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The Effectiveness of Banana (Musa balbasiana) peelings and

Mango (Mangifera indica) peelings


as a Bioethanol fuel

Introduction
Background of the Study

A biofuel is a fuel that contains energy from geologically recent carbon fixation. These fuels
are produced from living organisms. These fuels are made by a biomass conversion (biomass
refers to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials).
This biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different
ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion.
Biofuels have been around as long as cars have. Biofuel is treated as a great solution to
global warming. Cars are a major source of carbon dioxide, thus being a main contributor to
global warming.
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced
in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic biomass, derived
from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for
ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually
used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Current plant
design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel
components by fermentation.
Main feed stocks for bioethanol production are sugarcane (in Brazil) and corn grains (in
USA), while many other agricultural raw materials are also used worldwide. Among the three
major types of raw materials, the production of ethanol from sugary and starchy materials are
easier as compared to lingo cellulosic materials since it requires additional technical challenges
such as pretreatment . Furthermore, many agricultural raw materials rich in fermentable
carbohydrates were tested worldwide for bioconversion from sugar to ethanol, but the cost of
carbohydrate raw materials has become a limiting factor for large scale production by the
Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of fruit wastes
(pulp and peels) of Banana and Mango in order to explore their potential application in bio-
ethanol production. The proximate composition of banana fruit pulp was 76.63% moisture,
5.65% protein, 1.37% lipid, 19.75% ash and 0.632% starch. Similarly for mango, the proximate
composition of fruit pulp was 81.26% moisture, 7.96% protein, 1.48% lipid, 13.08% ash and
0.507% starch. The total dietary fibre content ranged from 3.54% to 73.04% in the fruit samples
and found at higher level in mango peels. A maximum polyphenol content of 54.45% was
observed in mango fruit peels and a minimum of 10.97% was recorded in banana fruit pulp. The
dilute acid (H2SO4) pretreatment (DAP) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis showed maximum
reducing sugar yield of 64.27% in the mixed fruit pulps, followed by the banana fruit pulp
(57.58%). The banana fruit peels also yielded a maximum reducing sugar content of 36.67%
whereas the lowest of 31.29% was observed in mango fruit peels. (Arumugam and Manikandan,
2011)
Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol. It
occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid
fermentation. It takes place in the absence of oxygen (when the electron transport chain is
unusable) and becomes the cell’s primary means of ATP (energy) production.
The researchers chose to study this because the world is facing global warming and it
should be prevented or be cured. This study would give insights, since it would discuss about a
harmless process which would produce a safe, cheap and effective fuel that can lessen pollution.

Hypothesis
This study focuses on the effectiveness of Banana- Mango Peelings bioethanol in terms
of firing duration. The null hypothesis (Ho) states that Banana- Mango Peelings bioethanol has
no significant difference to diesel gasoline in terms of firing duration. The alternative hypothesis
(Ha) states that Banana- Mango Peelings bioethanol has significant difference to diesel gasoline
in terms of firing duration.
Significance of the Study
Bio ethanol has been formerly introduced as an eco-friendly type of fuel. However
throughout the years, it has slowly been forgotten. Now at our generation, we are at need of
cleaner and more efficient fuel that would serve our daily need. Banana- Mango Peelings
bioethanol would possibly another one of the cleaner and more efficient fuel. It is made of
natural materials that are abundant in our country. Since it undergoes the natural process of
fermentation in order to produce fuel, there would be no exact need to use synthetic methods that
would possibly be harmful to the environment.

Significance of the Study


Bio ethanol has been formerly introduced as an eco-friendly type of fuel. However
throughout the years, it has slowly been forgotten. Now at our generation, we are at need of
cleaner and more efficient fuel that would serve our daily need. Banana- Mango Peelings
bioethanol would possibly another one of the cleaner and more efficient fuel. It is made of
natural materials that are abundant in our country. Since it undergoes the natural process of
fermentation in order to produce fuel, there would be no exact need to use synthetic methods that
would possibly be harmful to the environment.

Scope and Limitation


The researchers would know the difference between Banana- Mango Peelings bioethanol
and diesel gasoline in terms of fire duration and percentage ethanol only. The concentration of
Banana- Mango Peelings bioethanol would be tested at the National Institute of Molecular
Biology and Biotechnology.
Conceptual Framework
The Banana- Mango Peelings bioethanol would be tested by measuring its combustion
time and percent ethanol.

Banana-Mango Peelings Bioethanol

Fire Duration Percent Ethanol

Definition of Terms

Bio ethanol
- Mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it can also be
manufactured by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam.
Fermentation
- A metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or
a sugar, into an alcohol or an acid. For example, yeast performs fermentation to
obtain energy by converting sugar into alcohol.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
- Commonly known as "baker’s yeast" or "brewer’s yeast". The yeast ferments sugars
present in the flour or added to the dough, giving off carbon dioxide (CO2)
and alcohol (ethanol).