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welcome to the General Electric ms 9001


0:04
e gas turbine training
0:06
this video will describe the main
0:08
components of the gas-turbine and it's
0:10
functional description this gas turbine
0:13
is also known as PG 917 10 or frame 9e
0:19
throughout this video the air inlet of
0:23
the gas turbine is considered to be the
0:25
forward end and the gases exit is to be
0:29
the aft end the forward and the act of
0:32
each individual component are defined in
0:35
the same manner the direction of the
0:37
airflow inside the compressor is defined
0:40
as the downstream direction and the
0:42
opposite is to be the upstream direction
0:45
the right and left are defined by
0:48
standing on the forward end and looking
0:50
downstream the shaft of this gas turbine
0:54
rotates at 3000rpm counterclockwise as
0:58
viewed looking downstream this gas
1:02
turbine consists of the following main
1:04
components the compressor the combustion
1:07
system the turbine the exhaust assembly
1:11
the bearings
1:18
the compressor is a 17 stages axial-flow
1:21
compressor
1:24
with variable inlet guide vanes
1:29
air is compressed to a pressure ratio of
1:32
$YEAR 12 21
1:34
each stage consists of a set of rotating
1:37
blades
1:41
and set of stator stationary blades
1:43
compression is achieved in each stage as
1:47
the rotating blades increase the
1:49
relative velocity of the air then the
1:53
stator stationary blades convert the
1:55
gain kinetic energy into a pressure rise
1:57
and guy dare to enter the following
1:59
stage at the proper angle the compressor
2:03
consists of two major components the
2:06
compressor rotor and the compressor
2:08
stator the compressor rotor has 17
2:12
stages of rotating blades it is
2:15
assembled of 15 individual wheels and to
2:18
stub shafts
2:20
all wheels are held together with 16 tie
2:24
bolts and nuts
2:29
the forward stub shaft is machine to
2:32
provide the following features thrust
2:34
collar which carries the axial
2:36
downstream and upstream thrust forces to
2:39
prevent rotor axial movements journal
2:43
surface forbearing number one and
2:45
surfaces for oil and air seals forward
2:49
balancing groove to add balancing
2:51
weights for vibration control forward
2:55
flange to connect the gas turbine shaft
2:57
to the auxiliary gearbox a speed ring
3:02
with 60 teeth is attached to the forward
3:04
flange for speed measurements and
3:07
protection the after stub shaft is
3:10
machine to provide the following
3:12
features a fan is machined on the
3:15
forward side of the stub shaft this fan
3:18
draws air through the gap between the
3:20
16th wheel and the aft stub shaft to
3:23
cool the turbine rotor parts
3:26
after balancing groove a flange to
3:30
connect the compressor rotor to the
3:31
turbine rotor labyrinth teeth to mate
3:35
with compressor stator parts to prevent
3:38
compressor discharge air from escaping
3:40
inside the inner barrel around bearing
3:42
number to the compressor rotor blades
3:46
are airfoil shaped and are attached to
3:48
the wheels by means of dovetail
3:50
arrangement the first wheel blades are
3:54
mounted on the wheel portion of the
3:55
forward stub shaft and they have only
3:58
after spacers while the next 15 wheel
4:01
blades have forward and aft spacers
4:08
the 17th stage blades are mounted on the
4:11
wheel portion of the apt stub shaft and
4:14
they have only forward spacers these
4:17
spacers are placed to maintain the
4:19
relative position between the rotor and
4:21
the stator blades rotor blades are held
4:24
an axial position by staking at both
4:26
ends of every dovetail slot compressor
4:30
blades cannot be replaced with the rotor
4:33
in position wheels must be disassembled
4:36
the compressor stator consists of four
4:40
main components the inlet casing the
4:43
forward casing the aft casing the
4:47
discharge casing
4:52
the inlet casing is located at the
4:55
forward end of the gas-turbine the blue
4:59
painted section at the forward of the
5:01
casing is called the bell mouth the
5:05
interbelt mouth is positioned to the
5:07
outer Bell mouth by eight airfoil shape
5:09
struts the bell math function is to
5:13
direct the air normally and uniformly to
5:16
the inlet guide vanes for efficient air
5:18
flow control and better inlet flow
5:21
coefficient the lower half of the bell
5:24
mouth provide support for bearing number
5:27
one a stationary labyrinth seal is
5:30
installed at the aft end of the inlet
5:32
casing to prevent suction of
5:34
contaminants into the compressor
5:36
variable inlet guide vanes are located
5:41
at the aft end of the inlet casing the
5:44
function of these guide vanes is to
5:46
control the amount of air flow across
5:48
the compressor the total number of the
5:51
inlet guide vanes is 64 blades
5:57
each played stem is inserted into a
6:00
whole machine on the inlet casing each
6:04
four of them are supported from below by
6:06
one
6:07
intersegment
6:10
opinion here is installed to each played
6:13
stem and is keyed into position
6:16
these opinions are rotated by a ring
6:18
gear which is assembled to the control
6:20
ring
6:24
the control ring is positioned by a
6:26
hydraulic actuator to obtain the desired
6:28
inlet guide vanes opening angle the
6:31
opening angle for this gas turbine
6:33
ranges from 34 to 84 degrees
6:38
the forward casing contains the first
6:41
for compressor stator veins
6:47
the lower half is equipped with two
6:49
trunnions used with other trunnions on
6:52
the turbine shell to lift the gas
6:54
turbine to or off the turbine base
6:57
it also features a mounting point for
7:00
the forward turbine support plate the
7:04
aft casing contains the fifth to the
7:07
tenth compressor stator veins
7:12
a groove is machine at the forward face
7:14
around the 5th wheel blades where air is
7:17
extracted for cooling and ceiling
7:19
functions through two ports in the upper
7:21
half
7:23
and two on the lower half
7:27
another groove is machined around the
7:29
11th wheel blades where air is extracted
7:32
for surge protection during transient
7:34
operation
7:42
the discharge casing is the final
7:45
portion of the compressor casings being
7:48
the largest single casting it is the
7:50
keystone of the gas-turbine structure it
7:54
connects the compressor to the turbine
7:55
section and supports the combustion
7:58
system the discharge casing contains the
8:02
last seven stages of compressor veins
8:06
and two rows of exit guide vanes the
8:11
discharge casing consists of outer and
8:13
inner cylinders these inner and outer
8:16
cylinders are connected by means of 12
8:18
struts these struts flare out to meet a
8:21
large diameter of the turbine shell
8:23
while providing spacing for transition
8:26
pieces in between
8:29
the inner cylinder is extended to the
8:32
forward side by the inner barrel the
8:36
inner and outer cylinders of the
8:37
discharge casing form the compressor
8:40
diffuser which converts some of the
8:42
kinetic energy of the compressed air
8:44
into a pressure rise at the forward end
8:49
of the inner barrel a honeycomb seal is
8:51
installed to mate with the labyrinth
8:53
teeth on the aft stub shaft a brush seal
8:58
is running against the rotors smooth
9:00
surface this arrangement is also known
9:03
as the high-pressure packing
9:07
the function of this arrangement is to
9:09
control the amount of compressed air
9:11
leakage inside the inner barrel this air
9:15
despite being used to cool the first
9:17
forward wheel spaced the amount should
9:19
be minimized to improve unit efficiency
9:22
and minimize air leakage inside bearing
9:25
two seals
9:27
the lower half of the inner cylinder
9:29
supports the bearing number two and
9:32
provides the opening for the lube oil
9:33
supply and drain piping the upper half
9:38
of the inner cylinder has an opening for
9:40
the vent pipe seals are installed these
9:43
openings to prevent compressed air from
9:45
escaping inside the inner cylinder
9:55
the discharge casing also supports the
9:58
turbine first-stage nozzles the first
10:02
stage nozzle support ring is mounted on
10:04
the aft end of the inner cylinder the
10:09
stationary veins of the compressor are
10:11
also airfoil shaped the blades of the
10:14
first eight stages are mounted by
10:16
dovetail arrangement to ring segments
10:22
these ring segments are inserted into
10:24
circumferential grooves on the casing
10:26
the blades of the last nine stages have
10:30
a square base dovetail and are inserted
10:32
directly into the circumferential
10:34
grooves on the casing two rows of exit
10:37
guide vanes are located at the end of
10:40
the compressor these stationary veins
10:42
help in reducing the rotation of the
10:44
airflow and increasing the pressure
10:51
the combustion system of this gas
10:54
turbine is a reverse flow type with 14 d
10:58
ln 1 can annular combustion chambers
11:00
arranged around the periphery of the
11:03
compressor discharge casing combustion
11:06
chambers are numbered counterclockwise
11:08
as viewed looking downstream starting
11:11
from the vertical centerline with dual
11:14
fuel capability this turbine burns
11:17
either gas fuel or liquid fuel in this
11:21
section the pressurized compressor
11:23
discharge air is directed upstream to
11:26
enter the combustion zone mixed and
11:28
burned with fuel producing hot gases
11:31
which will drive the turbine the
11:34
combustion system main components are
11:36
the combustion rapper combustion can
11:40
cover
11:44
primary fuel model secondary fuel Mazel
11:51
the liner
11:56
Flo sleeve
12:01
transition pieces
12:08
crossfire tubes
12:14
spark plugs
12:20
flame detectors
12:25
the combustion rapper is a fabricated
12:28
horizontally split casing that encloses
12:30
the combustion system it provides a
12:33
supporting surface for combustion
12:35
chamber assemblies the rapper forms a
12:38
large plenum which receives the
12:40
compressor discharge air
12:42
this air is directed upstream to the
12:44
combustion chambers the forward face of
12:48
the rapper is slanted at 13 degrees
12:50
angle from the vertical and contains
12:53
machined openings to mount the 14
12:55
combustion chamber covers the rapper is
12:58
supported by the compressor discharge
13:00
casing
13:02
and the turbine shell
13:08
the combustion chamber cover function is
13:11
to carry the combustion chamber
13:13
components
13:19
the flow sleeve is mounted on the
13:22
combustion chamber cover
13:27
the flow sleeve forces the air to move
13:30
upstream forming a uniform air jacket
13:33
around the liner for precise combustion
13:35
and cooling functions among the 14
13:38
chambers the liner is the core of the
13:42
combustion system inside the liner air
13:46
and fuel are mixed and burned providing
13:49
hot gases the liner is mounted on the
13:52
flow sleeve at the forward side by three
13:54
liner stops
14:02
and supported at the aft by inserting
14:05
the liner inside the transition piece
14:07
this configuration allows thermal
14:10
expansion of the liner spring seals
14:14
located at the aft end of the liner to
14:16
prevent the compressor discharge air
14:18
from leaking into the hot gas path the
14:22
liner consists of the liner body
14:30
multi nozzle cap assembly
14:37
and the venturi these parts are
14:40
assembled together by rivets combustion
14:45
air flows into the liner through various
14:47
locations primary combustion air flows
14:51
through the primary gasps tips
14:56
air enters for metering holds for
14:59
combustion functions
15:07
secondary combustion air enter through
15:10
the center body
15:20
dilution air enters the liners from
15:23
three holes at the aft side of the liner
15:27
due to the extremely high temperatures
15:30
encountered inside the liner all
15:32
surfaces which are exposed to the flame
15:34
are protected by thermal barrier coating
15:40
the combustion liner is also protected
15:43
by film cooling as air flows through the
15:45
liner cooling rings to make an air film
15:48
adjacent to the liner surface this air
15:50
film keeps the hot gases away from the
15:53
liner metal
15:56
the liner cap is protected by film
15:59
cooling
16:04
and backside impingement cooling
16:11
the venturi is cooled by backside
16:13
impingement cooling
16:18
all combustion chambers are
16:21
interconnected by means of crossfire
16:23
tubes these tubes enable flame to
16:26
propagate from one chamber to another
16:28
cross fire tubes are couples of male and
16:33
female parts
16:39
each is inserted into the liner
16:41
crossfire tube color
16:47
and held on position to the bracket on
16:50
the flow sleeve by the crossfire tube
16:52
retainer all crossfire tubes are
16:56
surrounded by crossfire outer tubes
16:59
these tubes connect the combustion
17:02
chamber outer covers together
17:06
packing is installed to minimize leakage
17:12
and held by flanges on both sides of
17:15
each tube
17:20
outer tubes are prevented from sliding
17:23
by split retainers mounted on the
17:25
flanges as the DLN one system features
17:30
to combustion zones fuel is injected to
17:33
the combustion chambers through the
17:35
primary and the secondary nozzles the
17:39
primary fuel nozzle is functionally
17:41
integrated with the combustion chamber
17:43
and cover and provides a flange in the
17:46
center for secondary nozzle mounting
17:48
fuel is injected into the liner primary
17:52
zone through six identical models gas
17:57
fuel enters the primary nozzles assembly
17:59
through the fuel gas connection flange
18:01
and is routed through internal machined
18:04
passages to the orifices located in the
18:07
gas tips
18:10
Adam izing air is introduced in the same
18:13
manner through internal passages and
18:15
exits to the primary zone through
18:18
multiple holes on each of the gas tips
18:33
water is supplied to the primary water
18:36
injection manifold then distributed to
18:39
the six nozzles through piping
18:42
to each one of the few loyal flange and
18:45
tip assemblies liquid fuel is supplied
18:49
to a liquid fuel distribution valve to
18:52
equally distribute the fuel across the
18:54
six nozzles especially on startup fuel
18:58
flows through piping to the primary zone
19:00
through the liquid fuel tip located at
19:02
the center of the gas tip
19:11
the secondary nozzle features a supply
19:14
flange for secondary gas fuel which is
19:17
injected into the secondary premix zone
19:19
through multiple holes a small amount of
19:24
the secondary gas is injected after the
19:26
secondary swirler this amount is called
19:29
the secondary gasps sub pilot this
19:33
amount of gas promotes the secondary
19:35
flame stability transfer gas for
19:39
transient transfer operation is supplied
19:42
to the relevant supply flange and is
19:44
injected before the secondary swirler
19:46
also
19:49
liquid fuel and water flow from the
19:52
inlet flanges to the combustion zone
19:54
where they are injected at the aft tip
19:57
of the secondary nozzle assembly
20:02
combustion is initiated by means of to
20:05
spark plugs mounted on the 11 and 12
20:08
combustion chambers the spark plug is
20:12
mounted on the sparkplug ball joint this
20:15
joint allows adjustment of the sparkplug
20:18
relative to the liner on a dln one
20:21
combustion system spark plugs remain
20:24
inside the liner throughout all the
20:26
operation for start-up and primary zone
20:29
readmission functions
20:32
once the flame is started on these
20:33
chambers it propagates to the other
20:35
chambers through the crossfire tubes
20:38
flame is detected on combustion chambers
20:42
by means of ultra violet flame detectors
20:45
mounted on four chambers the 14 the
20:48
first the second and the third
20:51
combustion chambers as the DLN system
20:55
features to combustion zones flame is
20:57
detected by for flame detectors in each
21:00
zone the flame in the primary zone is
21:03
detected by flame detectors mounted on
21:06
pads on the combustion chamber cover
21:08
this detector is inclined to detect the
21:11
flame through one of the metering holds
21:14
around the liner body secondary flame
21:17
detectors are mounted on the secondary
21:19
nozzle flame flange flame is detected in
21:23
the secondary zone through a viewport in
21:25
the secondary swirler
21:28
transition pieces are the interface
21:31
between the combustion and the turbine
21:33
sections they direct the hot gases from
21:36
the liners to the turbine first-stage
21:38
nozzles the first stage nozzle entrance
21:42
area is divided into 14 equal areas
21:45
receiving the hot gas flow due to the
21:49
extremely high temperatures of the
21:50
passing hot gases the inside surface of
21:53
the transition piece are coated with
21:56
thermal barrier coating cooling air is
21:59
introduced by allowing compressor
22:01
discharge air through the vent plate to
22:03
the cooling holds machined on the
22:05
transition piece after end the
22:08
transition pieces are sealed to both
22:11
outer and inner side walls of the first
22:13
stage nozzle by the outer and inner
22:16
seals
22:20
these seals are inserted into grooves on
22:23
the first stage nozzle to minimize
22:25
compressor discharge air leakage into
22:27
the hot gas path the sides of the
22:30
transition pieces are sealed by side
22:33
seals side seals are held in position by
22:37
side seal retainer blocks these blocks
22:41
are mounted on the first stage nozzle
22:43
retainer ring transition pieces are
22:46
supported at the aft side by means of
22:49
the aft mounting bracket which is
22:50
mounted on the first stage nozzle
22:53
retainer ring
22:55
each transition piece is supported at
22:58
the forward side by a support clamp this
23:02
support clamp is mounted on the
23:03
compressor discharge casing
23:11
the turbine section consists of three
23:13
stages
23:17
each stage consists of a set of
23:19
stationary nozzles followed by a set of
23:22
rotating blades the stator nozzles
23:25
convert the energy in the hot gases
23:27
leaving the combustion system into
23:29
kinetic energy and direct the gases at
23:32
the proper angle to rotate the moving
23:34
blades to produce the mechanical
23:36
rotational energy the turbine section
23:39
consists of the turbine stator the
23:43
turbine rotor
23:48
the turbine stator consists of the
23:50
following parts the turbine shell
23:56
the shrouds
24:00
the nozzles
24:04
the turbine shell function is to control
24:07
the radial and axial positions of the
24:09
shrouds and the nozzles and the relative
24:12
clearances between the nozzles and the
24:14
rotating buckets the position of these
24:17
parts is critical to the turbine
24:19
performance the lower half features to
24:22
trunnions used with other trunnions on
24:24
the forward compressor casing to lift
24:27
the gas turbine to or off the turbine
24:30
base
24:34
the external surface of the turbine
24:36
shell incorporate schooling passages
24:40
unlike the compressor blades the turbine
24:43
rotating bucket tips don't run directly
24:46
against the stator casing but against
24:49
curve segments called the shrouds the
24:52
primary function of the shroud is to
24:55
minimize the tip leakage
24:57
these shrouds are attached to the
24:59
turbine shell by sliding onto the t hook
25:02
arrangement machine on the turbine shell
25:04
joints between first-stage shrouds are
25:08
sealed by cloth seals shrouds are
25:11
maintained in the circumferential
25:12
position by radio pins from the turbine
25:15
shell the first stage shroud is coated
25:19
with thermal barrier coating to
25:21
withstand the extremely high
25:22
temperatures at this stage the second
25:26
and third stage shrouds have teeth that
25:28
mate with teeth on the tip of the second
25:30
and third stage buckets this labyrinth
25:33
seal minimizes tip leakage or better tip
25:36
clearance a honeycomb seal is integrated
25:39
on the second and third stage shrouds
25:41
this honeycomb is relatively soft
25:44
material the cutter teeth on the tip of
25:47
the second and the third stage buckets
25:49
open a slot on the honeycomb seal
25:52
without any material transferred
25:54
providing tighter clearances to improve
25:57
the unit efficiency shrouds of the last
26:01
two stages are sealed by inter
26:03
connecting tongues and grooves and bikie
26:06
seals in the first stage nozzles hot
26:10
gases received from the combustion
26:11
system are expanded and directed to the
26:14
first stage rotor buckets the first
26:17
stage nozzle consists of 18 cast nozzle
26:20
segments each segment contains two
26:22
airfoil partitions these partitions are
26:25
hollow this permits the relatively cool
26:28
compressor discharge air to cool the
26:30
nozzle segments by entering from the
26:33
impingement plates and exiting through
26:35
holes on the trailing edge into the hot
26:37
gas path
26:43
the 18 segments are contained on a
26:46
horizontally split retaining ring
26:50
the retaining ring is supported to the
26:53
lower turbine she'll buy two lugs
26:55
extruding from the lower retaining ring
26:57
half and held in place by clamps
27:07
the retaining ring is centered by two
27:09
eccentric pins from the turbine shell
27:12
this configuration permits radial
27:15
expansion due to the high temperatures
27:17
encountered while the ring remain
27:19
centered to the shell the aft outer face
27:23
of the retaining ring is loaded against
27:26
the forward face of the first stage
27:27
shroud with steel strips in between to
27:31
prevent compressor discharge air leakage
27:33
between the nozzle and the shell the
27:36
nozzle one assembly is prevented from
27:37
moving forward by four lugs extruding
27:40
from the outside diameter of the
27:42
retaining ring at 45 degrees from
27:45
vertical and horizontal center lines
27:47
these logs fit in a groove machine on
27:51
the turbine shell
27:56
on the inner sidewall the nozzle is
27:59
sealed and supported by direct bearing
28:01
of the nozzle inner load rail against
28:04
the first stage nozzle support ring the
28:07
first stage nozzle support ring is
28:09
mounted on the aft face of the
28:11
compressor discharge inner cylinder hot
28:15
gases leaving the first stage rotating
28:16
buckets are expanded again and directed
28:19
to the second stage rotating buckets by
28:22
the second stage nozzle the second stage
28:25
nozzle set consists of 16 segments
28:30
each segment contains three airfoil
28:32
partitions
28:36
the nozzle segments are assembled by
28:38
fitting the mail hooks on the forward
28:40
and aft sides of the outer sidewall into
28:43
the female groove on the outside of the
28:45
first stage shroud and on the groove on
28:48
the forward side of the second stage
28:50
shroud seals are installed between the
28:53
segments to minimize leakage the nozzle
28:57
segments are held on the circumferential
28:59
position by radio pins from the turbine
29:01
shell into axial slots on the nozzle
29:04
outer side walls annular curve segments
29:08
are attached to the inner sidewall of
29:10
the nozzle these segments are called the
29:13
diaphragms each diaphragm is secured to
29:16
the nozzle by a pin these diaphragm
29:19
segments prevent hot gases leakage past
29:22
the inner sidewall of the nozzle and the
29:25
rotor
29:29
a high-low labyrinth seal is machined on
29:33
the diaphragm inside diameter these
29:36
seals mate with opposite ceiling lands
29:38
on the turbine rotor spacer the second
29:41
stage nozzle is cool by compressor
29:43
discharge air passing through the first
29:45
stage shroud
29:50
some of this air exits through holes on
29:52
the airfoils trailing edges the
29:55
remainder of the cooling air is directed
29:57
to the first stage a squeal space
29:59
through three cooling air tubes
30:01
assembled on the diaphragm a brush seal
30:05
segment is installed on the inside
30:07
diameter of the diaphragm between the
30:09
labyrinth seals this brush seal is in
30:11
continuous contact with the turbine
30:14
rotor spacer surface to control the
30:16
amount of the cooling air passing from
30:18
the first stage after wield space to the
30:21
second stage forward wield space
30:23
this ensures more precise cooling and
30:26
better unit efficiency the third stage
30:30
nozzle receives the hot gases from the
30:32
second stage rotor buckets
30:34
expand it further and directs this flow
30:36
to the third stage rotor buckets the
30:39
third stage nozzle set consists of 16
30:42
segments
30:44
each segment contains four airfoil
30:47
partitions
30:49
a diaphragm segment is also attached to
30:52
the inner side ball of the nozzle the
30:55
third stage nozzles are not air-cooled
30:59
these segments are installed to the
31:02
stator in the same manner of the second
31:04
stage nozzle the third stage nozzle is
31:08
supported by the second and third stage
31:11
shrouds the nozzle segments are held on
31:14
the circumferential position by radio
31:16
pins from the turbine shell into axial
31:20
slots on the nozzle outer side walls the
31:24
turbine rotor consists of the forward
31:28
wheel shaft first second and third stage
31:31
turbine wheels to turbine wheel spacers
31:35
the aft wheel shaft
31:38
all parts are assembled together by 12
31:42
studs
31:44
the forward wheel shaft is machined to
31:47
provide the following features journal
31:50
surface forbearing number two and
31:53
surfaces for oil and air seals
31:58
forward balancing groove
32:03
forward flange to connect the turbine
32:06
rotor to the compressor rotor the
32:08
forward wheel shaft is hollow to pass
32:11
the turbine rotor cooling air the first
32:14
wheel carries the 92 buckets of the
32:17
first turbine stage like the next two
32:20
stages buckets could be disassembled
32:22
without rotor removal being the first
32:25
part then encountered by the hot gases
32:27
leaving the first stage nozzles these
32:30
buckets are protected by thermal barrier
32:32
coating from outside and air cooled from
32:35
inside when the bucket is attached to
32:38
the wheel a small air plenum is formed
32:41
in between
32:47
the rotor internal cooling air which
32:49
passes through slots on the forward face
32:51
of the first wheel spacer is fed into
32:54
these plenums cooling airflow from this
32:56
plenum to a series of longitudinal air
32:59
passages to cool the bucket and exit at
33:02
the recessed bucket tip buckets are
33:05
attached to the wheel by straight axle
33:08
entry multiple tank dovetails that fit
33:11
into matching cutouts on the wheel rims
33:13
the buckets are prevented from moving
33:16
axially by the D key arrangement a radio
33:20
locking pin is installed before the
33:22
first bucket then the first bucket is
33:26
installed and locked in place by the D
33:29
key
33:33
this is repeated for the next 90 buckets
33:39
the last bucket is installed and an
33:41
axial locking pin is inserted on the
33:44
locking bucket dovetail this pin pushes
33:47
the radio locking pin to hold the last
33:50
bucket on position the first wheel
33:54
spacer is located between the first and
33:57
second turbine wheels spacer function is
34:01
to define the axial position of the
34:03
turbine wheels the outer diameter of the
34:06
spacer carries the diaphragm ceiling
34:09
lands slots are machined on both forward
34:13
and aft faces for cooling functions
34:22
the second wheel carries the buckets of
34:25
the second turbine stage 92 buckets are
34:29
also installed on the second wheel
34:31
buckets are attached to the wheel by the
34:35
same dovetail arrangement of the first
34:37
stage but they are held on the axial
34:40
direction by twist locks arrangement
34:42
twist locks our first placed on the
34:45
wheel
34:49
then buckets are installed as a 360
34:52
degrees ring due to the interlocking
34:55
between the buckets
34:56
once the buckets become on position the
34:59
twist locks are rotated and stacked
35:06
buckets are internally cooled by the
35:09
rotor internal cooling air which passes
35:11
through slots on the aft face of the
35:14
first wheel spacer
35:17
this air is fed into a plenum casted on
35:20
the bucket shank from this plenum air
35:23
flows into spanwise holds machined on
35:25
the bucket and exits at the bucket tip
35:35
the second stage bucket tip is enclosed
35:39
by a shroud which is a part of the tip
35:41
seal the shrouds interlock from bucket
35:44
to bucket to provide vibration damping
35:47
these shrouds also featured the cutter
35:50
teeth which open slot on the honeycomb
35:53
seal and mates with the seals on the
35:55
shroud block the second wheel spacer is
35:59
located between the second and third
36:01
turbine wheels slots are machined on the
36:04
forward face
36:08
the forward face of the spacer is
36:10
machined to form a gap at the mating
36:13
surface with the second stage wheel for
36:15
cooling functions the third wheel
36:19
carries the buckets of the third turbine
36:21
stage 92 buckets are also installed on
36:25
the third wheel third stage buckets are
36:28
not internally cooled third stage bucket
36:31
tip is also enclosed by a shroud
36:36
buckets are attached to the wheel by the
36:38
dovetail arrangement and held on the
36:41
axial direction by twist locks
36:43
arrangement like the second stage the
36:46
aft wheel shaft is machined to provide
36:49
the following features journal surface
36:52
forbearing number three and surfaces for
36:54
oil and air seals
36:58
aft balancing groove
37:02
a flange to connect the turbine rotor to
37:05
the generator rotor
37:10
the turbine rotor must be maintained at
37:13
reasonable operating temperature to
37:15
assure a longer turbine service life for
37:18
this purpose bucket veins are not
37:20
directly attached to the dovetail
37:22
instead they are connected to their
37:25
dovetails by means of shanks these
37:28
shanks locate the bucket two-wheel
37:30
attachment at a significant distance
37:32
from the hot gases combined with the
37:34
diaphragm segments this arrangement
37:36
isolates the rotor away from the hot
37:39
gases flow
37:41
seals from the first stage nozzle
37:43
support ring mate with ceiling wings
37:45
extruding from the forward side of the
37:48
first state bucket shank also seals from
37:52
both sides of each diaphragm mate with
37:54
stealing wings from both sides of each
37:56
bucket the seal from the exhaust frame
38:00
mates with the ceiling wing on the aft
38:02
side of the third stage bucket shank all
38:06
these seals reduce leakage of the hot
38:08
gases radially inward to rotor parts
38:10
improving turbine efficiency and
38:13
protecting the rotor parts the rotor
38:16
parts are cooled by positive flow of
38:19
cooling air discharged radially outward
38:21
through a space between the turbine
38:23
wheels and the turbine stator parts
38:26
these spaces are called the wheel spaced
38:29
the first stage forward wheel space is
38:33
cooled by compressed air leaking from
38:35
the high-pressure packing at the forward
38:37
end of the inner barrel the first stage
38:40
Act wheel space is cooled by the
38:42
compressor discharge air supply through
38:45
the second stage nozzle the second stage
38:48
forward wheel space is cooled by a
38:51
portion of the first stage a squeal
38:53
space cooling air which passes through
38:55
the labyrinth and brush seal the second
38:59
stage after wheel space is cooled by the
39:01
rotor internal cooling air which passes
39:04
through the slots on the forward face of
39:06
the second wheel spacer the third stage
39:10
forward wheel space is cooled by a
39:12
portion of the second stage after wheel
39:14
spaced cooling air which passes through
39:17
the labyrinth seal the third stage after
39:20
wheel spaced obtains the cooling air
39:23
from the exhaust frame cooling system
39:26
the rotor internal extraction cooling
39:29
air is utilized for bucket and wheel
39:31
spaced cooling this airflow also
39:34
maintains the parts of the rotor at
39:36
approximately compressor discharge
39:38
temperature
39:39
this ensures longer service life for
39:42
turbine rotor parts
39:46
for efficient gas turbine operation
39:49
clearances between all rotating and
39:51
stator parts should be tight as possible
39:54
as the turbine shell controls the radial
39:57
and axial position of all turbine stator
40:00
parts the shell should be isolated from
40:02
the high temperature of the enclosed hot
40:05
gases
40:06
this will ensure the control of the
40:08
shell diameter and roundness to be
40:10
maintained the heat transfer from hot
40:14
gases is reduced by the following means
40:17
hollow shroud blocks provide high
40:20
thermal resistance between the hot gases
40:22
and the turbine shell the first stage
40:26
crowds are cooled by the compressor
40:28
discharge air the third stage shrouds
40:32
are cooled by cooling air from the
40:34
cooling and sealing system
40:36
this air is extracted from the
40:38
compressor fifth stage and supply to the
40:41
third stage shrouds through six holds
40:44
machine on the turbine shell combined
40:47
with the Assembly of the nozzles between
40:49
shrouds hot gases are kept away from the
40:52
shell
40:54
heat transfer from the nozzle segments
40:56
to the shell is reduced by means of
40:59
installation packages the external
41:02
surface of the turbine shell
41:03
incorporates cooling air passages
41:06
cooling air is supplied from the exhaust
41:09
frame cooling circuit
41:14
to control the amount of airflow
41:16
multiple metering orifices are installed
41:19
on the flow passages
41:25
the exhaust assembly consists of two
41:27
parts the exhaust frame and the exhaust
41:30
diffuser
41:33
the exhaust frame consists of inner and
41:36
outer cylinders connected together by 10
41:39
radial struts
41:45
the inner cylinder supports bearing
41:48
number three
41:55
the lower part of the outer cylinder
41:57
features mounting points for the turbine
42:00
at legs and the jib key
42:10
the inner side of the exhaust frame
42:12
parts is covered by the inner and outer
42:15
diffuser the outer diffuser surface is
42:19
manufactured to provide divergent
42:21
cross-sectional area to increase the
42:23
exhaust gases pressure
42:29
the struts are covered by airfoil shaped
42:32
bearing surfaces the inner and outer
42:36
diffuser and the airfoil shape bearing
42:39
surfaces are metal surfaces which
42:41
protect the exhaust frame parts from
42:44
being exposed to the high temperatures
42:46
of exhaust gases to maintain temperature
42:48
stability the stability is required to
42:52
keep the exhaust frame inner cylinder
42:54
which carries the bearing number three
42:56
in the accurate position avoiding any
42:59
misalignment to ensure the temperature
43:02
stability air is forced by means of two
43:05
off-base blowers between the exhaust
43:07
frame outer cylinder and the exhaust
43:09
frame diffuser surface through four
43:12
ports
43:18
a portion of this air goes to the
43:20
cooling holes around the turbine shell
43:22
and the remaining air flows between the
43:25
struts and its outer airfoil shape
43:27
bearing surface
43:30
then cooling air exits in two directions
43:34
to the third stage after wheel space and
43:38
to the inside of the inner cylinder
43:40
around bearing number three to protect
43:43
the instrumentation in this area from
43:45
being exposed to high temperatures the
43:49
portion of the exhaust frame inside the
43:51
exhaust plenum which is exposed to
43:53
exhaust gases is covered by insulation
43:56
packs to reduce heat transfer the
44:01
exhaust diffuser is located at the
44:03
extreme aft end of the gas-turbine
44:05
bolted to the exhaust frame the exhaust
44:10
diffuser is a fabricated assembly
44:12
consisting of inner cylinder and outer
44:15
divergence cylinder this divergent
44:18
configuration reduces the exhaust gases
44:21
velocity and increases its pressure
44:24
at the aft end of the diffuser five
44:27
turning vanes direct gases from the
44:30
axial to the radial direction into the
44:32
exhaust plenum the inner side of the
44:36
inner cylinder is isolated by insulation
44:39
packs to reduce the heat transferred to
44:41
the load coupling tunnel and to the
44:44
bearing number three area
44:50
the gas turbine rotor is supported by
44:53
three bearings
44:55
these bearings hold the rotor in the
44:58
radial direction by journal bearings and
45:00
in the axial direction by thrust
45:02
bearings
45:07
bearing one is located in the center of
45:10
the compressor Inlet casing and held in
45:12
place by straps
45:21
the bearing components are installed
45:23
inside the bearing housing which
45:25
consists of the lower and the upper
45:27
halves
45:31
this bearing contains an elliptical
45:33
journal bearing loaded thrust bearing
45:36
and unloaded thrust bearing labyrinth
45:40
seals are installed at each end of the
45:42
housing where oil control is required
45:44
their teeth run against smooth surfaces
45:47
machined on the rotor
45:49
seals are assembled so that a small
45:52
clearance exists between the seals and
45:54
the shaft the ceiling airflow from the
45:58
cooling and sealing system through the
46:00
axle tube machine at the right side of
46:02
the housing and is admitted to the
46:04
labyrinth seals through two ports two
46:07
annular spaces surrounding the seals
46:12
between the two rows of seal teeth
46:15
ceiling air is admitted through multiple
46:18
radial holes to stop oil from spreading
46:21
along the shaft some of this air returns
46:25
with the lube oil and is vented through
46:27
the lube oil mist eliminator and some
46:29
escapes out of the housing
46:32
in bored of the main pressurized seals
46:35
to backup labyrinth seals are installed
46:38
for positive ceiling
46:42
a floating seal is installed on the
46:45
forward of the thrust bearing cavity to
46:47
contain the oil the journal bearing
46:50
components are the bearing liner and the
46:52
journal surface machined on the
46:54
compressor forward stub shaft the
46:57
bearing liner consists of two halves
46:59
fitted on the bearing housing the liner
47:02
inside faces are machined to make
47:05
convergent oil clearance in which oil
47:07
pressure increases around the shaft
47:09
journal to support it after machining
47:12
these faces are coated with bat alloy
47:15
for lubrication oil is supplied through
47:19
the oil feed pipe to a port in lower
47:22
bearing housing
47:26
where the oil fills an annular space
47:28
around the liner
47:32
and is admitted inside the liner through
47:34
two grooves machined at the horizontal
47:37
matching edge
47:40
oil is drained through the vertical
47:42
drain slot at the bottom of the lower
47:44
liner half to the journal drain cavity
47:47
down to the oil drain piping the thrust
47:52
bearing major components are the thrust
47:54
runner which is integrated in the
47:56
compressor rotor forward stub shaft and
47:59
to thrust bearings during the normal
48:01
operation of the gas-turbine the sum of
48:04
axial forces induced by the airflow on
48:07
the compressor stages and the hot gases
48:09
flow through the turbine stages tend to
48:12
move the rotor in the upstream direction
48:14
so that the active thrust bearing is
48:17
located on the forward side of the
48:19
thrust runner while in the transient
48:22
operation during startup and shutdown
48:24
the shaft tends to move in the
48:26
downstream direction where the inactive
48:29
or unloaded thrust bearing is located
48:31
the active thrust bearing is a tilting
48:35
pad equalizing type bearing an
48:38
equalizing type bearing is capable of
48:41
sustaining high axial loads and is
48:43
tolerant of shaft and housing
48:45
misalignment the main components of this
48:48
bearing are the base ring
48:56
the tilting pads upper leveling plates
49:00
lower leveling plates shim plate
49:09
the base ring provide support for all
49:12
parts of the bearing assembly and key
49:14
parts in the proper location the pads
49:17
are shaped like a sector of a ring the
49:20
bearing surface is covered with that
49:21
alloy every pad has a hardened steel
49:25
button on its back called the pad
49:27
support this pad support allows the pad
49:30
to tilt slightly in any direction the
49:33
leveling plates are functionally small
49:35
leavers they align the bearing pads with
49:38
the thrust runner and equalize the load
49:40
among the pads
49:41
despite any possible slight misalignment
49:43
of the shaft axis from the normal the
49:47
leveling plates are mounted on the base
49:48
ring by dowels and screws such that the
49:51
plates are free to tilt on their
49:53
fulcrums
49:57
the load transmitted by the thrust
50:00
runner to a single pad causes the pad
50:03
depress on the upper level plate right
50:05
behind it
50:07
each of the upper leveling plates in
50:08
turn is supported by one edge of to
50:11
lower leveling plates the other edges of
50:15
the lower level plates take part in
50:17
supporting the adjacent upper leveling
50:19
plate on either sides as a result of
50:23
this arrangement any excess of thrust
50:25
load on a single pad is immediately
50:27
shared through the leveling plates so
50:30
that all bearing pads will automatically
50:32
receive equal loading for lubrication
50:36
oil is supplied through the oil feed
50:38
pipe to two ports in the lower bearing
50:41
housing
50:43
where the oil flows into annular space
50:45
around the base ring then oil flows
50:49
through grooves machined on the back
50:51
side of the base ring to the bearing
50:53
cavity
50:54
where it is carried by the pumping
50:56
action of the thrust runner to the
50:58
entire bearing surfaces oil exits at the
51:02
pads periphery to the thrust bearing
51:04
drain cavity down to the lube oil drain
51:07
piping the inactive thrust bearing is a
51:11
tilting pad na equalizing type bearing
51:13
on non equalizing type bearing is also
51:17
capable of sustaining high axial loads
51:19
but less tolerant of shaft and housing
51:22
misalignment this bearing is
51:24
functionally identical to the active
51:26
thrust bearing except that it doesn't
51:29
have leveling plates instead the tilting
51:32
pads are directly supported at their
51:34
back by the base ring oil control plates
51:37
are installed between pads
51:41
for lubrication oil is supplied through
51:45
the oil feed pipe to a port in lower
51:47
bearing housing where the oil flows into
51:50
annular space around the base ring then
51:54
oil flows through holes on the back side
51:56
of the base ring to the oil control
51:58
plates which introduced the oil directly
52:01
to the bearing surface before each of
52:03
the pads oil exits at the pads periphery
52:07
to the thrust bearing drain cavity to
52:09
the lube oil drain piping
52:15
bearing two is located in the center of
52:18
the inner cylinder of the compressor
52:20
discharge casing and held in position by
52:23
straps the bearing components are
52:26
installed inside the bearing housing
52:28
which consists of the lower and the
52:30
upper halves bearing two is located in a
52:34
pressurized area between the compressor
52:36
and the turbine
52:41
this compressed air is leaking from the
52:44
high-pressure packing at the aft end of
52:46
the compressor shaft
52:49
labyrinth seals are installed on both
52:52
ends of the housing to prevent this air
52:54
from leaking inside the housing since
52:58
any air leakage past these seals doesn't
53:00
perform any additional work any
53:03
reduction in this flow will result in an
53:05
increase in the unit performance a brush
53:09
seal is installed on both labyrinth
53:11
fields to minimize air leakage as much
53:13
as possible bearing to has a vented
53:17
cavity
53:22
the compressed air leaking from the
53:24
outer labyrinth seals is vented to the
53:26
atmosphere through a vent pipe mounted
53:29
on the top of the housing
53:34
in bored of the outer air seals to
53:38
pressurize the labyrinth seals are
53:40
located for lubricant control
53:44
ceiling air supply through a pipe
53:46
concentric with the vent pipe fills the
53:49
ceiling air cavity
53:59
and flows between the two rows of each
54:01
of the labyrinth seals some air escapes
54:05
to the vented cavity and the remaining
54:07
returns with the lube oil the journal
54:10
bearing components are the bearing liner
54:12
and the journal surface machined on the
54:14
turbine forward wheel shaft
54:18
as the upper and lower housing parts are
54:20
not symmetric around the liner a liner
54:23
strap is installed on the top to provide
54:25
support for the liner and form the
54:27
annular space for lube oil flow
54:33
for lubrication oil is supplied through
54:36
the oil feed pipe
54:41
to a port in the lower bearing housing
54:44
where oil fills the annular space around
54:46
the liner
54:48
and is admitted inside the liner through
54:50
two grooves machined at the horizontal
54:52
matching edge
54:55
oil deflectors are mounted on both ends
54:59
of the liner to help containing oil
55:01
inside the liner oil is drained through
55:04
the vertical drain slots at the bottom
55:06
of the lower liner half to the lube oil
55:09
drain cavity down to the oil drain
55:11
piping
55:16
the number three bearing is located at
55:19
the aft end of the turbine in the center
55:21
of the exhaust frame the bearing
55:24
components are installed inside the
55:26
bearing housing which consists of the
55:28
lower and the upper halves bearing three
55:32
is a tilting pad journal bearing this
55:35
type of bearing is used in situations
55:37
where slight misalignment is expected
55:41
labyrinth seals are installed in housing
55:43
where oil control is required their
55:46
teeth run against rotor smooth surfaces
55:48
the ceiling air flows from the cooling
55:51
and sealing system through the axle tube
55:54
machine at the left side of the housing
55:56
and is admitted to the labyrinth seals
55:58
through two ports two annular spaces
56:01
surrounding the shields
56:05
between the two rows of seal teeth
56:07
similar to other bearings ceiling air is
56:10
admitted through multiple radial holes
56:12
to stop oil leakage some of this air
56:14
returns with the lube oil and some
56:17
escapes out of the housing a forward air
56:21
deflector seal is installed at the
56:23
forward side of the housing to prevent
56:25
cross flow and vent holes are machined
56:28
on the housing the bearing liner of the
56:32
tilting pad type consists of a retainer
56:34
ring
56:37
and five tilting pads the tilting pads
56:41
are assembled so that high pressure oil
56:43
film is generated between each pad and
56:46
the rotor journal surface this produces
56:49
symmetrical force on the bearing surface
56:50
that helps to maintain shaft stability
56:53
each pad is mounted to the retainer ring
56:56
by two pins
57:01
and supported from the backside by a
57:03
pivot pin
57:08
this configuration allows the pad to
57:10
rotate in two dimensions this movement
57:14
makes this type of bearing capable of
57:16
tolerating small amounts of shaft
57:18
misalignment for lubrication oil is
57:22
supplied through the oil feed pipe to a
57:24
port in the lower bearing housing
57:29
we're Oriole feels an annular space
57:31
around the liner retaining ring oil is
57:34
admitted inside the liner through five
57:36
orifice holes machine radially on the
57:39
retainer ring to the gaps between pads
57:42
to floating ring seals are mounted on
57:45
both ends of the retainer ring to
57:47
maintain an adequate amount of oil
57:49
inside the liner assembly
57:52
oil is drained through the vertical
57:54
drain slots at the bottom of the lower
57:56
retainer ring half to the oil drain
57:59
cavity down to the oil drain piping