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National Workshop

Wiring Standards
Armada Hotel , Petaling Jaya
12th March 2019

Earthing from the dual Perspectives of


Power Distribution (IEC60364) & EMC (IEC61000-5-2)

Ir. Looi Hip Peu


B.Eng (Hons) (Electrical)
P.Eng (C15226), Jurutera Gas
hippeulooi@gmail.com
2 Earthing; Power System & EMC - Contents

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION – Wiring Standards

EARTHING FOR POWER DISTRIBUTION

IEC60364 – Description & Parts dealing with Earthing


Definitions of Earth System – IT, TT, TN-S, TN-C
Selection of Earthing System

EARTHING FOR EMC


IEC61000 series – EMC Standards
Definitions EMC terms and phenomena
Earthing for EMC
3 Earthing; Power System & EMC - Introduction

INTRODUCTION – Wiring Standards


Two dominant wiring standards in the world:

Europe
dominate the IEC
which is the
dominant standard International Electrotechnical Commission
in power electrical. Commission Electrotechniques Internationale
Meждунмародная Электротехнмическая Комиссия

North America
mainly countries
under American
influnce.
4 Earthing; Power System & EMC - Contents

More than 90% of the world now subscribed to the ISO/IEC Standard
5 Earthing; Power System & EMC - Introduction
6 Earthing; Power System & EMC - Introduction
6

Two Perspectives towards Wiring Standards under IEC

Power Distribution; IEC 60364 “Electrical Installation


of Buildings”, Fundamental Principles deals with
Power distribution systems
Protection for Safety
Generally phenomena at power frequencies

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC); IEC 61000 series


Ability of devices/ equipment/ systems to work within
its electromagnetic environment..
Include high frequency phenomena
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INTRODUCTION – Wirings Standards

Protection for Safety takes


precedence over EMC
measures.

Earthing measures under


IEC60364 is not sufficient by
themselves to fulfil EMC
requirements .
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EARTHING FOR POWER DISTRIBUTION


IEC60364 “Electrical Installation of Buildings”
Part 1 – Fundamental Principles
Part 4 – Protection for Safety
Part 4-41 – Protection against electric shock
Part 4-42 – Protection against thermal effect
Part 4-43 – Protection against overcurrent
Part 4-44 – Protection against electromagnetic & voltages disturbance

Part 5 – Selection and erection of electrical equipment


Part 5-51 – Common Rules
Part 5-52 – Wiring Systems
Part 5-53 – Isolation, switching and control
Part 5-54 – Earthing arrangement
Part 5-55 – Other Equipment

Part 6-61 – Verification and Initial Verification


9 Earthing – Power Distribution
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EARTHING FOR POWER DISTRIBUTION


PARTS OF IEC60364 DEALING WITH EARTHING

Part 1 – Clause 312.3 (Definition of TT, TN, IT system)

Parts 4-41; Clause 413.4 (protection by earth-free local


equipotential bond).

Parts 4-44; Earthing system is prescribed as protection


against over-voltages in many clauses.

Parts 5-54; Selection and erection of equipment –


Earthing arrangements, protective conductors and
protective bonding conductors
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EARTHING FOR POWER DISTRIBUTION – BASIC CONCEPTS

IN THE EARLY DAYS, NEUTRAL WAS UNEARTHED

Earthing of metal frame reduces exposure to


dangerous fault currents and helps prevent electric
shock due to indirect contact.
Earthing of NEUTRAL reduces incidence of high
voltage to frame.
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SAFE CONTACT VOLTAGE


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SAFE CONTACT VOLTAGE

Protection for safety include measures which


prescribe safe contact voltages and automatic
disconnection time. The concept of safe contact
voltage came from studies on electric current
through the human bodies. These studies started
from the early 20th century up to the 1950s. IEC479
contains the accumulated data condensed in
useful format. .
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EARTHING FOR POWER DISTRIBUTION


DEFINITIONS – DIRECT & INDIRECT CONTACT

Indirect Contact Direct Contact


Is when a person comes into indirect is when person comes
contact with live conductors through into direct contact
the metal frame of the equipment). with live conductor.
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EARTHING FOR POWER DISTRIBUTION


DEFINITIONS – TT, IT, TN-C & TN-S SYSTEMS

IEC60364 earthing – 2 letters:


(a) 1st letter Transformer neutral:
(i) “T” for connected
(ii) “I” for isolated
(b) 2nd letter; Frame earth:
(i) “T” for directly connected to
earth
(ii) “N” for connected to the
neutral at the origin of
installation.
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DEFINITIONS – TN-C, TN-S, TN-CS SYSTEMS

The TN System can


also be sub divided
into sub system by the
addition of a 3rd letter:

TN-C; N & PE are


common (PEN)
TN-S;
N & PE are separate

TN-C-S;
Where TN-C occurs up
-stream and TN-S
downstream
16 Earthing – Power Distribution

DEFINITIONS – TT, IT, TN-C & TN-S SYSTEMS


Various sub system can co-exist within one system.
17 Earthing – Power Distribution

DEFINITIONS – TT, IT, TN-C & TN-S SYSTEMS


Multiple co-existence of earth systems, e.g. data system with
IT earth downstream of a TN-S.
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18

For 230/400V
networks, Ud at
around (0.8Uo/2)
would exceed
the limit of safe
voltage even in
dry conditions
(UL=50V). Short
circuit protection
TN
device (SCPD)
required.
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In a TN system, the occurrence of


a fault will cause contact voltage
to exceed the safe limit
prescribed. It is also from this
theoretical treatment that the PE
is prescribed to run together with TN
the phase conductors (Rph~Rpe).
The length of the cable should also be restricted to
ensure that the threshold sensitivity of the protective
device is not exceeded (earth loop impedance too
high).
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Earth impedances are


normally of the same
magnitude (about 10Ω),
Ud would be around
0.8Uo/2 exceeding limit
of safe voltage (UL).
RCD would be
mandated. Threshold of
RCD would also be less
than Ido and
disconnection less than
1sec. TT
21 Earthing – Power Distribution

In a TT system similar dangerous contact


voltage will develop in the event of a
fault. The TT system has the following
features:
a)Earth loop impedance do not depend
on the length of cables (useful for public
utility with long distribution lines) – an TT
advantage compared to the TN system;

b) Further sub division of TT system is allowed where frame


earth may be common or separate as the PE is not a
common reference point for the installation.
c) A frame to winding fault on the transformer at substation (at
MV side) may however transmit dangerous voltages
downstream.
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IT –1st fault

2 possibilities – high
impedance earthed
neutral and un-
earthed neutral
Both case, Ud would
be within safe limit
(less than 1V).
Contant monitoring
of insulation failure
required (PIM).
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IT – 2nd Fault

If 1st fault not


cleared, a 2nd fault
will cause failure
similar to TN fault;
i.e. Ud ~ 0.8Uo/2
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IT –1st fault IT – 2nd Fault


On first fault, the contact voltage will be within safe limits due to the absence
of a low earth return-loop impedance.
However if the first fault do not clear, a second fault will carry dangerous
consequences. Case treatment are as follows:
Where frame earth are interconnected, the fault will be similar to a TT fault;
Where frame earth are not interconnected, fault will be similar to a TN
system.
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Network/Operation Criteria System Chosen /Preferred
Continuity of service critical and IT chosen
maintenance service available

Continuity of service critical and No satisfactory solution, TT preferred


consistent maintenance service NOT as discrimination tripping is easier to
available implement and damages lesser with
respect to TN.

Continuity of service NOT critical; TN-S chosen (rapid repairs and


competent maintenance services extension easily performed).
available.

Continuity of service NOT critical; No satisfactory solution, TT system


competent maintenance service NOT preferred.
available.

Fire hazard critical and maintenance IT and use of 5mA RCD


services available. OR TT system
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Network/Operation Criteria System Chosen /Preferred


Special features; very long networks TT preferred

Special features; Standby Power Supply TT preferred

Special features; Load sensitive to high TT preferred OR


load currents (e.g. motors) IT can be acceptable

Special features; Low natural insulation TN-S preferred.


(furnace) OR very large HF filters
(computers).
Special features; control and monitoring IT for continuity of service OR
systems TT for enhanced equipotentiality
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EARTHING FOR POWER DISTRIBUTION


COST
IT System the most expensive; due to requirement of
protective insulation monitoring (PIM)
TT System is the cheapest
CONTINUITY OF SERVICE
IT has the best solution for continuity of service; in
some countries (France) it is mandatory to use IT
system in critical installation (hospital)
TN System prone to tripping.
MAINTENANCE
TN is easiest to maintain. Proficiency of service
technician can be lower
TT require higher skill maintenance,
IT require skill maintenance. However incidence of
supply failure is lowest.
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28

EARTHING ARRANGEMENT PART 5-54

Part 5-54 describe requirement for


Earthing arrangement (electrodes
& earthing conductors
Protective conductors (size/ type
etc)
Equipotential bonding conductors

Earthing arrangement can be for


Functional purposes
Protective purposes
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29
Cross sectional Minimum cross sectional area of the corresponding
areas of line protective conductor (mm²)
conductors
If the protective conductor If the protective conductor is
S is of the same material as not of the same material as
(mm²) the line conductor the line conductor

S < 16 S K1/K2 x S
16 < S < 35 16 a K1/K2 x 16
S > 35 S/2 a
K1/K2 x S/2
Where
K1 is the value of k for the line conductor, selected from table A54.1 or from the tables of
IEC50364-4-43 according to the resistance of the conductor and insulation.
K2 is the value of k for the conductor selected from tables A 54.2 to A54.6 as applicable

a
for a PEN conductor the reduction of the cross section area is permitted only in
accordance with the rules for sizing of the neutral conductor (see IEC 60364-5-52).
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30
Cross sectional Minimum cross sectional area of the corresponding
areas of line protective conductor (mm²)
conductors
If the protective If the protective conductor
S conductor is of the is not of the same material
(mm²) same material as the as the line conductor
line conductor

S < 16 S K1/K2 x S
16 < S < 35 16 a K1/K2 x 16
S > 35 S/2 a
K1/K2 x S/2

This table in effect requires that PE be the 5th cable in wiring


systems where the PE will is separate from the N in the TN-S
system which is commonly implemented within buildings in
Malaysia. Where a TT system is implemented (i.e. when the PE
will not run from the source to the load), a 5th cable from source to
load may not be required.
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31

S= cross section area (mm²)


I= prospective fault curren from fault of negligible
impedance flowing through a protective device.
T= operating time of protective device and
K = factor dependent on material of protecive
conductor (Annex A of Part 5-54).
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32

The previous table prescribing size of PE and


calculation of PE using formula in effect permit the
use of other metal as PE (e.g. steel armouring of
cables, cable tray, metal conduit etc.). However in
such case, the designer and/or installer will have to
ensure that the cross sectional area of the metal
used comply with the formula above (or prescription
table for P.E. in Part 5-64).
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33

Types of P.E. approved


Conductors in multi core cables
Insulated or bare conductors in a common enclosure
with live conductors
Fixed installed bare or insulated conductors
Metallic cables sheath, cable screen, cable armour,
wirebraid, concentric conductors, metallic conduit
subject to compliance with 543.2.2.
In China, Italy, UK etc cable trays and ladders can be used as PE.
Types of P.E. not approved [543.2.3]
Water pipes
Support wire …others
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34

EARTHING IN
SUBSTATION
35 Earthing – Power Distribution – Public Distribution
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35

France

Earthing system for public distribution (though not covered in the


MSIEC60364) is discussed as they have impact on internal wiring
systems. The figure above shows an example of a distributed earth
system. The system is technically a TT system but with distributed
earth. This system is common in rural areas.
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36

Identify the
Malaysia difference
between both
scheme!

UK (parts)
37 Earthing – Electromagnetic Compatibility
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37

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
EMC – DEFINITION
THE ABILITY OF A DEVICE, EQUIPMENT OR SYSTEM TO
FUNCTION SATISFACTORILY IN ITS ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENVIRONMENT WITHOUT INTRODUCING INTOLERABLE
DISTURBANCES TO THAT ENVIRONMENT OR TO OTHER
EQUIPMENT
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EMC – IEC 61000 SERIES DEALS WITH EMC
PART 1 – GENERAL
Part 1-1; General (Introduction, fundamental principles, safety)
Part 1-2; Definitions, terminology
PART 2 – ENVIRONMENT
Description of the Environment
Classification of the Environment
Compatibility Levels
PART 3 – LIMITS
Emission Limits
Immunity Limits
PART 4 – TESTING & MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Measurement Techniques
Testing Techniques
PART 5 – INSTALLATION and MITIGATION GUIDELINES
Installation Guidelines
Mitigation methods and device
PART 6 – GENERIC STANDARDS
PART 7 - MISCELLANEOUS
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EMC – BASIC
CONCEPTS

EMC deals with HF


phenomena
HF phenomena
modify the charact-
eristics of electrical
installations
40 Earthing – Electromagnetic Compatibility
40

EMC – BASIC
CONCEPTS

EMC differs fundamentally from


power distribution as it includes HF
phenomena.
Higher frequency however will
translate to higher impedance in
cables and system components.
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DEFINITION – ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTURBANCE


42 Earthing – Electromagnetic Compatibility
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DEFINITION – ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTURBANCE

The Environment can be


characterized by a controller and
device exchanging signals via a
media (e.g. cable).

The controller/device exist in an environment which has


electromagnetic emitters and susceptible devices.
EM disturbance is defined as any electro-magnetic
phenomenon capable of impairing the performance of a
device, equipment or system.
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DEFINITION – ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTURBANCE

Any Electromagnetic
phenomenon capable of
impairing the performance of a
device, equipment or system.
ELECTRO - MAGNETIC

Electric (E) Magnetic (H)


Field Field
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DEFINITION – TYPES OF EM INTERFERENCE
L.F. 0 < Freq. < 1– Chiefly in conducted form. Long duration,
Interference 5MHz may be continuous. Harmonics
H.F. Freq. > 30MHz Chiefly in radiated form (through air). Pulse
Interference 10nsec. Rectifiers
Harmonics Multiple 50Hz, 3rd, Harmonics are mainly LF interference and
5th, 7th, 11th are therefore conducted. Source are non-
linear loads (rectifiers, electronics,
fluorescent lamps etc.
Transients 5ms rise, 50ms Conducted but are also easily injected into
pulse duration; neighbouring cables by radiation. High
Over-V > 4kV. speed switching of mechanical or electronic
switches. Lightning, earth faults,
commutation failure etc.
Electrostatic 5ns rise, 60ns Charge transfer between surfaces especially
Discharge pulse duration; synthetic materials (plastics, fabric etc).
(ESD) Over-V > 2-15kV
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DEFINITION – TYPES OF EM INTERFERENCE


LV Mains Voltage fluctuat- LV Interference
Interference ions, dips, surges, Power failure, overloads, short
failures circuit
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DEFINITION – LV MAINS INTERFERENCE


Phenomenon Amplitude of Duration of fault Origin
variations
V Fluctuation ΔU < 10% Arc Furnaces;
(slow variation) Welding machines;
Flicker
ΔU < 10% Frequent starting of large loads
V Surge ΔU < 10% Switching of large loads (motors,
(fast variation) furnaces, boilers etc).
V Dip 10% < ΔU < 10ms – 500ms Powering up of large loads (motors,
100% large transformers etc)
short circuit on main LV dist.
Brief power ΔU = 100% Brief 10ms– 1min Powering up inrush current of large
failure Long 0.3s – 1min loads (motors, large transformers etc)
Permanent >1min
Surge ΔU > 10% Impulsive Accidental (connection mistake)
Voltage MV system origination
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DEFINITION – COUPLING
Interference
Source or Susceptible
COUPLING
Emitter COUPLING equipment

Coupling is the
conduit in which
EM disturbances
act on suscep-
tible equipment.
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DEFINITION – TRANSMISSION MODE


DIFFERENTIAL MODE
i
Controller U U = differential mode voltage Sensor
i

COMMON MODE
i1

Controller i2 Sensor

Cp = stray capacitance U U Cp

i1 + i2
U = Common mode voltage
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DEFINITION – TRANSMISSION MODE

Differential mode (or series-mode) currents travel


along one of the conductor, flows through the
equipment and return via another conductor.
Common mode currents flow along all the
conductors in the same direction and return via
frame connection through stray capacitance.
Common mode interference is the most
common problem (in EMC) as the propagation
path may be difficult to identify.
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EMC – PARTS OF IEC61000 DEALING WITH
EARTHING
Part 5–1; Part 5 Installation and mitigation guidelines –
Section 1; General considerations.
4.7.2 – Protection concept
Protected zones are global or distributed.
Protection measures include earth shielding,
filters, SPD etc.
Part 5–2; Part 5 Installation and mitigation guidelines –
Section 2; Earthing and cabling.
Clause 5 – Earthing and Bonding
– Earthing for lightning, personnel safety;
installation protection & EMC
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EMC – IEC61000-5-1 – PROTECTION CONCEPT

GLOBAL PROTECTION BY SINGLE BARRIER

A C
Protective device
against conducted
disturbance
B D

Shield
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EMC – IEC61000-5-1 – PROTECTION CONCEPT

A C
GLOBAL PROTECTION BY
SINGLE BARRIER B D

All equipment within the protected zone enjoys immunity


from EM disturbances. The understanding of protected zone
is also important in the design of equipotential zones.
In this illustration, a single barrier filters out conducted EM
interference. Barrier refers to EM protective device which
may be filters, surge protection device (SPD) etc.
All devices outside the protection do not enjoy EM immunity .
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EMC – IEC61000-5-1 – PROTECTION CONCEPT

GLOBAL PROTECTION BY MULTIPLE/ CASCADED


BARRIERS

protection device and shielding strength can be designed in


cascade to provide an “inner” protection level in accordance
with “susceptibility” level.
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EMC – IEC61000-5-1 – PROTECTION CONCEPT

CONCEPT OF DISTRIBUTED PROTECTION

Units C & D are protected but A & B are not protected.


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EMC – IEC61000-5-1 – PROTECTION CONCEPT

CASE STUDY – A, B, C & D are protected


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EMC – IEC61000-5-1 – PROTECTION CONCEPT

PROTECTION COMPROMISED DUE TO INAPPROPRIATE


CABLE ROUTE AND PLACEMENT OF SPD
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EMC – IEC61000-5-2 – EARTHING & CABLING

IEC61000–5–2 – MITIGATION MEASURES FOR EMC


ALLOW FOR TWO MAIN TOPICS:
Earthing
Cable selection
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EARTHING:
The primary goal of earthing is to assure safety [5.1]
The secondary goal of earthing is to serve as a common
voltage reference and to contribute to the mitigation of
disturbances in installation with sensitive and
interconnected impedance.
L.F. and H.F. equipotential bonding of exposed
conductive parts (frame) is the golden rule in EMC.
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EMC – EARTHING DESIGN PRINCPLES FOR EMC
MISCONCEPTION OF DEDICATED, INDEPENDENT OR
ISOLATED EARTH

Attempt to obtain a “clean” earth Attempt to obtain a “clean” earth


network (e.g. to be used as a network (e.g. to be used as a
reference for signals. The earth reference for signals. The earth
electrodes have not been bonded. electrodes have not been bonded.
THIS IS NOT SUITABLE FOR EMC THIS IS NOT SUITABLE FOR EMC
AND IS A SAFETY HAZARD. AND IS A SAFETY HAZARD.
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EMC – EARTHING DESIGN PRINCPLES FOR EMC

RECOMMENDED EARTH ELECTRODES & EARTH


NETWORK FOR SAFETY AND EMC.
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EMC – EARTH MESH AS EARTH PLANE

Provide an earth plane at each floor or area.

Interconnect all metal structure of building to mesh.

Provide specially fine mesh in area of sensitive equipment


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EMC – IEC61000-5-2 – EARTHING & CABLING
62 Earthing – Electromagnetic Compatibility
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EMC – IEC61000-5-2 – EARTHING & CABLING

Frame Connection
Loops is the surface
area enclosed between
a functional cable
(power supply, control,
communication etc)
and the nearest
conductor or frame
earth
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EMC – IEC61000-5-2 – EARTHING & CABLING

MINIMISE Frame Connection Loops

Power supply
Cabinet
Cabinet
Device
Device
S1

Power supply
S3 S2

Contro
X
l
Machine
Machine
64 Earthing – Electromagnetic Compatibility
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AVOID Earthing exposed conductive parts in a star configuration

Cabinet
Cabinet
Cabinet Cabinet

X
Cabinet
Cabinet Cabinet
Cabinet
Cabinet

Cabinet
Cabinet Cabinet
Cabinet

Cabinet
Cabinet

X Cabinet
Cabinet X
Cabinet
Cabinet
National Workshop
Wiring Standards
Armada Hotel , Petaling Jaya
12th March 2019
Earthing from the dual Perspectives of
Power Distribution (IEC60364) & EMC (IEC61000-5-2)

Ir. Looi Hip Peu


B.Eng (Hons) (Electrical)
P.Eng (C15226), Jurutera Gas
hippeulooi@gmail.com