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1.

ODW000106 Qos
Configuration
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Objectives
Upon completion of this course,you will be able to:

The basic concept of QoS

Traffic policing and shaping

Congestion management

Congestion avoidance

CBQ

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Course Contents
Basic concept of QoS

Message classification and marking

Traffic policing and shaping

Congestion management

QoS debugging

Congestion avoidance

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Basic Concept of QoS
Qos (Quality of Service) means expected service quality of subscriber
service in case of packet loss, delay, jitter and bandwidth while network
communication
IP Quos target:
Prevent and manage IP network congestion.

Reduce the rate of IP message loss.

Control IP network traffic.

Provide private bandwidth for specific subscribers or service.

Support real-time service over IP network.

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Loss of Packet…
?
Internet

This Is John Smith Speaking ……

One party said, ……

This Is Smith Speaking


……

The opposite party heard……


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Del ay…
Internet

First bit transmitted Last bit received

A A
Processing Processing
delay time
delay Network transit delay

End-to-end delay

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Jitter…
Internet

3 2 1 Sender

3 2 1 receiver

D3 D2 D1

D3=D2=D1
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Bandwidth Limit…

10M

I wa IP
nt 1
00M

M
ant 30
Iw I want 2M

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Three Models of IP QoS
Best-Effort model: Best-Effort model do not ensure the
quality of service
IntServ model: The service sends a signaling to NM to
request special QoS. The NM reserves the resource
according to the traffic parameter to satisfy the request.
DiffServ model: In case of network congestion, control the
traffic and forward differently according to the different
service level stipulated to solve the congestion.

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Best-Effort Model
Best-Effort is a single service model

Using Best-Effort model can transfer any number of packets at any time
without getting previous approval

There is no guarantee with respect to time delay and reliability

It is implemented by first in and first out (FIFO) queue technology

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IntServ Model
Provide controllable end-to-end service.

Network units support QoS control mechanism.

The application applies to NM for specific QoS service.

Signaling protocol deploy in network according to QoS request.

RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) is the most frequently used.

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RSVP Principle
I wa
I want a w a nt a th ban nt a
I d d I want a
bandwidth an dwi s of 2 width
b p Mb bandwidth
of 2Mbps f 2 Mb ps
o of 2Mbps

OK! OK!
OK! OK!

Start to communicate

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RSVP Disadvantages
Require all end-to-end equipment supporting the protocol

The network elements have to save status information for each


application. So its expandability is low.

Protocol message overhead is high for exchanging status information


with neighboring units periodically.

It is not suitable to networks of large size

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DiffServ Model
As the packets enter the DiffServ deals with bulk flows of data rather than single flows and single
DiffServ cloud they are reservations. The contracts resulting from these negotiations are called “service
policed by the level agreement", and will inevitably involve money. These service level agreements
receiver. Within the will specify what classes of traffic will be provided, what guarantees are needed
DiffServ cloud, all the for each class, and how much data will be sent for each class.
individual routers need
to do this to give highest
priority to the packets
with the highest value in
the type of service field

Before packets enter a


DiffServ cloud they are
first classified by the Traffic control
sender. The sender sets
the “type of service" field
(which hence is also
called DiffServ Code User’s User’s
Point - DSCP),in the IP network network
header according to the
class of the data, so that
the better classes get
A "DiffServ cloud" is a collection of
higher numbers. DiffServ routers.

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Course Contents Basic concept of QoS

Message classification and marking

Traffic policing and shaping

Congestion management

QoS debugging

Congestion avoidance

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Traffic classification
Classify services and Regulate traffic over network borders.
Service classification
Based on DS domain
Based on other features
Traffic regulation
Measuring
Marking
Dropping
Shaping

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Message Classification and Marking ACL , IP priority

Basis of QoS execution service


Based on the ACL and IP priority
According to the classification result, pass the packets to other modules
for processing or marking (toning) before classification by the core
network.

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Course Contents Basic concept of QoS

Message classification and marking

Traffic policing and shaping

Congestion management

QoS debugging

Congestion and avoidance

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Traffic Policing Token
bucket

Flow
classification

drop

CAR is the abbreviation for Committed Access Rate


Token barrel algorithm
Control the traffic
Shaping—Enable packet delay output of traffic flow is in accordance with
regulation on service model

Dropping—discard packets according to specific rule

Marking—Set message DS domain or IP priority

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CAR Configuration
Defining rules
qos carl carl-index { precedence precedence-value | mac mac-address }
Applying the CAR policy or ACL on the interface
qos car { inbound | outbound } { any | acl acl-index | carl carl-index }
cir committed-rate cbs burst-size ebs excess-burst-size green action
red action
On one interface, total 100 CAR policy may be applied

After the CAR policy is applied to the interface, this interface will not
support the fast forwarding

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Example S1/0
S1/1

E0/0
[Quidway-ethernet0/0] qos car inbound any cir 800000 cbs 150000 ebs 0 green
remark--prec-continue 5 red discard
[Quidway-serial1/0] qos car inbound any cir 80000 cbs 150000 ebs 0 green
remark--prec-continue 3 red discard
[Quidway] qos carl 1 precedence 3
[Quidway] qos carl 2 precedence 5
[Quidway-serial1/1] qos car outbound carl 1 cir 80000 cbs 150000 ebs 0 green
pass red discard
[Quideay-serial1/1] qos car oubound carl 2 cir 80000 cbs 150000 ebs 0 green pass
red discard
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Traffic Shaping Token

128Kbps
Flow
256Kbps classification
Queue

bucket
128Kbps
FR

GTS (Generic Traffic Shaping) is to solve Interface rates on both sides of the
link are not matching
GTS limits traffic of messages and buffer the messages which
exceeds the traffic limit stipulated
Traffic shaping may increase the delay.

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Example
A B
S1/0 S1/0

[routerA-Serial1/0] qos gts any cir 80000 cbs 150000 ebs 0 queue-length 1000

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GTS Configuration
Configure shaping parameters for a specified flows
qos gts acl acl-index cir committed-rate [ cbs burst-size [ ebs
excess-burst-size [ queue-length queue-length ] ] ]
Configure shaping parameters for all flows
qos gts any cir committed-rate [ cbs burst-size [ ebs excess-burst-
size [ queue-length queue-length ] ] ]

the interface will not support the fast forwarding when using GTS

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Physical Interface Line Rate

Flow
classification
QoS queue
256Kbps
128Kbps

Bucket
LR limites the total rate for sending packets (including the emergency
packet) on a physical interface.
LR also utilizes the token bucket to perform the traffic control
LR using the QoS queue for congestion management

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LR Configuration
Configure the physical interface bandwidth
qos lr cir committed-rate [ cbs burst-size [ ebs excess-burst-
size ] ]

Example

S1/0

[Quidway-Serial1/0] qos lr cir 80000 cbs 150000 ebs 0

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Course Contents Basic concept of QoS

IP QoS classification and marking

Traffic policing and shaping

Congestion management

QoS debugging

Congestion and avoidance

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Congestion Management
Flow
classification

Output
queue
In case of network congestion, ensure messages of different priority levels gain different QoSs,
such as time delay and bandwidth
Put messages into different queues according to their priority levels, and give different
dispatch priorities, probabilities or bandwidths to different queues
FIFO( First In First Out )

PQ( Priority Queue )

CQ( Custom Queue )

WFQ( Weighted Fair Queuing )

RTPQ

CBQ (CBWFQ)

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FIFO
Forwarding packet

FIFO (First In First Out) is simple


First-In First-Out (FIFO) queuing--concepts of no communication
priority and classification
FIFO is the default queuing

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FIFO Configuration
Configure the length of FIFO queue
qos fifo queue-length queue-length
FIFO is the default mode of the Quidway router

By default, the length of the FIFO queue is 75, with the value
ranging 1 to 1024
Display the strategy of the interface
display interfaces interface-type interface-number

[Quidway] display interface s0/0


……
Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/50/0
Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
……
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PQ

Flow
classification

High
Medium
drop Normal
Low

PQ (Priority Queuing) guarantees that the data packet with higher


priority can be sent in time
PQ is divided into 4 queue : High , Medium , Normal , Low

High priority queues will be first dispatched

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PQ Configuration (1)
Configuring the Priority-list Queuing
Configure the priority-list queuing according to the interface

qos pql pql-index inbound-interface type number queue { top |


middle | normal | bottom }

Configure the priority queue according to the network layer


protocol

qos pql pql-index protocol [IP/MPLS] acl alcnumber queue { top |


middle | normal | bottom }

Configuring the default priority-list queuing

qos pql pql-index default-queue { top | middle | normal | bottom }

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PQ Configuration (2)
Apply the priority-list queuing group on the interface
qos pq pql pql-index
Configure the queue length of the priority-list queuing
qos pql pql-index queue { top | middle | normal | bottom } queue-
length queue-length
Default length value of the priority queue

Queue Length

top 20

middle 40

normal 60

bottom 80

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Example
10.10.0.0/16
S1/0

S1/1

[Quidway] acl number 2000


[Quidway-acl-basic-2000] rule permit ip source 10.10.0.0 0.0.255.255
[Quidway] qos pql 1 protocol ip acl 2000 queue top
[Quidway] qos pql 1 inbound-interface serial 1/1 queue bottom
[Quidway] qos pql 1 default-queue middle
[Quidway] qos pql 1 queue top queue-length 10
[Quidway-Serial1/0] qos pq pql 1

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CQ

Flow
classification
Queue 0

Queue 1

Queue 2
drop
Queue 16
CQ (Custom queuing), that the user can configure the proportion of the bandwidth
for the different queue
CQ is divided into 17queues: Queue 0 is the system queue; queue 1 to queue
16 is the user queue.

Each queue satisfies bandwidth the user configured on statistic

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CQ Configuration (1)
Configuring the Custom-list Queuing
Configure the custom-list queuing according to the interface

qos cql cql-index inbound-interface type number queue queue-


number

Configure the custom queue according to the network layer


protocol

qos cql cql-index protocol protocol-name queue-option queue


queue-number

Configure the default custom-list queuing

qos cql pql-index default-queue queue-number

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CQ Configuration (2)
Apply the custom-list queuing group on the interface
qos cq cql cql-index
Configure the queue length of the custom-list queuing
qos cql cql-index queue queue-number queue-length queue-length
Configure the number of the continuously transmitted bytes of the
custom queuing
qos cql cql-index queue queue-number serving byte-count

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Example 10.10.0.0/16
S1/0

S1/1

[Quidway] acl number 2000


[Quidway-acl-basic-2000] rule permit ip source 10.10.0.0 0.0.255.255
[Quidway] qos cql 1 protocol ip acl 2000 queue 1
[Quidway] qos cql 1 queue 1 queue-length 100
[Quidway] qos cql 1 queue 1 serving 5000
[Quidway] qos cql 1 inbound-interface serial 1/1 queue 2
[Quidway] qos cql 1 queue 2 queue-length 90
[Quidway] qos cql 1 queue 2 serving 1000
[Quidway-serial0] qos cq cql 1

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WFQ
Flow
classification

Queue 1

Queue 1

Queue 2
drop
Queue N

N=16,32…2048,4096
WFQ (Weighted fair queuing), assures justice to services with identical priority.
Maximum number of queues can be configured (16-4096)

Use HASH algorithm to dispatches the data flow into different queues

The weight is based on the priority

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WFQ Configuration
Configure the weighted fair queuing
qos wfq [ queue-length max-queue-length [ queue-number total-
queue-number ] ]
Max-queue-length is 64 packets by default

Total-queue-number is 256 dynamic queues by default

Example

S1/0

[Quidway-Serial1/0] qos wfq queue-length 64 queue-number 512

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Basic concept of CBQ

……

CBQ provides users with class definition support.


LLQ provides strictly preferred sending service

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Basic concept of CBQ
Classes
CBQ matches output packets according to rules and enables them to enter
corresponding queues
Traffic behaviors
The behavior of matches the classes. including a group of QoS features.
Traffic policies
a group of classes and the corresponding traffic behavior

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Pre-defined classes
Pre-defined classes
The system pre-defines some classes and defines general rules for them. The user
can use the pre-defined classes when defining the policy. The classes include:

Default class: default-class, matching the default data flow.

DSCP-based pre-defined class: ef, af1, af2, af3, af4, matching IP


DSCP values of ef, af1, af2, af3, af4 respectively.

IP priority-based pre-defined class: ip-prec0, ip-prec1, ip-prec7:


matching IP priorities of 0, 1, …7 respectively.

MPLS EXP-based pre-defined class: mpls-exp0, mpls-exp1, …mpls-


exp7: matching MPLS EXP values of 0, 1, …7.

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Pre-defined behaviors
Pre-defined traffic behaviors
The system pre-defines some traffic behaviors and defines QoS features for them.

ef; define a feature of input EF queue, occupying 20% of the available


bandwidth of the interface.

af: define a feature of input AF queue, occupying 20% of the available


bandwidth of the interface.

be: define no features.

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Pre-defined policies
Pre-defined policies
The system pre-defines a policy, and specifies the pre-defined class for the policy
and specifies the pre-defined behavior for the class. The policy is named default,
with the default CBWFQ behavior.
The detailed rules of the default policy are as follows:
Pre-defined class ef, adopting pre-defined traffic behavior of ef.

Pre-defined classes af1~af4, adopting pre-defined traffic behavior of af.

default-class, adopting pre-defined traffic behavior of be.

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CBQ configuration
The class-based queuing CBQ configuration includes:
Define the class and define a group of traffic classification rules in the
class view.

Define traffic behavior, and define a group of QoS features in the traffic
behavior view.

Define the policy, and define the corresponding traffic behavior for the
class in use in the policy view.

Apply qos policy in the interface or ATM PVC view.

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Classes configuration
Define a Class and Enter the Classmap View (under system view)
traffic classifier tcl-name [ operator { and | or } ]

The user-defined class name tcl-name should not be that of the


classes pre-defined by the system. By default, the class is defaulted
as and. That is, the relation between respective matching rules in the
class view is logic AND
Configure Matching Rules of a Class
if-match [ not ] any

Define the rule matching all packets

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Classes configuration
if-match [ not ] classifier tcl-name

Define/delete classifier match rule

if-match [ not ] acl access-list-number

Define/delete ACL match rule

if-match [ not ] { destination-mac | source-mac } mac-address

Defining/deleting MAC address match rule

if-match [ not ] inbound-interface { interface-name | interface-type


interface-number }

Define/delete input-interface match rule of a class

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Classes configuration
if-match [ not ] dscp { dscp-value }

Define/delete DSCP match rule

if-match [ not ] ip-precedence { ip-precedence-value }

Define/delete ip precedence match rule

if-match [ not ] rtp start-port starting-port-number end-port end-port-


number

Define/delete RTP port match rule

if-match [ not ] protocol protocol-name

Define/delete protocol match rule

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Classes configuration Examples
Define match rule of class1 should be used. The match rule of class1 is the
IP precedence is 5.
[Quidway] traffic classifier class1

[Quidway-classifier-class1] if-match ip-precedence 5


Define the packet whose class is class2, match rule is destination MAC
address is 0050-BA27-BED3.
[Quidway] traffic classifier class2

[Quidway-classifier-class2] if-match destination-address mac 0050-


BA27-BED3

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Traffic behaviors configuration
Define Traffic Behavior and Enter Traffic Behavior View
traffic behavior behavior–name

behavior-name: Name of the traffic behavior. It is not the name of


the traffic behaviors pre-defined by the system.
Configure Features of a Traffic Behavior
queue {af | ef} bandwidth { bandwidth | pct percentage }

Configure AF/EF and minimum available bandwidth

queue wfq [ queue-number total-queue-number ]

Configure fair queuing, can only be associated with the default class

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Traffic behaviors configuration
queue-length queue-length

Configure maximum queue length

can be used only after the queue af command and queue wfq command
have been configured.

wred [ dscp | ip-precedence ]

Configure the discarding mode as random

can be used only after the queue af command and queue wfq command
have been configured.

wred weighting-constant exponent

Configure exponential of average queue length calculated by WRED, can be


used only after the queue af command has been configured and the wred
command has been used to enable WRED

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Traffic behaviors configuration
wred dscp dscp-value low-limit low-limit hjgh-limit high-limit
[ discard-probability discard-prob ]

Configure DSCP lower-limit, upper-limit and discard probability of


WRED

wred ip-precedence precedence low-limit low-limit hjgh-limit high-


limit [ discard-probability discard-prob ]

Configure lower-limit, upper-limit and discard probability of WRED


precedence

car cir committed--information-rate [ cbs committed-burst-size ebs


excess-burst-size ] [ green action [ red action] ]

Use traffic policing

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Traffic behaviors configuration
queue ef bandwidth { bandwidth [ cbs burst ] | pct percentage }

Configure ef and maximum bandwidth

gts cir committed--information-rate [ cbs burst-size [ ebs excess-burst-


size [ queue-length queue-length ] ] ]

configure traffic shaping

remark dscp dscp-value

Set DSCP value to identify matched packets

remark ip-precedence ip-prec-value

Set precedence value to identify matched packets

remark fr-de fr-de-value

Set DE value to identify FR packets

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Behaviors configuration Examples
Configure traffic behavior named test, and configure the minimum
bandwidth of the behavior to 200Kbps and use tail drop and the
maximum queue length as 16 .
[Quidway] traffic behavior test

[Quidway-behavior-database] queue af bandwidth 200

[Quidway-behavior-database] queue-length 16
Configure DSCP value to 6 to identify packets.
[Quidway] traffic behavior database

[Quidway-behavior-database] remark dscp 6

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Traffic policies configuration
Define the policy and enter the policy view
qos policy policy-name

When creating the policy, the default has the default-class as the
default class, which associates with be behavior.
Specify the traffic behavior for the class in the policy
classifier tcl-name behavior behavior-name
Associate an Apply Policy to the Interface or ATM PVC
qos apply policy policy-name { inbound | outbound }

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Policies configuration Examples
Define a policy named as huawei, Specify the behavior test for the class
class1 in the policy huawei. And Apply the policy huawei in the output
direction of interface Ethernet6/0.
[Quidway] qos policy huawei

[Quidway-qospolicy-huawei] classifier class1 behavior test

[Quidway-Ethernet6/0] qos apply policy HUAWEI outbound

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Typical CBQ Configuration Example
PC1 PC3

PC2 PC4

Telephone Telephone

In terms of service, it is required that service 1 occupies a


bandwidth of 10K, service 2 occupies a bandwidth of 20K,
under the premise of ensuring voice service.

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Typical CBQ Configuration Example
Configure Router A
# Configure ACL rule.
[RouterA] acl number 3001
[RouterA-acl-adv-3001] rule normal permit ip source 1.1.0.0
0.0.255.255 destination any
[RouterA] acl number 3002
[RouterA-acl-adv-3002] rule normal permit ip source 10.1.0.0
0.0.255.255 destination any
# Configure class 1.
[RouterA] traffic classifier 1
[RouterA-classifier-1] if-match acl 3001
# Configure class 2.
[RouterA] traffic classifier 2
[RouterA-classifier-2] if-match acl 3002

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Typical CBQ Configuration Example
# Configure priority class.

[RouterA] traffic classifier voip

[RouterA-classifier-voip] if-match rtp start-port 16384 end-port 32767

# Configure traffic behavior (bandwidth of service 1 to be 10K).

[RouterA] traffic behavior 1

[RouterA -behavior-1]queue af bandwidth 10

# Configure traffic behavior (bandwidth of service 1 to be 20K).

[RouterA] traffic behavior 2

[RouterA -behavior-2]queue af bandwidth 20

# Configure traffic behavior (voice service to be priority service).

[RouterA] traffic behavior voip

[RouterA-behavior-voip] queue ef bandwidth 10 cbs 1500

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Typical CBQ Configuration Example
# Configure QoS policy.

[RouterA]qos policy 1

[RouterA-qospolicy-1]classifier 1 behavior 1

[RouterA-qospolicy-1]classifier 2 behavior 2

[RouterA-qospolicy-1]classifier voip behavior voip

# Apply CBQ 1 to Serial0/0.

[RouterA] interface serial 0/0

[RouterA-Serial0/0] qos apply policy 1 outbound

# Remove EF on the interface. (The interface does not support CBQ in


the case of EF.)

[RouterA-Serial0/0] undo ip fast-forwarding


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Monitoring and Maintenance of CBQ
Operation Command

display traffic classifier system-defined user-


defined tcl-name

display traffic behavior { system-defined user-


defined behavior-name

display qos policy { system-defined user-defined


policy-name classifier tcl-name

display qos policy interface interface-name


interface-type interface-number inbound outbound
pvc pvc-name vpi/vci vpi/vci

display qos cbq interface interface-name interface-


type interface-number pvc pvc-name vpi/vci
vpi/vci

debugging qos cbq ef af be

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Course Contents Basic concept of QoS

IP QoS classification and marking

Traffic policing and shaping

Congestion management

QoS debugging

Congestion and avoidance

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Monitoring and Maintenance of QoS
Display configuration status and statistical information of Qos on the
interface
display qos [ car | gts | lr | cq | pq | wfq | wred ] [ interface type
number ]
Display the content of PQ and CQ
display qos [ cql | pql ]

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Course Contents Basic concept of QoS

IP QoS classification and marking

Traffic policing and shaping

Congestion management

QoS debugging

Congestion and avoidance

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Congestion Avoidance
Bandwidth
utilization

time

The traditional drop policy utilizes the Tail-Drop method


The tail-drop may cause the TCP Global Synchronization

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WRED

Flow
classification

Queue 1

Queue 1

Queue 2
Max-threshold

min-threshold
drop
Queue N

N=16,32…2048,4096
WRED (Weighted Random Early Detection)

WRED avoids the TCP global synchronization through the random drop packets

compare with the queue length to perform the drop

Based on the different priority to define the min-threshold and max-threshold

The same priority but different queue , the queue longer the packet drop more

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WRED Configuration
Enable WRED
qos wred
Configure the weight factor used in calculating the average queue length
qos wred weighting-constant exponent

Configuring Parameters for Packets with a Specific IP Precedence


qos wred ip-precedence ip-precedence low-limit low-limit high-limit
high-limit discard-probability discard-prob

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Example
S1/0

[Quidway-Serial1/0] qos wfq


[Quidway-Serial1/0] qos wred

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Thank You
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