Consider (r > R) or loop 2. E

E at all points on the loop has the same value 2

E

from symmetry.

d R

Using, E.d l r

dt

E

dB R2 dB 1

or E.(2r) R2 . E .

dt 2 dt r E

dB

E dt

(for cylindrical region only)

Eddy currents: If a metal plate, e.g. copper is passed through a

magnetic field (see figure). During entry into the field and exit from x x x x

the field, the magnetic flux through a loop (Consider an arbitrary loop x x x x

as shown in the figure) changes. This change in flux cause current to x x x x

x x x x

be set up in the loop. There may be many such loops and currents

will flow through them. These are called eddy currents.

Eddy currents flow in many loops in a plate and cause heating. This thermal energy is produced

by conversion of kinetic energy and thus the plate slows down. This is called electromagnetic

damping.

To avoid eddy currents, slots are cut in the plate due to which the flow of eddy current is broken.

To reduce the losses due to eddy currents, conducting parts are made

in large number of thin layers , separated by lacqueran insulator.

These are called laminations. These break paths of eddy currents.

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

Uses of eddy currents:

x x x x x x x x

1. Used for braking systems in trains. x x x x x x x x

2. For electromagnetic shielding.

3. Used in speedometers

4. Used in induction furnaces

Self Induction

A changing current in a circuit causes a change in the magnetic flux associated with itself, which

induces an opposing e.m.f. in it. The net magnetic flux linked with itself is proportional to the

current in the loop.

Thus = Li

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Where L is a constant called coefficient of selfinduction or self inductance. Also e.m.f induced

di

in loop is = L

dt

The induced emf in case of self inductance opposes the change in the current. Physically it is

analogous to inertia in mechanics.

For a solenoid of length and crosssectional area A having number of turns N, the flux linked is

given by N, where is the flux linked by each turn.

N = nBA (n = N / )

2

The magnetic induction of a solenoid is given by B = 0nI N = 0n AI

But, N =LI L = 0n2A.

If the inside of a solenoid is filled with a material of relative magnetic permeability r (e.g. soft

iron)

then, L(r) = r 0 n2A

Self inductance of a coil depends on its geometry and on r of the medium inside it.

Note: When a current flows from a to b through a resistor, Vab a

a

is always positive; the potential is higher at a than b.

When a current flows from a to b through an inductor i R

i L

of negligible resistance, Vab is positive for an

increasing current, negative for a decreasing current,

and zero for a constant current. b

b

Vab =iR Vab =L(di/dt)

Exercise 5. Does the coefficient of self induction depend upon the rate at which the

current is changing through it?

15V 5mH

Illustration 15. The network shown in the figure is part of 1

a complete circuit. What is the potential A I B

difference VB VA, when the current I is 5A

3

and is decreasing at a rate of 10 A/s?

Solution: In accordance with law of potential distribution, for the given network,

dI

VA IR + E L = VB

dt

And as here I is decreasing (dI/dt) is negative.

VB – VA = 5 1 + 15 5 103 (103)

VB – VA = 5 + 15 + 5 = 15 V

Illustration 16. An average induced emf of 0.20 V appears in a coil when the current in it is

changed from 5.0A in one direction to 5.0A in the opposite direction in 0.20s.

Find the self-inductance of the coil.

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di

Solution: As = L

dt

di ( 5.0) (5.0)

50A / s

dt 0.20

0.20

Self inductance L = = 4 mH

(di / dt) ( 50)

Illustration 17. An average emf of 20 V is induced in an inductor when the current in it is

changed from 2.5 amp in one direction to the same value in the opposite

direction in 0.1 s. The selfinductance of the inductor is

(A) zero (B) 200 mH

(C) 400 mH (D) 600 mH

di

Solution: As = L

dt

di ( 2.5) (2.5)

50A / s

dt 0.10

20

Self inductance L = = 400 mH

(di / dt) 50

Mutual Inductance

A changing current in one circuit causes a changing magnetic flux and an induced emf in a

neighboring circuit. The net flux linked with the second circuit is proportional to current in first

circuit .

i.e. N22 = Mi1

The proportionality factor is called mutual inductance.

N N

Also M = 2 2 1 1 i

i1 i2

di1 di

Or, 2 = M & 1 = M 2

dt dt R

Note : Proceeding in the same way as in self inductance the mutual inductance M of solenoid of

length and area of crosssection A and with number of turns N1 and N2 in primary and

secondary coils is found to be M = N1N2A /.

about selfinductance without mutual inductance?

as shown in the figure. The radii of the inner and S2

S1

the outer solenoids are r1 and r2 respectively and

the number of turns per unit length are n1 and n2

respectively. Consider a length of each solenoid,

calculate the mutual inductance between them.

Solution: Suppose a current i is passed through the inner solenoid S1. A magnetic field B

= 0 n1i is produced inside S1 whereas the field outside it is zero. The flux

through each turn of S2 is, B r12 = (0 n1i) r12

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2 = (0 n1i r12 ) n2 (0 n1n2 r12 ) i ; Thus, M = 0n1n2 r12

I

Illustration 19. What is the self inductance of a system

of coaxial cables carrying current in

opposite directions as shown? Their I a

Solution: The 'B' between the space of the cables is, B = oI/2r.

Ampere's law tells that 'B' outside the cables is zero, as the net current through

the amperian loop would be zero.

Taking an element of length and thickness 'dr', the magnetic flux through it is

oI I b 1 I b I

d .dr o dr o .ln

2r 2 a r 2 a

o b I a

L ln

I 2 a b

Illustration 20. The coefficient of mutual induction between the primary and secondary of a

transformer is 5 H. Calculate the induced emf in the secondary when 3 ampere

current in the primary is cut off in 2.5 104 second.

diP 3

Solution: Induced emf in the secondary S= M 5 6 10 4 V

dt 1/ 4000

The negative sign merely indicates that the emf opposes the change.

Illustration 21. A very small square loop of side ‘’ is placed inside a

large square loop of wire of side L as shown loops O L

are coplanar. What is the mutual inductance of

system?

0 2

(A) zero. (B)

L

0 4 2 2 2 2 2

(C) (D) 0

L L

Solution: (D)

Using relation 45

40I O 45

B0 =

4r

sin sin

I

= 0 [sin45 + cos45]

r

Also r = L/2

0I 2 0I2 2

B0 = =

L 2 L

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0I2 2 2

= B02 = = LI = flux through smaller loop

L

0 2 2 2

L=

L

R L Circuit

Growth of current in an inductor

When current is allowed through an inductor the growing current induces an e.m.f. which

opposes the growth of current in the inductor. When the switch is connected to the terminal 1,

the current grows in the inductor.

R

At position 1 of the switch, applying 1

Kirchhoff’s law to the closed circuit.

S

2 L

LdI

IR 0

dt

Solving the differential equation, we get,

Rt

L

I 1 e L

,

R R /R

0.63 /R

1 e Rt L

where is called the time constant of R

I

the circuit.

t = L/R t

Time constant

It measures the rapidity with which the final state or the steady state is approached and may be

defined as the time in which the steady state would have been reached if the current were

allowed to increase at the initial rate.

As the switch is turned off, i.e. the emf is disconnected the current decays in the inductor through

the resistor. It decays as the switch is turned to 2.

Applying Kirchhoff’s law to the closed circuit thus

LdI

formed we have, IR 0

dt 0.37 /R Rt L

e

Rt R

Solving we get, I Io e L , I

t = L/R t

Where I0 = current in the circuit at t = 0

Note: The time constant may also be defined in the same way as we have done in growth

Exercise 7. A real inductor has some resistance. Can it ever be possible that the

induced e.m.f. in an inductance be greater than e.m.f. applied across it?

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LdI di

As, IR , I I2R LI

dt dt

i is the power supplied by the battery, I2R is the electrical power dissipated in the resistance and

dI

LI is the rate of energy stored in the inductor. Idt = I2Rdt + LIdI

dt

I 1

Energy stored in the inductor is UB = 0 LIdI LI2

2

Note: It is important not to confuse with the behavior of resistor and inductors where energy is

concerned. Energy flows into a resistor whenever a current passes through it, whether the

current is steady or varying and this energy is dissipated in the form of heat. By contrast, energy

flows into an ideal, zero resistance inductor only when the current in the inductor increases. This

energy is not dissipated; it is stored in the inductor and released when the current decreases.

When a steady current flows through an inductor, there is no energy flow, in or out. This energy

is associated with magnetic field of the inductor. If the field is in vacuum, the magnetic energy

B2

density u (energy per unit volume) is given by, U = .

20

Illustration 22. As shown in the figure, a metal rod makes B = 0.25 T(into page)

contact with a partial circuit and completes the

circuit. The circuit area is perpendicular to a

magnetic field with B = 0.25T. If the resistance

50 cm v = 4m/s

of the total circuit is 3, what force is needed to

move the rod with a constant speed of 4 m/s as

indicated in the figure ?

Solution: The induced emf in the rod causes a current to flow counter clockwise in the

circuit. Because of this current in the rod, it experiences a force to the left due

to the magnetic field. In order to pull the rod to the right with constant speed, the

force must be balanced by the puller.

The induced emf in the rod is

|= BLv = (0.25) (0.5)(4) = 0. 5 V

I = /R = 0. 5/3 A

F = iLBsin90o = (0.05)(0.5/3)(0.25) = (0.0625 /3)N = 0.021 N

source immediately after the switch is

closed at t = 0 and also at t = infinity.

R1 = 10

Sw

E = 10 V

Solution: At t = 0 current through inductor will be zero.

Therefore current provided by the source I = E/R1 = 10/10 = 1 amp.

At t = , inductor will be shorted.

E

Therefore current provided by the source I = = 2 amp.

R1R2

R1 R2

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Illustration 24. When current (I) in RL series circuit is constant where L is a pure inductor. The

following statements are given

(i) voltage across R is RI.

(ii) voltage across L is equal to voltage across R.

(iii) voltage across L is equal to supply voltage.

1 2

(iv) magnetic energy stored is Li

2

(A) (i), (ii) and (iv) are true. (B) (i), (ii) and (iv) are true.

(C) (i) and (iv) are true. (D) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) are true.

Solution: (C) R L

I

VR RI

1 2

Energy stored in inductor = LI

2 Supply

dI Voltage

Voltage across inductor [ v L ] = 0 as here 0

dt

emf 10 V at t = 0. The energy stored in the inductor when the time t = 5 ln2

milliseconds is

1 1

(A) J (B) J

640 320

1 1

(C) J (D) J

180 80

Solution: (B)

The current at any time can be given by the expression, i = i0 (1 et/)

L 100mH

Where = 5 103 s

R 20

5ln 2

i 0.5A 1 e 5

1 1 i

= io 1 ln 2 io 1 o

e 2 2

10V

Where i0 = 0.5A

20

1

The energy stored = Li2

2

2

1 1

=

2

100 10 3 41 =

320

J.

L.C. Oscillations

A capacitor is charged to a p.d. of V0 by connecting it across a battery and then it is allowed to

discharge through a pure inductor of inductance L.

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and current in the circuit be i.

C

q2 1 2

Li const (1) i

2C 2

L

Differentiating w. r. t. time we get

1 dq 1 di

.2q L 2i 2 0

2C dt 2 dt

d2 q 1 q

i.e. 2

q 2 q q0

dt LC

(where, = 2f) O time

1

which gives f =

2 LC

Current i in the circuit and the charge q on the plates of the capacitor vary sinusoidally as

i = io sin t ; q = qo cos t.

L

LC circuit shown in figure

L

is shown in figure. 2 2F

(i) The switch S is in position 1. Find the 1 R5

R1 E1

potential difference VA VB and the rate

2 12V

of production of joule heat in R1. 1 E2 R2 B

S

(ii) If now the switch S is put in position 2 A

3V 2

2 at t = 0, find the time when the current in 3 R4

R4 is half the steady value. Also calculate 10 mH

the energy stored in the inductor L at that

time.

L.L 3

Solution: (a) Equivalent Inductance = + L= L

L L 2

1

f= m

2( 3 / 2)LC

meshes (1) and (2)

2 (1)

2I2 + 2I1 = 12 3 = 9 (I1-I2)

R1 E1

and 2I1 + 2(I1 I2) = 12 I1R1 I1

Solving I1 = 3.5 A, I2 = 1A 2 12V (2)

I2 I2

P.D.between AB = 2I2 + 3 = 5 volt S E2 R2 B

Rate of production of heat A

3V

dQ 2

i1 R1 24.5 J

dt

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R2 = 2

(ii) i =

E

R

1 eRt / L = i0 1 e Rt / L E2 = 3V

Rt R4 = 3

i = i0/2 = loge2

L

t = 0.0014 sec.

10 mH

1 2

Energy stored = Li = 0.00045

2

J.

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ALTERNATING CURRENT

Voltage and Currents in AC Circuits

Up to now we have considered voltage source and current in one direction only. In many cases

we come across situations where the direction of current changes with time and the source

provides voltage varying with time. One such case is when voltage and current vary like a sine

function with time. These are called alternating voltage (a.c. voltage) and alternating current

(a.c. current). Electricity supply provided at our homes and offices fall in this category. Main

advantage of using this a.c. voltage and a.c. current is that a.c. voltage can easily be converted

to lower or higher value by use of transformers and these can be economically transmitted over

long distances.

The mean value of sinusoidal current or voltage in one complete cycle is zero. For half cycle,

the mean value can be found as given below.

T 2 I dt T/2

0 1 I0

I = I0 sin t; Imean = T 2 = cos t

dt T / 2 0

0

2IT 2I 2Vo

= 0 1 (1) 0 , Similarly v mean =

T 2

Root Mean square value of voltage and current (Vrms and Irms)

1/ 2

T I2 dt

I = I0 sin t; Irms = 0T

dt

0

2 1T I2 T

Irms I02 sin2 tdt = 0 (1 cos2t)dt

T0 2T 0

T

I20 sin 2t I20

= T =

2T 2 0 2

I0 V0

Irms = , similarly Vrms = .

2 2

Exercise 8. What is the value of current measured by a hot wire ammeter attached to

a.c. supply (peak value, rms value or mean value)?

Impedance

In any circuit the ratio of the effective voltage to the effective current is defined as the

impedance Z of the circuit. Its unit is ohm.

Phasors and phasor diagrams

In the study of A.C. circuits, we shall come across alternating voltage and currents which have

the same frequency but differ in phase with each other. It is found that the study of A.C. circuits

becomes simple, if alternating currents and voltages are treated as rotating vectors or more

correctly as 'phasors'. The phase angle between the two quantities is also represented in the

vector diagram.

A diagram representing alternating voltage and current as vectors with the phase angle between

them is known as phasor diagram.

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R VI

Voltage

Instantaneous current

E e0

i= sin t t

R R

= i0 sin t ~ current

e = e0 sin t

eo

where i0 = = current amplitude. Thus the voltage and the current in an A.C. circuit containing

R

pure resistance are in phase.

Instantaneous charge on the Capacitor C

dQ

Q = CV =Ce0 sin t, I = Ce0cos t = i0 cos t

dt

e0 e

= i0 sin (t+ /2) where i0 = Ce0 = 0

1/ C Xc ~

1 e=eosint

where Xc = is known as capacitive reactance.

C

The following diagrams show graphical representation and phasor treatment of current and

voltage illustrating the phase difference between them.

VI Ic

Voltage

/2

t (sec.)

t

Current Vc

In capacitor, voltage lags the current or the current leads the voltage by /2

di L

L = inductance in an ac circuit, e = e0 sin (t) = L

dt

e0

i= cos (t) + c = i0 cos (t) + c

L

e0 e ~

= i0 sin (t /2) 0

where i0 =

L XL

[ Voltage is sinusoidal so current should be also sinusoidal so c = 0)

where XL is known as inductive reactance

v I current vL

t

Voltage Ic

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LCR Circuit

VL

VR VL Vc

(VL- VC) V

~

V= VR+ VL+ VC

I

2 2 2 2 Vr

V= (VL VC ) V R

= I (XL XC ) R , VC

1

where XL=L & XC=

C

V = IZ, where Z = (XL XC )2 R2 is known as the impedance of the circuit.

VL VC XL XC

Phase angle , tan =

VR R

Let us study the phase relationship between current and e.m.f. in L.C.R. series circuit in the

following case

1

1. Where L > , it follows that tan is positive, i.e. is positive. Hence, in such a case,

C

voltage leads the current.

1

2. When L < , it follows that tan is negative, i.e. is negative. Hence in such a case,

C

voltage lags behind the current.

1

3. When L = , it follows that tan is zero, i.e. is zero. Hence in such a case, current and

C

voltage are in phase with each other.

1

4. In fact, when L = , the impedance of the circuit would be just equal to R (minimum). In

C

other words, the LCRseries circuit will behave as a purely resistive circuit. Due to the

minimum value of impedance, the current in LCRseries circuit will be maximum. This

condition is known as resonance.

1 1

o = where = o resonant frequency; f o =

LC 2 LC

E/R

emf is raised continuously from zero, the peak current varies

as shown in figure. At first the current is very small, increases

R

Current

value f o, and then falls again. 2R

leads the applied emf, at resonance it is in phase, and after fo

Frequency

resonance it lags behind the emf. Series resonant circuit is

also called acceptor circuit.

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source of 100 sin 400 t volt. Find out the rms value of current in the circuit.

Impedance

1

z= (400 20 10 3 )2 102 = 43.17

400 50 106

100 1

irms = . = 43.17 A = 1.64 A

2 43.17

POWER

In an a.c. circuit the instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous value of the current

0 0

and the voltage. e = e0 sin t; ; I = i0 sin (t ) 90 90

P = e0 i0 sin t sin (t )

T

Pdt 1

0

Pav = T

E0I0 cos = Erms Irms cos = apparent power x cos

2

dt

0

R R

Power factor in LCR circuit is cos = =

Z R2 XL XC

2

i.e. when the current and the voltage differ in phase by 90,

Under this condition, the current is known as wattless current, because the average power

consumed in the circuit is zero.

Illustration 28. A series LCR circuit containing a resistance of 120 has angular resonance

frequency 4 105 rad s1. At resonance the voltages across resistance and

inductance are 60 V and 40 V respectively. Find the values of L and C. At what

frequency the current in the circuit lags the voltage by 450 ?

V 60 1

Solution : At resonance as X = 0, I = A and VL = IXL = IL,

R 120 2

VL 40

L= = = 2 104 Henry

I (1/ 2) 4 105

1 1

at resonance, L = so C = 2 i.e.,

C L

1 1

C= F

0.2 10 3 (4 105 )2 32

XL X C

Now in case of series LCR circuit, tan =

R

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1

L

tan 45 = C

R

1

i.e., 1 120 = 2 104

(1/ 32) 106

2 5 10

i.e., – 6 10 16 10 = 0

rad

6 105 10 105 5

i.e., = = 8 10 s .

2

4

Illustration 29. In the figure shown the steady state current

through the inductor will be

1

(A) zero (B) 1A 5V 3mH

(C) 1.25 A 4F

(D) can not be determined

Solution: (C)

At steady state, current through the capacitor = 0

Therefore the current through the inductor = 5/4 = 1.25 A.

Illustration 30. A coil of inductance L = 300 mH and is connected to a constant voltage

source. Current in the resistance R = 140 m coil will reach to 50% of its

steady state value after t is equal to

(A) 15 s (B) 0.75 s

(C) 0.15 s (D) 1.5 s

Solution: (D)

At steady state i = /R

At any time t, I = /R (1 – eRt/L) = /2R

L

t = ln 2 1.5sec.

R

CHOKE COIL

A coil with low resistance and high inductance can reduce the current in an a.c. circuit without an

appreciable heat loss. Such coils are called choke coils. Choke coil is preferred as it does not

dissipate power. Physically a choke coil is a coil of insulated copper wire which offers a high

reactance (L) to A.C. (but a low D.C. resistance), thus reducing the A.C. appreciably without the

loss of energy.

eo eo

In LR circuit, current amplitude Io =

Z R 2L2

2

E0i0

The average power consumed in A.C. circuit is P = cos

2

R

And the power factor is given by cos =

L

2 2

R2

The inductance 'L' of the choke coils is quite large on account of the large number of turns and

the high permeability of iron core, while the resistance R is very small. Thus cos 0, therefore

the power absorbed by the coil is extremely small. Thus the choke coil reduces current without

any appreciable loss of energy. The wastage of energy is only due to the hysteresis loss in soft

iron core. Eddy current loss is reduced by laminating the soft iron core.

A.C. GENERATOR

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electromagnetic induction.

Principle:

When the magnetic flux through a closed loop changes, it induces an emf in the coil. It lasts as

long as the change in flux continues. A coil forming a closed loop is rotated in a magnetic field

and change in flux due to rotation of coil produces induced emf.

Construction:

1. Armature: Armature is a rectangular coil. It consists of a large no. of turns of insulated

copper wire wound over a soft iron core. The soft iron core is used to increase the magnetic flux.

2. Field Magnet: A strong electromagnet is provided with a magnetic field of the order of

12 tesla. It has concave north and south poles. The armature rotates between these poles.

of the armature coil are connected to these two rings R1

B1

and R2 separately. These provide moving contact hence R1

R2 B2

4. Brushes: Graphite brushes B1 and B2 keep contact with slip rings R1 R2 and pass on current

from the armature coil to the external resistance load.

Working:

As the coil rotates between the N S poles, magnetic flux linked with the coil changes. When

normal to the coil area is parallel to the magnetic field lines, flux through it is maximum but rate

of change of flux is minimum hence induced emf is zero.

In the position where normal to the coil area is perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, rate of

change of flux is maximum as coil wire move perpendicular the field lines. Hence at this

position, induced emf is maximum.

The direction of induced emf can be determined by Fleming’s right hand rule.

After half the rotation, the directions of current changes as the motion of arms are just opposite

to the motion in first half. Applying Flemings right hand rule, the current direction is reversed,

position III to V as compared to position I to III.

B

B C

B C

C B

C A

C A B D

N S

A D

D A D

A

D

(IV)

(Figure1: Variation of induced emf with time (I, II, III and IV are positions of coil as shown in the figure I)

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O x

I II III IV V t

(figure 2)

d

If the magnetic field is B, the angular of the coil is (i.e. ), there are n no. of coils and

dt

area of coils is A, magnetic flux.

d

= nBA cos = nBA cost nBA. sin t

dt

d

Induced emf, e =

dt

e = nBA sin t = e0 sin t

Here e0 = nBA

emax = nBA

e e0

Current i = sin t i0 sin t (here i0 = e0/R)

R R

TRANSFORMER

A transformer is an electrical device used to

convert AC current from low voltage & high current Secondry coil

to high voltage and low current and viceversa.

Primary coil P S

~ Es

EP NP Ns

A transformer which increases the ac voltage is

called step up transformer and which decreases the

AC voltage is called step down transformer.

NP. = No. of turns, of primary coil

Ns = No. of turns of secondary coil

Principle:

A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. When two coils are indirectely

coupled, change in current or magnetic flux in one coil induces an emf in the other coil.

Construction:

Two coils Primary P and secondary S are wound around a soft iron core. A.C. input is applied to

the primary coil and A.C. output is taken at the secondary coil. Laminated soft iron sheets are

used in core to minimise eddy current and increase magnetic flux.

Step up transformers: Number of turns in secondary coil are more than those in the primary

coil

(Ns > Np). It converts a low voltage high current to a high voltage low current.

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Step down transformer: Number of turns in secondary coil are less than those in the primary

coil. It converts a high voltage, low current to a low voltage, high current.

Working

When primary coil is connected to AC source, the magnetic flux linked with the primary changes.

The magnetic flux of primary is passed through the secondary through the iron core. Therefore

magnetic flux through secondary also changes. Due to the change in magnetic flux the induced

emf is produced across the ends of secondary coil.

Np=no of turns in primary

Ns=no of turns in secondary

Ep=voltage across primary

Es=voltage across secondary

Since magnetic flux in directly proportional to no. of turns

N

s Ns

p Np

Ns

s p

Np

d

Es

dt

d Ns N d

p s p

dt Np Np dt

Ns

Es Ep

Np

Es Ns

Ep Np

If Ns< Np then Es<Ep, such type of transformer is called step down transformer.

Various types of losses are

(a) Flux losses: Flux of primary does not get 100 % linked up with secondary coil.

(b) Copper losses: Energy lost as heat due to resistance in copper coils.

(c) Iron Losses: Loss as heat in iron core due to eddy current losses.

(d) Hysteresis losses: Energy lost due to repeated magetization and demagnetization of iron

core.

(e) Humming losses: Due to alternating current, the iron core vibrates producing humming

noise. Some energy is lost in this.

Use of transformers:

Use of transformer are

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1. Transmission of AC over long distances: Transmission losses are less when transmitted at

very high voltage.

2. In induction furnaces to heat metallic parts.

3. For welding where low voltage high current is required.

4. Voltage regulators in electrical devices.

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SUMMARY

change in the magnetic flux linkage with a coil or when there is a relative motion of the

conductor across a magnetic field.

Magnetic flux: Magnetic flux through an area dS in a magnetic field B is

B = B.dS

Faradays Law: When the flux of a magnetic field through a loop changes, an emf is induced in

the loop which is given by

d

=

dt

where = B.dS is the flux through the loop.

This emf lasts as long as the magnetic field changes.

Lenz’s law: Lenz’s law states that the polarity of the induced emf and the direction of the

induced current is such that it opposes the change that has induced it.

Motional emf: When a conducting rod of length moves with a constant velocity v in a

magnetic field B such that B, v and are mutually perpendicular then the induced emf is

= Bv

This is called motional emf. If the circuit is completed the direction of the current can be worked

out by Lenz’s law.

Induced Electric field: A time varying magnetic field induces an electric field. If a conductor is

placed in this field, an induced emf is produced.

= E.d

d

also, =

dt

d

or, E.d

dt

Eddy current: Changing magnetic field induces currents in closed loops of irregular shapes in a

conductor. These are called eddy currents. These dissipate thermal energy at the cost of kinetic

energy, thus causing electromagnetic damping.

Self induction: A current carrying loop produces a magnetic flux through the area

= Li where L is self inductance of the loop.

If current changes in the loop the induced emf is given by

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d di

= L

dt dt

For a solenoid of n turns,

d

=n B.ds

dt

self inductance of a long solenoid is

L = r0n2A

where r is relative magnetic permeability of the core, n is no. of turns per unit length, is the

length of the solenoid and A is the crosssectional area of the solenoid.

Mutual inductance: A changing current in one circuit causes a changing flux and hence an

induced emf in a neighboring circuit.

N22 = Mi1

where M is mutual inductance of ciols 1 2.

N2 2 N11

M=

i1 i2

di1 di

or, 2 = M , 1 = M 2

dt dt

Alternating voltage & Alternating current: Voltage and current varying sinusoidally with time

are called alternating voltage (Alternating voltage) and alternating current (Alternating current)

V = V0 sint

I = I0 sin t

Mean values of voltage and current:

(a) In one complete cycle,

V 0, I 0

(b) In half cycle,

2V0 2I

V , I 0

(c) Root mean square values

V0 I0

Vrms = ,Irms where v 0 and I0 are the peak voltage and current.

2 2

E0

AC circuit with a resistor: E = E0 sin t = sin t

R

Resistance: R

E0

I= sin ( + /2) (voltage lagging)

1/ C

1

xc = is capacitive reactance.

C

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I = I0 sin (t /2) (voltage leading)

Xc = L inductive reactance

1 2

LCR circuit: Impedance, z = ( L ) R2

C

XL X C

for phase angle , tan =

R

Resonance:

1

L =

c

the impedance of the circuit is equal to R only.

1

0 =

LC

1

f0 = (resonant frequency)

2 LC

Power:

1

Average power, Pav = Erms Irms cos = E0I0 cos

2

where cos is power factor

Power factor in LCR circuit,

R R

cos =

Z 1 2

(L ) R2

C

Choke coil:

A coil with low resistance and high inductance used to reduce current in AC circuit without much

heat loss is called a choke coil.

R

Power factor, cos =

L R2

2 2

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MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE

1. Define magnetic flux. What is the magnetic flux through an area A kept at an angle

from the magnetic field B ?

4. Explain how motional emf is generated starting with the force acting on a moving

charge. How do you decide the polarity of the induced emf depending on the direction of

motion of conductor and the direction of magnetic field.

5. Can we define a potential associated with an induced electric field due to a changing

magnetic field? Is the induced electric field a conservative field ?

6. Describe an expression for self induction of a solenoid of length , crosssectional area

A and having n turns per unit length.

7. Derive an expression for the energy stored in the magnetic field of an inductor of

inductance L.

8. Define resonance in an LCR circuit. Why is current maximum at resonance ?

9. Derive an expression for power factor in an LCR circuit. What is wattless current?

10. Explain how a choke reduces current without appreciable loss of energy.

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[

SOLVED PROBLEMS

Subjective:

BOARD TYPE

A

over two long conducting rails separated by a

distance .

R VO × B

Initially, the rod is moving with a velocity v0 to the

right. Find :

(a) The distance covered by the rod until it comes to A

rest.

(b) The amount of heat generated in the resistance R

during the process.

B v t B2 2 v t

Sol. (a) t = Bv t ; lt t ; F(retarding) It B

r R R

mdv t B2 2 v t mdv t ds B 2 2

vt

dt R ds dt R

Rm m o

ds 2 2 .dv ds R 2 2 v dv

B B o

Rmv 0

s=

B2 2

1

(b) Heat generated = loss in K.E. = mv 20 .

2

Prob 2 . A closed circular coil having a diameter of 50 cm made of 200 turns of wire with a

total resistance of 10 is placed with its plane at right angles to a magnetic field of

strength 102 tesla. Calculate the quantity of electric charge passing through it when

the coil is turned through 180 about an axis in its plane.

2 2 2

Sol. Area of the coil = A = r = (0.25) m

Number of turns of coil = n = 200; Field strength = B = 102 Wbm2

Since the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the magnetic flux

through the coil is 1 = nAB when the coil is turned through 180 about an axis in its

plane, the magnetic flux through the coil is 2 = nAB.

Change in the magnetic flux = d = |2 1|

d = 2nAB = 2 200 (0.25)2 102 = Wb

4

change of magnetic flux 4

Quantity of electric charge =

resistance R 4R

It is independent of the time taken to turn the coil.

Resistance of the coil = 10

Quantity of electric charge passing through the coil = =0.078 C

4 10

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Prob 3. A small square loop of wire of side is placed inside a large square loop of wire of

side L (>>). The loops are coplanar and their centres coincide. What is the mutual

inductance of the system?

each of length L , the field at the centre, i.e., at a

distance L/2 from each rod, will be L

I

B 4x 0 sin sin

4d

0I

i.e. B 4x 2sin 450

4 L / 2

0 8 2

i.e. B1 I

4L

So the flux linked with smaller loop

8 2

2 B1S 2 0 2I and

4 L

2 2

hence, M 2 2 0

I L

circuit and completes the circuit as shown. The

circuit area is perpendicular to a magnetic field with 50 cm

v = 4m/s

F

B = 0.25 T. If the resistance of the total circuit is

5 , how large force is needed to move the rod as

indicated with a constant speed of 4 m/s apart from

the force F = 1/80N already acting on it in the

direction shown ?

| = BLv = (0.25) (0.5)(4) = 0. 5 V

I = /R = 0.1 A

o

F = ILBsin90 = 1/80 N

Thus the total force acting on the rod on left is 1/40 N.

Hence 1/40 N of force is to be applied on the rod in the right side to move it with a

constant velocity.

Prob 5. A rectangular frame ABCD made of a uniform metal wire has a straight connection

between E and F made of the same wire as shown in figure (A) AEFD is a square of

side 1 m and EB = FC = 0.5m. The entire circuit is placed in a steadily increasing

uniform magnetic field directed into the plane of the paper and normal to it. The rate

of change of the magnetic field is 1 Ts1. The resistance per unit length of the wire is

1m1. Find the magnitude and direction of the currents in the segments AE, BE and

EF.

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A E B 1

A I1 ½ I2 B

x x x x x 1V

I ½V

x x x x x

b

x a x x x x 1 a 1 b

1

x x x x x

I1 I I2

C

D 1 I1 F ½

D F C

1m 1/2m (B)

d d dB

E=

dt

dt

BS S

dt

So for loops a and b we have, e1 = ( 1x1) x 1 = V and

1 1

e2 = x 1 x 1 V

2 2

The direction of induced emfs e1 & e2 and currents I1 & I2 in the two loops in

accordance with Lenz’s law of the junction are shown in Fig. (B)

Now by Kirchhoff’s law at junction E, I + I2 – I1 = 0 i.e., I =I1 – I2

And by Kirchhoff’s II law in mesh a,

I1 + 1 (I1 – I2) x 1 + I1 x 1 + I1 x 1 – 1 = 0 i.e., 4I1 – I2 = 1 . . . (I)

While in mesh b,

1 1 1 1

I2 I2 x1 I2 x I1 I2 x1- 0 i.e., I1 3I2 . . . (II)

2 2 2 2

7 6

Solving Eqn. (i) and (ii), I1 = A and I2 = A

22 22

7

So current in segment AE, I1 = A from E to A while in BE,

22

6 7 6 1

I2 = A from B to E and in EF, I=I1–I2= from F to E.

22 22 22 22

IIT-JEE TYPE

magnetic field B about P in the plane of the paper as shown

B

in the figure. Find the induced emf between P and Q and

indicate the relative polarity of the points P and Q. Q

P

Q B

emf. The ring within P & Q is equivalent to a rod of

length PQ. a2

+

Now PQ = a 2 as given P

As we know the emf across a rod of length

1

rotating with angular velocity is =B 2

2

Then emf between P and Q is given by

1 2

= B a 2 = Ba

2

2

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B 90

insulating material of length L is rotated with constant

angular speed in a plane normal to the uniform L

magnetic field B, as shown in the figure.

O

Find the emf produced across the ends of the

conducting rod.

o

90

at a distance x from the end of the rod as shown x

in the diagram. dx

B

The emf across the elemental rod will be

E dx v .B ; dx v rdx sin r

v = r

dx v .B B r sin dx B x dx

d

O

1

E Bo x dx B 2

2

The result is same as if the rod is rotated about one of its ends.

carrying a constant current I are located in the same

plane as shown in the figure. The inductance and the I a

resistance of the frame are equal to L and R

respectively. The frame was turned through 180 about

the axis OO' which is located at a distance b from the b

O

currentcarrying conductor. Find the electric charge

which passes through the frame.

change in flux

Sol. Electric charge through a loop =

resis tance

1 oI Ia b dr

q = ( f - i ); since d = adr i = o

R 2r 2 b a r

Ia b Ia b + a

i = o ln ; f = o ln

2 b - a 2 b

1 oIa b + a

q = ln

R 2 b - a

Q B

without friction on a rectangular circuit composed of

perfectly conducting wires fixed on inclined plane as P

v

shown in the figure. A vertical magnetic field B exists L

in the region of the above mentioned setup. Find the

velocity of the rod PQ when it starts moving without

any acceleration ?

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BLv

i = /R = cos

R v cos

Mg cos

F = BiL = BL BLv cos

R

v

for uniform velocity force on rod up the Mg

Mg sin

plane = force on rod down the plane

B2L2 v

cos2 mg sin

R

Rmg sin

v=

B2L2 cos 2

v = Rmg tan sec

B2L2

Prob 10. A very small circular loop of radius a is initially coplanar and concentric with a much

larger circular loop of radius b (a < < b). A constant current i is passed in large loop,

which is kept fixed in space, and the small loop is rotated with angular velocity

about a diameter. The resistance of the small loop is ‘R’. If its self inductance is

negligible. Find

(a) current in small loop as a function of time.

(b) induced emf in large loop as a function of time.

0ib

B=

2b

i

0 b

and B = B.A a2 cos

2b

where ‘’ is angle between loops and = t

d a20ib

induced emf = sin t

dt 2b

a 2 0ib

current ia = sin t … (i)

R 2bR

d a 2 0

(b) Mutual inductance M = cos t

dt 2b

d d

= (Mia )

dt dt

from (i)

d a 20 a 2 0ib sin t

= cos t.

dt 2b 2bR

2

i a2 0 d sin 2t

= b

R 2b dt 2

2

ib a2 0 cos 2t

= 2

R 2b 2

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2

ib a2 0

= cos 2t

R 2b

Y

Prob 11. A conducting rod 'OA' of mass 'm' and length 'l' x x x x x x

is kept rotating in a vertical plane about a fixed x x

x

A x x

horizontal axis passing through 'O'. The free S

x x x X

end 'A' is arranged to slide on a fixed conducting x O B

x x

ring without any friction. A uniform and constant R x

x C x

x

magnetic field 'B' perpendicular to the plane of x x x

L

'C' (on the ring) are connected by a series

combination of' a resistor 'R' and an inductor 'L'

through a switch 'S'. The angular frequency of

the rod is . Initially the switch is opened.

Neglect any other resistance.

(a) Find the e.m.f. induced across the length of the rod.

(b) The switch is closed at time t = 0 .

(i) Obtain an expression for the current in the resistor as a function of time

(ii) In the steady state find the torque needed to maintain the constant angular speed

of the rod. The rod was initially along the positive Xaxis.

Sol. A conducting rod 'OA' of mass 'm' and length 'l' is kept rotating in a vertical plane . . .

. . any other resistance.

1 2

(a) Bl =

2

di dt di

(b) E = iR + L

dt

L E iR

Rt

log(E iR) c

L

E iR = EeRt/L

E

i = 1 e Rt /L

R

1 1 2

i= BI 1 e Rt / L

R 2

Bl2

i= At t steady state

2R

Power = Torque ()

i2 R = J

i2R B2l42R

J= + torque due to weight of the rod

4R2

B2l4 B2l4

J= + torque due to weight of the rod = + Mg (/2)cos t

4R 4R

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L1 2

Prob 12. In the circuit shown, if the switch S is suddenly shifted

S

to position 2 from 1 at t = 0. Find the current in the

1

circuit as a function of time. Assume that, initially the R

L2

circuit is in a steady state condition and the

+

connection is switched from 1 to 2 in a continuous

manner. E

E

Sol. Let I0 be the initial current in the steady state condition, I0

R

Since inductors have the tendency to maintain the flux constant, therefore,

= I0(L1 + L2) = I'0L1

Where I0 is the current in the circuit at t = 0 when switch position is changed.

If I is the instantaneous current in the circuit, then applying Kirchoff’s voltage law,

dI

L1 IR E ;

dt

I dI 1 t

or dt

'

0I E IR L1 0

E IR R

or ln t ;

E I0R L

R

t

or, E IR = E I'0R e L1

R

1 t

E E I0R e

' L

or, I = 1

R

L L 2 E L1 L 2

Since I0' I0 1

L1 R L1

Rt

E L

I = 1 2 e L 1

R L1

Prob 13. A solenoid of resistance 50 and inductance 80 henry are connected to a 200V

battery. How long will it take for the current to reach 50% of its final equilibrium

value? Calculate the maximum energy stored.

E E

i= 1 e Rt L , When t , i =

R R

Suppose that the current reaches half of this value in a time t0.

1 E E

= 1 eRt L 0

2 R R

1 E 1 1

= 1 eRt L ;

0

1 e Rt L = 1 – =

0

2 R 2 2

L 80

t0 = loge 2 = 0.693 1.11s

R 50

2

1 1 200

Emax = Li2 80 640J

2 2 50

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Prob 14. A 10F capacitor is connected with 1henry inductance in series with a 50Hz source

of alternating current. Calculate the impedance of the combination.

1 1

Z = L ~ 1 2 50 ~

C 10 10 2 50

6

Z = 100 ~

or Z = 4.15

Prob 15. 200V A.C. is applied at the ends of an LCR circuit. The circuit consists of an

inductive reactance XL = 50, capacitive reactance XC = 50 and ohmic resistance

R = 10. Calculate the impedance of the circuit and also potential differences across

L and R. What will be the potential difference across LC?

2 2 2

Z= X L

~ XC R2 50 50 10 10

Now the r.m.s. current flowing in the circuit is

E 200

i.e. 20 amp

Z 10

The potential difference across the inductance is

VL = iXL = 2050 = 1000V, VR = iR = 2010 = 200V

The potential difference across LC is (50 50)20 = 0

Prob 16. To a circuit of 1 resistance and 0.01 henry inductance is connected a 200 volt line

of frequency 50 cycles/ second. Calculate the reactance, the impedance and the

current in the circuit and also the lag in phase between alternating voltage and

current.

XL = 0.01250 = = 3.14

The impedance of the circuit = XL2 R2

2

Z= 3.14 12 10.86 = 3.3

The phase difference (lag) is, tan = L/R = /1 =

Prob 17. A 20 volts 5 watt lamp is used on AC mains of 200 volts 50 cps. Calculate the value

of

(i) capacitance, (ii) inductance to be put in series to run the lamp.

(iii) how much pure resistance should be included in place of the above device so

that lamp can run on its voltage

5 20

Sol. For lamp, i = = 0.25 A, R= = 80

20 0.25

Current through the lamp should be 0.25 A

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200

i= 2

= 0.25

2 1

R

C

Putting the value of = 2 50 C = 4.0 F

200

(ii) When inductor is used, I = = 0.25 L = 2.53 H

R2 (L)2

200

(iii) When resistance is used, I = = 0.25 r = 720

Rr

Prob 18. When a 15 V dc source was applied across a choke coil then a current of 5 Amp

flows in it. If the same coil is connected to a 15 V, 50 rad/s AC source, a current of

3 A flows in the circuit. Determine the inductance of the coil. Also, find the power

developed in the circuit and its resonance frequency if a 2500 f capacitor is

connected in series with the coil.

V V

Sol. For a coil, Z = R 2 2L2 , I= =

Z R ω 2 L2

2

V 15

For dc source, = 0 I= i.e., R = = 3 . . . (i)

R 5

When ac is applied

V 15

I= i.e. Z= = 5

Z 3.0

R2 + xL2 = 25

xL2 = 25 – 9 = 16 xL = 4

4

L= = 0.08 Henry.

40

Now when the capacitor is connected is series.

1 1

xC = = 8

C 50 x 2500 x 10 6

2 2

Z= R 2 xL xC = 3 4 8 = 5

15 2 2

I= = 3A Pav = v rmsIrmscos = Irms R = (3) x 3 = 27 W.

5

Resonance frequency:

1 1 1000

= = =

2 LC 2 0.08 x 2500 x 10 6

2 x 5 x 2 2

25 2

= = 11.25 Hz

Prob 19. A current of 4A flows in a coil when connected to a 12 V DC source. If the same coils

is connected to a 12 V, 50 rad/s, AC. source, a current of 2.4 A flows in the circuit.

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Determine the inductance of coil. Also find the power developed in the circuit if a

2500 F condenser is connected in series with the coil.

V 12

R= =3 …(1)

I 4

When connected to a.c. source

Vrms 12

Z= =5 …(2)

Irms 2.4

2

Z= R 2 L …(3)

From (1), (2) and (3)

L = 0.08 H

When the condenser is also connected.

2 2

2 1

2 1

Z = R L = 3 50 0.08 6

C 50 2500 10

=5

R

cos = 0.6

Z'

P = Vrms.Irms cos

= 12 2.4 0.6 = 17.28 volt

Prob 20. (a) A 100 V potential difference is suddenly applied to a coil of inductance 100 mH

and resistance 50 . Find the rate at which the current increases after one second.

(b) The current in the circuit is given by I = I0 (t / ). Calculate the rms current for the

period t = 0 to t = .

L 100 10 3

Sol. (a) L = = 2 103 sec.

R 50

t

V

I = I0 (1 – et/) = 1 e

R

0.001

dI v t / 100

210 3

e = 3

.e

dt .R 2 10 50

= 103 (0.606) = 606 Amp/sec.

2 2 1 2

(b) Heat produced, H = I (t / ) Rdt 3 I R

0

0 0

(1/ 3)I02R I0

Irms = .

R 3

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Objective:

t R

B = e is established inside the coil. If the key (K) is X X X

X rX K

closed at t = 0, the electrical power developed is equal to

r 2 10r 3

(A) (B)

R R

2 r 4 R 10r 4

(C) (D)

5 R

d

Sol. The induced emf, =

dt

dB d

=A = (r2) (e t ) r 2 e t

dt dt

o = r2 e t t 0 = r2 [ 2 10]

The electrical power developed in the resistor just at the instant of closing the key

2 2 r 4 10 r 4

=P= 0 . Hence (D) is correct.

R R R

coaxial with the bigger circular loop. If the slider moves

2

from A to B, then

(A) current flow in both the loops will be opposite. 1 R B

(B) clockwise current in loop 1 and anticlockwise current A

in loop 2 flow.

(C) no current flows in loop 2.

(D) clockwise current flows in loop 2.

Sol. When the slider moves towards B, the resistance of the circuit (bigger loop)

decreases. Therefore, the current in the bigger loop increases. The increasing

current results in increasing flux ( i) linked by the smaller coil. Consequently,

induced emf will be generated in the smaller loop causing an induced current so as

to oppose the increase in flux. Therefore, the current flows anticlockwise in the inner

loop. Hence (B) is correct.

magnetic field of a straight long conductor that carries a current i a

as shown in the figure. The emf induced in the rod is

iv a iv b

(A) o tan1 (B) 0 ln(1 )

2 b 2 a b v

oiv ab oiv(a b)

(C) (D)

4(a b) 4ab

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dx=dE = Bvdx

x

where B = magnetic field due to straight current carrying wire

i ivdx

at the segment dx = 0 dE = 0 dx v

2x 2 x

The induced emf between the ends of the rod

iv a b d x

= E = dE 0 a

2 x

iv b

E = 0 ln 1 Hence (B) is correct.

2 a

B

Prob 4. A conducting loop is pulled with a constant velocity towards a

region of constant (steady) magnetic field of induction B as X X X X

shown in the figure. Then the current involved in the loop is (d v

X X X X

r

> r) X X X X

(A) Clockwise (B) Anticlockwise d

(C) Zero (D) All of these

Sol. When the loop is drawn into the magnetic field, the area of the portion of the loop in

the magnetic field will increase. That means, the flux linkage increases. Therefore,

an (anticlockwise) current is induced in the loop so as to oppose the change. When

the loop is fully inside. When the loop emerges out of the magnetic field the flux

decrease, following the previous argument, the direction of induced in it will be

eversed (clockwise).

Hence (D) is correct.

conducting rail. The region has a steady magnetic field of induction

X v

B as shown in the figure. If the speed of the bar is doubled then

the rate of heat dissipation will be

(A) constant. (B) quarter of the initial value.

(C) four fold. (D) doubled.

B v

The induced current = i = i= v

R R

B 2

v

2 2

R B

Since, v is doubled, the electrical power, becomes four times. Since heat dissipation

per second is proportional to electrical power, it becomes four fold.

Hence (C) is correct.

Prob 6. If all the linear dimensions of a cylindrical coil are doubled, the inductance of the coil

will be (assuming complete winding over the core)

(A) doubled (B) four fold

(C) eight times (D) remains unchanged

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0N2 A

Sol. The inductance of a coil is given as L = where N = total number of turns of

2

the coil; A = area of cross section of the coil = r ; r = radius of the core of the coil,

= length of the coil. If is doubled the total number of turns will be doubled

2 2

L N A 2 1 N2 r22 1

2 2 2

L1 N1 A1 2 N1 r1 2

L 1 N r

2 (2)2 (2)2 2 8 ( 2 2 2 2) .

L1 N1 r1 1

Hence (C) is correct.

and inductor L. The amplitude of the current in the circuit is

Vo Vo

(A) (B)

2 2 2

R + R - 2 2

2

Vo

(C) sint (D) Vo/R

R + 2 2

2

Amplitude of voltage = Vo

Vo

Amplitude of current = .

R 2L2

2

Prob 8. An ideal choke takes a current of 8 A when connected to an a.c. source of 100 volt

and 50Hz. A pure resistor under the same conditions takes a current of 10A. If two

are connected in series to an a.c. supply of 100V and 40Hz, then the current in the

series combination of above resistor and inductor is

(A) 10A (B) 8A

(C) 5 2 A (D) 10 2 A

Sol. XL = ,R= 10 ; L 100 = or L = H

8 10 8 8

2

1

Z= 2 40 102 10 2

8

E 100 10

I= 5 2A

Z 10 2 2

Hence (C) is correct.

frequency n. If the resonant frequency is nr then the current lags behind voltage,

when

(A) n = 0 (B) n < nr

(C) n = nr (D) n > nr

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Sol. Below resonant frequency the current leads the applied e.m.f., at resonance it is in

phase with applied e.m.f. and above resonance frequency it lags the applied e.m.f.,

Hence (D) is correct.

Prob 10. An ac source of angular frequency is fed across a resistor R and a capacitor C in

series. The current registered is I. If now the frequency of source is changed to /3

(but maintaining the same voltage), the current in the circuit is found to be halved.

The ratio of reactance to resistance at the original frequency will be

3 5

(A) (B)

5 3

3 5

(C) (D)

5 3

V 2 2 1/2

I= V / [R + (1/C )] . . . (1)

Z

I V

and . . . (2)

2 [R2 (3 / C)2 ]2

Substituting the value of I from equation (1) in (2),

1 9 1 3

4 R2 2 2 R2 2 2 i.e., 2 2 R2

C C C 5

X (1/ C) [(3 / 5)R 2 ]1/ 2 3

So that

R R R 5

Hence (A) is correct.

Prob 11. When a magnet is released from rest along the axis of a hollow S

N

conducting cylinder situated vertically as shown in the figure,

(A) The direction of induced current in the cylinder is anticlockwise as

seen from the above

(B) the magnet moves with an acceleration less than g = 9.8 m/s2

(C) the cylinder gets heated.

(D) the magnet attains a terminal speed inside the cylinder if the cylinder is very

long.

Sol. Initially the current induced in the hollow conductor is zero because

the magnet was at rest. When the magnet falls, due to the variation N

of magnetic flux, induced current develop in the hollow conductor so N

as to resist the cause of increment of flux; that means the velocity of

the magnet is resisted. S

In the other word we can say that the magnet is retarded before entering into the

hollow conducting cylinder. Consequently its acceleration will be less than g because

magnetic force opposes the gravitational force, equally after sometime when the

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magnet attains acting on the magnet. If the cylinder is very long, the magnetic force

opposes the gravitational force, terminal velocity. Hence (A), (B), (C) & (D) all are

correct.

Prob 12. A loop is kept so that its center lies at the origin of the y

coordinate system. A magnetic field has the induction B B

pointing along Z axis as shown in the figure XX

XX XX

(A) No emf and current will be induced in the loop if it X XX X x

X X XX

rotates about Z axis X X

X

(B) Emf is induced but no current flows if the loop is a

fiber. When the loop is rotated about yaxis.

(C) Emf is induced and induced current flows in the loop if the loop is made of copper

(D) If the loop moves along Z axis with constant velocity, no current flows in it.

Sol. If the loop rotates about Z axis, there is no variation of flux linkage. Therefore, no

emf is induced. Consequently, no current flows in the loop

When rotated about y axis, its flux linkage changes. Therefore an emf is induced.

Since the loop is a fiber it is non conducting. Therefore induced current is zero.

If the loop is made of copper, it is conductive therefore induced current is set up.

If the loop moves along the Z axis variation of flux linkage is zero. Therefore the

induced emf and current will be equal to zero.

Hence (A), (B), (C) and (D) all are correct.

Prob 13. Shown in the figure is an RL circuit. Just after the L R

(A) the current in the circuit is zero

(B) no potential drop across the resistor E

(C) potential drop across the inductor is E

(D) no heat is dissipated in the circuit

Sol. The current in the circuit at the instant of closing the Key (K) is equal to io. Current at

any time in transient state is given as

t

i = i0 1 e where L Putting t = 0, i = 0

R

The voltage drop across the inductor is E that oppose the applied emf E

E = E (numerically).

2

Since the circuit current is zero, the heat loss (proportional to i0 R) will be zero

Hence (A), (B), (C), and (D) are correct.

(A) VR = 0 and VL 0 (V = potential difference)

(B) Energy lost per second in the resistor is equal to energy gained by the inductor

per second

(C) VAB = i R (numerically)

(D) VR 0 and VL = 0

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di di

Sol. When i = constant, 0 Induced emf across the inductor = EL = L 0

dt dt

Potential drop across the inductor is zero VL = 0

Therefore potential drop across the resistor = VR = i R VAB = VR + VL = i R

Electrical power = P = i2 R, Energy loss per second in the resistor i2 R

1 2 d UL

The energy stored in the inductor = UL = Li constant 0

2 dt

The energy gained by the inductor per second = 0

Hence (C) & (D) are correct.

B

field of induction B along xaxis axis when it is rotated

x

about Yaxis through 90°, the induced charge in the coil is

directly proportional to

(A) B (B) R

(C) r2 (D) r

Sol. Induced emf loop when the variation of flux d during time dt is given as

d

E= d Edt

2

…(1)

dt 1

E

q = dt …(2)

R

Using (1) and (2), q=

R

Where = change in flux given as = 2 1 = B. (r2) because initially the flux is

linked with the coil and it has maximum flux linkage 2 = B r2 when turned through

90°.

B r2

q= i.e. q B

R

q r2

q (1/R).

Hence (A) & (C) are correct.

AC is __________________________.

B O C

1

Sol. B 2

2

Induced emf across AO is zero

EBO = EOC = zero

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magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane of the ring.

R

If radius R varies as a function of time t as R = R0 + t

the emf induced in the loop is __________________

2

A = r

d

= BR2, e = 2 R 0 t B

dt

dB

as shown in the figure whose magnitude changes at a rate .

dt R

The emf induced across the ends of a circular concentric A

conducting arc of radius R1 having an angle as shown

R1

________________________(OAO = )

O

dB

Sol. QR2

dt

dB R dB

Required emf = R2 =

dt 2 2 dt

R 2 dB

=

2R dt

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ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

Subjective:

Level O

2. Explain phasor and phasor diagram in relation to alternating voltage and associated

alternating current in a circuit.

In an LCR circuit having inductance L, capacitance C and resistance R connected in series

to a source v 0 sint,

1

(a) If L = , voltage ………………current.

C

1

(b) If L > , voltage……………..current.

C

1

(c) If L < , voltage ………………current.

C

4. A rod of length rotates with a constant angular velocity in a uniform magnetic field B,

plane of motion of the rod is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Find the induced emf

generated between the ends of the rod.

5. A square coil of side 10 cm having 200 turns is placed in a magnetic field of 1 W/m2 such

that its plane is perpendicular to the field. The coil is rotated by 1800 in 0.5 seconds. What is

the induced emf.

6. A railway track running north south has two parallel rails 1.0 m apart. Calculate the value

of induced emf between the rails when a train passes at a speed of 90 km/h. Horizontal

component of earth’s field at the place is 0.3 104 Wb/m2 and angle of dip 600.

7. A current i = 0.5 sin 300 t is passed through a coil with self inductance 50 mH. What will be

the maximum magnitude of induced emf in the coil.

8. The self inductance of an inductance coil having 100 turns is 20 mH. Find the magnetic flux

through the crosssection of the coil corresponding to a current of 4 milliampere. Also, find

the total flux.

9. Circular coil A with radius 10 mm and 50 turns and coil B with radius 0.5 m and 600 turns are

placed coaxially. Find out mutual inductance of the coil.

2

10. An aircored solenoid is of length 0.3 m, area of crosssection 1.2 103 m and has

2500 turns. Around its central section, a coil of 350 turns is wound. The solenoid and the coil

are electrically insulated from each other. Calculate the emf induced in the coil, if initial

current of 3A in the solenoid is reversed in 0.25 sec.

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field B = 0.25 T with a velocity 25 m/s. Find out the induced emf across its ends.

xx x x x x x x …………………….

c

current x x xx b x x cx x …………………….

b d

(a) Figure 1 wire loop of irregular shape turning …………………….

x x x x x a x x dx …………………….a

into a regular shape. x x xx x x x x …………………….

x x

(b) A circular loop turning into a narrow straight fig. 1 fig. 2

wire.

13. In a circuit, capacitance 60 F, inductance 15 mH and resistance 20 are connected to a

power source having frequency 100 Hz. What are

(a) Capacitative reactance (b) inductive reactance

(c) total impedance of the circuit.

14. A resistance of 15 ohm, capacitance and an ammeter of negligible resistance are connected

in series to a source of 110 V 60 Hz. If the reading of ammeter shows 5 A, what is the

reactance of the capacitance?

L =50mH R1 =10

15. In the circuit shown, the switch is operated to

complete the circuit at time t = 0. Calculate the time

required for current in R1 to become half of the S

steady state current. What is the energy stored in the

inductor when the current reaches steady state.

6V R2 =15

16. A lamp having a hot resistance of 25 is not allowed to pass current more than 5A. Find the

value of inductance which must be used in series with the lamp, which is supplied by an AC

of maximum rms 325 V at 50 Hz.

series to a source of 30 V, 50 Hz. Find out the time by which the temperature of the

resistance will rise by 150C. Thermal capacity of resistance is 1.8 J/C.

18. An ac source of 220 volts and 60 Hz is connected in series with an inductance of 1.0 H and a

resistance of 377 ohm. Find the wattless component of current in the circuit.

50 Hz supply. If the circuit has a resistance of 15 ohm, obtain the average power transferred

to each element of the circuit and the total power absorbed.

20. An AC generator consists of a coil of 2000 turns each of area 80 cm2 and rotating at an

angular speed of 200 rpm in a uniform magnetic field of 4.8 102 T. Calculate the peak

and rms value of emf in the coil.

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Level I

wire of length 80 cm and resistance 4.0 is bent into a

square frame and is placed with one side along a

20cm

diameter of the cylindrical region. If the magnetic field

increases at a constant rate of 0.010 T/s, find the

current induced in the frame.

conducting rails placed at a separation ‘’. A

magnetic field B exists in a direction perpendicular to F

R

the plane of the rails. What force is necessary to

keep the wire moving at a constant velocity v?

emf 5.0 V. Find the rate of change of the induced emf at

(a) t = 0

(b) t = 10 ms and

(c) t = 1.0 s.

4. A metal disc of radius 2 m is rotated at a constant angular speed of 60 rad s1 in a plane at

right angles to an external uniform field of magnetic induction 0.05 Wbm 2. Find the emf

induced between the centre and a point on the rim.

emf . Find the time elapsed before

(a) the current reaches half its maximum value,

(b) the power dissipated in heat reaches half its maximum value and

(c) the magnetic field energy stored in the circuit reaches half its maximum value.

6. Find the inductance of a coil in which a current of 0.1 A increasing at the rate of 0.5 A/s

1

represents a power flow of W.

2

Calculate (a) peak and rms value of the voltage (b) average voltage

(c) frequency of AC.

8. A coil of resistance 300 and inductance 1.0 henry is connected across an alternately

voltage of frequency 300/2 Hz. Calculate the phase difference between the voltage and

current in the circuit.

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9. A 0.21H inductor and a 12 resistance connected in series to a 220V, 50Hz AC source.

Calculate the current in the circuit and the phase angle between the current and the source

voltage.

10. A 100mH inductor, a 25F capacitor and a 15 resistor are connected in series to a 120V,

50Hz AC source. Calculate

(a) impedance of the circuit at resonance.

(b) current at resonance.

(c) Resonant frequency.

11. Find the value of an inductance which should be connected in series with a capacitor of 5F,

a resistance of 10 and an ac source of 50Hz so that the power factor of the circuit is unity.

12. A voltage of 10V and frequency 1000Hz is applied to a 0.1F capacitor in series with a

resistor of 500. Find the power factor of the circuit and the average power dissipated.

13. Fig. Shows a square loop of side 5 cm being moved towards B=0.6T

right at a constant speed of 1 cm/s. The front edge enters the

5 cm

20 cm wide magnetic field at t=0. Find the emf induced in the

loop at

(a) t = 2s, (b) t = 10 s, (c) t = 22 s and (d) t = 30 s. 20 cm

Find the total heat produced during the interval 0 to 30 s if the resistance of the loop is

4.5 m.

14. A long solenoid of radius 2 cm has 100 turns/cm and carries a current of 5A. A coil of radius

1 cm having 100 turns and a total resistance of 20 is placed inside the solenoid coaxially.

The coil is connected to a galvanometer. If the current in the solenoid is reversed in

direction, find the charge that flows through the galvanometer.

15. A square frame with side a and a long straight wire carrying a a

x v

current I are located in the same plane as shown in (Fig) . The I

frame translates to the right with a constant velocity v. Find the emf

induced in the frame as a function of distance x.

16. The magnetic field in the cylindrical region shown in the figure.

e d c

increases at a constant rate of 20.0 mT/s. Each side of the square

loop abcd and defa has a length of 1.00 cm and a resistance of S 1 S 2

4.00 . Find the current (magnitude and sense) in the wire and if

f a b

(a) the switch S1 is closed but S2 is open,

(b) S1 is open but S2 is closed,

(c) both S1 and S2 are open and

(d) both S1 and S2 are closed.

17. An inductor having inductance L and resistance R carries a current I. Show that the time

constant is equal to twice the ratio of energy stored in the magnetic field to the rate of

dissipation of energy in the resistance.

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B

18. The magnetic field in a region is given by B k o y where L is a fixed length. A

L

conducting rod of length L lies along the Yaxis between the origin and the point

(0, L, 0). If the rod moves with a velocity v = v o i , find the emf induced between the ends of

the rod.

19. Consider the situation shown in the figure. The wire B=1.0T

P 10

PQ has a negligible resistance and is made to slide

2 cm

on the three rails with a constant speed of 5 cm/s. S

2 cm

Find the current in the 10 resistor when the switch

S is thrown to Q

(a) the middle rail (b) the bottom rail.

R2

20. Consider the circuit shown in fig.

(a) Find the current through the battery a long time R1 L

after the switch S is closed.

(b) Suppose the switch is again opened. What is the

time constant of the discharging circuit?

E S

(c) Find the current through the inductor, after one time

constant, during discharging.

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Level II

1. A flat coil with radius 8 mm has fifty loops of wire on it. It is placed in a magnetic

field = 0.3 T so that the maximum flux goes through it. Later it is rotated in 0.02 s to a

position such that no flux goes through it. Find the average emf induced between the

terminals of the coil.

difference of potential of 100.0 V. The maximum current is to be 1.0 A, and the oscillation

frequency is to be 1000 Hz. What are the required values of L and C?

essential to be put in series with the lamp.

120V 60Hz line. A voltmeter reads 36V across the resistance. Find the voltage across the

coil and inductance of the coil.

5. An alternating current of 1.5mA and angular frequency = 300 rad/s flows through 10K

resistor and a 0.50F capacitor in series. Find the r.m.s. voltage across the capacitor and

impedance of the circuit?

6. The inductance of a chokecoil is 0.2 henry and its resistance is 0.50. If a current of 2.0

ampere (rms value) and frequency 50Hz be passed through it, what will be the potential

difference across its ends?

2 rad/s. Box has power factor 1 2 and circuit has overall

power factor 1. Find the impedance of the box.

~

magnetic field B as shown in the figure. If the ends of the coil

are connected together and the resistance of the coil is R, find B

the force exerted on the coil by the field when the coil is in the a

position shown.

v

9. A long solenoid that has 800 loops per meter carries a current i = 3 sin(400t) A. Find the

electric field inside the solenoid at a distance 2 mm from the solenoid axis. Consider only the

field tangential to a circle having its center on the axis of the solenoid.

10. A circular ring of diameter 20 cm has a resistance of 0.01. How much charge will flow

through the ring if it is turned in a uniform magnetic field of 2.0 T from an initial position

perpendicular to the field to a position parallel to the field ?

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numerical figure 8, as shown in the figure. A time varying 2a

applied. B = B0sint. If is the resistivity of the wire, find the

maximum current through the loop.

12. A closed coil having 100 turns is rotated in a uniform magnetic field B = 4.0 104 T about a

diameter which is perpendicular to the field. The angular velocity of rotation is 300 revolutions per

minute. The area of the coil is 25 cm2 and its resistance is 4.0 . Find

(a) the average emf developed in half a turn from a position where the coil is perpendicular

to the magnetic field,

(b) the average emf in a full turn and

(c) the net charge displaced in part (a).

13. Two parallel wires of radius r, whose centres are a distance d apart, carry equal currents in

opposite directions. Neglecting the flux within the wires, find the inductance of length of

such a pair of wires.

x x x x

14. A metal rod AB of length L is placed in a magnetic field B as x x x x x x

R

shown in the figure. If the rate of change of B with respect to xxx x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

dB xx x x x x xxx

time is , find the emf produced across AB. x x x x x x x x

dt A B

x x x x x

P

15. A conducting rod PQ of mass m is free to slide on

frictionless rails in the horizontal plane as shown in the v0

L

figure. At t = 0 the rod is given an initial velocity v 0. Find B

x

resistance of the rod, rails and the inductor L. Assume that

the rod remains within the magnetic field B .

from it there are two other wires, parallel to the former one,

R v

which are interconnected by a resistance R (Fig.). A connector b

slides without friction along the wires with a constant velocity

a

v. Assuming the resistances of the wires, the connector, the

I0

sliding contacts, and the selfinductance of the frame to be

negligible, find:

(a) the magnitude and the direction of the current induced in the connector;

(b) the force required to maintain the connector's velocity constant.

17. A LCR circuit has L =10 mH, R = 3 ohms and C = 1 F connected in series to a source of 15

cos t volts. Calculate the current amplitude and the average power dissipated per cycle at

a frequency that is 10 % lower than the resonance frequency.

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18. A current of 4 A flows in a coil when connected to a 12 V dc source. If the same coil is

connected to a 12 V 50 rad/s ac source a current of 2.4 A flows in the circuit. Determine the

inductance of the coil. Also find the power developed in the circuit if a 2500 F capacitor is

connected in series with the coil.

19. A box P and a coil Q are connected in series with an ac source of variable frequency. The

emf of the source is constant at 10 V. Box P contains a capacitance of 1 F in series with a

resistance of 32 . Coil Q has a selfinductance 4.9 mH and a resistance of 68 in series.

The frequency is adjusted so that the maximum current flows in P and Q. Find the

impedance of P and Q at this frequency. Also find the voltage across P and Q respectively.

20. An LCR series circuit with 100 resistance is connected to an ac source of 200 V and

angular frequency 300 rad/s. When only the capacitance is removed, the current lags behind

the voltage by 60. When only the inductance is removed, the current leads the voltage by

60. Calculate the current and the power dissipated in the LCR circuit.

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Objective:

Level – I

then disconnected and a pure inductor of L henry is connected across it so that LC

oscillations are set up. Then the frequency of oscillations is :

1

(A) 2 LC (B)

2 LC

1 L 1 C

(C) (D)

2 C 2 L

2. A rectangular loop of wire is placed in a uniform magnetic field B acting normally to the

plane of the loop. If we attempt to pull it out of the field with a velocity v, the power needed is

:

B 2 2 v 2

(A) Biv (B)

R

B v

2 2

Bv

(C) (D)

R R

as shown in figure. A soft iron core is inserted in the coil quickly. During

L

this process, the intensity of bulb:

(A) remains unaltered (B) increases

6V

(C) decreases

(D) may increase or decrease depending on the size of core

4. A coil of resistance R and inductance L is connected to a battery of emf E volts. Then the

final current in the coil is :

(A) E/R (B) E/L

(C) E / R2 L2 (D) EL / R2 L2

5. If L and R represent inductance and resistance respectively, then the dimensions of L/R will

be:

(A) M0L0T1 (B) M0LT

(C) M0L0T (D) cannot be represented in terms of M, L & T

s r

carrying a current as shown in figure. Which of the following

statements is correct? i

(A) There is no induced current in coil pqrs p q

(B) The induced current in coil pqrs is in the clockwise sense

(C) The induced current in the coil pqrs is in anticlockwise direction

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7. A rectangular coil is placed in a region having a uniform magnetic field

B, perpendicular to the plane of the coil. An e.m.f. will not be induced X

O

in the coil if the:

(A) magnetic field increases uniformly.

(B) coil is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the coil and passing through its

centre O, the coil remaining in the same plane.

(C) coil is rotated about the axis OX.

(D) magnetic field is suddenly switched off.

8. A metal disc of radius R rotates with an angular velocity about an axis perpendicular to its

plane passing through its centre in a magnetic field of induction B acting perpendicular to the

plane of the disc. The induced e.m.f. between the rim and axis of the disc is

(A) BR2 (B) BR2

(C) BR2/2 (D) BR2/2

9. In LC circuit the capacitance is changed from C to 4C. For the same resonant frequency, the

inductance should be changed from L to:

(A) 2L (B) L/2

(C) L/4 (D) 4L

2H

10. The equivalent inductance between points P and Q in figure is :

2/3H

(A) 2 H (B) 6 H P

Q

(C) 8/3 H (D)4/9 H

4H

11. The frequency for which a 5.0F capacitor has a reactance of 1000 is given by

1000 100

(A) cycles / sec (B) cycles / sec

(C) 200 cycle /sec (D) 5000 cycles /sec

12. In an AC circuit V and I are given by V = 50 sin50t volt and I = 100 sin(50t + /3) mA. The

power dissipated in the circuit

(A) 2.5 kW (B) 1.25 kW

(C) 5.0 kW (D) 500 watt

13. The rootmeansquare value of an alternating current of 50Hz frequency is 10 ampere. The

time taken by the alternating current in reaching from zero to maximum value and the peak

value of current will be

(A) 2102 sec and 14.14 amp. (B) 1 102 sec and 7.07 amp.

(C) 5 103 sec and 7.07 amp. (D) 5103 sec and 14.14 amp.

14. A coil of resistance 2000 and selfinductance 1.0 henry has been connected to an a.c.

source of frequency 2000/2 Hz. The phase difference between voltage and current is

(A) 30 (B) 60

(C) 45 (D) 75

15. In a series resonant circuit, the AC voltage across resistance R, inductance L and

capacitance C are 5V, 10V and 10V, respectively. The AC voltage applied to the circuit will

be

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(C) 5V (D) 25V

8

16. The switch in the figure is close date time t = 0. The current 4

4

time these after are ______________and 10 V 1H

__________________

S R2 R3

17. For the circuit shown, E = 50 V, R1 = 10 , R2 = 20, R3 =

30, L = 2.0 mH. The current through R1 and R2 are

R1 L

_________________________ and ____________________ E

immediate after the switch is closed.

xP r2 P2

18. For the situation described in the figure. The magnetic field 1

changes with according to B = (2t3 4t2 + 0.8)T and r2 = 2R = 5

cm. Then the force on an electron located at P2 at t = 2.0 sec is

R

____________________.

19. In the above question the magnitude and direction of the electric field at P1 when t = 3.00

and r1 = 0.02 m are ___________________________ and _____________________.

z

20. A rectangular loop (10 15 cm) lies in xy plane as shown in the

figure. A time dependent magnetic field B B0 x sin tjˆ y cos t kˆ , y

with B0 = 120 gauss/m and = 10000 rad/sec exist within the loop. 15 cm

___________________

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Level II

L R

1. Which one of the following graphs represent correctly the variations

of current (i), time (t) when key k is pressed in the circuit shown in the

figure:

K

(A) (B)

i

i

O t O t

(C) (D)

i i

O t O t

and lies on the xy plane. There is a magnetic field B = 50(T) k̂ . The ring spins with an

angular velocity 20 rad/s about its axis. An external resistance of 10 is connected across

the centre of the ring and rim. The current through external resistance is

1 5

(A) A (B) A

3 3

1 1

(C) A (D) A

4 2

3. A metallic wire is folded to form a square loop of side a. It carries a current i and is kept

perpendicular to the region of uniform magnetic field B. If the shape of the loop is changed

from square to an equilateral triangle without changing the length of the wire and current.

The amount of work done in doing so is

4 3 3

(A) Bia2 1 (B) Bia2 1

9 9

2

(C) Bia2 (D) Zero

3

in a horizontal magnetic field which is perpendicular to the plane 90

of the conductor. If magnetic field strength is B then the emf

induced across the point A and C when it has fallen from rest v

A C

through a distance h will be

(A) B 2gh (B) B gh

(C ) 2B gh (D) 2B

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constant angular velocity . If the magnetic field strength is B and

P

is directed into the page then emf induced across PSQ is

(A) Br2 (B) Br2/2 S

2 2

(C) 4 Br (D) Br /4 Q

voltage is given by V = 4t volt. If the voltage is applied when t = 0 and switched off at time 4

sec., the energy stored in the coil will be

(A) 512 J (B) 256 J

(C) 1024 J (D) 144 J

7. Two coils A and B have 200 and 400 turns respectively. A current of 1 A in coil A causes a

flux per turn of 103 Wb to link with A and a flux per turn of 0.8 103 Wb through B. The

ratio of selfinductance of A and the mutual inductance of A and B is

(A) 5/4 (B) 1/1.6

(C) 1.6 (D) 1

Q

8. QR is a wire moving with a speed v as shown in figure. The P X

conducting rails PX and SY are smooth. The induced current is in

v

anticlockwise direction. The magnetic field in the region is : i

(A) directed from left to right in the plane of page.

S Y

(B) directed from right to left in the plane of page. R

(C) perpendicular to the plane of page and directed away from reader.

(D) perpendicular to the plane of page and directed towards reader.

frequency n about one of its sides, which is placed at 90o to a

uniform magnetic field having flux density B. The peak e.m.f.

induced in the coil is :

(A) BAn (B) BAn

(C) 2BAn (D) 2BAn

20

10. An ideal inductance of 0.2 H is connected as shown in figure. After the key

L=0.2H

k is pressed, the current in 20 resistance reaches a steady value of

(A) 0.1 A (B) 0.25 A

(C) 0.017 A (D) zero 30

V=5V K

11. In the given figure, which voltmeter will read zero voltage at V1 V2 V3

R L C

(A) V1 (B) V2

V4

(C) V3 (D) V4

E=Eosint

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than resonating frequency then net impedance of the circuit will be

(A) capacitive (B) inductive

(C) capacitive or inductive. (D) pure resistive.

13. Using an AC voltmeter, the potential difference in the electrical line in a house is read to be

234 volts. If the line frequency is known to be 50 cycles per second, the equation for the line

voltage is

(A) V = 165 sin(100t) (B) V = 331 sin(100t)

(C) V = 234 sin(100t) (D) V = 440 sin(100t)

14. In LCR circuit the inductance is changed from L to 4L. For the same resonant frequency, the

capacitance should be changed from C to

(A) 2C (B) C/2

(C) C/4 (D) 4C

V = 200 sin(100t) volt. Then the power consumption is

(A) 20 watts (B) 40 watts

(C) 1000 watts (D) 0 watts

16. Two long solenoids having their radii R1 andR 2 and number of turns N1 andN2 carry current

1 4 1

i1 and i2 respectively. If the ratio of R1 / R2

, N1 / N2 and i1 / i2 the ratio of their self

4 1 2

inductances L1/L2 will be (ignore mutual inductance),

(A) 1:2 (B) 2:1

(C) 1:4 (D) 1:1

17. A given LCR series circuit satisfies the condition for resonance with a given AC source. If the

angular frequency of the AC source is increased by 100%, then in order to establish

resonance, and without changing the value of inductance the capacitance must be

(A) Increased by 100 % (B) Reduced by 50 %

(C) Increased by 75 % (D) Reduced by 75 %.

rotate in vertical plane. There exists a uniform magnetic field B in O

horizontal direction. The rod is released from position shown in

the figure. Potential difference between two ends of the rod is

proportional to B

(A) 3/2 (B) 2

1/2

(C) sin (D) (sin )

B

without friction on two parallel rails and is connected to C

capacitance C. Whole system lies in a magnetic field B F

and a constant force F is applied to the rod. Then

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F

(B) the rod moves with an acceleration of

m B2 2 c

(C) there is constant charge on the capacitor.

(D) charge on the capacitor increases with time

20. A circular loop of radius r, having N turns of a wire, is placed in a uniform and constant

magnetic field B. The normal of the loop makes an angle with the magnetic field. Its

normal rotates with an angular velocity such that the angle is constant. Choose the

correct statement from the following.

NBr 2

(A) emf in the loop is cos .

2

(B) emf induced in the loop is zero.

(C) emf must be induced as the loop crosses magnetic lines.

(D) emf must not be induced as flux does not change with time.

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Subjective:

Level – O

1

4. B2 5. 8 volts

2

6. 1.3 103 V 7. 7.5 V

5 3

8. 8 10 Wb, 8 10 wb 9. 1.18 105 H

10. 0.1056 V 11. 5V

12. (a) along abcda (b) along abcda

13. (a) 26.5 , (b) 9.42 , (c) 26.3

14. 16.09 15. 1.39 ms, 1.44 mJ

16. 0.19 H. 17. 5.06 s.

18. 0.29 A

19. Pav(R) = 789.6 W, Pav(L) = 0, Pav(c) = 0, Pav(total) = 789.6 W.

20. 16.085 V, 11.375 V

Level I

B2l2 v

1. 3.9 105 A 2.

R

3. (a) 2.5 103 V/s (b) 17 V/s (c) 0 V/s

4. 6V 5. (a) 35 ms, (b) 61ms, (c) 61 ms

6. 10 H

7. (a) 311V, 220V (b) 0 (c) f = 50Hz

8. /4 9. I = 3.28A, = 79.7

20

10. (a) 15 (b) 8A (c) 100.7Hz 11. 2H

2

12. (a) PF = 0.3, PAV = 0.018 W

13. (a) 3 104 V, (b) zero, (c) 3 104 V and (d) zero. 2 104 J

o 2Ia2 v

14. 1.967 104 C 15. E= .

4 x(x a)

16. (a) 1.25 107 A, a to d, (b) 1.25 107 A, d to a, (c) zero (d) zero

B o v oL

18. 19. (a) 0.1 mA (b) 0.2 mA

2

E(R1 R2 ) L E

20. (a) , (b) (c)

R1R 2 R1 R 2 R1e

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Level II

1. 0.15 V

2. 15.9 mH, 1.59 F 3. C = 9.2F

4

4. Vl = 114V, L = 0.76H 5. 10V, 1.210

1

6. 125.6V 7.

C 2

aAB0

10. 6.28 C 11.

2

0 d r

12. (a) 2.0 103 V (b) zero (c) 5.0 105 C 13. ln

r

2

dB L L v0 B 2 2

14. R2 15. x = sin t where

dt 2 2 ML

2

vI b v I b

16. (a)I o o ln (b)F o o ln 17. 0.704 A, 5.2 103 J

2R a R 2 a

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Objective:

Level I

1. B 2. B

3. C 4. A

5. C 6. B

7. B 8. D

9. C 10. A

11. B 12. B

13. D 14. C

15. C

16. 0.5(1 e10t)A, 1.50 0.25e10t A

Level II

1. C 2. C

3. A 4. C

5. A 6. A

7. B 8. C

9. D 10. D

11. D 12. A

13. C 14. C

15. D 16. D

17. D 18. A, D

19. B, D 20. B, D

FIITJEE Ltd., 29-A. ICES House, Kalu Sarai, Sarvapriya Vihar, New Delhi -16, Ph 26515949, 26854102, Fax 26513942

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