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Introduction to fluid power system - Hydraulic fluids - functions, types, properties, selection and application.
POWER GENERATING ELEMENTS: Pumps, classification, working of different pumps such as Gear, Vane, Piston
(axial and radial), pump performance or characteristics, pump selection factors- simple Problems.
POWER UTILIZING ELEMENTS:Fluid Power Actuators: Linear hydraulic actuators – Types and construction of
hydraulic cylinders – Single acting, Double acting, special cylinders like tandem, Rodless, Telescopic, Cushioning
mechanism. Hydraulic Motors, types – Gear, Vane, Piston (axial and radial) – performance of motors.
UNIT II - HYDRAULIC VALVES AND ACCESSORIES (9 hours) Hydraulic valves : Directional, Pressure and Flow control
valves-Types and applications Intensifier – Applications of Intensifier – Intensifier circuit. Servo systems –
Hydro Mechanical servo systems, Electro hydraulic servo systems and proportional valves. Accessories: switches,
filters, seals, fittings and other accessories. Accumulators: Types and applications.
UNIT III - PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS (9 hours) Introduction, comparison with hydraulic systems and electrical systems.
Construction, operation, characteristics and symbols of pneumatic components. Air treatment – principles and
components. Fluidics – Introduction to fluidic devices, simple circuits, Introduction to Electro Pneumatic logic
circuits, ladder diagrams for various fluid power applications Pneumatic Sensors – types, characteristics and
UNIT IV - DESIGN OF FLUID POWER SYSTEMS (11 hours) Speed, force and time calculations, Calculation of pressure
and pressure drop across components, sizing of actuators, pumps, reservoirs and accumulators. Calculations of
Heat generation in fluids. Design of hydraulic/pneumatic circuit for practical application, Selection of different
components such as reservoir, various valves, actuators, filters, pumps based on design. hydraulic/pneumatic
circuit – Simple reciprocating, Regenerative, Speed control (Meter in, Meter out and bleed off), Sequencing,
Synchronization, transverse and feed, cascading circuit(two and three cylinders), automatic reciprocating, fail safe
circuit, counter balance circuit, actuator locking.
UNIT V - APPLICATIONS, MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLE SHOOTING (6 hours) Industrial circuits – riveting machine,
actuator locking, hydraulic press, unloading circuit, material handling systems. Maintenance and Trouble
Shooting Maintenance in fluid power systems – preventive and breakdown. Maintenance procedures. Trouble
shooting of fluid power systems – fault finding process, equipments / tools used, causes and remedies. Safety
aspects involved.
Introduction to fluid power system - Hydraulic fluids - functions, types, properties, selection and application.
POWER GENERATING ELEMENTS: Pumps, classification, working of different pumps such as Gear, Vane, Piston
(axial and radial), pump performance or characteristics, pump selection factors- simple Problems.
POWER UTILIZING ELEMENTS:Fluid Power Actuators: Linear hydraulic actuators – Types and construction of
hydraulic cylinders – Single acting, Double acting, special cylinders like tandem, Rodless, Telescopic, Cushioning
mechanism. Hydraulic Motors, types – Gear, Vane, Piston (axial and radial) – performance of motors.

Introduction to fluid power system

A fluid power system consists of a prime mover turning a pump to pressurize a fluid, which is transmitted
through lines to an actuator that performs work. Fluid power systems are generally grouped under two broad
classifications: – Hydraulics – Pneumatics .
Hydraulic systems generally use oil as the system fluid while pneumatic systems use © Goodheart-Willcox
Co., Inc. 5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. system fluid, while pneumatic systems use air.
Comparisons of hydraulic and pneumatic systems may be done by analyzing: – Operating pressure – Accuracy
of actuator movement – Actuator speed – Component weight © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 6 Permission granted to
reproduce for educational use only. Component weight – System cost
Hydraulic systems are accurate, operate at high pressures, are slow, and have strong components.
Compared to hydraulic systems, pneumatic systems: – Are less accurate – Are faster – Have components that
are lighter in weight
Advantages of both hydraulic and pneumatic systems include easy control of: – Force – Torque – Speed –
Direction of actuators

Hydraulic fluids
Hydraulic fluid is the energy transfer medium in all hydraulic systems. However, the job of hydraulic fluid
goes beyond simple transmission of power. Although transmitting hydraulic energy is the core purpose of hydraulic
fluid, it is useful in four secondary functions—heat transfer, contamination removal, sealing, and lubrication.
Hydraulic machines produce a lot of excess heat in normal operation, often caused by inefficiencies of the
components themselves, like pumps and motors. Without a way to carry heat away from these components, they
could easily overheat with resulting damage of seals and internal components, especially as a result of low local
viscosity. As oil returns to the reservoir, it often passes through a cooler to help maintain optimal temperature range
before it is pumped back out to the system. Conversely, hydraulic fluid can carry heat into a system during cold
starts, when needed.

Functions of Hydraulic Fluid

The major function of a hydraulic fluid is to provide energy transmission through the system which enables
work and motion to be accomplished. Hydraulic fluids are also responsible for lubrication, heat transfer and
contamination control. When selecting a lubricant, consider the viscosity, seal compatibility, base stock and the
additive package.
In fluid power systems, hydraulic fluid has to perform various functions such as o Power transmission – to
transmit power, which is the primary function o Lubrication – to lubricate various parts , so as to avoid metal to metal
contact and reduce friction, wear, heat generation. o Sealing – to seal the moving elements to avoid leakage. o
Cooling – to carry away the heat generated in the system and dissipates the heat through reservoir or heat
exchanger. o Contaminant Removal – to carry along the contaminations to tank, where it can be removed through

Types of Hydraulic Fluids

Three common varieties of hydraulic fluids found on the market today are petroleum-based, water-based
and synthetics.
1. Petroleum-based or mineral-based fluids are the most widely used fluids today. The properties of a mineral-based
fluid depend on the additives used, the quality of the original crude oil and the refining process. Additives in a
mineral-based fluid offer a range of specific performance characteristics. Common hydraulic fluid additives include
rust and oxidation inhibitors (R&O), anticorrosion agents, demulsifiers, antiwear (AW) and extreme pressure (EP)
agents, VI improvers and defoamants. Mineral-based fluids offer a low-cost, high quality, readily available selection.
2. Water-based fluids are used for fire-resistance due to their high-water content. They are available as oil-in-water
emulsions, water-in-oil (invert) emulsions and water glycol blends. Water-based fluids can provide suitable
lubrication characteristics but need to be monitored closely to avoid problems. Because water-based fluids are used
in applications when fire resistance is needed, these systems and the atmosphere around the systems can be hot.
Elevated temperatures cause the water in the fluids to evaporate, which causes the viscosity to rise. Occasionally,
distilled water will have to be added to the system to correct the balance of the fluid. Whenever these fluids are
used, several system components must be checked for compatibility, including pumps, filters, plumbing, fittings and
seal materials. Water-based fluids can be more expensive than conventional petroleum-based fluids and have other
disadvantages (for example, lower wear resistance) that must be weighed against the advantage of fire-resistance.

3. Synthetic fluids are man-made lubricants and many offer excellent lubrication characteristics in high-pressure and
high- temperature systems. Some of the advantages of synthetic fluids may include fire-resistance (phosphate
esters), lower friction, natural detergency (organic esters and ester-enhanced synthesized hydrocarbon fluids) and
thermal stability. The disadvantage to these types of fluids is that they are usually more expensive than conventional
fluids, they may be slightly toxic and require special disposal, and they are often not compatible with standard seal

Fluid Properties
When choosing a hydraulic fluid, consider the following characteristics: viscosity, viscosity index, oxidation
stability and wear resistance. These characteristics will determine how your fluid operates within your system. Fluid
property testing is done in accordance with either American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) or other
recognized standards organizations.
1. Viscosity (ASTM D445-97) is the measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow and shear. A fluid of higher viscosity
will flow with higher resistance compared to a fluid with a low viscosity. Excessively high viscosity can contribute to
high fluid temperature and greater energy consumption. Viscosity that is too high or too low can damage a system,
and consequently, is the key factor when considering a hydraulic fluid.
2. Viscosity Index (ASTM D2270) is how the viscosity of a fluid changes with a change in temperature. A high
VI fluid will maintain its viscosity over a broader temperature range than a low VI fluid of the same weight. High VI
fluids are used where temperature extremes are expected. This is particularly important for hydraulic systems that
operate outdoors.
3. Oxidation Stability (ASTM D2272 and others) is the fluid’s resistance to heat-induced degradation caused
by a chemical reaction with oxygen. Oxidation greatly reduces the life of a fluid, leaving by-products such as sludge
and varnish. Varnish interferes with valve functioning and can restrict flow passageways.
4. Wear Resistance (ASTM D2266 and others) is the lubricant’s ability to reduce the wear rate in frictional
boundary contacts. This is achieved when the fluid forms a protective film on metal surfaces to prevent abrasion,
scuffing and contact fatigue on component surfaces.

Other many properties are

 Specific gravity, Viscosity, Stability in shear, Foaming characteristics, Cloud point and pour point, Oil
compressibility and bulk modulus, Coefficient of thermal expansion, Wettability, Flammability, Chemical
stability, Affinity to moisture, Gumming tendency, Oxidation tendency, Corrosion resistance, Wear resistance,
Compatibility with system material, Heat dissipation property, Nontoxic, easy to handle and availability

Selection & Application of Hydraulic Fluids

Hydraulic fluid can be the most vital component of a hydraulic system, so dozens of characteristics must be
consider before making a final selection.
The demands placed on hydraulic systems constantly change as industry requires greater efficiency and
speed at higher operating temperatures and pressures. Selecting the best hydraulic fluid requires a basic
understanding of each particular fluid's characteristics in comparison with an ideal fluid. An ideal fluid would have
these characteristics:
 thermal stability
 hydrolytic stability
 low chemical corrosiveness
 high anti-wear characteristics
 low tendency to cavitate
 long life
 total water rejection
 constant viscosity, regardless of temperature, and
 low cost.

Although no single fluid has all of these ideal characteristics, it is possible to select one that is the best
compromise for a particular hydraulic system. This selection requires knowledge of the system in which a hydraulic
fluid will be used. The designer should know such basic characteristics of the system as:
 maximum and minimum operating and ambient temperatures
 type of pump or pumps used
 operating pressures
 operating cycle
 loads encountered by various components, and
 type of control and power valves

POWER GENERATING ELEMENTS: Pumps, classification, working of different pumps such as Gear, Vane, Piston
(axial and radial), pump performance or characteristics, pump selection factors- simple Problems.

The hydraulic pump transmits mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. This is done by the movement of
fluid which is the transmission medium. There are several types of hydraulic pumps including gear, vane and piston.
All of these pumps have different subtypes intended for specific applications such as a bent-axis piston pump or a
variable displacement vane pump. All hydraulic pumps work on the same principle, which is to displace fluid volume
against a resistant load or pressure.

Classification of Pumps
The broad classifications of pumps are
1. Classification based on displacement
 Non positive displacement pumps (hydrodynamic pumps)
 Positive displacement pumps (hydrostatic pumps) Pressure Flow Pressure Flow
2. Classification based on delivery
 Constant delivery pumps
 Variable delivery pumps
3. Classification based on motion
 Rotary pump
 Reciprocating pump.

Difference between positive displacement and non-positive displacement pump

Positive displacement pump Non-positive displacement pump
Positive displacement pump is a pump in which there is a Centrifugal pump is a non positive displacement pump.
physical displacement of boundary of fluid mass In this there is a relative motion between the fluid and
In positive displacement pump, outlet flow is (almost) In centrifugal pump, the outlet flow is dependent on
independent of system pressure. system pressure, so when pressure increases , the flow

Based on the construction, Hydrostatic pumps are classified

1. Gear Pumps ( fixed displacement pumps)
(a) External gear pump
(b) Internal gear pump
 Lobe pump
 Gerotor pump
(c) Screw pump
2. Vane Pumps ( fixed or variable displacement pumps)
(a) Balanced Vane pump
(b) Unbalanced Vane pump
3. Piston Pumps ( fixed or variable displacement pumps)
(a) Axial piston pump
b)Radial piston pump

Gear Pumps
There are two common types of gear pumps, internal and external. Each type has a variety of subtypes, but
all of them develop flow by carrying fluid between the teeth of a meshing gear set. While generally less efficient than
vane and piston pumps, gear pumps are often more tolerant of fluid contamination.
1. Internal gear pumps produce pressures up to 3000 to 3500 psi. These types of pumps offer a wide viscosity
range up to 2200 cSt, depending on flow rate and are generally quiet. Internal gear pumps also have a high efficiency
even at low fluid viscosity.
2. External gear pumps are common and can handle pressures up to 3000 to 3500 psi. These gear pumps
offer an inexpensive, mid-pressure, mid-volume, fixed displacement delivery to a system. Viscosity ranges for these
types of pumps are limited to less than 300 cSt.

External Gear Pumps

External gear pumps are the most popular hydraulic pumps in low-pressure ranges due to their long
operating life, high efficiency and low cost. They are generally used ina simple machineThe most common form of
external gear pump is shown in Fig. It consist of a pump housing in which a pair of preciselymachined meshing gears
runs with minimal radial and axial clearance.One of the gears, called a driver,is driven by a prime mover. The driver
drives another gear called a follower.As the teeth of the two gears separate, the fluid from the pump inlet gets
trapped between the rotating gear cavities and pump housing.The trapped fluid is then carried around the periphery
of the pump casing and delivered to outlet port. The teeth of precisely meshed gears provide almost a perfect seal
between the pumpinlet and the pump outlet.When the outlet flow is resisted, pressure in the pump outlet chamber
builds up rapidly and forces the gear diagonally outward against the pump inlet. When the system pressure increases,
imbalance occurs. This imbalance increases mechanical friction and the bearing load of the two gears.Hence, the gear
pumps are operated to the maximum pressure rating stated by the manufacturer. It is important to note that the
inlet is at the point of separation and the outlet at the point of mesh. These units are not reversible if the internal
bleeds for the bearings are to be drilled to both the inlet and outlet sides.So that the manufacturer’s literature should
be checked before attempting a reversed installation. If they are not drilled in this manner, the bearing may be
permanently damaged as a result of inadequate lubrications.
Advantages and disadvantages of gear pumps
The advantages are as follows:
1.They are self-priming.
2.They give constant delivery for a given speed.
3. They are compact and light in weight.
4. Volumetric efficiency is high.
The disadvantages are as follows:
1. The liquid to be pumped must be clean, otherwise it will damage pump.
2. Variable speed drives are required to change the delivery.
3. If they run dry, parts can be damaged because the fluid to be pumped is used as lubricant.

Internal Gear Pumps

Another form of gear pump is the internal gear pump, which is illustrated in Fig.. They consist of two gears:An
external gear and an internal gear. The crescent placed in between these acts as a seal between the suction and
discharge. When a pump operates, the external gear drives the internal gear and both gears rotate in the same
direction. The fluid fills the cavities formed by the rotating teeth and the stationary crescent. Both the gears transport
the fluid through the pump. The crescent seals the low-pressure pump inlet from the high-pressure pump outlet. The
fluid volume is directly proportional to the degree of separation and these units may be reversed without difficulty.
The major use for this type of pump occurs when a through shaft is necessary, as in an automatic transmission. These
pumps have a higher pressure capability than external gear pumps.

Gerotor Pumps
Gerotor pumps operate in the same manner as internal gear pumps. The inner gear rotor is called a gerotor
element. The gerotor element is driven by a prime mover and during the operation drives outer gear rotor around as
they mesh together. The gerotor has one tooth less than the outer internal idler gear. Each tooth of the gerotor is
always in sliding contact with the surface of the outer element. The teeth of the two elements engage at just one
place to seal the pumping chambers from each other. On the right-hand side of the pump, shown in Fig. pockets of
increasing size are formed, while on the opposite side, pockets decrease in size. The pockets of increasing size are
suction pockets and those of decreasing size are discharge pockets. Therefore, the intake side of the pump is on the
right and discharge side on the left.

Pumping chambers are formed by the adjacent pair of teeth, which are constantly in contact with the outer
element, except for clearance. Refer to Figure,asthe rotor is turned, its gear tips are accurately machined sothat they
precisely follow the inner surface of the outer element. The expanding chambers are created as the gear teeth
withdraw. The chamber reaches its maximum size when the female tooth of the outer rotor reaches the top dead
center. During the second half of the revolution, the spaces collapse, displacing the fluid to the outlet port formed at
the side plate. The geometric volume of the gerotor pump is given as

where b is the tooth height, Z is the number of rotor teeth, Amax is the maximum area between male and female
gears (unmeshed – occurs at inlet) and Amin is the minimum area between male and female gears (meshed – occurs
at outlet).
Lobe Pumps
The operation of lobe pump shown in Fig. is similar to that of external gear pump, but they generally have a
higher volumetric capacity per revolution. The output may be slightly greater pulsation because of the smaller
number of meshing elements.
Lobe pumps, unlike external gear pumps,have both elements externally driven and neither element hasany
contact with the other.For this reason, they are quieter when compared to other types of gear pumps. Lobe contact
is prevented by external timing gears located in the gearbox.Pump shaft support bearings are located in the gearbox,
and because the bearings are out of the pumped liquid, pressure is limited by bearing location and shaft deflection.
They do not lose efficiency with use. They are similar to external gear pumps with respect to the feature of

1.As the lobes come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump.Liquid flows into the
cavity and is trapped by the lobes as they rotate.
2.Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in pockets between the lobes and the casing (it does not pass
between the lobes).
3.Finally, the meshing of the lobes forces the liquid through the outlet port under pressure.
Lobe pumps are frequently used in food applications because they are good at handling solids without inflicting
damage to the product. Solid particle size can be much larger in lobe pumps than in other positive displacement
types.Because lobes do not make contact, and clearances are not as close as in other positive displacement pumps,
this design handles low-viscosity liquids with diminished performance.Loading characteristics are not as good as
other designs and suction ability is low.High-viscosity liquids require reduced speeds to achieve satisfactory
performance.Reductions of 25% of rated speed and lower are common with high-viscosity liquids.

The advantages of lobe pumps are as follows:
1. Lobe pumps can handle solids, slurries, pastes and many liquid.
2. No metal-to-metal contact.
3. Superior CIP(Cleaning in Place) /SIP(Sterilization in Place) capabilities.
4. Long-term dry run (with lubrication to seals).
5. Non-pulsating discharge.

The disadvantages of lobe pumps are as follows:
1. Require timing gears.
2. Require two seals.
3. Reduced lift with thin liquids.

Common rotary lobe pump applications include, but are not limited to, the following:
1. Polymers.
2. Paper coatings.
3. Soaps and surfactants.
4. Paints and dyes.
5. Rubber and adhesives.
6. Pharmaceuticals.
7. Food applications.

Screw Pumps
These pumps have two or more gear-driven helical meshing screws in a closefitting caseto develop the
desired pressure. These screws mesh to form a fluid-type seal between the screws and casing.

A schematic diagram of a screw pump is shown in the following figure. A two-screw pump consists of two
parallel rotors with inter-meshing threads rotating in a closely machined casing. The driving screw and driven screw
are connected by means of timing gears. When the screws turn, the space between the threads is divided into
compartments. As the screws rotate, the inlet side of the pump is flooded with hydraulic fluid because of partial
vacuum.When the screws turn in normal rotation, the fluid contained in these compartments is pushed uniformly
along the axis toward the center of the pump, where the compartments discharge the fluid. Here the fluid does not
rotate but moves linearly as a nut on threads. Thus, there are no pulsations at a higher speed; it is a very quiet
operating pump. Ina screw pump, a chamber is formed between thread and housing as shown in Fig
Advantages and disadvantages of screw pump
Advantages :
1.They are self-priming and more reliable.
2. They are quiet due to rolling action of screw spindles.
3.They can handle liquids containing gases and vapor.
4. They have long service life.

Disadvantages :
1.They are bulky and heavy.
2.They are sensitive to viscosity changes of the fluid.
3. They have low volumetric and mechanical efficiencies.
4. Manufacturing cost of precision screw is high.

Vane Pumps
There are many variations of vane pumps available between manufacturers. They all work on similar design
principles. A slotted rotor is coupled to the drive shaft and turns inside of a cam ring that is offset or eccentric to the
drive shaft. Vanes are inserted into the rotor slots and follow the inner surface of the cam ring as the rotor turns.

The vanes and the inner surface of the cam rings are always in contact and are subject to high amounts of
wear. As the two surfaces wear, the vanes come further out of their slot. Vane pumps deliver a steady flow at a high
cost. Vane pumps operate at a normal viscosity range between 14 and 160 cSt at operating temperature. Vane
pumps may not be suitable in critical high-pressure hydraulic systems where contamination and fluid quality are
difficult to control. The performance of the fluid’s antiwear additive is generally very important with vane pumps.

Advantages and disadvantages of Vane Pumps

The advantages of vane pumps are as follows:
1. Vane pumps are self-priming, robust and supply constant delivery at a given speed.
2. They provide uniform discharge with negligible pulsations.
3. Their vanes are self-compensating for wear and vanes can be replaced easily.
4. These pumps do not require check valves.
5. They are light in weight and compact.
6. They can handle liquids containing vapors and gases.
7. Volumetric and overall efficiencies are high.
8. Discharge is less sensitive to changes in viscosity and pressure variations.

The disadvantages of vane pumps are as follows:

1. Relief valves are required to protect the pump in case of sudden closure of delivery.
2. They are not suitable for abrasive liquids.
3. They require good seals.
4. They require good filtration systems and foreign particle can severely damage pump.

There are two types of vane pumps:

1. Unbalanced vane pump: Unbalanced vane pumps are of two varieties:
 Unbalanced vane pump with fixed delivery.
 Unbalanced vane pump with pressure-compensated variable delivery.
2. Balanced vane pump.

Unbalanced Vane Pump with Fixed Delivery

A simplified form of unbalanced vane pump with fixed delivery and its operation are shown in the following
The main components of the pump are the cam surface and the rotor. The rotor contains radial slots splined
to drive shaft. The rotor rotates inside the cam ring. Each radial slot contains a vane, which is free to slide in or out of
the slots due to centrifugal force. The vane is designed to mate with surface of the cam ring as the rotor turns. The
cam ring axis is offset to the drive shaft axis. When the rotor rotates, the centrifugal force pushes the vanes out
against the surface of the cam ring. The vanes divide the space between the rotor and the cam ring into a series of
small chambers. During the first half of the rotor rotation, the volume of these chambers increases, thereby causing a
reduction of pressure. This is the suction process, which causes the fluid to flow through the inlet port. During the
second half of rotor rotation, the cam ring pushes the vanes back into the slots and the trapped volume is reduced.
This positively ejects the trapped fluid through the outlet port. In this pump, all pump action takes place in the
chambers located on one side of the rotor and shaft, and so the pump is of an unbalanced design. The delivery rate of
the pump depends on the eccentricity of the rotor with respect to the cam ring.

Pressure-Compensated Variable Displacement Vane Pump (an Unbalanced Vane Pump with Pressure-Compensated
Variable Delivery)

Schematic diagram of variable displacement vane pump is shown in Fig. Variable displacement feature can be
brought into vane pumps by varying eccentricity between the rotor and the cam ring. Here in this pump, the stator
ring is held against a spring loaded piston.The system pressure acts directly through a hydraulic piston on the right
side. This forces the cam ring against a spring-loaded piston on the left side. If the discharge pressure is large enough,
it overcomes the compensated spring force and shifts the cam ring to the left. This reduces the eccentricity and
decreases the flow. If the pressure continues to increase, there is no eccentricity and pump flow becomes zero.

Balanced Vane Pump with Fixed Delivery

A balanced vane pump is a very versatile design that has found widespread use in both industrial and mobile
applications. The basic design principle is shown in Fig. The rotor and vanes are contained within a double eccentric
cam ring and there are two inlet segments and two outlet segments during each revolution. This double pumping
action not only gives a compact design, but also leads to another important advantage: although pressure forces
acting on the rotor in the outlet area are high, the forces at the two outlet areas are equal and opposite, completely
canceling each other. As a result, there are no net loads on shaft bearings. Consequently, the life of this type of pump
in many applications has been exceptionally good. Operating times of 24000 h or more in industrial applications are
widespread. In more severe conditions encountered in mobile vehicles, 5000–10000 h of trouble-free operation is
frequently achieved.

Advantages and disadvantages of balanced vane pumps

The advantages of balanced vane pumps are as follows:
1. The balanced pump eliminates the bearing side loads and therefore high operating pressure
can be used.
2.The service life is high compared to unbalanced type due to less wear and tear.

The disadvantages of balanced vane pumps are as follows:

1. They are fixed displacement pumps.
2. Design is more complicated.
3. Manufacturing cost is high compared to unbalanced type.
Piston Pumps
As with all hydraulic pumps, piston pumps are available in fixed and variable displacement designs. Piston
pumps are generally the most versatile and rugged pump type and offer a range of options for any type of system.
Piston pumps can operate at pressures beyond 6000 psi, are highly efficient and produce comparatively little noise.
Many designs of piston pumps also tend to resist wear better than other pump types. Piston pumps operate at a
normal fluid viscosity range of 10 to 160 cSt.

Bent-Axis-Type Piston Pump

A bent axis type piston pump contains a cylinder block rotating with a drive shaft. However,thec enterline of
the cylinder block is set at an offset angle relative to the centerline of the drive shaft. Thecylinder block contains a
number of pistons arranged along a circle. The piston rods are connected to the drive shaft flange by a ball and
socket joints. The pistons are forced in and out of their bores as the distance between the drive shaft flange and
cylinder block changes. A universal link connects the cylinder block to the drive shaft to provide alignment and
positive drive. The volumetric displacement of the pump depends on the offset angle ɵ. No flow is produced when
the cylinder blockis centerline.ɵ can vary from 0o to a maximum of about 30o. For a fixed displacement, units are
usually provided with 23o or 30o offset angles.

Swash-Plate-Type Piston Pump

Schematic diagram of swash plate type piston pump is shown in Fig. In this type, the cylinder block and drive
shaft are located on the same center line. The pistons are connected to a shoe plate that bears against an angled
swash plate. As the cylinder rotates, the pistons reciprocate because the piston shoes follow the angled surface of
the swash plate. The outlet and inlet ports are located in the valve plate so that the pistons pass the inlet as they are
being pulled out and pass the outlet as they are being forced back in. This type of pump can also be designed to have
a variable displacement capability. The maximum swash plate angle is limited to 17.5° by construction.
Comparison of Hydraulic Pumps
Pump design with a wide range of operating characteristics are available. A designer must select carefully to
achieve a circuit design that meets the functional objective while minimizing total cost which includes both
ownership cost and operating cost over the life of component. Pump selection is important decision in circuit design.
Designer must compare the various options available and then choose the optimum pump. The following Table gives
a typical comparison of all pumps.

The major factor in adopting a pump to a particular system is the system’s overall needs. It would be wrong
to use a pump with high delivery in a system that requires only a lowdelivery rate. On the contrary, using a pump
that must produce at its peak continuously just to meet the minimum requirements of the system is equally wrong.
Making either of these mistakes produces a poor system due to excessive initial pump costs or maintenance cost.
One should use a pump that is suited to the system, whether a gear pump which has fewer moving precision parts or
a piston pump whichhas many parts fitted to close tolerance and is therefore more expensive.

Pump Performance
The performance of a pump is a function of the precision of its manufacture. An ideal pump is one having
zero clearance between all mating parts. Because this is not possible, working clearances should be as small as
possible while maintaining proper oil films for lubrication between rubbing parts. The performance of a pump is
determined by the following efficiencies:

Volumetric efficiency ( ηy):It is the ratio of actual flow rate of the pump to the theoretical flow rate of the
pump. This is expressed as follows:
Pump Selection

The important considerations in the selection of a pump for any given application are
1) Flow rate requirement
2) Operating speed of pump
3) Pressure rating
4) Performance/application
5) Reliability
6) Maintenance
7) Cost
8) Noise level of the pump
9) Oil compatibility
10) Type of pump control
11) Pump contamination tolerance
12) Availability of pump and spars

POWER UTILIZING ELEMENTS:Fluid Power Actuators: Linear hydraulic actuators – Types and construction of
hydraulic cylinders – Single acting, Double acting, special cylinders like tandem, Rodless, Telescopic, Cushioning
mechanism. Hydraulic Motors, types – Gear, Vane, Piston (axial and radial) – performance of motors.

Fluid Power Actuators

Hydraulic systems are used to control and transmit power. A pump driven by a prime mover such as an
electric motor creates a flow of fluid, in which the pressure, direction and rate of flow are controlled by valves. An
actuator is used to convert the energy of fluid back into the mechanical power. The amount of output power
developed depends upon the flow rate, the pressure drop across the actuator and its overall efficiency. Thus,
hydraulic actuators are devices used to convert pressure energy of the fluid into mechanical energy.

Depending on the type of actuation, hydraulic actuators are classified as follows:

1. Linear actuator: For linear actuation (hydraulic cylinders).
2. Rotary actuator: For rotary actuation (hydraulic motor).
3. Semi-rotary actuator: For limited angle of actuation (semi-rotary actuator).

Hydraulic linear actuators, as their name implies, provide motion in a straight line. The total movement is a
finite amount determined by the construction of the unit. They are usually referred to as cylinders, rams and jacks.
All these items are synonymous in general use, although ram is sometimes intended to mean a single-acting cylinder
and jack often refers to a cylinder used for lifting. The function of hydraulic cylinder is to convert hydraulic power
into linear mechanical force or motion. Hydraulic cylinders extend and retract a piston rod to provide a push or pull
force to drive the external load along a straight-line path. Continuous angular movement is achieved by rotary
actuators, more generally known as a hydraulic motor. Semi-rotary actuators are capable of limited angular
movements that can be several complete revolutions but 360o or less is more usual.

Fluid power actuators receive fluid from a pump (typically driven by an electric motor). After the fluid has
been pressure, flow, and directionally controlled, the actuator converts its energy into rotary or linear motion to do
useful work. Cylinders account for more than 90% of the actuators used in fluid power systems for work output. Of
the approximately 10% of actuators that produce rotary output, more than 90% are hydraulic motors, while the rest
are some form of rotary actuator.

Types of Actuators
 Linear Hydraulic Actuators (Hydraulic Cylinders).
 Limited Rotation Hydraulic Actuator.
 Rotary Actuator.

Linear hydraulic actuators

Cylinders are linear actuators, that is, they produce straight-line motion and/or force. Cylinders are classified as

 Single-acting cylinders.
 Double-acting cylinders.
 Telescopic cylinders.
 Tandem cylinders.

Single Acting Cylinder:

It has only one fluid chamber and exerts force in only one direction. When mounted vertically, they often
retract by the force of gravity on the load. Ram type cylinders are used in elevators, hydraulic jacks and hoists.
A single-acting cylinder is simplest in design and is shown schematically in Fig. It consists of a piston inside a
cylindrical housing called barrel. On one end of the piston there is a rod, which can reciprocate. At the opposite end,
there is a port for the entrance and exit of oil. Single-acting cylinders produce force in one direction by hydraulic
pressure acting on the piston. (Single-acting cylinders can exert a force in the extending direction only.) The return of
the piston is not done hydraulically. In single-acting cylinders, retraction is done either by gravity or by a spring.

According to the type of return, single-acting cylinders are classified as follows:

 Gravity-return single-acting cylinder.
 Spring-return single-acting cylinder.
Gravity-Return Single-Acting Cylinder

Figure shows gravity-return-type single-acting cylinders. In the push type [Fig. (a)], the cylinder extends to lift
a weight against the force of gravity by applying oil pressure at the blank end. The oil is passed through the blank-
end port or pressure port. The rod-end port or vent port is open to atmosphere so that air can flow freely in and out
of the rod end of the cylinder. To retract the cylinder, the pressure is simply removed from the piston by connecting
the pressure port to the tank. This allows the weight of the load to push the fluid out of the cylinder back to the tank.
In pull-type gravity-return-type single-acting cylinder, the cylinder [Fig. (b)] lifts the weight by retracting. The blank-
end port is the pressure port and blind-end port is now the vent port. This cylinder automatically extends whenever
the pressure port is connected to the tank.

Spring-Return Single-Acting Cylinder

A spring-return single-acting cylinder is shown in following figure. In push type [Fig. (a)], the pressure is sent
through the pressure port situated at the blank end of the cylinder. When the pressure is released, the spring
automatically returns the cylinder to the fully retracted position. The vent port is open to atmosphere so that air can
flow freely in and out of the rod end of the cylinder.
Figure (b) shows a spring-return single-acting cylinder. In this design, the cylinder retracts when the pressure
port is connected to the pump flow and extends whenever the pressure port is connected to the tank. Here the
pressure port is situated at the rod end of the cylinder.

Double-Acting Cylinder:
The double-acting cylinder is operated by hydraulic fluid in both directions and is capable of a power stroke
either way. In single rod double-acting cylinder there are unequal areas exposed to pressure during the forward and
return movements due to the cross-sectional area of the rod. The extending stroke is slower, but capable of exerting
a greater force than when the piston and rod are being retracted.
There are two types of double-acting cylinders:
 Double-acting cylinder with a piston rod on one side.
 Double-acting cylinder with a piston rod on both sides.

Double-Acting Cylinder with a Piston Rod on One Side

The above figure shows the operation of a double-acting cylinder with a piston rod on one side. To extend
the cylinder, the pump flow is sent to the blank-end port as in Fig (a). The fluid from the rod-end port returns to the
reservoir. To retract the cylinder, the pump flow is sent to the rod-end port and the fluid from the blank-end port
returns to the tank as in Fig.

Double-Acting Cylinder with a Piston Rod on Both Sides

A double-acting cylinder with a piston rod on both sides is a cylinder with a rod extending from both ends.
This cylinder can be used in an application where work can be done by both ends of the cylinder, thereby making the
cylinder more productive. Double-rod cylinders can withstand higher side loads because they have an extra bearing,
one on each rod, to withstand the loading.

Double-rod double-acting cylinders are used where it is advantageous to couple a load to each end, or where equal
displacement is needed on each end. With identical areas on either side of the piston, they can provide equal speeds
and/or equal forces in either direction. Any double-acting cylinder may be used as a single-acting unit by draining the
inactive end to tank.

Telescopic Cylinder
A telescopic cylinder (shown in Fig.) is used when a long stroke length and a short retracted length are
required. The telescopic cylinder extends in stages, each stage consisting of a sleeve that fits inside the previous
stage. One application for this type of cylinder is raising a dump truck bed. Telescopic cylinders are available in both
single-acting and double-acting models. They are more expensive than standard cylinders due to their more complex
They generally consist of a nest of tubes and operate on the displacement principle. The tubes are supported
by bearing rings, the innermost (rear) set of which have grooves or channels to allow fluid flow. The front bearing
assembly on each section includes seals and wiper rings. Stop rings limit the movement of each section, thus
preventing separation. When the cylinder extends, all the sections move together until the outer section is
prevented from further extension by its stop ring. The remaining sections continue out-stroking until the second
outermost section reaches the limit of its stroke; this process continues until all sections are extended, the innermost
one being the last of all.
For a given input flow rate, the speed of operation increases in steps as each successive section reaches the
end of its stroke. Similarly, for a specific pressure, the load-lifting capacity decreases for each successive section.

Tandem Cylinder
A tandem cylinder, shown in Fig., is used in applications where a large amount of force is required from a
small-diameter cylinder. Pressure is applied to both pistons, resulting in increased force because of the larger area.
The drawback is that these cylinders must be longer than a standard cylinder to achieve an equal speed because flow
must go to both pistons.

Cushioning Mechanisms
For the prevention of shock due to stopping loads at the end of the piston stroke, cushion devices are used.
Cushions may be applied at either end or both ends. They operate on the principle that as the cylinder piston
approaches the end of stroke, an exhaust fluid is forced to go through an adjustable needle valve that is set to
control the escaping fluid at a given rate. This allows the deceleration characteristics to be adjusted for different
loads. When the cylinder piston is actuated, the fluid enters the cylinder port and flows through the little check valve
so that the entire piston area can be utilized to produce force and motion. A typical cushioning arrangement is
shown in Fig.
Cushioning Pressure
During deceleration, extremely high pressure may develop within a cylinder cushion. The action of the
cushioning device is to set up a back-pressure to decelerate the load.

Ideally, the back-pressure is constant over the entire cushioning length to give a progressive load deceleration. In
practice, cushion pressure is the highest at the moment when the piston rod enters the cushion. Some
manufacturers have improved the performance of their cushioning devices by using a tapered or a stepped cushion
spear. Wherever high inertia loads are encountered, the cylinder internal cushions may be inadequate but it is
possible for the load to be retarded by switching in external flow controls. Deceleration can then take place over a
greater part of the actuator stroke.

Hydraulic Motors, types – Gear, Vane, Piston (axial and radial) – performance of motors Hydraulic Motors, types –
Gear, Vane, Piston (axial and radial) – performance of motors

Hydraulic Motors

Hydraulic motors are rotary actuators. However, the name rotary actuator is reserved for a particular type of

power or converts fluid pressure into torque. Torque is a function of pressure or, in other words, the motor input
pressure level is determined by the resisting torque at the output shaft. A hydraulic pump is a device which converts
mechanical force and motion into fluid power. A hydraulic motor is not a hydraulic pump when run backward. A
design that is completely acceptable as a motor may operate very poorly as a pump in a certain applications.
Differences between a hydraulic motor and a hydraulic pump are given in Table

Table : Differences between a hydraulic motor and a hydraulic pump

Hydraulic Motor Hydraulic Pump
It is a device for delivering torque at a given It is a device for delivering flow at a given
pressure. The main emphasis is on mechanical pressure. The main emphasis is on volumetric
efficiency and torque that can be transmitted. efficiency and flow.
Motors usually operate over a wide range of Pumps usually operate at high RPM.
speed, from a low RPM to high RPM.
Most motors are designed for bidirectional In most situations, pumps usually operate in
applications such as braking loads, rotary tables. one direction.
Motors may be idle for long time (as in index Pumps usually operate continuously.
Motors are subjected to high side loads (from Majority of pumps are not subjected to side
gears, chains, belt-driven pulleys). loads. Usually pumps are pad mounted on
power pack top and shaft is connected to the
prime mover directly.

Hydraulic motors have become popular in industries. Hydraulic motors can be applied directly to the work.
They provide excellent control for acceleration, operating speed, deceleration, smooth reversals and positioning.
They also provide flexibility in design and eliminate much of bulk and weight of mechanical and electrical power
transmission. The applications of hydraulic motors in their various combinations with pumping units are termed
hydrostatic transmission.
A hydrostatic transmission converts mechanical power into fluid power and then reconverts fluid power into
shaft power. The advantages of hydrostatic transmissions include power transmission to remote areas, infinitely
variable speed control, self-overload protection, reverse rotation capability, dynamic braking and a high power-to-
weight ratio. Applications include material-handling equipment, farm tractors, railway locomotives, buses, lawn
mowers and machine tools.
New fields of applications are being discovered constantly for hydrostatic transmissions. Farm implements,
road machinery, material-handling equipment, Numerical Control(NC) machineshigh-performance aircrafts, military
uses and special machinery are only a few of new fields expanding through the use of fluid power transmission.
Many automobiles, railway locomotives and buses usea hydrostatic transmission.

Types of Hydraulic Motors

There are two types of hydraulic motors: (a) High-speed low-torque motors and (b) low–speed high-torque
motors. In high-speed low-torque motors, the shaft is driven directly from either the barrel or the cam plate,
whereas in low-speed high-torque motors, the shaft is driven through a differential gear arrangement that reduces
the speed and increases the torque. Depending upon the mechanism employed to provide shaft rotation, hydraulic
motors can be classified as follows:
1. Gear motors.
2. Vane motors.
3. Piston motors:
 Axialpiston-type motors.
 Radial piston-type motors

Gear motors are the least efficient, most dirt-tolerant and have the lowest pressure rating of 3. Piston motors are the
most efficient, least dirt-tolerant and have high pressure ratings. Vane and piston motors can be fixed or variable
displacement, but gear motors are available with only fixed displacement.

Gear Motors:
A gear motor develops torque due to hydraulic pressure acting against the area of one tooth. There are two
teeth trying to move the rotor in the proper direction, while one net tooth at the center mesh tries to move it in the
opposite direction. In the design of a gear motor, one of the gears is keyed to an output shaft, while the other is
simply an idler gear. Pressurized oil is sent to the inlet port of the motor. Pressure is then applied to the gear teeth,
causing the gears and output shaft to rotate. The pressure builds until enough torque is generated to rotate the
output shaft against the load. The side load on the motor bearing is quite high, because all the hydraulic pressure is
on one side. This limits the bearing life of the motor. Schematic diagram of gear motor is shown in Fig..
Most of the gear motors are bidirectional. Reversing the direction of flow can reverse the direction of
rotation. As in the case of gear pumps, volumetric displacement is fixed. Due to the high pressure at the inlet and low
pressure at the outlet, a large side load on the shaft and bearings is produced. Gear motors are normally limited to
150 bar operating pressures and 2500 RPM operating speed. They are available with a maximum flow capacity of 600
LPM. The gear motors are simple in construction and have good dirt tolerance, but their efficiencies are lower than
those of vane or piston pumps and they leak more than the piston units. Generally, they are not used as servo
motors. Hydraulic motors can also be of internal gear design. These types can operate at higher pressures and
speeds and also have greater displacements than external gear motors.

Vane Motors
A unbalanced vane motor consisting of a circular chamber in which there is an eccentric rotor carrying
several spring or pressure-loaded vanes. Because the fluid flowing through the inlet port finds more area of vanes
exposed in the upper half of the motor, it exerts more force on the upper vanes, and the rotor turns
counterclockwise. Close tolerances are maintained between the vanes and ring to provide high efficiencies.
The displacement of a vane hydraulic motor is a function of eccentricity. The radial load on the shaft bearing of an
unbalanced vane motor is also large because all its inlet pressure is on one side of the rotor.

The radial bearing load problem is eliminated in this design by using a double-lobed ring with diametrically
opposite ports. Side force on one side of bearing is cancelled by an equal and opposite force from the diametrically
opposite pressure port. The like ports are generally connected internally so that only one inlet and one outlet port
are brought outside. The balanced vane-type motor is reliable open-loop control motor but has more internal
leakage than piston-type and therefore generally not used as a servo motor.

Piston Motors
Piston motors are classified into the following types:
1. According to the piston of the cylinder block and the drive shaft, piston motors are classified as follows:
 Axial piston motors.
 Radial piston motors.

2. According to the basis of displacement, piston motors are classified as follows:

 Fixed-displacement piston motors.
 Variable-displacement piston motors.

Axial Piston Motors

In axial piston motors, the piston reciprocates parallel to the axis of the cylinder block. These motors are
available with both fixed-and variable-displacement feature types. They generate torque by pressure acting on the
ends of pistons reciprocating inside a cylinder block. The Figure illustrates the inline design in which the motor, drive
shaft and cylinder block are centered on the same axis. Pressure acting on the ends of the piston generates a force
against an angled swash plate. This causes the cylinder block to rotate with a torque that is proportional to the area
of the pistons. The torque is also a function of the swash-plate angle. The inline piston motor is designed either as a
fixed- or a variable-displacement unit. The swash plate determines the volumetric displacement.

In variable-displacement units, the swash plate is mounted on the swinging yoke. The angle can be varied by
various means such as a lever, hand wheel or servo control.If the offset angel is increased, the displacement and
torque capacity increase but the speed of the drive shaft decreases. Conversely, reducing the angle reduces the
torque capability but increases the drive shaft speed.

Bent-Axis Piston Motors

A bent-axis piston motor is shown in following Figure. This type of motor develops torque due to pressure
acting on the reciprocating piston. In this motor, the cylinder block and drive shaft mount at an angel to each other
so that the force is exerted on the drive shaft flange.

Speed and torque depend on the angle between the cylinder block and the drive shaft. The larger the angle,
the greater the displacement and torque, and the smaller the speed. This angle varies from 7.5° (minimum) to 30°
(maximum). This type of motor is available in two types, namely fixed-displacement type and variable-displacement

Radial Piston Motors

In radial piston-type motors, the piston reciprocates radially or perpendicular to the axis of the output shaft.
The basic principle of operation of the radial piton motors is shown in Fig. Radial piston motors are low-speed high-
torque motors which can address a multifarious problem in diverse power transfer applications.

Performance of Motors
The performance of hydraulic motors depends upon many factors such as precision of their parts, tolerances
between the mating parts, etc.Internal leakage between the inlet and outlet affects the volumetric efficiency.
Friction between mating parts affects the mechanical efficiency of a hydraulic motor.
Gear motors typically have an overall efficiency of 70–75% as compared to vane motors which have 75– 85%
and piston motors having 85–95%.

Motor torque is divided into three separate groups:

1. Starting torque: The starting torque is the turning force the motor exerts from a dead stop.
2. Running torque: Running torque is exerted when the motor is running and changes whenever there is a
change in fluid pressure.
3. Stalling torque: Stalling torque is the torque necessary to stop the motor.
In most hydraulic motors, the stalling and starting torques are equal. Usually, starting torque is 75–80% of
the maximum design torque.

1. Volumetric efficiency: The volumetric efficiency of a hydraulic motor is the ratio of theoretical flow rate to actual
flow rate required to achieve a particular speed. The motor uses more flow than the theoretical due to leakage:

2. Mechanical efficiency: The mechanical efficiency of a hydraulic motor is the ratio of actual work done to the
theoretical work done per revolution. The output torque of a hydraulic motor is less than theoretical torque due to
mechanical friction between the mating parts:

Here,theoretical torque and actual torque are given by

3. Overall efficiency: The overall efficiency of a motor is the ratio of output power to input power of the motor.
Output power is mechanical power output at the shaft and input power is fluid energy supplied to the inlet of the
hydraulic motor:

Overall efficiency = Volumetric efficiency x Mechanical efficiency .
Note: The actual power delivered to a motor by a fluid is called hydraulic power and the actual power delivered to a
load by a motor via a rotating shaft is called brake power.

Example 1
A hydraulic motor is required to drive a load at 500 rpm with 1000 Nm of torque. What is the output power?
*** End of 1st unit***