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1. Topic 1 Numbers 0 to 10 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this topic, you should

be able to: 1. Recognise the major mathematical skills of whole numbers from 0 to 10; 2.

Identify the pedagogical content knowledge of pre-number concepts, early numbers and

place value of numbers from 0 to 10; 3. Plan teaching and learning activities for pre-

number concepts and early numbers from 0 to 10; and 4. Determine and learn the

strategies for teaching and learning numbers in order to achieve Âactive learningÊ in

the classroom. INTRODUCTION Beginning number concepts are much more complex

than we realise. Just because children can say the words ÂoneÊ, ÂtwoÊ, ÂthreeÊ and

so on, does not mean that they can count the numbers. We want children to think about

what they are counting. Children can count numbers if they understand the words Âhow

manyÊ. As teachers, we do not teach numerals in isolation with the quantity they

represent because numerals are symbols that have meaning for children only when they

are introduced as labels of quantities. In order to start teaching numbers effectively,

it is important for you to have an overview of the mathematical skills of whole numbers.

At the beginning of this topic, you will learn about the history of various numeration

systems and basic number concepts such as the meanings of ÂnumberÊ, ÂnumeralÊ and

ÂdigitÊ. You will also learn about the stages of conceptual development for whole

numbers including pre-number concepts and early numbers. Children learn to recognise

and write numerals as they learn to develop early number concepts. In the second part

of this topic, you will learn more about the strategies for the teaching and learning of

numbers through a few samples of

encouraged to hold discussions with your tutor and classmates. Some suggested

activities for discussion are also given. PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE OF

WHOLE NUMBERS: NUMBERS 0 TO 10 1.1 In this section, we will be focusing on the

major mathematical skills for pre-number concepts and whole numbers 0 to 10 as

follows: (a) Determine pre-number concepts; (b) Compare the values of whole numbers 1

to 10; (c) Recognise and name whole numbers 0 to 10; (d) Count, read and write whole

numbers 0 to 10; (e) Determine the base-10 place value for each digit 0 to 10 ; and (f)

Arrange whole numbers 1 to 10 in ascending and descending order. 1.1.1 Pre-number

Concepts The development of number concepts for children in kindergarten begins with

pre-number concepts and emphasises on developing number sense the ability to deal

meaningfully with whole number ideas as opposed to memorising (Troutman, 2003). At

this level, children are guided to interact with sets of things. As they interact, they

sort, compare, make observations, see connections, tell, discuss ideas, ask and answer

questions, draw pictures, write as well as build strategies. They begin to form and

organise cognitive understanding. In short, children will have to learn the prerequisite

skills needed as stated below: (a) Develop classification abilities by their physical

attributes; (b) Compare the quantities of two sets of objects using one-to-one

matching; (c) Determine quantitative relationships including Âas many asÊ, Âmore thanÊ

and Âless thanÊ; (d) Arrange objects into a sequence according to size (small to big),

length (short to long), height (short to tall) or width (thin to thick) and vice versa; and

by copying repeating patterns using objects such as blocks, beads, etc. 1.1.2 Early

Numbers Mathematics starts with the counting of numbers. There are no historical

records of the first uses of numbers, their names and their symbols. Various symbols

are used to represent numbers based on their numeration systems. A numeration

system consists of a set of symbols and the rules for combining the symbols. Different

early numeration systems appeared to have originated from tallying. Ancient people

measured things by drawing on cave walls, bricks, pottery or pieces of tree trunks to

record their properties. At that time, ÂnumbersÊ were represented by using simple

Âtally marksÊ (/). Some numeration systems including our present day system are

shown in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Early Number Representations Today 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Ancient Egypt Babylon Mayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About 5000 years ago, people in

places of ancient civilisations began to use different symbols to represent numbers for

counting. They created various numeration systems. For example, the Egyptian

numeration system used picture symbols called hieroglyphics as illustrated in Figure 1.1.

system where each symbol represents a power of 10. What number is represented by

the following illustration? 2(10 000) + 1000 + 3(100) + 4(10) + 6 = 21 346 Try writing

the following numbers in hieroglyphics: (a) 245 (b) 1 869 234 On the other hand, the

Babylonians used a base-60 system consisting of only two symbols as given below. one

ten As such, the number 45 is represented as follows: 4(10) + 5 = 45 For numbers

larger than 60, base-60 is used to represent numbers in the Babylonian Numeration

System. Have fun computing the following illustrations: (a)

5. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 5 (b) Apart from the nine symbols in Table 1.1, the

Mayan Numeration System consists of 20 symbols altogether and is a base-20 system,

as shown in Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2: Mayan numerals The following illustration depicts

clearly the unique vertical place value format of the Mayan Numeration System, see

Figure 1.3. Figure 1.3: Mayan number chart Source: Mayan number chart from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_numerals What number is represented thus? 12 +

7(20) + 0(20.18) + 14(20.18.20) = 12 + 140 + 0 + 100800 = 100952

or more sets of symbols as shown in the examples given below. Try computing these

operations using Hindu-Arabic numerals. (a) (b) Solutions: (a) 6 + 8 = 14 (b) {7 + 0(20) +

14(20.18) + 1(20.18.20)} + {14 + 0(20) + 3(20.18) + 2(20.18.20)} + {1 + 1(20) + 17(20.18) +

3(20.18.20)} = 7 + 0 + 5040 + 7200 + 14 + 0 + 1080 + 14400 + 1 + 20 + 6120 + 21600} =

55482 The complexities of the above examples and illustrations of the various ancient

numeration systems discussed in this section should help you to realise why they are no

longer in use today. Table 1.2 shows some other famous historical numeration systems

used to this day including the Roman Numeration System, Greek Numeration System

and our Hindu-Arabic Numeration System. Table 1.2: Famous Number Representations

Roman 200 B.C. I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX Greek 500 B.C. z Hindu- Arabic 500 A.D.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hindu- Arabic 976 A.D. l 7 8 9

was further developed by famous mathematicians. The numeration system used today is

based on the Hindu-Arabic numeration system. Can you explain why the Hindu-Arabic

numeration system is being used today? At this point, you should have a clearer picture

about the difference between a ÂnumberÊ, a ÂnumeralÊ and a ÂdigitÊ. The terms

ÂnumberÊ, ÂnumeralÊ and ÂdigitÊ are all different. A number is an abstract idea that

addresses the question, Âhow manyÊ and means Ârelated to quantityÊ, whereas a

numeral is a symbol for representing a number that we can see, write or touch. Thus,

numerals are names for numbers. A ÂdigitÊ refers to the type of numerals used in a

numeration system. For example, our present numeration system is made up of only 10

different digits, that is, 0 to 9. SAMPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

ACTIVITIES 1.2 In this section, you will read about some samples of teaching and

learning activities that you can implement in your classroom. 1.2.1 Teaching Pre-number

Concepts There are many pre-number concepts that children must acquire in order to

develop good number sense. These are as follows: (a) Classify and sort things in terms

of properties (e.g. colour, shape, size, etc.); (b) Compare two sets and find out whether

one set has Âas many asÊ, Âmore thanÊ, or Âless thanÊ the other set; (c) Learn the

concepts of Âone moreÊ and Âone lessÊ. (d) Order sets of objects according to a

sequence according to size, length, height or width; and (e) Recognise and copy

repeating patterns using objects such as blocks, beads, etc. Now, let us look at some

activities that you can do with your pupils.

Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, your pupils should be able to: (a)

Classify things by their general and specific properties. Materials: Sets of toys; Sets

of pattern blocks (various shapes, colour, size, etc.); and Plastic containers or boxes.

Procedure: (a) Classify Objects by Their General Properties Teacher asks children to

work in groups of five and distributes four types of toys (e.g. car, train, boat and

aeroplane) to each group. Teacher says: „LetÊs work together, look at the toys.‰

Teacher asks: „Which are the toys that can fly? Which one can sail in the sea? Which

is the longest vehicle? Which is the smallest vehicle? Which is the fastest vehicle?

Which is the slowest vehicle?‰ Children respond to questions asked. In this activity,

children should be asked why they chose that specific object and not the others.

Teacher listens to childrenÊs responses. (b) Classify Objects by Their Specific

Properties Teacher distributes a set of pattern blocks with different shapes, sizes and

colours to each group, see Figure 1.4.

9. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 9 Figure 1.4: Pattern blocks (i) Teacher says: „Firstly,

classify these objects by their shapes.‰ „Put the objects into the boxes: A, B, C and D

according to their shapes.‰ (e.g. circle, triangle, rectangle and rhombus, see Figure 1.5

(a). Figure 1.5 (a): Pattern blocks and containers (ii) Teacher says: „Secondly, classify

these objects by their sizes.‰ „Put the objects into the boxes: A, B and C according

to their sizes.‰ (e.g. small size in box A, medium size in box B and large size in box C

with respect to their shapes, see Figure 1.5 (b). Figure 1.5 (b): Pattern blocks and

containers

10. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 10 (iii) Teacher says: „Lastly, classify these objects by

their colours.‰ „Put the objects into the boxes: A, B, C, D, E and F according to their

colours‰. (e.g. orange, blue, yellow, red, green and purple, see Figure 1.5 (c). Figure 1.5

(c): Pattern blocks and containers At this stage, children will recognise that shape is

the first property to consider, followed by size and colour. Children should be

encouraged to find as many properties as they can when classifying objects. You can

also try some other activities with the children such as classifying objects by their

texture (smooth, rough and fuzzy) or by their size (short and long), etc. to prepare

them to learn about putting objects into a sequence, that is, the skill of ordering or

seriation, which is more difficult than comparing since it involves making many decisions.

For example, when ordering three drinking straws of different lengths from short to

long, the middle one must be longer than the one before it, but shorter than the one

after it. Next, in Activity 2, your pupils will be asked to find the relationship between

two sets of black and white objects. Let us now take a look at Activity 2.

Sets of Objects Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, your pupils should be

able to: (a) Match items on a one-to-one matching basis; (b) Understand and master the

concept of Âas many asÊ, Âmore thanÊ and Âless thanÊ; and (c) Compare the number of

objects between two sets. Materials: Picture cards (A, B, C and D); Erasers; and Pencils,

etc. Procedure: (i) One-to-One Matching Correspondence Children are presented with

two picture cards, (Card A and Card B) consisting of the same number of objects.

Teacher demonstrates how the relationship of Âas many asÊ can be introduced using a

one-to-one matching basis as follows, see Figure 1.6 (a): Figure 1.6 (a): One-to-one

matching correspondence Teacher asks: „Are there as many moons as stars? Why?‰

(ii) As Many As, More and Less Teacher takes out a star from Card B and asks, „Are

there as many moons as stars now? Why? How can you tell? etc.‰ See example in

Figure 1.6 (b).

Teacher guides the children to build the concept of ÂmoreÊ and ÂlessÊ. For example,

which card has more moons? Which card has fewer stars? (iii) More Than, Less Than

The children are presented with another two picture cards (Card C and Card D) with

different numbers of objects. Teacher guides the children to compare the number of

objects between the two sets and introduces the concept of Âmore thanÊ and Âless

thanÊ. Teacher says: „Can you match each marble in Card C one-to-one with a marble in

Card D? Why?‰ Teacher says: „Children, we can say that Card C has more marbles

than Card D, or, Card D has less marbles than Card C‰. In addition, teacher can ask

her pupils to do a group activity as follows: Teacher says: „Sit together with your

friends in a group‰. „Everybody, show all the erasers and pencils you have to your

friends‰. „Can you compare the number of objects and tell your friends using the

words, Âmore thanÊ or Âless thanÊ?‰ Pupils should be able to respond as such: „I

have more erasers than you but, I have fewer pencils than you‰, „You have more

erasers than me‰, etc. Do try and think of other appropriate activities you can plan

and implement to help children to acquire pre-number experience or concepts essential

for developing good number sense prior to learning whole numbers. ACTIVITY 1.1

Which of the pupilsÊ learning activities do you like the most? Explain.

elaborates on the activities which you can implement with your pupils to help them

understand the concept of early numbers. Activity 3: Name Numbers and Recognise

Numerals 1 to 10 Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able

to: (a) Name and recognise numerals 1 to 5. Materials: Picture cards (0 to 5); Number

cards (1 to 5); and PowerPoint slides. Procedure: (a) Clap and Count Teacher claps and

counts 1 to 5. Teacher and pupils clap and count a series of claps together. ÂClapÊ, say

ÂoneÊ. ÂClapÊ, ÂClapÊ, say ÂoneÊ, ÂtwoÊ. Teacher asks pupils to clap twice and count

one, two; Clap four times and count one, two, three, four, etc. Pupils respond

accordingly. Do the same until number 5 is done. (b) Slide Show Teacher displays a

series of PowerPoint slides one by one as shown in Figure 1.7. The numerals come out

after the objects. Figure 1.7: Picture numeral cards

14. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 14 Teacher asks: „How many balls are there in this

slide?‰ and says, „Let us count together.‰ Teacher points to the balls and asks pupils

to count one by one. Then, point to the numeral and say the number name. Guide pupils

to respond (e.g. „There is one ball‰, „There are two balls‰, etc.). Repeat with

different numbers and different pictures of objects. (c) Class Activity (i) Teacher

shows a picture card and asks pupils to stick the correct number card beside it on the

white board. e.g.: Teacher says: „Look at the picture. How many clocks are there?‰

Pupils respond accordingly. Then teacher asks a pupil to choose the correct number

card and stick it beside the picture card on the white board. Teacher repeats the

steps until the fifth picture card is used. At the end, teacher asks pupils to arrange

the picture cards in ascending order (1 to 5) and then asks them to count accordingly.

(ii) Teacher shows a number card and asks the pupils to stick the correct picture card

beside it on the white board. e.g.: Teacher says: „Look at the card. What is the number

written on the card?‰

pupil to choose the correct picture card and stick it beside the number card on the

white board. Teacher repeats the steps until the fifth numeral card is done. At the end,

teacher asks pupils to arrange the number cards in ascending or descending order (e.g.

1 to 5 or 5 to 1) before asking them to count in sequence and at random. (d) Group

Activity Pupils sit in groups of five. Teacher distributes five picture cards of objects

and five corresponding numeral cards (1 to 5). Teacher says: „Choose a pupil in your

group. Put up the number five card in his/her left hand and the correct picture card on

his/her right hand. Help him/her to get the correct answer.‰ Teacher asks the group

to choose another pupil to do the same for the rest of the cards. Repeat for all the

numbers 1 to 5. Teacher distributes a worksheet. Teacher says: „LetÊs sing a song

about busy people together.‰ (refer to Appendix 1) Activity 4: Read and Write

Numbers, 1 to 10 Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able

to: (a) Read and write numbers from 1 to 10. Materials: Picture cards; Cut-out number

cards (1 5); Number names (name cards, one to five); and Plasticine.

picture cards with numbers, 1 to 5 in sequence. Pupils count the objects in the picture

card, point to the number and say the number name out loud. e.g.: Teacher sticks the

picture card on the writing board. Repeat this activity for all the picture and number

cards, that is, until the fifth card is done. (ii) Technique of Writing Numbers Teacher

demonstrates in sequence the technique of writing numerals, 1 to 5. Firstly, teacher

writes the number Â1Ê on the writing board step by step as follows: e.g.: 1 Teacher

writes the number in the air followed by the pupils. Repeat until number 5 is done.

Repeat until the pupils are able to write numbers in the correct way. (iii) Plasticine

Numerals Teacher distributes some plasticine to pupils and says: „Let us build the

numerals with plasticine for numbers 1 to 5. Arrange your numbers in sequence.‰

17. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 17 (iv) Cut-out Number Card Teacher gives pupils the

cut-out number cards, 1 to 5. Then, teacher asks them to trace the shape of each

number on a piece of paper. e.g.: Teacher distributes Worksheet 1 (refer to Appendix

2). Note: This strategy can also be used to teach the writing of numbers, from 6 to 10.

Can you write these numbers in the correct way? Activity 5: The Concept of Zero

Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able to: (a) Understand

the concept of ÂzeroÊ or ÂnothingÊ; and (b) Determine, name and write the number

zero. Materials: Picture cards; and Three boxes and five balls (Given to each group).

Procedure: (i) Teacher shows three picture cards.

18. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 18 Teacher asks: „How many rabbits are there in Cage

A, B and C?‰ Pupils respond: „There is one rabbit in Cage B, two rabbits in Cage C and

no rabbits in Cage A.‰ Teacher introduces the number Â0Ê to represent Âno rabbitsÊ

or ÂnothingÊ. (ii) Teacher distributes some balls into three boxes. Teacher asks: How

many balls are there in Box A, Box B and Box C respectively?‰ Teacher guides pupils

to determine the concept of ÂzeroÊ or ÂnothingÊ according to the number of balls in

Box B. Teacher reads and writes the digit Â0‰ (zero), followed by pupils. Activity 6:

Count On (Ascending) and Count Back (Descending) in Ones, from 1 to 10 Learning

Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able to: (a) Count on in ones

from 1 to 10; (b) Count back in ones from 10 to 1; and (c) Determine the base-10 place

value for each digit from 1 to 10. Materials: Number cards (1 10); Picture cards; and

PowerPoint slides.

19. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 19 Procedure: (a) Picture Cards (i) Ascending Order

Teacher flashes picture cards and the corresponding number cards in ascending order,

(i.e. 1 to 10). Pupils count the objects in the picture cards and say the numbers. Teacher

sticks the cards on the whiteboard in sequence. e.g.: Continue until the 10th picture

card is done. Pupils are asked to count on in ones from 1 to 10. The activity is repeated.

(ii) Descending Order Teacher flashes picture cards and the corresponding number

cards in descending order, (i.e. 10 to 1). Pupils count the objects in the picture cards

and say the numbers. Teacher sticks the cards on the whiteboard in sequence. e.g.:

20. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 20 Continue until the first picture card is done. Pupils

are asked to count back in ones from 10 to 1. The activity is repeated. (b) Slide Show (i)

Ascending Order Pupils are presented a series of slides (PowerPoint presentation):

Teacher asks pupils to count and say the number name, e.g. „one‰. Teacher clicks a

button to show the second stage and asks pupils to count and say the number.

21. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 21 Continue until the 10th stage. Repeat until the pupils

are able to count on in ones from 1 to 10. (ii) Descending Order Teacher repeats the

process as above but in descending order (i.e. 10 to 1). Teacher presents another slide

show, see Figure 1.8: Figure 1.8: Number ladder (c) Teacher Distributes a Worksheet (i)

Jump on the Number Blocks Teacher asks pupils to sing the ÂNumbers Up and DownÊ

song while jumping on the number blocks around the pond, that is, counting on or

counting back again and again! „Let us sing the ÂNumbers Up and DownÊ song together‰

(see Figure 1.9). Figure 1.9: Number blocks

two groups of 10 pupils and gives each group a set of number cards, 1 to 10, see Figure

1.10. Teacher asks them to stand in front of the class in groups. Teacher asks both

groups to arrange themselves in order. The group that finishes first is the winner. The

losing group is asked to count on and count back the numbers in ones. Repeat the game.

Figure 1.10: Number cards (iii) Going Up and Down the Stairs Pupils are asked to count

on in ones while going up the stairs and count back in ones while going down the stairs.

As a mathematics teacher, you have to generate as many ideas as possible about the

teaching and learning of whole numbers. There is no „one best way‰ to teach whole

numbers. As we know, the goal for children working on this topic is to go beyond simply

counting from one to 10 and recognising numerals. The emphasis here is developing

number sense, number relationships and the facility with counting. The samples of

teaching and learning activities in this topic will help you to understand basic number

skills associated with childrenÊs early learning of mathematics. They need to acquire

ongoing experiences resulting from these activities in order to develop consistency and

accuracy with counting skills.

numbers Number Numeral One-to-one matching correspondence Pre-number Concepts

Seriation Whole numbers 1. Describe the chronological development of numbers from

ancient civilisation until now. Present your answer in a mind map. 2. Teaching number

concepts using concrete materials can help pupils learn more effectively. Explain. 1.

Pupils might have difficulties in understanding the meaning of 0 and 10 compared to the

numbers 1 to 9. Explain. 2. Learning outcomes: At the end of the lesson, pupils will be

able to count numbers in ascending order (1 to 9) and descending order (9 to 1) either

through: (a) Picture cards first and number cards later; or (b) Number cards first and

picture cards later. Suggest the best strategy that can be used in the teaching and

learning process of numbers according to the above learning outcomes.

24. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 24 APPENDIX Busy People One busy person sweeping

the floor Two busy people closing the door Three busy people washing babyÊs socks

Four busy people lifting the rocks Five busy people washing the bowls Six busy people

stirring ÂdodolÊ Seven busy people chasing the mouse Eight busy people painting the

house Nine busy people sewing clothes Resource: Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum

Numbers Up and Down I'm learning how to count, From zero up to ten. I start from

zero every time And I count back down again. Zero, one, two, three, Four and five, I

say. Six, seven, eight and nine, Now I'm at ten ~ Hooray! But, I'm not finished, no not

yet, I got right up to ten. Now I must count from ten back down, To get to zero again!

Ten, nine, eight, seven, Six and five, I say. Four, three, two, one, I'm back at zero ~

Hooray! Resource: Mary Flynn's Songs 4 Teachers

25. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 25 WORKSHEET How many seeds are there in each

apple? Count and write the numbers.

26. Topic 2 Addition within 10 and Place Value LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of

this topic, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major mathematical skills related to

addition within 10 and place value; 2. Recognise the pedagogical content knowledge

related to addition within 10 and place value; and 3. Plan teaching and learning activities

for addition within 10 and introduction to the place value concept. INTRODUCTION

Adding is a quick and efficient way of counting. Sometimes we notice that adding and

counting are alike, but adding is faster than counting. You will also see that addition is

more powerful than mere counting. It has its own special vocabulary or words, and is

easy to learn because only a few simple rules are used in the addition of whole numbers.

When teaching addition to young pupils, it is important that you recognise the

meaningful learning processes which can be acquired through real life experiences. The

activities in this topic are designed as an introduction to addition. It provides the kind

of practice that most young children need. What do children need to know in addition?

Children do not gain understanding of addition just by working with symbols such as

Â+Ê and Â=Ê. You have to present the concept of addition through real-world

experiences because symbols will only be meaningful when they are associated with

these experiences. Young children must be able to see the connection between the

process of addition and the world they live in. They need to learn that certain symbols

and words such as ÂaddÊ, ÂsumÊ, ÂtotalÊ and ÂequalÊ are used as tools in everyday

life.

27. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 27 This topic is divided into

two main sections. The first section deals with pedagogical skills pertaining to addition

within 10 and includes an introduction to the concept of place-value. The second section

provides some samples of teaching and learning activities for addition within 10. You will

find that by reading the input in this topic, you will be able to teach addition to young

pupils more effectively and meaningfully. PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS OF ADDITION

WITHIN 10 2.1 In this section, we will discuss further the pedagogical skills of

addition within 10. This section will look into the concept of 'more than', teaching and

learning addition through addition stories, acting out stories to go with equations,

number bonds up to 10, reading and writing addition equations and finally reinforcement

activities. 2.1.1 The Concept of ‘More Than’ It is important for pupils to understand and

use the vocabulary of comparing and arranging numbers or quantities before learning

about addition. We can start by comparing two numbers. For example, a teacher gives

four oranges (or any other concrete object) each to two pupils. The teacher then gives

another orange to one of the pupils and asks them to count the number of oranges each

of them has. Teacher: How many oranges do you have? Who has more oranges? Teacher

introduces the concept of Âmore thanÊ, Âand one moreÊ as well as Âadd one moreÊ for

addition by referring to the example above. The pupils are guided to say the following

sentences to reinforce their understanding of addition with respect to the above

concept. e.g.: Five oranges are more than four oranges. Five is more than four. Four and

one more is five. Four add one more is five. Teacher repeats with other numbers using

different picture cards or counters and pupils practise using the sentence structures

given above.

28. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 28 2.1.2 Teaching and

Learning Addition Through Addition Stories Initially, addition can be introduced

through story problems that children can act out. Early story situations should be

simple and straightforward. Here is an example of a simple story problem for teaching

addition with two addends: Salmah has three balls. Her mother bought two more balls

for her. How many balls does Salmah have altogether? At this stage, children have to

make connections between the real world and the process of addition by interpreting

the addition stories. Children must read and write the equations that describe the

process they are working with. The concept of ÂadditionÊ should be introduced using

real things or concrete objects. At the same time, they have to read and write the

equations using common words, such as ÂandÊ, ÂmakeÊ, as well as ÂequalsÊ as shown in

Figure 2.1: Figure 2.1: Acting out addition stories However, you have to study effective

ways in which your pupils can act out the stories. Based on the situations given, pupils

can act out the stories in different ways as follows: (a) Act out stories using real

things as counters such as marbles, ice-cream sticks, top-up cards, etc.; (b) Act out

stories using counters and counting boards (e.g. trees, oceans. roads, beaches, etc.); (c)

Act out stories using models such as counting blocks; and (d) Act out stories using

imagination (without real things). Figure 2.2 shows some appropriate teaching aids for

teaching and learning addition.

29. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 29 Figure 2.2: Acting out

addition stories using appropriate teaching aids 2.1.3 Acting Out Stories to go with

Equations Figure 2.3 suggests a way for acting out stories to go with equations using

the ÂplusÊ and ÂequalÊ signs: Figure 2.3: Flowchart for ÂActing out stories to go with

equationsÊ

30. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 30 After pupils are able to

write equations according to teacher-directed stories, they can begin writing equations

independently using suitable materials (refer to Figure 2.2). Here are some examples of

how to use the materials. Example 1: Counting Board (e.g. Aquarium) I have two clown

fish in my aquarium. My mother bought three goldfish yesterday. How many fish do I

have altogether? See Figure 2.4. 2 clown fish and 3 gold fish make 5 fish altogether. 2

+ 3 = 5 Figure 2.4: Story problem ACTIVITY 2.1 Use the above example to show that 2

+ 3 = 3 + 2 = 5. 2.1.4 Number Bonds Up to 10 Activity 1: Count On and Count Back in

Ones, from 1 to 10 There are three boys playing football. Then another boy joins them.

How many boys are playing football altogether? See Figure 2.5. 3 + 1 = 4 Figure 2.5:

Count on: Using an Abacus Teachers can also use number cards as a number line. The

teacher reads or writes the story problem and then begins a discussion with pupils on

how to use the number line to answer the question as in the example shown in Figure 2.6:

31. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 31 „Four pupils and three

pupils are seven pupils‰ „Four plus three equals seven‰ 4 + 3 = 7 Figure 2.6: Count on:

Aligning number cards to form a number line Teachers are encouraged to teach the

addition of two addends within 5 first, followed by addition within 6 until 10. Pupils

need to be ÂimmersedÊ in the activities and go through the experience several times.

By repeating the tasks, pupils will learn the different number combinations for bonds

up to 10 efficiently. Activity 2: Count On and Count Back in Ones, from 1 to 10 The

activities on number bonds provide opportunities for teachers to apply a variety of

addition strategies. The objective of these activities is to recognise the addition of

pairs of numbers up to 10. You can start by asking your pupils to build a tower of 10

cubes and then break it into two towers, for example, a tower of four cubes and a

tower of six cubes, (refer Figure 2.7) or any pairs of numbers adding up to 10. Example:

Figure 2.7: Number towers Guide pupils to produce addition pairs up to 10, e.g. 4 + 6 =

10 or 6 + 4 = 10. Repeat with other pairs of numbers. Ask pupils what patterns they can

see before getting them to produce all the possible pairs that add up to 10. Record

each addition pair in a table as shown in Table 2.1:

32. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 32 Table 2.1: Sample Table

for ÂAddition ActivityÊ: Addition Pairs Up to 10 After Breaking Height of Tower

Before into Two Towers Breaking into Two Towers (Cubes) Height of First Tower

(Cubes) Height of Second Tower (Cubes) 10 0 10 10 1 9 10 2 8 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7

10 8 10 9 10 10 Discuss the results with pupils and ask them to practise saying the

number bonds repeatedly to facilitate instant and spontaneous recall in order to master

the basic facts of addition up to 10. To develop the skill, the teacher should first break

the tower of 10 cubes into two parts. Show one part of the tower and hide the other.

Then, ask pupils to state the height of the hidden tower. To extend the skill, you may

progressively ask the pupils to learn how to add other pairs of numbers, such as 9, 8, 7

and so on. ACTIVITY 2.2 What is the Âcommutative law in additionÊ? How do you

introduce this concept to your pupils? Explain clearly the strategy used for the

teaching and learning of the commutative law in addition. 2.1.5 Reading and Writing

Addition Equations As we know, there are two common methods of writing the addition

of numbers, either horizontally or vertically, as shown below:

33. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 33 (a) Adding horizontally, in

row form (i.e. Writing and counting numbers from left to right). Example: 4 + 5 = 9 The

activities discussed above are mostly based on this method, which are suitable for

adding two single numbers. (b) Adding vertically, in column form (i.e. Writing and

counting numbers from top to bottom). Example: 3 + 4 7 This method is suitable for

finding a sum of two or more large numbers because putting large numbers in columns

makes the process of adding easier compared to putting them in a row. ACTIVITY 2.3

Numbers are most easily added by placing them in columns. Describe how you can

create suitable teaching aids to enhance the addition of two addends using this method.

2.1.6 Reinforcement Activities To be an effective mathematics teacher, you are

encouraged to plan small group or individual activities as reinforcement activities for

addition within 10. Here are some examples of learning activities that you can do with

your pupils. (a) Number Shapes Have pupils take turns rolling a number cube to see how

many counters they have to place on their number shapes. Then they fill in the

remaining spaces with counters of different colours. Finally, they describe the number

combinations formed, as illustrated in Figure 2.8. Repeat with different number shapes.

34. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 34 Figure 2.8: Number

shapes (b) Number Trains Let pupils fill their number-train outlines (e.g. 7, 8 or 9) with

connecting cubes of two different colours. Ask them to describe the number

combinations formed. See Figure 2.9. Figure 2.9: Number train In addition, pupils can

also describe the number combination formed as Âthree plus three plus two equals

eightÊ, that is (3 + 3 + 2 = 8). PLACE VALUE 2.2 This section teaches you how to

introduce the place-value concept to your pupils. 2.2.1 Counting from 11 to 20 Pupils will

be able to read, write and count numbers up to 20 through the same activities as for

learning numbers up to 10 covered in Topic 1. Similar teaching aids and methods can be

used. The only difference is that we should now have more counters, say, at least 20. In

this section, we will not be focusing on counting numbers from 11 to 20 because it would

just be repeating the process of counting numbers from 1 to 10. You are, however,

encouraged to have some references on the strategies of teaching and learning

numbers from 11 to 20.

35. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 35 ACTIVITY 2.4 Describe

a strategy you would use for the teaching and learning of ÂCounting from 11 to 20Ê.

2.2.2 Teaching and Learning about Place Value The concept of place value is not easily

understood by pupils. Although they can read and write numbers up to 20 or beyond, it

does not mean that they know about the different values for each numeral in two-digit

numbers. We are lucky because our number system requires us to learn only 10

different numerals. Pupils can easily learn how to write any number, no matter how

large it is. Once pupils have discovered the patterns in the number system, the task of

writing two-digit numbers and beyond is simplified enormously. They will encounter the

same sequence of numerals, 0 to 9 over and over again. However, many pupils do not

understand that numbers are constructed by organising quantities into groups of tens

and ones, and the numerals change in value depending on their position in a number. In

this section, you will be introduced to the concept of place value by forming and

counting groups, recognising patterns in the number system and organising groups into

tens and ones. The place-value concept can be taught in kindergarten in order to help

pupils count large numbers in a meaningful way. You can start teaching place value by

asking pupils to form and count manipulative materials, such as counting cubes, ice-

cream sticks, beans and cups, etc. For example, ask pupils to count and group the

connected cubes from 1 to 10 placed either in a row or horizontally as shown in Figure

2.10. Figure 2.10: Connected cubes placed horizontally You can now introduce the

concept of place value of ones and tens (10 ones) to your pupils. The following steps can

be used to demonstrate the relationship between the numbers (11 to 19), tens and ones.

The cubes can also be arranged in a column or vertically as shown below. Here, you are

encouraged to use the enquiry method to help pupils familiarise themselves with the

place-value of tens and ones illustrated as follows:

36. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 36 Example: Teacher asks:

What number is 10 and one more? See Figure 2.11 (Pupils should respond with 11). Can

you show me using the connecting cubes? The above step is repeated for numbers 12,

13, , 20. Figure 2.11: Connected cubes placed vertically In order to make your lesson

more effective, you should use place-value boards or charts to help pupils organise

their counters into tens and ones. A place-value board is a piece of thick paper or soft-

board that is divided into two parts of different colours. The size of the board

depends on the size of the counters used. An example of the place-value board is given

in Figure 2.12: Figure 2.12: Place value board

37. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 37 The repetition of the

pattern for numbers 12 to 19 and 20 will make your pupils understand better and be

more familiar with the concept of place value. They will be able to learn about counting

numbers from 11 to 20 or beyond more meaningfully. At the same time, you can also

relate the place-value concept to the addition process. For example, 1 tens and 2 ones

make 12, which means 10 and two more make 12. ACTIVITY 2.5 In groups of four,

create some reinforcement activities for teaching numbers 11 to 20 using the place-

value method. Describe clearly how you will conduct the activities using suitable

Âhands-onÊ teaching aids. SAMPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES

2.3 This section provides some samples of teaching and learning activities you can carry

out with your pupils to enhance their knowledge of addition within 10 and the place-

value concept. Activity 1: Adding Using Patterns Learning Outcomes: At the end of this

activity, your pupils should be able to: (a) Add two numbers up to 10 using patterns; (b)

Read and write equations for addition of numbers using common words; and (c) Read and

write equations for addition of numbers using symbols and signs. Materials: Picture

cards; and PowerPoint slides.

38. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 38 Procedure: (a) Adding

Using Patterns (in Rows) (i) Teacher divides the class into 5 groups of 6 pupils, and

gives 10 oranges to each group. Teacher then asks each group to count the oranges, see

Figure 2.13. Teacher says: „Can you arrange the oranges so that you can count more

easily?‰ Discuss with your friends. Teacher says: „Now, take a look at this picture

card.‰ Figure 2.13: Picture card: Addition using patterns (ii) Teacher says: „Can you

see the pattern? Let us count in groups of fives instead of counting on in ones.‰ For

example: Five and five equals ten, or 5 + 5 = 10 (iii) Teacher says: „Now, let us look at

another pattern. How many eggs are there in the picture given below (see Figure 2.14)?‰

Figure 2.14: Picture card: Addition using patterns (in rows) (iv) Teacher says: „Did you

count every egg to find out how many there are altogether? Or did you manage to see

the pattern and count along one row first to get 4, and then add with another row of 4

to make 8 eggs altogether?‰ „Well done, if you have done so!‰ Let your pupils add

using different patterns of different numbers of objects with the help of PowerPoint

slides. Guide your pupils to read and write equations of addition of numbers in words,

symbols and signs (You may discuss how to write the story-board of your PowerPoint

presentation).

39. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 39 (b) Adding Using Patterns

(in Columns) (i) Teacher says: „Let us look at the pictures and try to recognise the

patterns (see Figure 2.15). Discuss with your friends.‰ Figure 2.15: Picture cards (ii)

Teacher discusses the patterns with pupils. For example, teacher shows the third

picture [Picture (c)] and tells that it can be divided into two parts, namely, the top and

bottom parts as shown in Figure 2.16: Figure 2.16: Picture card: Addition using patterns

(in columns) (iii) This is a way of showing how to teach addition using columns by the

inquiry-discovery method. As a conclusion, the teacher explains to the pupils that

arranging the objects in patterns will make it easier to add them. Using columns to add

also makes the addition of large numbers easier and faster. (c) Teacher distributes a

worksheet on addition using patterns (in rows or in columns).

within the Highest Total of 10 Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, your

pupils should be able to: (a) Add using fingers; (b) Add by combining two groups of

objects; and (c) Solve simple problems involving addition within 10. Materials: Fingers;

Counting board (tree); Picture cards; Number cards; Counters; Storybooks; Apples; and

Other concrete objects, etc. Procedure: (a) Addition Using Fingers (i) Initially, use

fingers to practise adding two numbers as a method of working out the addition of two

groups of objects, see Figure 2.17. e.g.: Figure 2.17: Finger addition

41. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 41 (b) Addition of Two

Groups of Objects (i) Teacher puts three green apples on the right side of the tree

and another four red apples on the left side. Teacher asks pupils to count the number

of green apples and red apples respectively. (ii) Teacher asks: „How many green apples

are there? How many red apples are there?‰ (iii) Teacher tells and asks: „Put all the

apples at the centre of the tree. Count on in ones together. How many apples are there

altogether?‰ (iv) Teacher guides them to say and write the mathematical sentence as

shown: „Three apples and four apples make seven apples‰. (v) Repeat with different

numbers of apples or objects. Introduce the concept of plus and equals in a

mathematical sentence. e.g. „There are two green apples and three red apples in Box A.‰

„There are five apples altogether.‰ „Two plus three equals five.‰ (vi) Teacher sticks

the picture cards on the whiteboard. Encourage pupils to add by counting on in ones (e.g.

4 ... 5, 6 ,7) and guide them to say that „Four plus three equals seven‰ (see Figure

2.18). Figure 2.18: Picture card: Addition of two groups of objects (vii) Introduce the

symbols for representing „plus‰ and „equals‰ in a number sentence. Ask them to

stick the correct number cards below the picture cards to form an addition equation as

above. Repeat this step using different numbers. (c) Problem Solving in Addition (i)

Teacher shows three balls in the box and asks pupils to put in some more balls to make

it 10 balls altogether.

42. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 42 (ii) Teacher asks: „How

many balls do you need to make up 10? How did you get the answer?‰ Let them discuss

in groups using some counters. Ask them to explain how they came up with their

answers. (iii) Repeat the above steps with different pairs of numbers. (iv) Teacher

discusses the following problem with the pupils. Sarah has to read six story books this

semester. If she has finished reading four books, how many more story books has she

got to read? (v) Teacher asks them to discuss the answer in groups. Encourage them to

work with models or counters and let them come up with their own ideas for solving the

problem. For example: (Note: They can also use mental calculation to solve the problem.)

Activity 3: Reinforcement Activity (Game) Learning Outcomes: By the end of this

activity, your pupils should be able to: (a) Complete the addition table given; and (b)

Add two numbers shown at the toss of two dices up to a highest total of 10. Materials:

Laminated Chart (Addition Table Table 1.2); Two dices for each group; and Crayons or

colour pencils.

43. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 43 Procedure: (i) Teacher

guides pupils to complete the addition table given. (Print out the table in A4 size paper

and laminate it). You can also use the table to explain the additive identity (i.e. A + 0 =

0 + A = A). Table 2.2: Adding Squares + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Instructions for Game: (i) Toss two dices at one go. Add the numbers obtained and

check your answer from the table. (ii) Colour the numbers 10 in green (Table 2.2). List

down all the pairs adding up to 10. (iii) Colour the numbers totalling 9 in red. List down

all pairs adding up to 9. (iv) Continue with other pairs of numbers using different

colours for different sums.

44. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 44 Activity 4: Place Value

and Ordering Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able to:

(a) Read and write numerals from 0 to 20; (b) Explain the value represented by each

digit in a two-digit number; and (c) Use vocabulary for comparing and ordering numbers

up to 20. Materials: Connecting cubes; Counting board; Place-value block/frame; and

Counters. Procedure: (a) Groups of Tens (i) Teacher divides the class into 6 groups of 5

pupils each. Teacher distributes some connecting cubes (say, at least 40 cubes) to each

group. (ii) Teacher asks the following questions and pupils are required to answer them

using the connecting cubes: What number is one more than 6?, 8?, and 9? 11?, 17? and

19? What number comes after 5?, 7?, and 9? 12?, 16? and 19? Which number is more, 7

or 9?, 3 or 7?, 14 or 11? etc. e.g.: 14 is more than 11 as shown in Figure 2.19. Figure 2.19:

Representing numbers using connecting cubes

45. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 45 16 is one more than a

number. What is that number? Repeat the above steps with different numbers. (b)

Place Value and Ordering (i) Teacher introduces a place-value block and asks pupils to

count beginning with number 1 by putting a counter into the first column (see Figure

2.20 (a). Teacher asks them to put one more counter on the board in that order. Repeat

until number 9 is obtained. Teacher then introduces the concept of „ones‰. 1 ones

represents 1 2 ones represent 2, ..., 9 ones represent 9 Figure 2.20 (a): Representing

numbers with place-value block and counters (ii) Teacher asks: „What is the number

after 10? How do you represent number 11 on the place-value block?‰ Teacher

introduces the concept of „tens‰ and „ones‰ as follows, see Figure 2.20 (b):

46. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 46 Figure 2.20 (b):

Representing numbers with place-value block and counters (iii) Teacher asks pupils to

put the correct number of counters into the correct column to represent the numbers

11, 12, etc. until 20. (iv) Teacher asks pupils to complete Table 1.3. Table 2.3: Place

Value Number Tens Ones Number Tens Ones 11 1 3 12 9 13 17 16 14 4 19 1 8 20 15 1 (v)

Teacher distributes a worksheet to reinforce the concept of place value learnt. A

teacher should know his/her pupilsÊ levels of proficiency when applying strategies to

solve problems related to addition. Problem solving related to addition depends on

pupilsÊ ability to work based on their counting skills.

enough if they could work using counting all or counting on. However, you have to guide

and encourage them to work by seeing the relationship or answer by knowing and

mastering the number combinations or number bonds. Adding Addition Equation Place

Value Sum Plus 1. An effective way to teach addition is to ask pupils to act out the

stories in real life using their imagination (without real things) and their own ideas.

Elaborate using one example. 2. Describe clearly how you would teach addition up to 10

involving zero using real materials. 3. Counting numbers from 11 to 20 should be taught

after pupils are introduced to the concept of place value. Give your comments on this.

Based on the following learning outcome, „At the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to

count numbers from 11 to 20 using place-value blocks‰, suggest the best strategy or

method that can be used in the teaching and learning process to achieve this learning

outcome.

(a) Count and add. (i) (ii) (b) Count and add. (c) Draw the correct number of fish on each

plate and complete the equation.

49. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 49 (d) Match the following.

(e) Match the following (Read and add).

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