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Grade 11

Type of Test: Definition, Identification, Enumeration


 The Church is founded by Christ on the apostles to perpetuate (to continue) His saving act here on earth.
 We are the church, the people of God. We are the apostles of today. We continue to fulfill the mission of
proclaiming the Good News to all so that all will be saved.


 Christ has promised that salvation is for all to those who believed in Him as savior and God ! (John 3:16)
 Christ is the HEAD, offered His body and blood for the salvation of His people.
 The Church is the sign and instrument of communion with God and one another.
- The mission of the Church is to lead all people to God (to make God known and loved) and to one
another in this earthly and eternal life.
Holy Mass (Holy Eucharist) is a perfect communion of people and God when we listen to His Word
and receive His body and live with peace with one another as one people of God.
Other Sacraments and other spiritual activities are also offered to sanctify us (make us holy) from birth
to death so that all will be saved.

SACRAMENTS that lead us to a healthy and holy life (sanctify us from birth to death):
1. Baptism – marks our identity as children of God. This is claiming our sense of belongingness to the Church.
2. Receiving of the Holy Communion- an act of unity with Christ as we receive His body and blood
3. Confirmation – an act of confirming and living out of our faith responsibly
4. Matrimony – a calling of man and woman as pro-creator in building God’s Kingdom here on earth
by building a family, the domestic church
5. Ordination / Religious Consecration – a calling to live in perfection by following and serving God in
their life of consecration and the vows
6. Confession –to cleanse from sin and receive reconciliation and forgiveness from God
7. Anointing the SICK- to receive healing in sickness of body and health and a preparation for a holy


1 Corinthians 12:27 - “Now you are Christ’s body and individually members of it.
Romans 12:4-5 - Though many members in one body…of different functions but ONE body in Christ.
Being part of the body,
1. We must all support and help one another.
2. We work together in creating just and loving society.
3. Be a living witnesses of God’s love.
4. We proclaim Good News of salvation to everyone.


As a salt we are called to maintain our usefulness by:
1. Being source of life and encouragement to everyone.
2. Always building a just and loving society.
3. Continue proclaiming the Good News that brings joy and happiness to everyone.

As a light we help people to see from their experiences of darkness. As light, we are called by Christ to
enlighten those who are confused, ignorant and living in darkness by bringing them back to Jesus, the source
of light.

As salt of the earth and light of the world is to be CREDIBLE WITNESSES of the Gospel and of His loving
presence. Otherwise our life becomes worthless and meaningless.


1. ONE – We believe in one God in three persons (Father, Son and Holy Spirit). We are one people, one
2. HOLY – Christ, the head of the Church is holy, offered His body and blood for the salvation of all. We
as the members of the body and are striving to be holy like Him.
3. CATHOLIC– The church has blessed with Christ’s fullness of grace. The Church is universal, it is open
for all and everybody is welcome to be members and body of it.
4. APOSTOLIC – The church draws its example from the apostles. The apostles’ mission is our mission too.
We are the modern apostles of this generation and has continued the mission to “Go to the
whole world and proclaim the Good News so that all will be saved.” Matthew 28:19

Type of Test: Identification and Enumeration


It is a Catholic doctrine containing principles and guidelines for fulfilling social responsibility on matters
of human dignity and common good in society.
• It presents the Catholic Christian response to the signs of the times and evaluates them in the light of
Christ’s teachings.
• It brings out the relevance of Christian faith in concrete life situations.

Basic truth about:

My image and worth: “I am created in the image and likeness of God.”
My identity: “I am a child of God.”
We are all equal in DIGNITY.

The Catholic Church proclaims that human life is sacred thus, the dignity of the human person is the
foundation of a moral vision for society. This is always the foundation of all the principles of our social

 The MAGISTERIUM of the Catholic Church is the church's authority or office to establish teachings.
In faith they are under the premise with the correct and true teachings (infallible) of the faith.

 This dignity of the human person is always defended by the Church in her numerous ENCYCLICALS.

What is Encyclical?
- written by the pope
- also known as “papal encyclical”
- always contains the teachings of the Church on different social issues concerning faith and moral
- always defended the dignity of human person

What is Apostolic Exhortation?
- It is a type of communication from the Pope or bishops of the Roman Catholic Church.
- It addresses to a particular community of people to undertake a particular activity.
- Lower in important than an encyclical
- An exhortation does not define doctrine.


1. RERUM NOVARUM means “Of The New Things” written by Pope Leo XIII on 1891, popularly known
as “Rosary Pope” because of his many encyclicals and exhortations which were stressing on the power of
the rosary.
- It mainly discussed on the Condition of Labor. It was the first written among all encyclicals.
Social Issues:
- Unjust condition of workers - Gap between the poor and rich
- Industrial Revolution in Europe
- Rise of Capitalism & Socialism
Principles responded to the issues:
- Rights and Dignity of Workers (Economic Justice)
- Global Solidarity and Development
- Human Equality

2. QUADRAGESIMO ANNO means “After Forty Years” of Rerum Novarum, written by Pope Pius XI on 1931
- It mainly discussed on the Reconstruction of Social Order.
Social Issues:
- Rise of fascism, communism and atheism - Major Economic Depression
- Unrestrained Capitalism - Uplifting the poor
- Rights of workers and seeking common good
Principles responded to the issues:
- Rights and Dignity of Workers (Economic Justice) - Human Equality
- Community and Participation - Preferential Option for the poor and vulnerable

3. MATER ET MAGISTRA means “Mother and Teacher”, written by Pope John XXIII on 1961
which was the 70th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum
- It discussed mainly on Christianity and Social Progress and highlighting the Church which following
the example of Mary “our real mother and teacher”.
Social Issues:
- Start of Cold War (indifference among countries) - Social, Political and Economic problems
- Advances in technology
Principles responded to the issues:
- Promotion of Peace - Social and Economic Justice
- Global Solidarity and Development

4. PACEM IN TERRIS means “Peace On Earth”, written by Pope John XXIII on 1963
- It mainly discussed on the calling of “all men and women of good will” to promote peace and
to stop Nuclear Bombings and wars
Social Issues:
- Nuclear Bombings - Advances in arm forces and missiles
- Cold War (indifference among countries)
Principles responded to the issues:
- Promotion of Peace and Disarmament - Community and Participation (Common Good)
- Global Solidarity and Development
5. GAUDIUM ET SPES means “The Joys and Hopes”, written by the Vatican Council on 1965 and
promulgated by Pope Paul VI
- It mainly discussed about the Church in the modern world. Changes of some structures and practices
were implemented so that the Church may respond to the “signs of the times” in the light of the
- Vatican II has started.
Social Issues:
- Disagreement and confusions of faith
- Rapid progressing world
Principles responded to the issues:
- Clarifies the role of the Church in the modern world
- Community and Participation (Common Good)
- Life and Dignity of Human Person

6. POPULORUM PROGRESSION means “Progress of People”, written by Pope Paul VI on 1967

- It mainly discussed on calling for Integral Human Development ( both moral and social)
Social Issues:
- Poverty, ignorance and injustices - Gap between poor and rich
- Not fair and unjust trading
Principles responded to the issues:
- Preferential Option for the poor - Community and Participation (Common Good)
- Global Solidarity and Development - Dignity and Rights of Workers (Economic Justice)

7. OCTOGESIMA ADVIENIENS means “On the Eightieth Year” of the Rerum Novarum, written by Pope
Paul VI on 1971.
- It mainly discusses on a Call to Action from the different social issues mentioned in Rerum Novarum.
- It is an Apostolic Exhortation address to the Council of Laity (Lay men and women who occupied
biggest number in the population of the Church)
Social Issues:
- Reawakening of all the laity to get involved in building a just society
- Working in common good
Principles responded to the issues:
- Community and Participation (Common Good)
- Dignity and Rights of Workers (Economic Justice)

8. LABOREM EXERCENS means “ On Human Work”, written by Pope John Paul II on 1981 which was
the 90th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum
- It mainly discussed on the dignity of human work.
Social Issues:
- Unjust salaries and wages
- Abuse of the rights of workers and no safe workplace
- Promotion of rights to join association of labors
- The dignity of family and the progress and fulfillment of each member
Principles responded to the issues:
- Dignity and Rights of Workers (Economic Justice)
- Community and Participation (Common Good) - Principle of Association

9. CENTISIMUS ANNUS means “ 100th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum, written by Pope John Paul II on
- It generally reviewed the contents of Rerum Novarum which JP II has highly appreciated and regarded
it as “immortal document”.
10. EVANGELII VITAE means “ The Gospel Of Life”, written by Pope John Paul II on 1995
- It mainly discussed the sanctity of human life as a gift from God.
Social Issues:
- The threat of “culture of death” - Promoting the “culture of life”
- Legalization of abortion and Euthanasia
Principles responded to the issues:
- Life and Dignity of Human Person - Rights and Responsibilities

11. DEUS CARITAS EST means “God is Love”, the first written encyclical of Pope Benedict XVI on 2009
- It discussed mainly on Christian Love.
Social Issues:
- Love of neighbor and promotion of Social Services
- Rediscovery of the relationship between justice and charity, faith and reason
Principles responded to the issues:
- Christian Morality and Commandments of Love
- Community and Participation (Common Good)

12. EVANGELII GAUDIUM means “The Joy of the Gospel”, an apostolic exhortation written by Pope
Francis on 2014
- It mainly discussed on the Proclamation of the Gospel in today’s world.
- It addresses to all evangelizers and pastors
Social Issues:
- Social Media as means of evangelization - Importance of the preparation of homily
- Family Catechesis
Principles responded to the issues:
- New Evangelization
- Social and Global Justice

13. LAUDATO SI means “Praise Be To You”, written by Pope Francis on 2015

- It has addressed to all men and women of goodwill to care for our environment as “our common home”.
Social Issues:
- Climate Change - Poverty
- Inequality in global society
Principles responded to the issues:
- Stewardship of God’s Creation
- Community and Participation (Common Good)

14. GAUDETE ET EXSULTATE means “ Rejoice and Be Glad”, an apostolic exhortation written by Pope
Francis on 2018.
- It mainly discussed on the call to holiness, to live a holy life in this modern world. Holiness is a universal call to
Social Issues:
- Moral and Ethical issues - Globalization
- Pelagianism and Gnosticism
Principles responded to the issues:
- Holiness - Community and Participation (Common Good)
- Dignity and Life of Human Person

Type of Test: Definition, Identification


- these are principles being taught by the CST to respond effectively to the different Social Issues and to
enhance Social Responsibilities of each individual, community, institution, society and nation.

1. Life and Dignity of Human Person

- It is always the fundamental and foundation of all other principles.
- Every human person has an inherent dignity given by God for He created man/woman in His image
and likeness.
- Dignity cannot be achieved by how much possession or achievement he/she has but it is inherent from
God (the Creator).
- Each one has great value and is worthy of respect.
2. Community and Participation (Common Good)
- It is the attainment of what is good not only for the few individuals but for the entire community or society.
Participation is a principle that all peoples have a right to participate (to get involved) in the
economic, political and cultural life of society and in the decisions that affect their community.
3. Rights and Responsibilities
- Everyone must enjoy the rights of a just and dignified life.
- In every right there is also a corresponding responsibility to attain especially in the fulfillment of the
common good and a just society for everyone.
4. Preferential Option for the Poor and Vulnerable
- Mt. 25:31-46 The Last Judgment (We are judged by God according to what we have done to others.)
- We must serve one another especially those in need because with them and for them we also serve Christ.
- Our nearest neighbors are the POOR (the Lost, the Least and the Last in the society.)
the hungry, the thirsty, the naked, sick, imprisoned and strangers.
5. Dignity and Rights of Workers (Economic Justice) or also called Economic Freedom
- the economy must serve the people. All persons have a right to dignified work and to fair wages and
working conditions.
- Work is more than to earn money and make a living. It is a form of our participation in God’s creation. We
become His co-creator by putting God in every service we extend to others. (Spirituality of Work)
6. Human Equality
- Every human being has equal dignity that is inherited from God for we are all created in his image
and likeness.
- Everyone deserves to be respected and enjoy his/her rights. We must be treated one another equally
regardless of individual’s differences.
7. Role of Government and Subsidiarity
- The state should be an instrument to promote human dignity, protect human rights and develop the common
Subsidiarity holds the functions of government should be performed at the lowest (common people)
level possible, if they can be performed adequately. When they cannot, higher levels of government
must intervene.
8. Stewardship of God’s Creation
- To respect our God Creator, we also care and make productive His creation.
- We are just stewards (care takers) that the next generation may also enjoy the beauty of creation that
God has entrusted to us.
9. Promotion of Peace and Disarmament
- It encourages justice to create peace and build relationship between societies and communities that
are in constant conflicts.

- There should be unity among Christian Churches and beliefs to promote dignity and rights to all
human beings.
(Ex. Ecumenism – a movement that promotes unity among all Christian religions and beliefs.)
10. Global Solidarity and Development
- This principle calls for an obligation to promote the rights and development of all peoples in this
world regardless race, nations, social status, gender and religions.
- Principle of “Nations helping Nations”.

Type of Test: Identification, Enumeration

Gospel Reading about the “signs of the times”

- Matthew 16:2-3 - Luke 12:54-56
A. SIGNS OF THE TIMES - These are significant events and trends that are happening in a culture at a
particular period in history. In contemporary term it is also called “Social Issues”.
From Vatican II: Gaudium et Spes (The Joys and Hopes)
- It refers to those events in history, if properly read, can reveal the presence or the absence of God.
B. SIN is an offense against God.
- is a rebellion against God’s commandments and His will to live in loving communion with Him and
with others.
- is rejection of God’s love for us.
Original Sin
- We are inclined to sin because we inherent original sin from our first parents. It has been cleansed by
our Sacrament of Baptism. But as human being we have always the tendency and are tempted to sin.
Three Types of Sin:
1. Personal Sin – are acts committed that also afflict others. It always involves a community dimension.
2. Social Sin – it refers to the negative moral attitudes or acts common to a particular community or
society. It is collectively committed by the group of people. Ex. poverty, drug addiction
3. Structural Sin – it refers to structures that harm people in an unjust way such as racial prejudices
corruption, unjust labor and economy.
 Every sin has a personal dimension since it is an act of freedom on the individual person to
disobey God’s law. It causes spiritual wound in the person who commits sin.
Sacrament of Penance / Reconciliation- Confession is so important for healing and reconciliation
to our relationship with God and one another. Doing it regularly can enhance spiritual
healthy lives (living a holy life).
 All sin has social dimension because of the harm they cause to other people.
 Cooperating in Social dimension of sin which affects others:
1. By ordering, advising, praising or approving it (sin of commission)
2. By not hindering or not revealing it when you have obligation to do it (sin of omission)
3. By protecting evil doers
 Social sins that become structure of sins which fail to protect life and dignity of person
according to Pope John Paul II:
1. Rooted in personal sin and develops and grows because of the sinful choices of human beings.
(ex. addiction, teenage pregnancy)
2. Results of the interconnected choices of many people, not just one.
(ex. vote buying, corruption, gambling)
3. In social structures and this globalized generation they have the so called the “ lost of sense of sin”.
4. The root causes of structure of sins are desire to profit, thirst for power and fame, selfishness and greed.

SPIRIT C. The SOCIAL ACTION CYCLE that respond to the Signs
(Listening to
the signs of of the times or Social Issues
the the times) 1. Patterned after the JPIC Scheme- Justice, Peace and
Integrity of Creation)

SEE (Awareness Stage) – seeing the reality of the issue using the eyes of Jesus
John 1:38-39
"Jesus turned and saw them following and said, 'What do you want?' They answered, 'Rabbi' which
means Teacher -- 'where do you live?' He replied, 'Come and see'; so they went and saw where he lived,
and stayed with him that day. It was about four o’clock in the afternoon."
Who are the poor and vulnerable in my community/ society / world?

JUDGE (Analysis and Discerning Stage ) – discerning for an action to take in order to respond
to the need using the mind and heart of Christ.
Mt. 16:13-16
"When Jesus came to the region of Caesarea Philippi he put this question to his disciples, 'Who do
people say the Son of man is?' And they said, 'Some say John the Baptist, some Elijah, and others
Jeremiah or one of the prophets.' 'But you,' he said, 'who do you say I am?' Then Simon Peter spoke up
and said, 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.’”
What is needed in order for the poor and vulnerable people to experience love and justice?

ACT (Action Stage)

Luke 9: 23 – Following the ways / actions of Jesus
If anyone would come after me “must deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me.”
Isaiah 61:1
The Spirit of the Lord GOD is on Me, because the LORD has anointed Me to preach good news to the
poor. He has sent Me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives and release
from darkness to the prisoners.
How are we called to act so that the poor and vulnerable may live in dignity ?

2. The Works of Mercy: Corporal Works of Mercy and Spiritual Works of Mercy