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Which of the following when used in ordinary low carbon steels, makes the
metal ductile and of good bending qualities?
[A]. Sulphur
[B]. Phosphorus
[C]. Manganese
[D]. Silicon
Answer: Option C
Sulphur: Improve machinability.
Silicon: Make steel porous and increase magnetic permeability.
Phosphorous: Improve machinability in free cutting steel.
Cobalt: Increase red hardness.
Chromium: Corrosion resistence.
Nickel: Inprove hardenability.
Tungesten: Heat resistance.
Manganese: In low carbon steel- improve ductility and in high carbon steel-
increase hardenability.
Vanadium: Increase strength and hardenability.

2. The hardness of steel depends upon the

[A]. amount of cementite it contains
[B]. amount of carbon it contains
[C]. contents of alloying elements
[D]. method of manufacture of steel
Answer: Option B
The hardness of the steel depends on its carbon content: The higher the
percentage of carbon, the greater the hardness and the lesser the
malleability. Regardless of the heat treatment, higher carbon content reduces
weld ability. In carbon steels, higher carbon content also lowers the melting

3. Cartidge brass can be

[A]. cold rolled into sheets
[B]. drawn into wires
[C]. formed into tube
[D]. any one of these
Answer: Option D
It is cold working, brass used for cold rolled sheets, wire drawing, deep
drawing, pressing and tube manufacture.
The composition in percentages copper -70 % and zinc - 30.

4. Which of the following statement is correct?

A. The product produced by blastfurnace is called cast iron.
B. The pig iron is the name given to the product produced by cupola.
C. The cast iron has high tensile strength.
D. The chilled cast iron has no graphite.
Answer: Option D
Chilled iron castings are produced by casting the molten metal against a
metal chill, resulting in a surface virtually free from graphitic carbon. In the
production of chilled iron, the composition is selected so that only the
surfaces cast against the chill will be free from graphitic carbon.

5. Blast furnace is used to produce

[A]. pig iron
[B]. cast iron
[C]. wrought iron
[D]. steel
Answer: Option A
The steelmaking process starts with the processing of iron ore. The rock
containing iron ore is ground and the ore is extracted using magnetic rollers.
Fine-grained iron ore is processed into coarse-grained clumps for use in the
blast furnace. Coal is cleaned of impurities in a coke furnace, yielding an
almost pure form of carbon. A mixture of iron ore and coal is then heated in a
blast furnace to produce molten iron, or pig iron, from which steel is made.

6. In flame hardening, oxy-acetylene flame is used.

A. Yes
B. No
Answer: Option A
Flame hardening is a common surface hardening method. Metal surfaces,
such as steel, are heated with a high-temperature flame and then quenched.
The result of flame hardening is a hard surface that is more resistant against
wear and corrosion.
Flame hardening is performed on parts made of mild steels, alloy steels,
medium carbon steels and cast iron. As its name suggests, flame hardening
uses direct heat from oxy-gas flames. The metals are heated to temperatures
to their austenization temperature, causing the surface to change, while the
core remains unchanged and soft.

7. Which of the following statements are true for annealing of steels?

[A]. Steels are heated to 500 to 700° C
[B]. Cooling is done slowly and steadily
[C]. Internal stresses are relieved
[D]. all of these
Answer: Option D
Annealing is a process by which the properties of steel are enhanced to meet
machinability requirements. Annealing is a process of heating the steel
slightly above the critical temperature of steel (723 degrees Centigrade) and
allowing it to cool down very slowly.

8. The ability of a material to undergo large permanent deformation with the

application of a tensile force, is called ductility.
[A]. Correct
[B]. Incorrect
Answer: Option A
Strength : It is the resistance by which materials oppose the deformation.

Stress : A measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area.

where s is the average stress. It is also known as engineering stress or
nominal stress. F is the force acting on the area A.

Strain : The deformation of materials caused by the action of stress.

where e is strain in measured direction, lo is the original length of the
material and l is the current length of the material

Hooke's Law: It states that for the materials loaded within elastic limits the
stress is proportional to strain.

Total Stress : The resultant internal force which changes the size or shape of a
body which acted on by external forces.

Unit Stress : It is the stress per unit area.

Normal Stress : It is on a section. It is the stress which acts in a direction

perpendicular to section considered.

Ultimate Stress : The ratio of the maximum load which a specimen sustains to
its original area of the cross-section.

Elastic Limit : The maximum unit stress to which a material can be subjected
and still is able to return to its original form after removal of stress.

Yield Point : The unit stress at which the deformation first increases
noticeably without any increase in the applied load. It is always above the
proportional limit.

Ultimate Strength : The highest unit stress it can sustain before rupturing.

Breaking Strength : The stress at which the material tested ruptures.

Modulus of Elasticity (E) : The constant that expresses the ratio of unit stress
to unit deformation for all values unit stress not exceeding the proportional
limit of material. It is also called as Modulus of Rigidity.
Factor of Safety : The ratio of ultimate strength of the material to the
allowable stress.

Elasticity : The ability of a material to deform and return to its original shape
after removal of the load. The amount of deformation is called Strain.

Ductility : The ability of a material to undergo large permanent deformations

in tension i.e., property which enables a material to be beaten or rolled into
thin sheets.

Malleability : The ability of a material to undergo large permanent

deformation in compression or property which enables a material to be
beaten or rolled into thin sheets. This property is important in metalworking.
Gold is the most malleable metal followed by aluminium.

Toughness : The ability of a material to withstand high unit stress along with
great unit deformation without fracture.

Stiffness : The ability of a material to resist deformation or deflection under


Hardness : The ability of a material to resist very small indentation abrasion

and plastic deformation. In other words, high resistance of a material to
various kinds of shape change when force is applied.

Creep (Flow of Metals) : The tendency of a solid material to slowly move or

deform permanently under the influence of stresses. It always increases with
temperature. Creep deformation does not occur suddenly upon the
application of stress. It is time-dependent deformation.

9. Which of the following steel making process is being adopted at Rourkela

Steel Plant?
[A]. Bessemer process
[B]. Open-hearth process
[C]. Electric process
[D]. L-D process
Answer: Option D
Basic Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF, and OSM), also known as Linz
"Donawitz-steelmaking or the oxygen converter process is a method of
primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel.

10. 18-4-1 high speed steel contains

A. vanadium 4%, chromium 18% and tungsten 1%
B. vanadium 1%, chromium 4% and tungsten 18%
C. vanadium 18%, chromium 1% and tungsten 4%
D. none of the above
Answer: Option B

11. Which of the following statement is true about brittle fracture?

[A]. High temperature and low strain rates favour brittle fracture
[B]. Many metals with hexagonal close packed (H.C.P) crystal structure
commonly show brittle fracture
[C]. Brittle fracture is always preceded by noise
[D]. Cup and cone formation is characteristic for brittle materials
Answer: Option B
Hcp is brittle than fcc and bcc.
As Hcp has fewer slip planes which makes it more brittle compared to the
other two.

12. Grey cast iron has

[A]. carbon in the form of free graphite
[B]. high tensile strength
[C]. low compressive strength
[D]. all of these
Answer: Option A
Gray iron, or grey cast iron, is a type of cast iron that has a graphitic
microstructure. It is named after the gray color of the fracture it forms, which
is due to the presence of graphite. It is the most common cast iron and the
most widely used cast material based on weight.

13. Induction hardening is basically a

[A]. carburising process
[B]. surface hardening process
[C]. core-hardening process
[D]. none of these
Answer: Option B
Induction hardening is a process of heat treatment in which metal part is
heated by induction heating by placing the metal in altering magnetic field
and then quenched its use for hardening some selective area of part without
affecting the properties of hole part.

14. When elements like nickel, chromium, copper and molybdenum are added
to the molten cast iron, it produces
A. white cast iron
B. nodular cast iron
C. malleable cast iron
D. alloy cast iron
Answer: Option D

15. The strength is the ability of a material to resist

[A]. deformation under stress
[B]. externally applied forces with breakdown or yielding
[C]. fracture due to high impact loads
[D]. none of these
Answer: Option B
Strength is the ability of material to resist externally applied force WITHOUT
breaking or yielding.
Not with breaking or yielding.
Strenght is ability of material to resist deformation.

16. The material widely used for making pendulums of clocks is

A. stainless steel
B. high speed steel
C. heat resisting steel
D. nickel steel
Answer: Option D
Nickel is having low co-efficient of thermal expansion. It does not undergo
contract or expansion at high or low temperature. So nickel is used.

17. The stiffness is the ability of a material to resist

A. deformation under stress
B. fracture due to high impact loads
C. externally applied forces with breakdown or yielding
D. none of the above
Answer: Option A

18. The blade of a power saw is made of

[A]. boron steel
[B]. high speed steel
[C]. stainless steel
[D]. malleable cast iron
Answer: Option B

19. In induction hardening __________ is high.

[A]. current
[B]. voltage
[C]. frequency
[D]. temperature
Answer: Option C
A source of high frequency electricity is used to drive a large alternating
current through a coil.
20. The metal suitable for bearings subjected to light loads, is
[A]. silicon bronze
[B]. white metal
[C]. monel metal
[D]. phosphor bronze
Answer: Option D
For light loads -phosphor bronze.
For heavy loads -white metal.

21. The property of a material essential for spring materials is

[A]. stiffness
[B]. ductility
[C]. resilience
[D]. plasticity
Answer: Option C
Resilience is a property of body to absorb energy.

22. A steel with carbon above 0.8% is known as hyper-eutectoid steel.

[A]. Agree
[B]. Disagree
Answer: Option A

23. Which of the following material has nearly zero coefficient of expansion?
[A]. Stainless steel
[B]. High speed steel
[C]. Invar
[D]. Heat resisting steel
Answer: Option C
Invar is a 36% nickel iron alloy which has the lowest thermal expansion
among all metals and alloys in the range from room temperature up to
approximately 230°C. The Invar alloy is ductile and easily weldable, and
machinability is similar to austenitic stainless steel. It does not suffer from
stress corrosion cracking.

24. In normalising process, the hypo-eutectiod steel is heated from 30° C to

50° C above the upper critical temperature and then cooled in still air.
[A]. True
[B]. False
Answer: Option A

25. The alloying element which can replace tungsten in high speed steels is
[A]. nickel
[B]. vanadium
[C]. cobalt
[D]. molybdenum
Answer: Option D
Tungsten and molybdenum save the same purpose but cost and availability
considerations tungsten mostly used.

26. An aluminium alloy with 11% silicon is used for making engine pistons by
die casting technique.
[A]. Yes
[B]. No
Answer: Option A

27. Which of the following is an amorphous material?

[A]. Mica
[B]. Silver
[C]. Lead
[D]. Glass
Answer: Option D
Amorphous solids on the other hand, do not have a regular and periodic
arrangement of atoms. All the bonds are not equally strong. These solids do
not have a precise melting point.
Examples of amorphous solids are rubbers, glass, plastic, cement and

28. The machinability of steel is improved by adding

A. nickel
B. chromium
C. nickel and chromium
D. sulphur, lead and phosphorus
Answer: Option D

29. The carbon in the pig iron varies from

[A]. 0.1 to 0.5%
[B]. 0.5 to 1%
[C]. 1 to 5%
[D]. 5 to 10%
Answer: Option C

30. The type of space lattice found in alpha-iron is

[A]. face centred cubic space lattice
[B]. body centred cubic space lattice
[C]. close packed hexagonal space lattice
[D]. none of these
Answer: Option B

31. The brown smoke during the operation of a bessemer Converter indicates
that the
[A]. air is burning out silicon and managanese
[B]. silicon and manganese has burnt and carbon has started oxidising
[C]. the converter must be titled to remove the contents of the converter
[D]. the brown smoke does not occur during the operation of a bessemer
Answer: Option A

The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the
mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the
open hearth furnace. The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron
by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron.

32. Martensite has needle like structure and is magnetic.

[A]. Correct
[B]. Incorrect
Answer: Option A
33. Monel metal is an alloy of
[A]. nickel and copper
[B]. nickel and chromium
[C]. nickel, chromium and iron
[D]. copper and chromium
Answer: Option A
Monel is a group of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%)
and copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon.
Stronger than pure nickel, Monel alloys are resistant to corrosion by many
agents, including rapidly flowing seawater. They can be fabricated readily by
hot and cold working, machining, and welding.

35. The austenite is a solid solution of carbon or iron carbide in gamma-iron.

[A]. Correct
[B]. Incorrect
Answer: Option A
Austenite forms above 727'c where the carbon percentage is 0.77 in iron.
Austenite also called as gamma-iron which has fcc crystal structure.

36. Which of the following display properties similar to that of steel?

A]. Blackheart cast iron
[B]. Whiteheart cast iron
[C]. both (a) and (b)
[D]. none of these
Answer: Option C

37. Hindalium is an alloy of aluminium and magnesium with a small quantity

of chromium.
[A]. Agree
[B]. Disagree
Answer: Option A

38. When a low carbon steel is heated upto upper critical temperature
[A]. there is no change in grain size
[B]. the average grain size is a minimum
[C]. the grain size increases very rapidly
[D]. the grain size first increases and then decreases very rapidly
Answer: Option B
Yes, When a low carbon steel is heated up to upper critical temperature then
the average grain size is minimum and grain size would have no change
when heated up to low critical temperature and grain size will constantly
increase when it is heated further more than upper critical temperature.

39. The steel widely used for motor car crankshafts is

[A]. nickel steel
[B]. chrome steel
[C]. nickel-chrome steel
[D]. silicon steel
Answer: Option B
Chrome steel is the right answer because nickel and chrome steel is shock
resistance only. But chrome steel is tensile, hardness, compress, shear, shock

40. Combined carbon in iron makes the metal

[A]. soft and gives coarse grained crystalline structure
[B]. soft and gives a fine grained crystalline structure
[C]. hard and gives a coarse grained crystalline structure
[D]. hard and gives a fine grained crystalline structure
Answer: Option D

41. Pearlite consists of

[A]. 13% carbon and 87% ferrite
[B]. 13% cementite and 87% ferrite
[C]. 13% ferrite and 87% cementite
[D]. 6.67% carbon and 93.33% iron
Answer: Option B

42. Incoloy, Hastelloy and Vitallium are __________ temperature alloys.

A. high
B. low
Answer: Option A

43. Quenching is not necessary when hardening is done by

[A]. case hardening
[B]. flame hardening
[C]. nitriding
[D]. any one of these
Answer: Option C
Gas nitriding is a surface hardening process, where nitrogen is added to the
surface of steel. Gas nitriding develops a very hard case in a component at
relatively low temperature, without the need for quenching.

44. The iron ore in the charge of blast furnace acts as an iron bearing mineral.
[A]. True
[B]. False
Answer: Option A

45. Beryllium bronze has

A. high yield point
B. high fatigue limit
C. both (a) and (b)
D. none of these
Answer: Option C

46. The aluminium alloy, mainly used, for anodized utensil manufacture, is
A. duralumin
B. Y-alloy
C. magnalium
D. hindalium
Answer: Option D

47. The toughness of a material __________ when it is heated.

A. remains same
B. decreases
C. increases
Answer: Option B
Toughness should not decrease. Toughness is shock absorbing capacity. For
steels with an increase in temperature, the steel becomes tougher and softer
due to the stress relieving recovery grain growth etc processes, provided time
is allowed.
By increasing temperature, the yield strength of metal decreases which
results in less area under curve compares to former (toughness decreases).

48. The coordination number of a face centred cubic space lattice is

[A]. six
[B]. twelve
[C]. eighteen
[D]. twenty
Answer: Option B

49. Spheroidal grey cast iron has graphite flakes.

A. True
B. False
Answer: Option A

50. Bronze is an alloy of

A. copper and zinc
B. copper and tin
C. copper, tin and zinc
D. none of these
Answer: Option B