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INTERNSHIP REPORT 2018-19

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. GENERAL
It is a practical experience opportunity offered by companies to learn
practical aspects of professional work life which is very different from what we
learn in the class rooms. Since learning happens through education, exposure and
experience, internship provides us a taste of learning through exposure and
experience.
There are many benefits of internship. When you work you learn. It can add
the remarkable value to the student’s career. In an internship, the students are given
the chance to showcase their skills, talents, commitment and value to a prospective
employer.
During site visit I had the chance to explore and observe the construction of
foundation, footings, columns, slab and other finishing works of the residential
apartment buildings.

During my Internship program , I paid special attention to:


 Excavation, Retaining wall construction ,Placing Footing and Plinth Beams at
Shrinidhi Apartments construction site
 Rain Water Harvesting and at Madhuban Laxmi Nivas Apartment.
 Supervision at Sai Madhuban Hill View Apartment Construction site and its

Quantity Surveying.

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1.2. QUALITY ASSURANCE:


It is a way of preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and
avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to the customers.

Factors considered for good quality work:

 Skilled labors.
 Good quality materials.
 Technical supervision.
 Proper curing.
 Proper shuttering.
 Completing project on time.
 Test for all cement concrete works.

1.3. SAFETY MEASURES:


Safety measures are very essential to be considered during construction.

Safety measures undertaken at construction site:

 Use of ladders.
 Proper scaffolding.
 Insurance of workers.
 Safety helmets, shoes, jackets etc.
 First aid.
 Fall protection.

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CHAPTER 2
2.1 Construction Of “Sai Madhuban Hill View” Apartment

Figure 1 Residential Apartment at Sundar Layout near J K School Hubli

2.1.1 Site Details:


Construction of Residential Apartment at sundar layout near J.K.school, Hubli.
The project is located in a very lush green scenic Residential area surrounded by all the
amenities like schools, market etc. The size of the plot is 110x74 ft. facing towards west.
The building comprises of 2 blocks, each of 4 flats which makes 8 flats in total measuring
2800 sq. ft. The total height of the building is 15m.(Based on bye laws) and its road width
is 12m.
All 4 sides are open with ample car parking along with ramp, with landscaping,
high-end premium segment construction having spacious 3 bedrooms with huge balconies
and a big hall and dining. It also provides a sufficient space for utility works in each flat.

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2.1.2 Area Statement:


Total plot area: 687.64 sq. m
Sl.No Floor Total Parking Passage Staircase Duct Net
built up area balcony built up
area area
1 Basement 402.34 3188.04 ---- 11.06 3.24 ---- ----
floor
2 Ground 391.22 ---- 72.38 11.06 3.24 4.49 300.05
floor
3 First 391.22 ---- 72.38 11.06 3.24 4.49 300.05
floor
4 Second 391.22 ---- 72.38 11.06 3.24 4.49 300.05
floor
5 Third 391.22 ---- 72.38 11.06 3.24 4.49 300.05
floor
6 Total 1967.22 3188.04 289.52 55.30 16.2 17.96 1200.2
Table 1

Coverage: (402.34/687.64)X100 = 58.51%


Balcony area: 12.81X5 = 64.05 sq.mtr
Allowable F.A.R: 1.75
Reached F.A.R: 1200.2/687.64 = 1.74
Parking required: Here we have considered 1 parking for 1 flat and 5% for visitors
parking.
Therefore,
Required parking - 8.
Provided parking - 9.

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Site Plan

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2.1.3 Basic Technical Aspects


 Minimum depth of excavation from natural ground level is to be 6 ft.
 Foundations are designed for SBC of 270 KN/sq.m.
 Footings and columns are designed for ground+3 floors only.
 Concrete used is of M20 grade for all structural members.
 Grade of reinforcement steel is of Fe500 conforming to IS: 1786 with a min. yield
strength of 500 N/sq.mm.
 Clear cover to any reinforcement shall be:
a) Footings= 50mm
b) Columns= 35mm (to main bars)
c) Beams= 25mm
d) Slabs= 20mm
 Beams, columns and footings are designed for gravity loads only.

2.1.4 Excavation
Excavation is the first step of construction. It refers to the process of
removing soil or rock from its original location, typically in preparation for constructing
foundations, basements, and underground utility lines and for grading of the ground
surface. Excavated material required for backfill or grading fill is stockpiled on the site
for subsequent use. Excavation work I have seen was including bulk excavation, pit
excavation and trench excavation. The main aim of the excavation work is to remove
organic soils or unwanted soil for the safety of the building from chemical attacking.
Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, width, depth and grades and shown 25
on the drawings, directed by the Engineer or as appropriate to the works to be placed in
the excavation.
Pit excavation: It is an excavation made for foundation footing pad with column by
considering working space of 200 up to 300mm to each side of the dimension. Trench
excavation: It is an excavation made for constructing foundation walls stone masonry
with leaving working area for both sides of the wall of specified width on the plan. This
depth is filled by the stone masonry which placed on 5cm thick lean concrete, Stone

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masonry should be laid with specified mortar, well filled joint The stone should be
hard, sound, free from crack and weathering It should be freshly quarried from an
approved quarry, It is not round surface

Figure 2 Labour Doing Excavation Work


 The soil at this site is black cotton soil.
 For the construction of this building excavation is done up to the depth of 8’-9’ as
it is an apartment and has black cotton soil.
 The excavated area is leveled using a tamping rammer.

2.1.5 Foundation work


A structure essentially consists of 2 parts namely superstructure which is above
the plinth level and substructure which is below the plinth level. Substructure or the
foundation is an important element of structure which connects the entire structure to the
ground, and uniformly transfers the load to the foundation soil. The soil on which
foundation rests is called foundation soil. Generally 30% of the total construction cost is
spent on the foundation.

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Foundations have the following purposes:


 To distribute the load of the structure over a large bearing area so as to
bring intensity of loading with the safe bearing capacity of the soil lying
underneath.
 To load the bearing surface at a uniform rate so as to prevent unequal
settlement.
 To prevent the lateral movement of the supporting materials. To secure a
level and firm bed for building operation.
 To increase the stability of the structure as a whole.
 To ensure safety against undermining and protection against soil
movements.
 To provide even surface for the structure to rest etc
2.1.6 Footing

Figure 3

A concrete support under a foundation that rests in solid ground is known as


footing. Footings distribute the weight of structure over the ground.

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 Isolated rectangular footings are adopted on this site.


Isolated footings are footings which carry a load from a single column.
Reinforcement is provided in the form of steel bars and is placed in both directions.
Under normal conditions, square & rectangular footings are economical for supporting
columns & wall
 Concrete used for footing is of M20 grade.
 Steel used is of Fe 500 grade.
Reinforcement details of the footings are given below.

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Table 2

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2.1.7 Retaining walls


Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass
laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides.
 First Formwork is done then the concrete is poured inside it.
 In this site all 4 sides are open hence formwork is done by using wooden planks in
all the sides.
 Thickness of the retaining wall is 9” to 12”.
 Reinforcement is also provided in the retaining walls with 10mm bars of Fe500.
2.1.8 Columns
Columns are rigid vertical structural members designed primarily to support axial
compressive loads coming from beams and slabs and then transfer it to ground through
footing.

 The column details are given below in the table:

Table 3

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Figure 4. Columns placed at the Site


2.1.9 Beams
Beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the
beams axis.
 Its mode of deflection is primarily by bending.
 The loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam support points.
 The total effect of all the forces acting on the beams is to produce shear forces and
bending moment within the beam that in turn reduce internal stresses, strains and
deflections of the beam.
 Beams are characterized by their means of support, profile (shape of cross
section), length and their material.

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Beam Reinforcement Details:

Table 4
Classification of beams based on supports:
1) Simply supported: Beams supported on the ends which are free to rotate and
have no moment resistance.
2) Fixed: A beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation.
3) Over hanging: A simple beam existing beyond its on one end.
4) Double over hanging: A simple beam with both ends extending beyond its
support on both ends.
5) Continuous: A beam extending over more than 2 supports.
6) Cantilever: A projecting beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on
both ends.
7) Trussed: A beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss.
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General shapes:
 Most beams in reinforced concrete in the buildings have rectangular cross
sections.
 Also other shapes like L (angles), C (channel) or tubes are also used in
construction when there are special requirements.
Stresses acting on the beam:
Most probably compressive, tensile and shear stresses of loads are applied to them.

2.1.10 Masonry wall


 Masonry walls are the important part of the building structures.
 The structure durability depends on the masonry walls.
 It provides strength, support, durability to the building structures.
 It controls the temperature inside and outside the structure.
 Building materials like brick, stones, marble, granite, limestone, concrete block
etc. are used for masonry.
 They are joined together by using binding material such as mortar.
 In combination of building materials, preparing of mortar, labors, masons,
workers play an important role.
The wall thickness which we have adopted in our project is 6 inches and 4.5
inches walls, in which main walls are provided with 6 inches and partition walls of 4.5
inches.
The bricks we used for the project are “clay bricks” (190x90x90) “4.484 inches”.
The maximum height of the masonry walls are “7 feet” (2.13m) excluding lintel and slab.

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Figure 5. Masonry walls at the site

The masonry walls consist of windows, doors, ventilators, switch boards, arches or
openings etc.
The sizes of doors and windows are-
D= 1.00x2.10m
D1= 0.90x2.10m
D2=0.75x2.10m (kitchen door)
W=1.50x1.20m
W1=1.20x1.20m
W2= 1.20x0.90m (kitchen window)
V= 0.60x0.60m
The walls are also provided with plastering, coping, lintels, slabs, skirting etc.
The sill level of the windows are provided as follows-
 2 feet height for bedroom from base.
 4 feet height for kitchens from base.
 5 feet height for bathrooms from the base.

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Coping thickness is to be provided up to (2-2.5 inches).


Coping is provided between the bricks, masonry wall at the height of sill level to prevent
from cracks on the wall up to the lintel.
It helps in providing the strength to the wall.
2.1.11 Lintel
Lintel is a type of beam which is used to help the above masonry walls wherever
the doors, windows, ventilators or openings are provide

Table 5
 It acts as a supporter to the masonry walls to transfer the loads.
 It is mainly provided at the height of the doors.
 The thickness of the lintel varies from 150mm - 450mm (5.90 – 17.7 inches).
 It is used to take loads which are coming from the above wall and to transfer its
loads to the side walls or to the chejja.
 The width of the lintel is same as that of the wall width.
 The lintel can also be used as decorative architecture element.
 The lintel has 8mm of 2 nos. of bars at the top and 10mm of 2 nos. of bars at the
bottom.

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 The ring which is used in the lintel is of 6mm bars and 6 inches from centre to
centre.
 Lintel is connected with a chejja which projects outwards.
Types of lintel:
 Timber lintel.
 Stone lintel.
 Reinforced concrete lintel.
 Brick lintel.
 Reinforced brick lintel.
 Steel lintel.
2.1.12 Chejja
Chejja is a part of a building which is placed over the opening to prevent adverse
effects of weather in a room.
 The chejja is also known as sun shade, which is used to prevent direct entry of
sunlight or rain into the room.
 It is also used for aesthetic appearance of the building.
 It is adopted at a height of 7ft (2.13m) from the floor level.
 It is made up of concrete, it is elongated from the lintel level.
 The top surface of the chejja is sloped and compulsorily coated with water
proofing material.
Types of chejja:
 RCC chejja.
 Stone chejja.
 Tile chejja.
 Sheet chejja.
 Wooden chejja.

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2.1.13 Slab
A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal
slabs of steel reinforced concrete, typically between 4 and 20 inches thick, are most often
used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner slabs are also used for exterior paving.
All the slabs provided are of 13cm (5 inches) thick.
Sunken slabs are provided at places above which toilet is present.
Sunk slabs are slabs which are cast at a certain depth below normal floor level, the
extra depth is used for placing pipes and utility ducts. And the space is filled up to the
normal floor level.
One way slabs and cantilever slabs are provided for Balcony, all remaining slabs
are two way slabs.
One way slab is a slab which is supported by beams on the two opposite sides to
carry the load along one direction, because this slab will bend in one direction i.e. in the
direction along its shorter span. Hence main reinforcement is provided in the shorter span
and distribution reinforcement in the longer span.
Whereas Two way slab is a slab supported by beams on all the four sides and the
loads are carried by the supports along both directions. Hence the main reinforcement is
provided in both direction.

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Table 6
2.1.14 Staircase
Stairs are required for ascending and descending from floor to floor. A stair
consists of a number of steps to move from one level to another. The room/space housing
stairs is called staircase.

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Figure 6

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Flight: The stretch between two landings is known as flight.


Rise: It is the vertical distance between the two consecutive steps. In other words the
vertical portion of the step is known as rise.
Tread: The horizontal portion of the step is known as tread. The horizontal distances
between two consecutive risers is called as go, going or run.
 Number of steps should be a max of 12 to 15 steps.
 Width of stairs is kept at about 900mm in residential buildings.
 In public buildings it may go up to 1800 to 2400mm depending upon rush hour
utilization.
 The width of landing should be at least equal width of the stairs.
2.1.15 Railing:
This is a moulded block of wood or some other material, provided to afford
assistance and safeguard to the people while going on the stairs.
The height of a railing should be nearly 75cm above the line of nosing.
We have used one way for steps and two way for landings.
We have built 3 flights. Normally there should be only 2 flights but 3 flights are built
because there is a lift at the centre.
Various types of staircase:
 Straight stairs.
 Dog legged stairs.
 Open newel stairs.
 Geometrical stairs.
 Spiral stairs.
2.1.16 Parapet walls
It is a type of wall which takes an extension part of the wall at the edge of the
roof, terrace or balcony.
 Parapet walls prevent from falling from the edges.
 Usually the height of the parapet wall is 42 inches (1.1m).
 Thickness of the parapet wall is 100mm (4 inches).

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Types of parapet are:


 Transparent parapet.
 Elaborate parapet.
 Decorative parapet.
 Modern parapet with electric light.

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2.2.1 Srinidhi Apartments

Figure 7. Site at yellapur oni, Bankapurchowk, Hubli.

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2.2.2 Excavation:
Excavation is the act or process of digging of certain area of earth mass for
foundation works.
 The soil at this site is silty soil.
 For the construction of this building excavation is done up to the depth of 6’-7’ as
it is an apartment.
 The excavated area is leveled using a tamping rammer.

Figure 8. Excavation of Earth


2.2.3 Retaining walls:
Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass
laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides.
 First Formwork is done then the concrete is poured inside it.
 In this site, 3 sides are open hence formwork is done by using wooden planks in
those sides.
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 One side is closed hence permanent retaining wall is installed by using block
masonry.
 The blocks are of dimension: 12”8”4”.
 Thickness of the retaining wall is 9” to 12”.
 Reinforcement is also provided in the retaining walls with 10mm bars of Fe500.

Figure 9. Retaining Walls

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2.2.4 Footing:
A concrete support under a foundation that rests in solid ground is known as
footing. Footings distribute the weight of structure over the ground.
 Isolated square footings are adopted on this site.
 Concrete used for footing is of M20 grade.
 Steel used is of Fe 500 grade.

Figure 10. Placing of Footing

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2.2.5 Columns:
Columns are rigid vertical structural members designed primarily to support axial
compressive loads coming from beams and slabs and then transfer it to ground through
footing.
 Total no. of columns at this site are 16.
 Cross section of the columns is rectangular in shape.
 Grade of concrete used is M20.
 Both 2 legged and 4 legged stirrups are used alternatively.
 Reinforcement details of the columns are given below.

Figure 11. Placing of Column

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2.2.6 Plinth beam:


Plinth beam is reinforced concrete beam constructed at ground level between the
walls and its foundation.
 Concrete used is of M20 grade
 Steel used is of Fe500 grade, dia of bars is 16mm.

Figure 12. Placing of Plinth Beam

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2.3.1 Madhuban Laxmi Niwas

Figure 13. Site at Deshpande Nagar, Hubli.


2.3.2 Rainwater Harvesting
It is technique of collection and storage of rain water into reservoirs or tanks. One
of the methods of rain water harvesting is roof water harvesting. This type of harvesting
holds good for mostly any kind of surface such as tiles , metals , sheets , plastics etc. but
not grass or palm leaf .
It can be used to intercept the flow of rain water and provide a household and with
high quality drinking water and year round storage. Other applications include water for
gardens live stocks and irrigation etc.
Harvesting rain water for savage of drinking water has gained enormously in
significance, as modern water saving sanitary technique.
These can be used for private and public buildings as well as for many industrial
areas.

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Figure 14

What is rain water harvesting and why is it important?


Water is our most precious natural resource and something that most of us take for
granted we are now increasingly becoming aware of the importance of water to our
survival and its limited supply, especially in dry content.
Need for rain water harvesting:
 To arrest decline in ground water levels.
 To improve the ground water quality by dilution.
 To increase agricultural production
Advantages of rain water harvesting:
 Easy to maintain.
 Reducing water bills.
 Suitable for irrigation.
 Reduces demand on ground water.

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Disadvantages of rain water harvesting:


 Unpredictable rain fall.
 High cost.
 Regular maintenance.
 Storage ducts

Methods of Rain water harvesting:


 Urban areas: Roof top rain water/storm runoff water harvesting through.
 recharge pit
 recharge trench
 tube wells
 recharge wells
 In this site using tube well technique.
 Roof top rain water rain water harvesting through existing tube wells.
 In areas where the shallow aquifers have dried up and existing tube wells are
taping dipper aquifers, roof top rain water harvesting through existing tube wells
a\can we adopted to recharge deeper aquifers.
 PVC pipes of 10cm diameter are connected to the roof drains to collect the rain
water. The first roof runoff is let off through the bottom of drain pipe. After
closing the bottom pipe rain water of subsequent rain showers taken to a online
PVC filter
 The filter may be provided before water enters the tube well. The filter is 1m-1.2m
in length and is made up of PVC pipe. Its drain should vary depending on area of
roof, 15cm if roof area is less than 150sq.m and 20cm if roof area is more .The
filter is provided with reduces of 6.25cm on both the sides. Filter is divided into 3
chambers by PVC screens so that filter materials is not 6of 6.25cm on both the
sides. Filter is divided into 3 chambers by PVC screens so that filter materials is
not fired up .The first chamber is filled up with gravel(6-10mm) middle chamber
with pebbles (12mm-20mm)
And the last chambers with bigger pebbles (20mm-40mm).

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 If the roof area is more, filter pit is provided. Rain water from roof is taken to
collection de silting chambers located on ground. This collection chambers are
interconnected as well as connected to the filter pit through pipes having a slope
of 1:15. The filter pit may vary and shape and size depending upon available
runoff and are top with varying thickness (0.3-0.5m) and may be separated by
screen. The pit is divided into 2 chambers filter material is one chamber and other
chamber is kept empty, on accommodation excess filtered water and monitor
filtered water. A connecting pipe with recharge well is provided at the bottom of
the pit for recharging filtered water through well.

Important points to be considered before constructing rain water


harvesting:
 Annual rainfall has to be at least 100-200mm.
 The roof on which the rainfall occurs has to be bigger at least around 30 sq. mtrs.
 The area where rain water gets collected has to be clean.
 There has to be sufficient space for constructing the storage tank for the rain water
to get collected.

2.3.3 Sump Tank


A sump is an underground (or partially underground) tank that is popular in India,
it is usually used for large water tank storage and can be built cheaply.
The water that comes from the corporation can be stored in this tank and later can
be pumped up to overhead tanks.

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Figure15 Sump Tank

Suitable conditions:
The ground should not be rocky closed to the surface, which can hinder
the digging and conservation process, secondly the ground water table in the area
should not be very below the bottom of the tank. Underground some tanks must
not be built very close to the undergroung sewerage chambers.

2.3.4 Considerations, operations and maintenance:


The overflow pipe should be just below tank/sump cover so that there is
no dead space and the tank can be used to its maximum capacity. The overflow
pipe should divert the excess water away from the sump and the foundation of
other buildings and structure.
 This water should be directed to gardens or into the storm water drain and should
not be installed at the end of the overflow pipe so that light and other impurities
do not enter the tank.
 Water should be extracted from the tank/ sump only by means of a tap or pump.
Taps or drain off pipes should not be very close to the bottom of the tank, since

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there is likelihood of sedimentation and the dirt should be allowed to settle and
remain in the tank until cleaned.
 Cylindrical Ferro cement or reinforcement cement concrete recommended as tank
building material plastic or brick is not recommended.

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CONCLUSION
This program played an important role to break the conventional thought that field works
can be only implemented by students who hold a degree or people who have an
experience in building construction. We were able to acquire a high level of confidence to
deal with problems that arise in a building construction
Since I took my internship session in the consulting and construction side
HORIZON CONSTRUCTION CO. I got opportunity to work in the different party of the
construction work which helped me to gain more knowledge by seeing what they work in
their own office and what are their main responsibilities to the client and also each other
As per my training , I have conclude that , during my training days I was familiar
with the construction of excavation, Foundation work , Footings,Columns ,Beams , Brick
masonry, slab and Rain Water Harvesting.

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