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1. Sociolinguistic is the study of any or all aspects of society, including cultural, norms,
expectation, and context, on the way language is used.
2. Advantages of sociolinguistics:
a. Sociolinguistics show us the humorous realities of human speech and how a dialect of a
given language can often describe the age, sex, and social class of the speaker (social
function of language)
b. Fishman: “Who speak what language, to whom, when, and to what end”. It means that
the knowledge of sociolinguistics will guide one to what language of language variety,
or language style to use when he speaks to a particular person.
3. Idiolect is one’s specific characteristic in language using or is a person that using a language
in a particular area.
4. Dialect is a group speaker with a collection of idiolects.
5. Diglosia is a situation in which two languages or dialects in a bilingual community are used
differently according to different social situations.
6. Different language because social and historical conditions. Main factor is:
 Settlement
 Migration routs
 Geographical factors
 Language contact
 Economic ecology
 Social stratification
 Communication networks
 Group reference
 Personal identity
7. Linguistic explanation of existence of dialect:
 Rule existence
 Analogy
 Transparency principle
 Grammatilazation 1
 Pronunciation phenomena
 Words and words meaning

8. Language is a collection of dialects with mutual intelligibility among the speakers; the
speakers consider them selves belong to one unity of a language. Or in other words,
language consists of dialects which belong to its speaker who understand to each other when
they communicate to each other.
9. A standard dialect or standardized dialect or standard language or official language is a
dialect that is supported by institutions like government recognition or designation. For
example: standard American English.
10. A semi-standard dialect, for example: Forkivian American Australian Indian English dialect.
11. A non-standard dialect has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but is not the
beneficiary of institutional support.
12. Language varieties are often called dialects rather than language:
 Because they have no standard or codified form
 Because the speakers of the given language do not have a state of their own
 Because they are rarely or never used in writing
 Or because they lack prestige with respect to some other, often standardized variety.
13. Speech community is a community sharing knowledge of the rules for the conduct and
interpretation of speech.
14. Lingua Franca is a language systematically used to communicate between persons not
sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both persons'
mother tongues. Or in other words, lingua franca is a language that used by people that don’t
have the same language so they makes a language, so they can communicate to each other,
that’s called lingua franca. Or lingua franca is a language or mixture of language that used as
a medium of communication by people as a language that’s different.
Native speaker of Lingua Franca is child of the speaker.
15. A pidgin language is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication
between two or more groups that do not have a language in common, in situations such as
trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in
which they reside (but there is no common language between the groups), but it is not a
lingua franca because only used by a group of person for some purposes. 2
Pidgin speaker have child, its called Creole. And pidgin becomes the first language.

16. A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originated from a mixture of
various languages. The vocabulary of a creole language consists of cognates from the parent
languages, though there are often clear phonetic and semantic shifts. On the other hand, the
grammar often has original features but may differ substantially from those of the parent
17. Vernacular or mother tongue or mother language is the native language of a population in a
18. Accent is certain from a language spoken by a subgroup of speakers of that language which
is defined by phonological features.
19. Code switching is an action in which the speaker switches the use of language from the
style that uses before in different situation. Language is same but the varieties change.
20. Slang is the use of informal words and expression that are not standard in the speaker’s
dialect or language. Slang is used to hide the taboo. Slang refers to informal lexical item that
used by a specific social group like teenagers, soldiers, prisoners, etc.
21. Register is a special language of group of people. Register is more modern then jargon.
22. Jargon or professional language is a particular word from particular profession but
uncompleted grammar. Jargon is used excluding non members.

23. Politeness is best expressed as the practical application of good manners or etiquette.
24. Negative politeness: making request less infringing, respects a person’s right to act freely.
25. Positive politeness: seeks to establish a positive relationship between parties, respects a
person’s need to be liked and understood.
26. Forms of communicative acts are influenced by age, sex, social class or occupation of the
speaker, speaker’s emotion, speed of utterance, topic, type, and style of discourse.
27. Communication is not simply about phrasing interest and arguments or the maximally
efficient transfer of information; also about not hurting other’s feeling, not having mine hurt.
28. Polite speech is used in social situation such as conversation between acquaintances or
29. Familiar speech is in familiar conversations between good friends ore family members.
30. Politeness means satisfying communicative and face-oriented ends, in a strictly formal
system of rational practical reasoning.
31. Four major perspective on politeness:
 The social norms view
 The conversational-maxim view
 The conversational-contact view
 The Brown-Levinson face-saving view.