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Table of content
Content page

Acknowledgement ................................................................................................... iii


Introduction ................................................................................................................1
CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................2
1. BACK GROUND OF TOURISM .........................................................................2
2. Definition of tourism..............................................................................................3
2.1Types of Tourism ..................................................................................................................................................4
2.1.1 Domestic tourism .........................................................................................................................................4
2.1.2 International tourism ....................................................................................................................................4
2.1.2.1 Inbound tourism; ...................................................................................................................................4
2.1.2.2 out bounded tourism; ............................................................................................................................4
2.1.2.3 leisure tourism; ......................................................................................................................................4
2.1.2.4 Business tourism; ...................................................................................................................................5

CHAPTER TWO .......................................................................................................5


2. The Relationship International Tourism with Human Behavior, Culture, And
Globalization ..............................................................................................................5
2.1 Human behavior ..................................................................................................................................................5
2.2 Culture; ................................................................................................................................................................6
2.3 Globalization ........................................................................................................................................................6
2.3.1 International tourism versus culture; ...........................................................................................................6
2.3.2 International Tourism Vs Globalization; .......................................................................................................7

CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................9


3. Ethiopian Ministry of Culture and Tourism Main Focuses and Major Tourism
Concerns.....................................................................................................................9
3.1 Main Focus of the Ministry ..................................................................................................................................9
3.2 Major concern of the ministry .............................................................................................................................9
3.3 policies and strategies of tourism development in Ethiopia .............................................................................10
3.4 Objectives of tourism development ..................................................................................................................13
3.5 The Basic Principles of the Policy .......................................................................................................................14
3.6 Ethiopian tourist attraction areas and destinations ..........................................................................................15
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3.6.1 Historical scenarios .....................................................................................................................................15
3.6.2Natural scenarios; ........................................................................................................................................15

Chapter four .............................................................................................................17


4. Role of tourism in Ethiopia ..................................................................................17
4.1 economical role of tourism in Ethiopia ..............................................................................................................17
4.2 SOCIAL ROLE OF TOURISM.................................................................................................................................19
4.3 Cultural role of tourism .....................................................................................................................................20

CHAPTER FIVE .....................................................................................................21


5. Types and functions of travel agents ...................................................................21
5.1 What is travel agent? .........................................................................................................................................21
5.2 Function of travel agent.....................................................................................................................................21
5.3 Types of travel agents ........................................................................................................................................22

CHAPTER SIX ........................................................................................................22


6. ETHICAL ISUES OF TOURISM .......................................................................22
6.1 Ethical issue of the host community ..................................................................................................................23
6.2 ethical issue of the guide ...................................................................................................................................23
6.3 ethical issues of the tourists ..............................................................................................................................24

CHAPTER SEVEN .................................................................................................24


7.1 The unanticipated consequence of tourism ......................................................................................................24
7.2 Economic impact of tourism ..............................................................................................................................24
7.2.1 Inflation; .....................................................................................................................................................24
7.2.2 Dependency ................................................................................................................................................25
7.2.3 Seasonality; .................................................................................................................................................25
7.3 Social impact of tourism ....................................................................................................................................25
7.4 Cultural impact of tourism .................................................................................................................................25
7.5 Environmental impact of tourism ......................................................................................................................26

CHAPTER EIGHT ..................................................................................................26


8. Community based tourism ...................................................................................26
Summery ..................................................................................................................28
Reference .................................................................................................................29
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Acknowledgement

We have taken efforts in this term paper. However, it would not have been possible
without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. We would like to
extend our sincere thanks to all of them.

We are highly indebted to thank Treck Ethiopia tour agency manager Gamal Hussein and
Gondar city guide association chair man Gatachew Meles and second chair man Amare belete
for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information
regarding the term paper.

We would like to express my gratitude towards our parents for their kind co-operation
and encouragement which help me in completion of this term paper.

We thanks and appreciations also go to our colleague in developing the project and
people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities
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Introduction
This term paper is concerned with the course sociology of tourism which is new to our
department. This term paper is an assignment for impartial fulfillment of the course. And it asses
the definition of tourism, types of tourism, the relation between tourism and globalization,
human behavior, and culture; the other concern of this term paper is the main focus and major
tourism concern of the Ethiopian ministry of culture and tourism, policies and strategies of
tourism development in the country, the Ethiopian tourist attraction areas and destinations
weather historical or natural scenario. In addition this term paper deals with type and function of
travel agents, the role of tourism in specific country or destination place, the ethical issues of
tourists, travel agents, guides, and local communities, furthermore the main focus of this term
paper is the impact of culture on tourism and impact of tourism on culture. At the same time this
term paper examines the unanticipated consequence of tourism in terms deferent social aspects
such as social, economical, cultural, and political.

While preparing this term paper we viewed deferent literatures and we collect data
through interview from the department of tourism and some travel agents.
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CHAPTER ONE

1. BACK GROUND OF TOURISM


According to Dannis L. Foster’s “an introduction to travel and tourism”, tourism is as old
as civilization itself. As ancient world empires grew in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
The infrastructure ne necessary for tourism and travel such as land routes and water ways
was created and vehicles for travel were developed through time to time.

During the Assyrian empire the means of travel were improved largely for military use
they made further improved to the road system and develop four wheeled carriages for
transportation.

The early Greeks also advanced travel and tourism development in to two particular areas

First they introduce coin currency to replace the need for travelers to carry goods for barter
exchange of other goods in the destination areas.Second they spread their language
throughout the read Mediterranean sea area. Making it easier to communicate as one
traveled. During this time Athens was the particular destination area of tourist for pleasure
because there were some religious festivals, and events like the Olympic Games held every
four years at Olympia. Greeks were also trying to develop their tourism by deferent
meanness for instance they develop a ten-volume guideline in 170AD by the Greek
Pausanias that entitled “Guide to Greek” which targets the Roman tourist market and
described the Grecian monuments, sculptures and stories and myths behind them. In addition
the Romans also were toured to Egypt to see the sphinx and pyramids.( Dannis L. Foster, an
introduction to travel and tourism, NA)

According to William C. Gartner’s work “tourism development”, 1996 during the middle
age tread and travel was declined due to different causes such as horrible diseases, war, and
disripairation of the roads. But the church was the main source of tourism due to pilgrimage,
religious expansions by monastery and for knowledge acquire or scholar ships.
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The origin of modern tourism is industry is believed to have begun with the Grand tour
which was not successful during Elizabethan period. Later through grand tour school may of
European cities develop superior hotels and services for their guests but still travel is risky
and laborious specially rural stay was seen as evil during 1700c. after the age of industrial
revolution and social revolution in Britain and French. The invention of water and land
vehicles the tourism and tour was developed. (William C. Gartner tourism development,
1996)

2. Definition of tourism
Early definition of tourism had been focusing on the spatial dimension. During this time a
person was considered as tourist when he moved a specific distance away from his home.

The United States national tourism resources review commission one of the early spatial
definitions of domestic tourist. The distance used was 50miles, and all types of travel except
commuting to work were included, length of stay and minimum expenditure were irrelevant.

The us census bureau which conduct national travel survey every five years used a 100mile
distance plus the requirement of one or more night away from home within paid
accommodation.(William C. Gartner, tourism development, 1996)

According to WTO tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in
places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure,
business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the
place visited.
Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a
displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of means of transportation (he might
even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, and happens even in more
developed ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers ...). But all travel is not tourism
(WTOdefinitiontourism.pdf )
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2.1Types of Tourism
According to Rob Davidson based on the special dimension of tourism or origin
and destination tourism is categorized in to two main categories which are domestic and
international tourism.

2.1.1 Domestic tourism

In this kind of tourism the place of origin and place of destination are the same.
This is used to describe tourist trip which take place within own country for example if
the tourist is Ethiopian domestic tourism could be from Mekelle to Gondar, Bahrdar to
Hawasa etc.(Rob Davidson, tourism, 1993)

2.1.2 International tourism

Such tourism used to cross more than one nation boundary such as tourist trip
from Kenyan to Ethiopian, Chains to Tanzania etc. according to Rob Davidson
inbounded and out bounded tourism are also forms of international tourism.

2.1.2.1 Inbound tourism; this is a kind of tourism which means gating tourists to own
country from another country or abroad. Or when Ethiopia is taken as a resident please or
destination America tourist comes to Ethiopia.

2.1.2.2 out bounded tourism; such tourism is done through leaving once own country to
another country it could be for the purpose of leisure tourism; like holiday, sports which
are not professional, cultural events, visiting friends and relatives, and any other business
tourism.( Rob Davidson 1993)

In addition tourism can be categorized in to two based on its purpose. Those are
leisure tourism and business tourism.

2.1.2.3 leisure tourism; is a tourism which consists holiday tourism such as festivals,
trips to beaches, visiting historical moments; sport tourism is the other kind of tourism
which in compasses shipping, horse riding, hunting and etc. visiting friends and relatives,
moving for honeymoon, a week end stay with friends and others are also some other kind
of leisure tourism.
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2.1.2.4 Business tourism; this form of travel consists mainly exhibition and trade fairs,
conference and conventions.

Furthermore there are other purpose of tourism such as study, religion pilgrimage, and
health.

CHAPTER TWO

2. The Relationship International Tourism with Human Behavior, Culture,


And Globalization
Before we proceed to the relationship we better define what those terms are

2.1 Human behavior; Human Behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms
exhibited by humans in conjunction with their environment, responding to various stimuli
or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and
voluntary or involuntary. HB is influenced by many factors, including: attitudes, beliefs,
emotions reasoning culture, values, ethics, religion authority, rapport, motivation,
persuasion, coercion genetics. (http://www.mbabrief.com)

Human beings are programmed response in every sense of the word. We learn
everything that we are from others. We are not born with knowledge or personality; we
acquire those from society-at-large. ( http://epluribusunum56.com/human_behavior.html )
as an example; if, at the moment you were born, you were exchanged with a baby being
born in Ethiopia, and your skin, hair, and eyes were altered to that of other Ethiopians,
you would grow up and be an entirely different person. Your taste in food, music, dress,
and all your aspects of culture would be entirely different from who you are today.

If the two of you were to meet as adults, neither would recognize similar
behavioral attributes in the other. Each of you would have entirely different
personalities. Genetically, you may have the same physical attributes/propensities, but
you would have developed them differently, dependent on the physical requirements of
your lifestyle. (http://epluribusunum56.com/human_behavior.html )
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Environmental factors such as food, living-conditions, and healthcare, would have
affected your overall appearance, attitude, and physiology. You would experience each
other as total strangers. you would each talk differently, dress differently, and have
different information and views concerning the world. Not even your height would be
the same, because it is determined by many other factors other than just your genetics

2.2 Culture; culture could have deferent meanings based on deferent dimensions but
sociologically it defines as follows,

The word culture is used in much broader sense to mean all of the learned, shared
ideas and products of a society it could be material or non material. Which includes
beliefs, values, politics, customs, rule and regulations, morality, law, social institution,
art, language, and material objects, in fact everything people have done or created to
gather, shared with one another, and transmitted to one another from generation to
generation.(Erich Goode,sociology,1988,2end edition)

2.3 Globalization; Globalization as a concept refers both to the "shrinking" of the


world and the increased consciousness of the world as a whole. It is a term used to
describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of
dramatically increased cross-border trade, investment, and cultural exchange. The
processes and actions to which the concept of globalization now refers have been
proceeding, with some interruptions, for many centuries, but only in relatively recent
times has globalization become a main focus of discussion. The current or recently-past
epoch of globalization has been dominated by the nation-state, national economies, and
national cultural identities. The new form of globalization is an interconnected world and
global mass culture.

2.3.1 International tourism versus culture; International tourism continues to


be among the foremost vehicle for cultural exchange, providing a personal experience,
not only of that which has survived from the past, but of the contemporary life and
society of others. It is increasingly appreciated as a positive force for natural and cultural
conservation. Tourism can capture the economic characteristics of the heritage and
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harness these for conservation by generating funding, educating the community and
influencing policy. It is an essential part of many national and regional economies and
can be an important factor in development, when managed successfully.
(Http://Www.Icomos.Org/Tourism/Charter)

According to ICOMOS, International Council on Monuments and Sites Tourism


itself has become an increasingly complex phenomenon, with political, economic, social,
cultural, educational, bio-physical, ecological and aesthetic dimensions. The achievement
of a beneficial inter-action between the potentially conflicting expectations and
aspirations of visitors and host or local communities, presents many challenges and
opportunities.

The natural and cultural heritage, diversities and living cultures are major tourism
attractions. Excessive or poorly-managed tourism and tourism related development can
threaten their physical nature, integrity and significant characteristics. The ecological
setting, culture and lifestyles of host communities may also be degraded, along with the
visitor's experience of the place.

Tourism should bring benefits to host communities and provide an important


means and motivation for them to care for and maintain their heritage and cultural
practices. The involvement and co-operation of local and/or indigenous community
representatives, conservationists, tourism operators, property owners, policy makers,
those preparing national development plans and site managers is necessary to achieve a
sustainable tourism industry and enhance the protection of heritage resources for future
generations. (Ibid)

2.3.2 International Tourism Vs Globalization; According to Kevin Meethan’s work “tourism


in global society” globalization begins after industrial revolution in United Kingdom as a result
of development in infrastructural development such as roads, trains, airlines etc and now a day
due to the development of mass medias like radio, television and internet the inter connectivity
between country, increasing economic depth, political relations and etc.
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The global flow of information, capital, people, and culture are realized in specific socio-
economic and spatial forms as the development of new networks of places and emergence of
consumption. Thus become important in terms of the internationalization of business like airline,
hotel, and tour operators that have facilitated the growth long haul and capital consumer. (Kevin
Meethan, tourism in global society, 2001)

According to http://www.planeta.com tourism is arguably the world's largest industry -


and continues tremendous annual growth rates. The industry's gains grew to $439 billion dollars
last year. As the world's natural areas are also destroyed at an alarming rate, the tourism industry
is encroaching on remote and biologically diverse areas, home to Indigenous Peoples and
threatens our environment and way of life. According to the World Tourism Organization, in
1998 there were 635 million tourist arrivals around the world. For the recipients (host countries)
of international tourism, the tourism industry creates dependency upon a fickle and fluctuating
global economy beyond their local control. Local economic activities and resources are used less
for the benefit and development of communities and increasingly for export and the enjoyment
of others (i.e., tourists, consumers in other areas of the world). With so few international policies
and guidelines restricting it, tourism has been given free reign to develop throughout the world.
In fact, it has led the globalization process in the areas of transportation, communications, and
financial systems.

It has been promoted as a panacea for "sustainable" development. However, tourism's


supposed benefits (generation of employment, development of infrastructure, etc.) have not
"trickled down" or benefited Indigenous Peoples. The destructiveness of the tourism industry
(environmental pollution and enormous waste management problems, displacement from lands,
human rights abuses, unfair labor and wages, commodification of cultures, etc.) has brought
great harm to many Indigenous Peoples and communities around the world. Recently we have
witnesses many government bodies, international environmental treaties, and other policies as
they are made about "sustainable tourism," yet Indigenous Peoples have not been invited to
participate adequately in these policies which will have negative consequences for the rest of
time.( http://www.planeta.com)
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"Global tourism threatens indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights, our
technologies, religions, sacred sites, social structures and relationships, wildlife, ecosystems,
economies and basic rights to informed understanding; reducing indigenous peoples to simply
another consumer product that is quickly becoming exhaustible."
-Deborah McLaren (http://www.planeta.com) In general tourism plays an increasingly important
role in international relations. Links exist between tourist flow and regional integration,
governments, military, and economic aid. “Most nations have several policies toward foreign
tourists that are based not only on anticipated length of stay, but also on the degree of
international cooperation existing between the two countries

CHAPTER THREE

3. Ethiopian Ministry of Culture and Tourism Main Focuses and Major


Tourism Concerns
3.1 Main Focus of the Ministry

Based on the Ethiopian ministry of culture and tourism’s development policy, the
ministry focuses on the following issues,

• guiding the sector in a broad based development framework,


• developing the existing and new tourism attractions and products,
• expanding the infrastructure and tourist services that are vital for the growth of the sector,
• ensuring that the country benefits from the sector by being sufficiently competitive in the
international tourism market, and
• solving the serious limitations in capacity which are apparent in the Industry.( Tourism Development
Policy 2009)

3.2 Major concern of the ministry


According to the federal democratic republic of Ethiopian ministry of culture and tourism’s
policy, the ministry gives a great concern to development of tourism the following are among the
basic reasons that responsible and sustainable tourism is preferred as an effective engine of
development for African and other developing countries.
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A. Tourism is a typical source of foreign exchange, which is helpful for importing various
inputs for development and maintaining the balance of payments of a country;
B. These countries possess diverse and authentic, internationally renowned, wonderful
cultural, historical and natural attractions, most of which are located in rural areas;
C. Because tourism is inherently labor intensive and creates employment opportunities
specially for the poor, the young, women and the physically handicapped, it plays a
significant role in the poverty alleviation of these countries by creating jobs and income;
D. The infrastructure built for tourism development can greatly benefit the economically
disadvantaged sections of society and in addition can create opportunities for growth and
development of agriculture, industry, construction, transport and communication as well
as other economic and social sectors;
Above and beyond its economic advantages, tourism promotes better and reciprocal
understanding and closer relations among peoples, thereby fostering a culture of peaceful
coexistence and mutual respect. (Tourism Development Policy 2009)

3.3 policies and strategies of tourism development in Ethiopia

Policies were stated to formulate in Ethiopia since 1965 according to the ministry’s
tourism development policy program. This time was also a time that tourism gat a recognition as
a sector of means of economic growth by the then government. As a result tourism grew at an
average annual rate of 12% until 1974. In the four years from 1970-1973, the average number of
tourist arrivals to Ethiopia was 63,833 per year, while the average annual income was 10.2
million dollars. The average annual growth rates achieved during this period were 18.2 and 13
percent, respectively. (Tourism Development Policy 2009)

But after the durg regime come to power the sector became declining drastically due to
the instability and war, recurrent drought, strained political and diplomatic relations with tourist
generating country, restriction on the entry and travel within the country.

According to the UNWTO’s current analysis of tourist arrivals puts Ethiopia’s average
annual growth in international tourist arrivals at 5.6 percent for the period 1990-2000, and at 15.4
percent during the period 2000-2008. The average growth rates achieved during the more recent
years represent an encouraging trend indeed. Yet the fact that, for instance, Ethiopia’s share of
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the tourist flow to the East African Region of seventeen countries in 2007 was 0.7 percent
demonstrates the very low stage of development the country is at, despite its numerous historical,
cultural and natural attractions.( Tourism Development Policy 2009 )

Because it is believed that tourism has the power and capacity to assist in the on-going
effort to eliminate poverty and accelerate development sustainably, provided Ethiopia’s
attractions are appropriately developed and put into service, tourism has been included as one of
the means of implementing the country’s plan for accelerated and sustainable development to
end poverty. In connection with this, an assessment of the domestic opportunities and limitations
of the sector on the one hand, and the international opportunities and challenges on the other,
would essentially help to clearly understand the prevailing conditions of the sector.

According to the Ethiopian ministry of culture and tourism’s Tourism Development Policy 2009
the favorable opportunities of Ethiopia’s tourism are divided in to two main topics,

A. Ethiopia’s Possession of Varied Attractions


It is known that Ethiopia is full of varied historical, cultural and natural attractions; it is the
possessor of eight world heritage sites( but now they are eleven) and many fossils attesting that it
is the cradle of humankind; and on top of all that, its people are hospitable and their cultures
diversified a combination which makes it suitable for tourism development.
B. The Country’s Political and Economic Foundations
Ethiopian conditions that are favorable to the growth of the sector are reviewed as follows in
relation to constitutional principles, as well as overall development policies, strategies and
programs
• The human and democratic liberties and rights of citizens are guaranteed by the constitution.
• Nations, nationalities and peoples have equal recognition under the constitution.
• The market-led economic system being followed by the country firmly guarantees the rights of
the private sector and local communities to participate in and benefit from development.
• The guiding principle of economic diplomacy on which the country’s policy and strategy for
foreign affairs and national security are based makes visible contributions in increasing the
number of visitors by promoting the tourist attractions and building a positive image of the
country, and drawing foreign direct investment which is crucial to the growth of the industry.
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• Because tourism is inherently trans-scrotal, development policies and strategies formulated for
other economic, social and political sectors positively affect tourism directly or indirectly.

• The agricultural and rural development policies and strategies of the country have great
possibilities for increasing farmers' production and productivity and transforming the farmers
into investors responsive to international markets.

• The industrial development strategy of the country, enhancing the private sector’s share in
development, enables it to fulfill its role in the growth of tourism.

• Ethiopia is the seat of the headquarters of the African Union, the Economic Commission for
Africa, and more than 105 embassies and numerous international organizations.

• Moreover, Ethiopia has a national airline of long standing experience, which has extensively
linked the country to other African countries and major international air transport networks;
Addis Ababa, as an air transport hub, serves to attract internationally renowned air carriers that
provide efficient services; airports serving major tourist destinations of the country have been
modernized and expanded. (Tourism Development Policy 2009)

The development policy of the minister has stated to challenges that affect tourism in the
country those are domestic and external challenges,

A Domestic challenge

The domestic challenge is also divided into two main categories

1 limitation in supply to the basic growth of the sector;

 Inadequate protection, less developed and less use as tourist attraction of those historical
and natural scenarios.
 There is a serious shortage in number and type of tourist facilities at existing and
potential tourist destinations and vicinities; moreover, the quality of service is poor and
unsatisfactory to tourists.
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 Interpretations of tourist attractions are not based on credible facts and knowledge; they
are not consistent; and their presentation is disorganized.
 Handicrafts, other local creative products, performing arts and entertainment services,
which could have helped to lengthen the stay and increase the speed of visitors at every
destination, are not offered in sufficient variety, quantity and quality.
2 limitations in implementing capacity of the sector; there are some weakness with
respecting to the human resource mgt, operating system, institutional capacity. The sector is
facing with shortage of highly trained and moderately trained manpower that is crucial to the
development of the sector. Branding and market positioning based on timely studies are not in
use. There are also capacity limitations among tourism stakeholders, and mutual support and
coordination of efforts among them have not been strengthened
B external challenges;
Ethiopian tourism is challenged externally because of the image the country had before
like draught, famine, and wars even though thus are passed histories of the country but still it
affects the international image of the country. In addition the horn Africa is seen as a region of
instability and terrorism. Due to this the tourism sector of the country is challenged externally.
Even though the external challenge is affecting the sector, but there are also some external
opportunities favoring the tourism, for instance? International tourism shows growth year after
year. The use of modern information and communication technologies is expanding the
dissemination and efficiency of information in tourism. Among international tourists, interest in
authentic, indigenous and organic products is increasing highly from time to time.

3.4 Objectives of tourism development


A. To ensure concretely the country’s full benefits by sustaining competitiveness in the
international tourism market, by turning Ethiopia into a particularly preferred destination in
Africa, and by maximizing direct and indirect economic benefits.
B. To build a tourism industry that makes important contributions in earning and conserving
foreign exchange, and integrates into the economic growth of the country.
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C. To create extensive employment opportunities for communities at tourist destinations and to
ensure community benefits through a wider distribution of income, and to enhance community
participation in decision making on development.
D. To realize a tourism industry that builds a positive image of the country, carries on the sector's
development in a responsible and sustainable manner, with the capability of growing without 50
disrupting peoples' culture and life styles and the natural environment.
E. To build an industry that can lengthen the tourist’s stay by solving observed limitations in
service in the sector and provide for the progressive growth of capacity in tourist facilities
deployed in the field.

3.5 The Basic Principles of the Policy


A. Respect for Pluralism; Because diversity in history, culture and natural resources is
Ethiopia’s beauty and distinguishing endowment, the assets have to be equally recognized,
respected and developed as tourist attractions.
B. Guaranteeing Community Participation and Benefits; With respect to the sustainable
development and promotion of existing and new attractions, encourage communities at
destinations in particular and the public in general to participate in and benefit from the
development.
C. Instituting Management Transparency and Responsibility; As the development of tourism
requires the involvement of many parties across sectors, the institution of good governance is
necessary in order to ensure that all stakeholders meet the ethical demands of tourism.
D. Creating Partnership; By forming strong links and creating cooperation and partnership
among actors in the sector at destination, regional, national, sub-continental, continental and
global levels, foster the practice of working together for common objectives. In particular,
encourage small and medium enterprises (SME’s) in the sector to create for cultivating a culture
of exchanging experiences and best practices, and working in partnership.
E. Enhancing the Implementation Capacity of the Sector; to ascertain that the country gets
the full benefits of tourism development, enable all bodies engaged in the sector to effectively
render quality tourism services by enhancing their implementation capacities.
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3.6 Ethiopian tourist attraction areas and destinations

According to ( www.tourismethiopia.gov.et ) Ethiopia is a land of wonder and


enchantment, a country with one of the richest histories on the African continent, a land of
contrasts and surprises, of remote and wild places, home to cultured and friendly people who are
descended from some of the world's oldest civilizations.

This is the land of the fabled Queen of Sheba, home of the Ark of the Covenant, the
birthplace of coffee. 'Lucy: the world's oldest known almost-complete hominid skeleton, more
than three million years old, was discovered here.

Ethiopian tourist attraction areas and destinations are divided in to two those are
historical and natural scenarios, let see them each

3.6.1 Historical scenarios : the Historic Route, covering the ancient town of Axum, with its
amazing carved obelisks, Christian festivals and relics, including the Ark of the Covenant;
Gondar, with its castles and palaces; Lalibela, with its remarkable rock-hewn churches; Negash,
one of the earliest holy Muslim centers from the Prophet Muhammad Era with the Negash
Amedin Mesgid; the walled Muslim city of Harar and Lega Oda, near Dire Dawa where you can
see cave paintings considered to be thousands of years old. In addition there are also the
Monasteries like Kibran Gebriel and Kidanemhiret dating back to 14th century which are too
much attractive found in lake Tana which is source of Blue Nile.

3.6.2Natural scenarios; Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile, is the largest lake with 37
islands and the Monasteries like Kibran Gebriel and Kidanemhiret dating back to 14th century.
The Great Rift Valley lakes, many with national parks, are home to a wealth of bird and animal
life. The high, rugged, Simien Mountains in the north and the Bale mountains in the southeast
are also home to some unique wildlife and rich flora, and are ideal for trekking, whilst some of
Ethiopia's fast-flowmg rivers are becoming famous for white-water rafting.

There are eleven national parks and four sanctuaries where 277 species of wildlife and
more than 850 species of birds can be seen. The Simien Mountains National Park is registered by
UNESCO as a world heritage site and is home to three of the endemic mammals, Walia Ibex,
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Gelada Baboon and Abyssinian Wolf. Ras Dashen, the fourth highest peak in Africa with an
altitude of 4,620 metres, is also located within the National Park.

Other National Parks include Bale Mountains and Abijatta-Shalla in Oromia, Nech Sar,
Mago and Omo National Parks in the south and Yangudi Rasa in Afar, Gambella National park
in Gambella, as well as Awash in both Oromia and Afar Regions.

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia's friendly and safe capital city, has so much to offer, too, with its
first-class hotels and restaurants, museums and palaces, and good shopping, which includes the
Mercato - Africa's largest open-air market. Ethiopia is a mosaic of people with more than 80
languages, different lifestyles, costumes and cultural dances. People's livelihoods vary from
pastoralists and farmers to factory workers, business people and academics.(
http://www.tourismethiopia.gov.et )

Ethiopia has been called 'the land of a thousand smiles'. Visit us and you can be sure of a
great welcome, a memorable holiday, and the experience of a lifetime. As (
http://www.tourismethiopia.gov.et ) this web site indicated Ethiopia is more attractive to tourists
because of these characters which are listed as follows,

Ethiopia is the cradle of human kind


Coffee is Ethiopia’s gift to the rest of the world
Ethiopia has its own Alphabet, Numeric and Calendar
Ethiopia has never colonized
Ethiopia is the second country to accept Christianity as official religion
Ethiopia has 9 UNESCO registered world heritage sites
Ethiopia is mentioned many times both in the holy Bible and holy Qur’an
Ethiopia is the land of the great long distance runners
Ethiopians are the pioneers to use a tool before 2.8 million years ago
Ethiopia is the fourth largest biodiversity zone in the world
Where the original Ark of the Covenant is found
More than 70% of Africa’s maintains found in Ethiopia
The source of the great blue Nile river which contribute 85% of the Nile river
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Preserves the piece of true cross on which Jesus Christ is believed to have been crucified
The Great Rift Valley which is the only geographical feature of planet earth visible from
the moon, cuts Ethiopia in to two crossing the country from top to bottom
The single tallest monument ever erected by humanity in the BC is found (Axum)
Ert’ale is one of the few places on planet earth where one can see active, live, continued
and dramatic volcanic eruption
Has more unique species of flora than any other country in Africa.

CHAPTER FOUR

4. Role of tourism in Ethiopia


Tourism could have different roles in Ethiopia based on different dimensions such as
economical, social, cultural, political, and others. Tourism has different roles in particular
country who receive high tourists yearly.

4.1 economical role of tourism in Ethiopia


In third world country like Ethiopia their manufacturing industry is comparatively weak
developed and has less scope for exporting product. Reliance is in low cost primary products and
imported high cost products largely in the case of luxury hotel development that often use
imported rather than indigenous products. So tourism can improve the balance of payment by
bringing foreign currency. This may lead to the indigenous business competent in the
international market. ( S.Page, P.Brunt, …, J.Connels tourism amodern synthesis,2001)

Another role of tourism in the host or destination area is creating employment for the
people which could be categorized in to three thus are direct, indirect, induced.

Direct; a kind of job created due to the visitor’s expenditure and directly supporting the tourism
activities for instance guiding, hotels, care rentals, restaurants and etc.

Indirect; such jobs are resulted from not as direct involvement of in the tourism activity but with
in tourism supply sectors.

Induced; this kind of job is also created from tourism expenditure as local residents spend money
earned from tourism. (Ibid)
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Generally tourism is an in visible export which brings foreign exchange to a country that can
facilitat over all activities of the country and leads the country to penetrate the international
market.

Based on our own perception tourism could plays a great economic role in countries like
Ethiopia that has no great manufacturing and exporting companies which may provide foreign
currency to the country. Providing foreign currency is one economic role of tourism, tourism can
create employment in deferent tourism activities like in hotels, as guidance, hand craft producer,
etc. in addition tourism offers the balance of payment and economic growth.

Tourism is the one of the most important aspect for developing countries. Both domestic
and international tourism must be considered to evaluate the impact of tourism on the economy.
To the host region/area travel provides a basis for developing tourism as an export industry,
which means that the level of economic activities of the area shall increase through the sale of
products and services to the tourists.

Tourism provides foreign exchange without exporting anything out of the country and it
provides more stable earnings for the country than any other industry. It increases export
earnings and a rate of growth of the economy. The income in the form of foreign exchange
earnings from an invisible exports helps in offsetting the loss if any, which the country may have
from a visible export.This balance of payments may also be defined as “a statement of income
and expenditure on international accounts”. Payments and receipts on international account are
of three kinds:

A) Visible balance of trade (relating to the export and import of goods and commodities
manufactured).

B) Invisible items (relating to services such as transport, shipping, banking, insurance)

C) Capital Transfers; Apart from revenue increase the tourism also has impact on employment
generation. Accelerate the development of an area. The amount of visitor’s expenditure that
remains in an area and provides a source of income to residents and businesses is called direct
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effect and this money is further paid to suppliers, wages of workers and other items used in
producing the products or services purchased by the visitors is secondary effect.

Tourism and Tax earning: The government of almost all countries have always vested
interest in the financial gains through tourism industry. Depending upon the tax and fiscal
policies government derives substantial income from tourism industries and direct and indirect
taxes are levied on different forms of income and economic activities. UNWTO World Tourism
Barometer, vol. 4, #2 (June 2006), p. 2. For destination countries, receipts from international
tourism count as exports and cover all transactions related to the consumption by international
visitors of, for instance, accommodation, food and drink, transport in the country, fuel,
entertainment, shopping, etc. It includes transactions generated by same-day as well as overnight
visitors. However, it does not include receipts from international passenger transport contracted
from companies outside the travelers' countries of residence, which are reported in a separate
category, international passenger transport

4.2 SOCIAL ROLE OF TOURISM


Tourism can play a role of being a passport for peace (M.Robinson and
P.Bonifac,tourism and cultural conflict,1999) international tourism is serving as a means to
facilitate national and international relations by making in contacts, learning foreign languages,
and engaging in debate with other. This Eurocentric, moralistic tradition remains and has
developed into political advocacy. In addition building up on the travel broadens the mind and
school of thought. Tourism has been cited as a potential means of contributing to world peace.

When the tourist comes into contact with the places he visits and its population, a social
exchange takes place. His social background affects the social structure and mode of life of his
destination, he is in turn affected by it and sometimes carries back home with him new habits and
way of life. Travel experiences often are among the most outstanding memories in the traveler.

The early motivation of travel is regarded as cultural and tourism is been a carrier for the
cultural propagation, which is necessary for a deeper understanding of people and broadening of
knowledge. Relation between the tourist as an individual or a member of group and the social
network such as family, friend, neighbor, where the tourist is seen as a representative of the
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home reference group. Social relations of the tourists group itself, its composition, its tour
program and relations with other groups it encounters. Guest host relations including those who
serve the industry and the host population at the destination, in general this tourism leads to the
host people to develop urbanization, industrialization and modern infrastructures.

4.3 Cultural role of tourism

Cultural tourism is a kind of tourism that helps to establish and reinforce an identity.
This is an essential element in preserving and enhancing national and local pride and spirit.
Culture and heritage features are essential in building a country’s image, thus cultural tourism
can be on of the key instruments in developing a positive image of a country internationally.
Cultural tourism helps preserve the cultural and historical heritage. Tourism makes an important
contribution to culture and historical heritage by providing means for keeping the traditions alive
and finances the protection of heritage as well as increase visitor appreciation of that heritage. In
short - more public interest and more funds for protection. Tourism interest in the heritage site
can be the key in providing political support for the management and protection of the heritage in
question.

Well-managed cultural tourism can encourage the revival of traditions and the restoration
of sites and monuments. Cultural tourism makes it possible to find the balance between
protection and the use of heritage. If overused, the site is ruined, and there will be no future
income. In such a way there is a natural need for sustainable thinking In a world that is troubled
by conflicts and xenophobia often based on misunderstandings, cultural tourism can facilitate
cultural harmony and understanding among people. More in-depth knowledge of other people’s
culture will stimulate understanding and a wish to cooperate. It promotes communication and
integration.

Cultural tourism brings extra income to culture and is thus a very important supporting
factor for culture itself. And as cultural tourism helps differentiate demands and expand the
season, it is essential in further developing the tourism industry. Cultural tourism is more in line
with modern trends and is thus likely to see a further increase within the tourism sector. Cultural
tourism is in line with the demand created by the rising educational levels, the aging population,
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the increasing economic role of women, and the increase in short trips and the general search for
meaning among people. The so-called theme parks have created increased interest in cultural
tourism and internet is ideal to promote cultural tourism. The cultural tourists spend more
money than the average tourist and travel for a longer time. As the increasing pace of life creates
need for free time and preservation of past, cultural tourism becomes big business.
(www.ubc.net-751 (read only))

CHAPTER FIVE

5. Types and functions of travel agents


5.1 What is travel agent?
Travel agent is an organization or person that represents or works on behalf of another
person or business (Paulin Horner, travel agency practice, 1994) it works on behalf of the client
or customer who is booking a holiday or travel arrangement and also on behalf of any company
or diplomat the agent is making the book in return the travel agent will receive commission or
payment made to the travel agent on a percentage bias.

5.2 Function of travel agent


Travel agents are involved in giving advice about destination’s climate, geographical
location; the means of transport and accessibilities like airplane, automobile, bus etc;
accommodations like stare holder hotels restaurants, motels and lodges and others; in addition
they give an advice to clients about visas, health precaution, and insurance.

Furthermore travel agents have another functions of making a book for independent
travelers whom travel in group or independently for pleasure, business, travelers whom are
traveling to participate in conferences, trade, exhibitions to study in investment conditions; and
package holyday makers are used to prefer their booking to make by travel agent (Paulin
Horner,1996)

According to Jemal Hussein who is a manager and guide of Treck Ethiopia tour agency
an agent is expected to do like giving proper information, buying plane tickets, hotels, preparing
cars to their clients. (Personal communication)
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5.3 Types of travel agents


According to Paulin Horner based on the size, organization, and specialism in various markets
within the travel scenes. Travel agencies categorized in to three which are independent, multiple,
and implement travel agency.

Independent travel agent; they are privately owned. often with a single location. Sometimes
with a few outlet with in local area.

Multiple travel agency; generally they have more than twenty outlast often on a nationwide
base more or less they have financial linkage with the major tour operating companies.

Implement travel agency; thus are based within the promises of a corporate customers or within a
college rather than in the public domain. (Paulin Horner,1996).

Furthermore travel agencies can be categorized based on whom are their customers these can be
distinguished as high street and business house.

High street agencies; these agencies cater mainly for the package holiday makers. Weather that
could be the cheaper mass tourist maker or the more specialized and expensive, cruise, long and
independent marketers.

Business house agencies; they cater mainly for the regular booking of companies in commerce or
industry. ( Paulin Horner,1996)

CHAPTER SIX

6. ETHICAL ISUES OF TOURISM


According to the Ethiopian ministry of culture and tourism ethics is necessary in tourism in order
to the sustainable and responsible use of the historical, natural, cultural, and environmental
phenomenon. And to their protection.
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6.1 Ethical issue of the host community
Being the host community is one component of the tourism activities they should have follow
some ethical conditions

They should respect the rules and regulations regarding to the historical, natural and
environmental protection.
Even though the tourism attraction sites are owned by the host they should remind that
they could be owned by UNESCO.
Protect the tourism attracting things from distraction, steeling, and any unlawful acticity.
Giving a great hospitality to tourists
Respecting the right of travelers to move. and

Keep away from asking money with no providing service to tourists and etc are among the ethics
expected from the host people.

According to treck Ethiopia tour’s manager and guide some host peoples are not respecting thus
ethical conditions, according to him every activity of the tourist destination areas are crowded by
beggars and some illegal activities, unequal payment for the same service with local people and
gusts, the increasing of price during the tourist boomed time for example during epiphany,
Christmas, Easter and etc. (Jamal Hussein personal interviewee)

6.2 ethical issue of the guide


Keep away from any illegal activity
Should be governed by the rule and regulations
Be honest and loyal
Good hospitality
Respecting the tourists
Keeping away from using drugs such as chat, alcohol drinks.
Not participating in activities like hustler
Not participating in illegal circulation of drugs.
Having enough knowledge about what he si guiding
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And according to Amare Belete the second chairman of guides association in facile
gibi Gondar, one guide should have a uniform, badge, well groomed, keep away from
giving wrong information,

6.3 ethical issues of the tourists


Keeping all the countries immigration, health, and other laws and rules.
Tray to have all information about the destinations by asking on the proper pleas
Respecting the host peoples culture, custom, and beliefs.
Keep away from physically, morally, specially women and children harmful activities
Not engage in illegal money exchange

Are some of among the ethics that tourists should respect while traveling to the destination
areas.” There are some tourists who came to expand their own belief or other for example there
was one tourist who was arrested for his need to have a sex with the a boy guide who was a
friend of Amare Belete” (personal communication with Amare Belete)

CHAPTER SEVEN
7.1 The unanticipated consequence of tourism
However tourism has a lot of socio economic and cultural benefits such as glocalizing the
minority cultural aspects and providing economic gains for the host people through encouraging
them to provide services, like hotels, car rentals, need horse coach etc. at the same time if
tourism is noy well managed it has a lot of or multidimensional problem such as economic,
social, cultural, and political aspects of the host people is affected by un managed tourism
activity.

7.2 Economic impact of tourism


Within this term there are also different classifications or among those negative economic
impacts of tourism like inflation, diminished opportunity cost, dependent, and seasonality of
economic activity are going to see each.

7.2.1 Inflation; when tourism develop in particular area tourism based investment are also
raised which needs a large square of lands to build hotels, recreation areas and other tourism
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DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM
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related investment this results in the investment of land price which leads to the local people for
land competition. The increased demand for land has pushed up the average price of the extent
where it is very difficult for local resident whom are not participating in the tourism activities

( S.Page, P.Brunt, …, J.Connels tourism a modern synthesis,2001)

Opportunity costs; this is a cost related to the time, offer and capital of developing tourism at the
expense of other activities or areas of investment if a government invest in tourism. Then the
money spent is unavailable for other uses this may be determinately to the well being of local
community.(Ibid)

7.2.2 Dependency; tourism could be fluctuated due to different aspects like war, terrorism,
natural disaster, economic inflation, and other there for depending on tourism is a much
criticized policy particularly for developing country. Changing in tourism market is less
controllable and decrees in demand for tourism will have a huge effect on the host people

7.2.3 Seasonality; this is the major disadvantage of tourism and can cause negative economic
effect on destination areas. Due to this people on thus area have jobs for only part of the year; the
investment made in tourism business is idle for part of the year. There for tourism related
enterprises may close down entirely in the off peak season.

7.3 Social impact of tourism


In some developing nations, the premature exposure to western idea and technologies has created
a variety of social problem. The introduction of tourism to a new region inevitably altered
people’s daily life introducing gambling, materialism, and greed. Tourism has some time
contributed to social unrest (Dennis L. Foster, an introduction to travel and tourism 2end edition)

7.4 Cultural impact of tourism


Tourism is one agent of western dominated cultural change. International tourism is thought to
influence cultural change through acculturation, enculturation, diffusion, which means that the
contact between the tourism and the host people culture results in sharing and adopting one
another’s attitude, beliefs, value and costumes.
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DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM
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The other harm full impact of tourism in culture is trivialization which means when aspects of
the host culture become degraded and commercialized form of entertainment for tourists.

In addition even peace loving friendly people can react with hostility towards tourists who
constantly clash with the tradition of the host people for example entering to temples, ritual
places with nothing but beach wear, getting drunk in places where predominant religion
forbidden the use of alcohol.

7.5 Environmental impact of tourism


This is mainly caused simply by the volume of the tourist arrival at destination area which are
not able to support people in such great number. The quality of water air and the amount of and
diversity of vegetation and wild life are inevitable affects in some way.

For example Mediterranean see is suffering with vast amount of west material such as untreated
sewage, harmful bacteria and petrol spilling from boats all combined to cause harm to aquatic
plants and wild life. As well as to the tourists who swim. Forests are vulnerable to the impact of
tourism. The danger of tourism. Fire increase as more tourists go to country side for picnic and
campaign fire holyday. Wild life itself despite being protecting in national parks and safari parks,
is often the victim of tourism development. While building facilities like roads, and lodges.
Tourist activities like photographing, hunting, driving around is disrupting the feeding, age
laying, and breeding patterns of wild animals.

The more deliberately distractive is the illegal trade in wild life trophies which leads to the
slaughter of elephants, Zebras, Rhinos and others animals whose hide, skin, and those are
valuable as tourist sourness.(Rob Davidsone, tourism,1993 2end edition)

CHAPTER EIGHT

8. Community based tourism


A community by definition implies individuals with some kind of collective responsibility, and
the ability to make decisions by representative bodies.
Community based tourism is tourism in which local residents (often rural, poor and economically
marginalized) invite tourists to visit their communities with the provision of overnight accommodation.
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DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM
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The residents earn income as land managers, entrepreneurs, service and produce providers, and
employees. At least part of the tourist income is set aside for projects which provide benefits to the
community as a whole.
Community based tourism enables the tourist to discover local habitats and wildlife, and
celebrates and respects traditional cultures, rituals and wisdom. The community will be aware of the
commercial and social value placed on their natural and cultural heritage through tourism, and this will
foster community based conservation of these resources.
The community may choose to partner with a private sector partner to provide capital, clients,
marketing, tourist accommodation or other expertise. Subject to agreement to the ideals of supporting
community development and conservation, and to planning the tourism development in partnership with
the community, this partner may or may not own part of the tourism enterprise.
Community based tourism is playing a crucial role in the development of tourist attractions,
products and services to collaborate with the bodies administering the resources as owners, and by
conserving and protecting these resources with a sense of ownership, to become direct participants in and
beneficiaries from the tourism development of the locality, To provide appropriate care to guests visiting
the local attractions and to extend to them hospitality in accordance with local customs, and to ensure
peace and security in the locality, the community is necessary to the development of tourism. Tourism
Development Policy 2009
The community should recognizing that visitors to attractions are customers, to supply and
ensure the provision of handicrafts, and artistic products and services which are based on visitors demand
and aimed at satisfying their requirement as to quality and quantity,
To protect local cultural and social values as well as the natural environment from negative
influences of tourism, and to take corrective measures rapidly when negative impacts occur,
To cooperate with government bodies, investors and local communities that have leading responsibilities
in the country’s tourism development and to participate in the development and management of the
attractions in order to ensure that benefits are realized, To undertake successively capacity-building
activities for the various varies parties engaged in the development of Community-based tourism is travel
to local indigenous communities that have invited outsiders to experience their customs, food, lifestyle,
and set of beliefs.
These communities manage both the impacts and the benefits of this tourism, strengthening their self-
governance, economic alternatives, and traditional ways of life in the process.
http://www.pachamama.org/community-based-tourism )
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Community-based tourism is managed by indigenous communities. This means the community
assumes collective responsibility for all aspects of your stay, including accommodations, internal travel,
local food, and cultural activities.

Communities reap the benefits from tourism revenue, making community-based tourism a
sustainable alternative to many travel organizations, which often do not work in solidarity with the
communities and environments they use. Through community-based travel, collective wellbeing is valued
over corporate or individual profit.
Sustainability
Communities will only accommodate as many people as they are able, keeping in mind long-term
sustainability, and avoiding unnecessary strain on their own resources. Meals generally draw on local
agriculture, and communities will not take on more guests than their housing and energy resources can
effectively support.
Aside from physical resources, revenue from community-based travel helps to sustain indigenous
cultures and traditions in a rapidly changing world.
http://www.pachamama.org/community-based-tourism

Summery
This term paper has tried to see different concepts of tourism like tourism In order for tourism to
happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of means of
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transportation (he might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies,
and happens even in more developed ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers ...). But all travel is not
tourism. There are different kinds of tourism such as domestic, international, inbound and out
bound tourism in addition there are also general classification of tourism which are pleasure
tourism and business tourism. Tourism despite its benefit like preserving, conserving,
environment and culture increasing industrialization, urbanization are the social benefits of
tourism in addition tourism have wide economic benefits. But tourism have negative economic
impacts of tourism like inflation, diminished opportunity cost, dependent, and seasonality of
economic activity are going to see each. The introduction of tourism to a new region inevitably
altered people’s daily life introducing gambling, materialism, and greed are among the social
negative impact of tourism, in addition Tourism is one agent of western dominated cultural
change. International tourism is thought to influence cultural change through acculturation,
enculturation, diffusion, which means that the contact between the tourism and the host people
culture results in sharing and adopting one another’s attitude, beliefs, value and costumes, and
the volume of the tourist arrival at destination area which are not able to support people in such
great number. The quality of water air and the amount of and diversity of vegetation and wild life
are inevitable affects in some way.

Reference
Dannis L.Foster, an introduction to travel and tourism development, NA
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William C.Gartner, tourism development, 1996, by Jhon William and sons.inc Canada

Gee Chuky, international tourism, not available

Mcintosh, Goldner Ritchie, tourism principles, practices philosophies, 7th edition, 1995, Jhon
William and sons.inc, USA

Rob Davidson, tourism, 2001, produced by parson education Asia,pteltd printed in Singapore

Erich Goode, sociology,1988,2end edition, printic hall.inc New Jersey, USA

Michael M.Coltman, introduction to travel and tourism an international approach, 1998,


vannoster rehinhold.inc 115 fifth avenue New York NY 10003 USA

Paulin Horner, travel agency practices, 1996, Addison Wesley Longman Malaysia

S.Page, P.Brunt, J.Connels tourism a modern synthesis,2001 vannoster rehinhold.inc New York
USA.

M.Robinson and P.Bonifac,tourism and cultural conflict,1999, Jhon William and sons.inc, USA

Jamal Hussein, Treck Ethiopia tour agency manager, personal interviewee

Amare Belete, Gondar guides association second chair man, personal interviewee

Gatachew Meles, hade of Gondar guides association, personal interviewee

WTOdefinitiontourism.pdf

Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia, Tourism development policy, 2001

http://www.mbabrief.com

http://epluribusunum56.com/human_behavior.html

Http://Www.Icomos.Org/Tourism/Charter

http://www.planeta.com

www.tourismethiopia.gov.et

www.ubc.net-751 (Read only)

http://www.pachamama.org/community-based-tourism