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Orientation on Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Local Development Planning


Bureau of Local Government Development
August 18-19, 2015

NATIONAL GEOHAZARD
ASSESSMENT PROGRAM
implemented by
MINES AND GEOSCIENCES BUREAU –
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES
(MGB-DENR)

1. Rain-induced Landslide Hazard


2. Flood Hazard
3. Karst Subsidence Hazard
4. Local Development Planning using
MGB Geohazard Maps
Orientation on Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Local Development Planning
Bureau of Local Government Development
August 18-19, 2015

RAIN-INDUCED LANDSLIDE
HAZARD IN THE PHILIPPINES
Kevin L. Garas
Geologist
Lands Geological Survey Division
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
Why is Philippines prone to various
types of mass wasting or landslide?

GEOLOGIC CLIMATIC
GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

Source: DOST-PHIVOLCS
Various Topographies
STEEP SLOPES ROLLING HILLS

VAST PLAINS
Climatic Factors

• ~ 20 tropical cyclones per year enter PAR


Numerous typhoons and extended rainy seasons/periods
Strong and shifting wave currents
LANDSLIDE
Downslope movement of earth (rock and soil)
materials aided by gravity
Barangay San Jose, Antipolo City,
September 2012

Pantukan Landslide, Province of Compostela Valley, Brgy. Guinsaugon,St. Bernard, Southern Leyte
April 2011 Landslide of 2006

Landslide = Mass wasting


nces between landslide and slope failure

Contributory Factors to Landslide Incidence


• Topography and Slope Angle
• Rock Types, Composition and Physical Characteristics
• Vegetation
• Exacerbated by human activities

• Anthropogenic (human activities)


CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS TO
LANDSLIDE

Iloilo, 2008
Matatarik na dalisdis o slope Mga basag-basag na bato

Manipis na tubo ng halaman Mahina at makapal na lupa


Infanta, Quezon, 2004

No landslide despite cogon grass


Landslide despite thick
vegetation only
vegetation

Vegetation vs. slope angle


“No amount of vegetation can hold the ground
in the case of deep-seated landslides.”
AGGRAVATING
HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Di-maayos na daluyan ng tubig


Pagtatayo ng bahay sa gilid ng bangin

Di-maayos na konstruksiyon Iligal na pagkakahoy


Poor construction of roads and subdivision

Cherry Hills Subdivision Tragedy 1999


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT
AND NATURAL RESOURCES
MINES AND GEOSCIENCES BUREAU

DAO 2000-28
Signed 14 March 2000
Published 08 April 2000

Implementing guidelines on
Engineering Geological and
Geohazard Assessment as
additional requirement for ECC
application covering subdivision,
housing and other land
development and infrastructure
projects
August 1999
 Illegal/Irresponsible mining
What are the types of mass wasting?
Very Slow Fast Very fast
TYPE (>4km/hr)
(<1 cm/year) (1mm/day to 1.0 km /hr)

Flow CREEP EARTH OR MUDFLOW DEBRIS


AVALANCHE
Slip DEBRIS SLIDE OR SLUMP
Fall ROCKFALL
“LANDSLIDES”
TYPES OF LANDSLIDE

ROCKFALL Slump

Debris Avalanche ROCKSLIDE


TYPES OF LANDSLIDE
DEBRIS FLOW MUDFLOW

CREEP
SIGNS OF IMPENDING
LANDSLIDE

Tilting of fence/walls Tension cracks


SIGNS OF IMPENDING
LANDSLIDE

Seepage Tilting of trees


Factors to Consider in
Selecting Settlement Site
Avoid settlements on steep to very steep slopes
with thick soil overburden
Restrict urban development
including houses along unstable
steep slopes unless properly
mitigated using engineering
measures.
Avoid settlements at the base of mountainous
slopes with small streams or drainage paths.
Barangay Orquia
San Remigio, Antique
Avoid
settlements
on top of old Barangay Maparat, Compostela,
ComVal Province

landslide
deposits.

Barangay San Antonio,


Tandag City, Surigao del Sur
Avoid settlements on top of alluvial fan underlain
by old debris flow and stream deposits

Brgy. Andap, New Bataan, ComVal Province


Avoid settlements near escarpments or faces of
bedrock that have not moved in the past but have
few joints and cracks developed within the masses.
Orientation on Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Local Development Planning
Bureau of Local Government Development
August 18-19, 2015

FLOOD HAZARD
IN THE PHILIPPINES
Kevin L. Garas
Geologist
Lands Geological Survey Division
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
Ano ang flooding o pagbaha?
Angono,Rizal
September 29, 2009
(JAY DIRECTO/AFP/Getty Images)

Ang flooding o pagbaha ay ang pag-apaw ng sobrang tubig sa natural


nitong daluyan (tulad ng sapa, ilog at dagat).
Causes of Flooding
1. Natural Causes
Cainta, Rizal
September 27, 2009
(REUTERS/Erik de Castro)

Phuket, Thailand
December 26, 2004
(Hellmut Issels)

Malakas na pag-ulan Tsunami

Tacloban, Leyte
November 10, 2013
Sto. Tomas River, San Narciso, Zambales (Manila Bulletin/ Bullit
Post Mt. Pinatubo Eruption Marquez)

Pagbabaw ng ilog (siltation) Storm surge


Causes of Flooding
2. Man-induced

Maling paggamit ng lupa at espasyo Maling pagtatapon ng basura

Cainta, Rizal
September 27, 2009
(REUTERS/Erik de Castro)
Mabilis na pag-unlad at urbanisasyon
Causes of Flooding
2. Man-induced
Iligal na pagkakahoy at pagkakaingin

Botolan, Zambales (August 2009)

Pagkasira ng dam o dike


URBAN FLOODING
URBANIZATION EFFECT

 Decrease infiltration – Increases runoff


 Produces Higher Peak Discharge
 Produces shorter lag time
 Produces more floods
 Higher discharge = increased ability to
erode
Types of Flooding
1. According to location of flood
Tacloban, Leyte
November 12, 2013
(Tribobot)

Marikina City
September 27, 2009
(NOEL CELIS/AFP/Getty Images)

River flooding (River floodplains) Coastal flooding (Shorelines)

Metro Manila
September 27, 2009
(REUTERS/Erik de Castro)

Urban flooding (Paved roads & grounds)


Frequently Flooded Areas
Along rivers and creeks

Along lake shoreline In coastal areas


Types of Flooding
2. According to duration
Santa Cruz, Laguna Pulilan, Bulacan
October 31, 2009 December 2, 2004
(Reuters)

Sheetflooding

Malawakang pagbaha dahil sa pag-apaw ng malaking daluyan ng tubig

Matagal na paghupa ng tubig


Types of Flooding
2. According to duration
Infanta, Quezon 2004

New Bataan, Compostela Valley


December 2012

BEFORE AFTER

4 meters

Timbaban River flash flood


Madalag, Aklan 2003
RIVERBANK EROSION
Source: www.berkeley.edu
Brgy. Kalusugan, Aganan River
Quezon City Alimodian, Iloilo

Agusan River
Compostela,
Compostela Valley
Orientation on Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Local Development Planning
Bureau of Local Government Development
August 18-19, 2015

Kevin L. Garas
Geologist
Lands Geological Survey Division
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
SINKHOLES
Natural depression or hole
as part of the cave system

Often regarded as an
amazing feature in karst
landscape
Waters circulate through cracks and pores and
remove calcium bicarbonate by dissolution.

Limestone + Carbonic acid (rainwater) = Calcium Bicarbonate (soluble limestone)


CaCO3 + H2CO3 = Ca(HCO3)2
SINKHOLE COLLAPSE IN TAGBILARAN CITY
Land Subsidence is the downward settling or lowering of the ground
with little or no horizontal motion. It can occur due to sinkhole collapse.
Subsidence due to sinkhole collapse in karst is one
of the most dangerous geohazards due to its
extreme unpredictability
• Video 1
• Video 2
• Video 3
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF SINKHOLE COLLAPSE

Gravity
Lowering of water table
Heavy rainfall/sinkhole flooding
Ground shaking due to earthquake
Ponding of subterranean river
SIGNS OF SUBSIDENCE
Sinkhole collapse Spalling

Heaving
Progressing and Subsiding Tension cracks
Lowering of ground
KARST SUBSIDENCE MAPPING
I. Detailed Geologic Mapping and
Stratigraphic Studies
II. Geomorphological Analysis
III. Anecdotal Accounts
IV. Ground Penetrating Radar survey
Detailed Geological
Mapping
GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

Ground depressions
in limestone
formations =
sinkholes/dolines

Sinkhole inventory using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of


the Municipality of Maribojoc
ANECDOTAL ACCOUNTS
SUBSURFACE IMAGING USING
GROUND PENETRATING RADAR (GPR)
SINKHOLE COLLAPSE
PREVENTION & MITIGATION
• Avoiding the most hazardous areas by
preventive planning is the SAFEST STRATEGY
• Corrective measures to reduce dissolution
activity and subsidence process
• Using subsidence proof design
Based on the Geologic
Map of the Philippines
(2010) and Karst
Distribution Map (2013),
there are a total of
1,153 municipalities
(including 31
municipalities under
ARMM) that are
probably underlain with
carbonate sedimentary
rock formations, as such,
prone to land
subsidence due to
sinkholes.
Orientation on Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Local Development Planning
Bureau of Local Government Development
August 18-19, 2015

LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING


USING MGB GEOHAZARD MAPS
Why do we need incorporate geohazard maps in local planning?

Health rockslide
center
rockfall

Road and houses

CAVE
Hazard, Risk, and Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Hazard Risk DRRM DRRM

Hazard assessment Risk assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
and mapping mapping Risk is reduced and managed.
Hazard is identified. Risk is understood. Structural mitigating measures implemented.
Hazard zones are Existing DANGER is DRRM and development plans are prepared.
mapped. recognized. Comprehensive land use plans prepared.
Hazard information is Risk information is Early-warning systems are implemented.
disseminated. disseminated.
Hazard, Risk, and Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Hazard Currently, DENR-MGB
activities are focused
on hazard assessment
and mapping, and
dissemination of
hazard information.

Hazard assessment
and mapping
Hazard is identified.
Hazard zones are mapped.
Hazard information is
disseminated.
STRUCTURAL MITIGATING MEASURES for LANDSLIDE

“PAKAPITIN” “SALUHIN”

Rib Concreting Riprap

Shotcreting
Nets
STRUCTURAL MITIGATING MEASURES
for FLOOD

• Channel modifications • Levees, Dikes

Drainage Systems Facilities

•Dams •Floodwalls
NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATING MEASURES
•Land use planning (floodplain zoning)

ALTERNATIVE:
PROPER LAND
USE PLAN
Flood mitigation: Best achieved by hazard avoidance—
that is, proper site selection away from floodplains.

•Floodplain zoning codes


Buildings / communities
should be sited away from
FLOODPLAIN
flood-prone locations;
relocation of river bank
settlers/structures

RESTRICTION:
ONLY LIMITED SITES WITH
DANGER
VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT
ZONE
ALLOWED -medium-rise,
engineered & resilient
structures with buffer /
Installation of community-based geohazard
warning signages

Brgy. Commonwealth, Quezon City

Brgy. Dalig, Antipolo City

Orientation on Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment 68


Conduct of IEC campaigns and dissemination of
geohazard information

Province-wide IEC Posters and flyers


VERY HIGH LANDSLIDE
SUSCEPTIBILITY
Unstable areas, significant areas of which
are affected by mass movement. Human
initiated effects are usually high.

HIGH LANDSLIDE
SUSCEPTIBILITY
Unstable areas, highly susceptible to mass
movement.

MODERATE LANDSLIDE
SUSCEPTIBILITY
Stable areas with occasional or localized to
mass movement.

LOW LANDSLIDE
SUSCEPTIBILITY
Stable areas with no identified landslide
scars, either active or relict .
VERY HIGH FLOOD
SUSCEPTIBILITY
Flood heights of more than 2.0 meters with
flood duration of more than 3 days, prone to
flashfoods

HIGH FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY


Flood heights of 1.0 - 2.0 meters with flood
duration of more than 3 days, prone to
flashfoods

MODERATE FLOOD
SUSCEPTIBILITY
Flood heights of 0.5 – 1.0 meters with flood
duration of 1-3 days

LOW FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY


Flood heights of less than 0.5 meters with
flood duration of less than 1 day
The MGB Geohazards Web Portal
www.denr.gov.ph / www.mgb.gov.ph/ pia.gov.ph / essc.gov.ph

Option to download the specific


geohazards map (e.g. Masinloc
Provide information on susceptibilities of a specific NAMRIA Quadrangle Map Sheet)
barangay to landslides and flooding (e.g. Bgy Bani,
Masinloc, Zambales)
Thank you!
www.mgb.gov.ph
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
North Ave., Diliman, Quezon City
Tel/Fax. 9288544
E-mail: central@mgb.gov.ph