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# Nota HBMT1203

1. Topic 1 Numbers 0 to 10 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this topic, you should
be able to: 1. Recognise the major mathematical skills of whole numbers from 0 to 10; 2.
Identify the pedagogical content knowledge of pre-number concepts, early numbers and
place value of numbers from 0 to 10; 3. Plan teaching and learning activities for pre-
number concepts and early numbers from 0 to 10; and 4. Determine and learn the
strategies for teaching and learning numbers in order to achieve Âactive learningÊ in
the classroom. INTRODUCTION Beginning number concepts are much more complex
than we realise. Just because children can say the words ÂoneÊ, ÂtwoÊ, ÂthreeÊ and
so on, does not mean that they can count the numbers. We want children to think about
what they are counting. Children can count numbers if they understand the words Âhow
manyÊ. As teachers, we do not teach numerals in isolation with the quantity they
represent because numerals are symbols that have meaning for children only when they
are introduced as labels of quantities. In order to start teaching numbers effectively,
it is important for you to have an overview of the mathematical skills of whole numbers.
At the beginning of this topic, you will learn about the history of various numeration
systems and basic number concepts such as the meanings of ÂnumberÊ, ÂnumeralÊ and
ÂdigitÊ. You will also learn about the stages of conceptual development for whole
numbers including pre-number concepts and early numbers. Children learn to recognise
and write numerals as they learn to develop early number concepts. In the second part
of this topic, you will learn more about the strategies for the teaching and learning of
numbers through a few samples of

## 2. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 2 teaching and learning activities. You are also

encouraged to hold discussions with your tutor and classmates. Some suggested
activities for discussion are also given. PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE OF
WHOLE NUMBERS: NUMBERS 0 TO 10 1.1 In this section, we will be focusing on the
major mathematical skills for pre-number concepts and whole numbers 0 to 10 as
follows: (a) Determine pre-number concepts; (b) Compare the values of whole numbers 1
to 10; (c) Recognise and name whole numbers 0 to 10; (d) Count, read and write whole
numbers 0 to 10; (e) Determine the base-10 place value for each digit 0 to 10 ; and (f)
Arrange whole numbers 1 to 10 in ascending and descending order. 1.1.1 Pre-number
Concepts The development of number concepts for children in kindergarten begins with
pre-number concepts and emphasises on developing number sense the ability to deal
meaningfully with whole number ideas as opposed to memorising (Troutman, 2003). At
this level, children are guided to interact with sets of things. As they interact, they
sort, compare, make observations, see connections, tell, discuss ideas, ask and answer
questions, draw pictures, write as well as build strategies. They begin to form and
organise cognitive understanding. In short, children will have to learn the prerequisite
skills needed as stated below: (a) Develop classification abilities by their physical
attributes; (b) Compare the quantities of two sets of objects using one-to-one
matching; (c) Determine quantitative relationships including Âas many asÊ, Âmore thanÊ
and Âless thanÊ; (d) Arrange objects into a sequence according to size (small to big),
length (short to long), height (short to tall) or width (thin to thick) and vice versa; and

## 3. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 3 (e) Recognise repeating patterns and create patterns

by copying repeating patterns using objects such as blocks, beads, etc. 1.1.2 Early
Numbers Mathematics starts with the counting of numbers. There are no historical
records of the first uses of numbers, their names and their symbols. Various symbols
are used to represent numbers based on their numeration systems. A numeration
system consists of a set of symbols and the rules for combining the symbols. Different
early numeration systems appeared to have originated from tallying. Ancient people
measured things by drawing on cave walls, bricks, pottery or pieces of tree trunks to
record their properties. At that time, ÂnumbersÊ were represented by using simple
Âtally marksÊ (/). Some numeration systems including our present day system are
shown in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Early Number Representations Today 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ancient Egypt Babylon Mayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About 5000 years ago, people in
places of ancient civilisations began to use different symbols to represent numbers for
counting. They created various numeration systems. For example, the Egyptian
numeration system used picture symbols called hieroglyphics as illustrated in Figure 1.1.

## 4. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 4 Figure 1.1: Egyptian hieroglyphics This is a base-10

system where each symbol represents a power of 10. What number is represented by
the following illustration? 2(10 000) + 1000 + 3(100) + 4(10) + 6 = 21 346 Try writing
the following numbers in hieroglyphics: (a) 245 (b) 1 869 234 On the other hand, the
Babylonians used a base-60 system consisting of only two symbols as given below. one
ten As such, the number 45 is represented as follows: 4(10) + 5 = 45 For numbers
larger than 60, base-60 is used to represent numbers in the Babylonian Numeration
System. Have fun computing the following illustrations: (a)

5. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 5 (b) Apart from the nine symbols in Table 1.1, the
Mayan Numeration System consists of 20 symbols altogether and is a base-20 system,
as shown in Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2: Mayan numerals The following illustration depicts
clearly the unique vertical place value format of the Mayan Numeration System, see
Figure 1.3. Figure 1.3: Mayan number chart Source: Mayan number chart from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_numerals What number is represented thus? 12 +
7(20) + 0(20.18) + 14(20.18.20) = 12 + 140 + 0 + 100800 = 100952

## 6. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 6 Simple addition can be carried out by combining two

or more sets of symbols as shown in the examples given below. Try computing these
operations using Hindu-Arabic numerals. (a) (b) Solutions: (a) 6 + 8 = 14 (b) {7 + 0(20) +
14(20.18) + 1(20.18.20)} + {14 + 0(20) + 3(20.18) + 2(20.18.20)} + {1 + 1(20) + 17(20.18) +
3(20.18.20)} = 7 + 0 + 5040 + 7200 + 14 + 0 + 1080 + 14400 + 1 + 20 + 6120 + 21600} =
55482 The complexities of the above examples and illustrations of the various ancient
numeration systems discussed in this section should help you to realise why they are no
longer in use today. Table 1.2 shows some other famous historical numeration systems
used to this day including the Roman Numeration System, Greek Numeration System
and our Hindu-Arabic Numeration System. Table 1.2: Famous Number Representations
Roman 200 B.C. I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX Greek 500 B.C. z Hindu- Arabic 500 A.D.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hindu- Arabic 976 A.D. l 7 8 9

## 7. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 7 Along with the development of numbers, mathematics

was further developed by famous mathematicians. The numeration system used today is
based on the Hindu-Arabic numeration system. Can you explain why the Hindu-Arabic
numeration system is being used today? At this point, you should have a clearer picture
about the difference between a ÂnumberÊ, a ÂnumeralÊ and a ÂdigitÊ. The terms
ÂnumberÊ, ÂnumeralÊ and ÂdigitÊ are all different. A number is an abstract idea that
addresses the question, Âhow manyÊ and means Ârelated to quantityÊ, whereas a
numeral is a symbol for representing a number that we can see, write or touch. Thus,
numerals are names for numbers. A ÂdigitÊ refers to the type of numerals used in a
numeration system. For example, our present numeration system is made up of only 10
different digits, that is, 0 to 9. SAMPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
ACTIVITIES 1.2 In this section, you will read about some samples of teaching and
learning activities that you can implement in your classroom. 1.2.1 Teaching Pre-number
Concepts There are many pre-number concepts that children must acquire in order to
develop good number sense. These are as follows: (a) Classify and sort things in terms
of properties (e.g. colour, shape, size, etc.); (b) Compare two sets and find out whether
one set has Âas many asÊ, Âmore thanÊ, or Âless thanÊ the other set; (c) Learn the
concepts of Âone moreÊ and Âone lessÊ. (d) Order sets of objects according to a
sequence according to size, length, height or width; and (e) Recognise and copy
repeating patterns using objects such as blocks, beads, etc. Now, let us look at some
activities that you can do with your pupils.

## 8. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 8 Activity 1: Classifying Things by Their Properties

Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, your pupils should be able to: (a)
Classify things by their general and specific properties. Materials: Sets of toys; Sets
of pattern blocks (various shapes, colour, size, etc.); and Plastic containers or boxes.
Procedure: (a) Classify Objects by Their General Properties Teacher asks children to
work in groups of five and distributes four types of toys (e.g. car, train, boat and
aeroplane) to each group. Teacher says: „LetÊs work together, look at the toys.‰
Teacher asks: „Which are the toys that can fly? Which one can sail in the sea? Which
is the longest vehicle? Which is the smallest vehicle? Which is the fastest vehicle?
Which is the slowest vehicle?‰ Children respond to questions asked. In this activity,
children should be asked why they chose that specific object and not the others.
Teacher listens to childrenÊs responses. (b) Classify Objects by Their Specific
Properties Teacher distributes a set of pattern blocks with different shapes, sizes and
colours to each group, see Figure 1.4.

9. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 9 Figure 1.4: Pattern blocks (i) Teacher says: „Firstly,
classify these objects by their shapes.‰ „Put the objects into the boxes: A, B, C and D
according to their shapes.‰ (e.g. circle, triangle, rectangle and rhombus, see Figure 1.5
(a). Figure 1.5 (a): Pattern blocks and containers (ii) Teacher says: „Secondly, classify
these objects by their sizes.‰ „Put the objects into the boxes: A, B and C according
to their sizes.‰ (e.g. small size in box A, medium size in box B and large size in box C
with respect to their shapes, see Figure 1.5 (b). Figure 1.5 (b): Pattern blocks and
containers

10. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 10 (iii) Teacher says: „Lastly, classify these objects by
their colours.‰ „Put the objects into the boxes: A, B, C, D, E and F according to their
colours‰. (e.g. orange, blue, yellow, red, green and purple, see Figure 1.5 (c). Figure 1.5
(c): Pattern blocks and containers At this stage, children will recognise that shape is
the first property to consider, followed by size and colour. Children should be
encouraged to find as many properties as they can when classifying objects. You can
also try some other activities with the children such as classifying objects by their
texture (smooth, rough and fuzzy) or by their size (short and long), etc. to prepare
them to learn about putting objects into a sequence, that is, the skill of ordering or
seriation, which is more difficult than comparing since it involves making many decisions.
For example, when ordering three drinking straws of different lengths from short to
long, the middle one must be longer than the one before it, but shorter than the one
after it. Next, in Activity 2, your pupils will be asked to find the relationship between
two sets of black and white objects. Let us now take a look at Activity 2.

## 11. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 11 Activity 2: Finding the Relationship between Two

Sets of Objects Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, your pupils should be
able to: (a) Match items on a one-to-one matching basis; (b) Understand and master the
concept of Âas many asÊ, Âmore thanÊ and Âless thanÊ; and (c) Compare the number of
objects between two sets. Materials: Picture cards (A, B, C and D); Erasers; and Pencils,
etc. Procedure: (i) One-to-One Matching Correspondence Children are presented with
two picture cards, (Card A and Card B) consisting of the same number of objects.
Teacher demonstrates how the relationship of Âas many asÊ can be introduced using a
one-to-one matching basis as follows, see Figure 1.6 (a): Figure 1.6 (a): One-to-one
matching correspondence Teacher asks: „Are there as many moons as stars? Why?‰
(ii) As Many As, More and Less Teacher takes out a star from Card B and asks, „Are
there as many moons as stars now? Why? How can you tell? etc.‰ See example in
Figure 1.6 (b).

## 12. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 12 Figure 1.6 (b): One-to-one matching correspondence

Teacher guides the children to build the concept of ÂmoreÊ and ÂlessÊ. For example,
which card has more moons? Which card has fewer stars? (iii) More Than, Less Than
The children are presented with another two picture cards (Card C and Card D) with
different numbers of objects. Teacher guides the children to compare the number of
objects between the two sets and introduces the concept of Âmore thanÊ and Âless
thanÊ. Teacher says: „Can you match each marble in Card C one-to-one with a marble in
Card D? Why?‰ Teacher says: „Children, we can say that Card C has more marbles
than Card D, or, Card D has less marbles than Card C‰. In addition, teacher can ask
her pupils to do a group activity as follows: Teacher says: „Sit together with your
friends in a group‰. „Everybody, show all the erasers and pencils you have to your
friends‰. „Can you compare the number of objects and tell your friends using the
words, Âmore thanÊ or Âless thanÊ?‰ Pupils should be able to respond as such: „I
have more erasers than you but, I have fewer pencils than you‰, „You have more
erasers than me‰, etc. Do try and think of other appropriate activities you can plan
and implement to help children to acquire pre-number experience or concepts essential
for developing good number sense prior to learning whole numbers. ACTIVITY 1.1
Which of the pupilsÊ learning activities do you like the most? Explain.

## 13. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 13 1.2.2 Teaching Early Numbers This section

elaborates on the activities which you can implement with your pupils to help them
understand the concept of early numbers. Activity 3: Name Numbers and Recognise
Numerals 1 to 10 Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able
to: (a) Name and recognise numerals 1 to 5. Materials: Picture cards (0 to 5); Number
cards (1 to 5); and PowerPoint slides. Procedure: (a) Clap and Count Teacher claps and
counts 1 to 5. Teacher and pupils clap and count a series of claps together. ÂClapÊ, say
ÂoneÊ. ÂClapÊ, ÂClapÊ, say ÂoneÊ, ÂtwoÊ. Teacher asks pupils to clap twice and count
one, two; Clap four times and count one, two, three, four, etc. Pupils respond
accordingly. Do the same until number 5 is done. (b) Slide Show Teacher displays a
series of PowerPoint slides one by one as shown in Figure 1.7. The numerals come out
after the objects. Figure 1.7: Picture numeral cards

14. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 14 Teacher asks: „How many balls are there in this
slide?‰ and says, „Let us count together.‰ Teacher points to the balls and asks pupils
to count one by one. Then, point to the numeral and say the number name. Guide pupils
to respond (e.g. „There is one ball‰, „There are two balls‰, etc.). Repeat with
different numbers and different pictures of objects. (c) Class Activity (i) Teacher
shows a picture card and asks pupils to stick the correct number card beside it on the
white board. e.g.: Teacher says: „Look at the picture. How many clocks are there?‰
Pupils respond accordingly. Then teacher asks a pupil to choose the correct number
card and stick it beside the picture card on the white board. Teacher repeats the
steps until the fifth picture card is used. At the end, teacher asks pupils to arrange
the picture cards in ascending order (1 to 5) and then asks them to count accordingly.
(ii) Teacher shows a number card and asks the pupils to stick the correct picture card
beside it on the white board. e.g.: Teacher says: „Look at the card. What is the number
written on the card?‰

## 15. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 15 Pupils respond accordingly. Then teacher asks a

pupil to choose the correct picture card and stick it beside the number card on the
white board. Teacher repeats the steps until the fifth numeral card is done. At the end,
teacher asks pupils to arrange the number cards in ascending or descending order (e.g.
1 to 5 or 5 to 1) before asking them to count in sequence and at random. (d) Group
Activity Pupils sit in groups of five. Teacher distributes five picture cards of objects
and five corresponding numeral cards (1 to 5). Teacher says: „Choose a pupil in your
group. Put up the number five card in his/her left hand and the correct picture card on
his/her right hand. Help him/her to get the correct answer.‰ Teacher asks the group
to choose another pupil to do the same for the rest of the cards. Repeat for all the
numbers 1 to 5. Teacher distributes a worksheet. Teacher says: „LetÊs sing a song
about busy people together.‰ (refer to Appendix 1) Activity 4: Read and Write
Numbers, 1 to 10 Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able
to: (a) Read and write numbers from 1 to 10. Materials: Picture cards; Cut-out number
cards (1 5); Number names (name cards, one to five); and Plasticine.

## 16. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 16 Procedure: (i) Numbers 1 to 5 Teacher shows the

picture cards with numbers, 1 to 5 in sequence. Pupils count the objects in the picture
card, point to the number and say the number name out loud. e.g.: Teacher sticks the
picture card on the writing board. Repeat this activity for all the picture and number
cards, that is, until the fifth card is done. (ii) Technique of Writing Numbers Teacher
demonstrates in sequence the technique of writing numerals, 1 to 5. Firstly, teacher
writes the number Â1Ê on the writing board step by step as follows: e.g.: 1 Teacher
writes the number in the air followed by the pupils. Repeat until number 5 is done.
Repeat until the pupils are able to write numbers in the correct way. (iii) Plasticine
Numerals Teacher distributes some plasticine to pupils and says: „Let us build the
numerals with plasticine for numbers 1 to 5. Arrange your numbers in sequence.‰

17. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 17 (iv) Cut-out Number Card Teacher gives pupils the
cut-out number cards, 1 to 5. Then, teacher asks them to trace the shape of each
number on a piece of paper. e.g.: Teacher distributes Worksheet 1 (refer to Appendix
2). Note: This strategy can also be used to teach the writing of numbers, from 6 to 10.
Can you write these numbers in the correct way? Activity 5: The Concept of Zero
Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able to: (a) Understand
the concept of ÂzeroÊ or ÂnothingÊ; and (b) Determine, name and write the number
zero. Materials: Picture cards; and Three boxes and five balls (Given to each group).
Procedure: (i) Teacher shows three picture cards.

18. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 18 Teacher asks: „How many rabbits are there in Cage
A, B and C?‰ Pupils respond: „There is one rabbit in Cage B, two rabbits in Cage C and
no rabbits in Cage A.‰ Teacher introduces the number Â0Ê to represent Âno rabbitsÊ
or ÂnothingÊ. (ii) Teacher distributes some balls into three boxes. Teacher asks: How
many balls are there in Box A, Box B and Box C respectively?‰ Teacher guides pupils
to determine the concept of ÂzeroÊ or ÂnothingÊ according to the number of balls in
Box B. Teacher reads and writes the digit Â0‰ (zero), followed by pupils. Activity 6:
Count On (Ascending) and Count Back (Descending) in Ones, from 1 to 10 Learning
Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able to: (a) Count on in ones
from 1 to 10; (b) Count back in ones from 10 to 1; and (c) Determine the base-10 place
value for each digit from 1 to 10. Materials: Number cards (1 10); Picture cards; and
PowerPoint slides.

19. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 19 Procedure: (a) Picture Cards (i) Ascending Order
Teacher flashes picture cards and the corresponding number cards in ascending order,
(i.e. 1 to 10). Pupils count the objects in the picture cards and say the numbers. Teacher
sticks the cards on the whiteboard in sequence. e.g.: Continue until the 10th picture
card is done. Pupils are asked to count on in ones from 1 to 10. The activity is repeated.
(ii) Descending Order Teacher flashes picture cards and the corresponding number
cards in descending order, (i.e. 10 to 1). Pupils count the objects in the picture cards
and say the numbers. Teacher sticks the cards on the whiteboard in sequence. e.g.:

20. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 20 Continue until the first picture card is done. Pupils
are asked to count back in ones from 10 to 1. The activity is repeated. (b) Slide Show (i)
Ascending Order Pupils are presented a series of slides (PowerPoint presentation):
Teacher asks pupils to count and say the number name, e.g. „one‰. Teacher clicks a
button to show the second stage and asks pupils to count and say the number.

21. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 21 Continue until the 10th stage. Repeat until the pupils
are able to count on in ones from 1 to 10. (ii) Descending Order Teacher repeats the
process as above but in descending order (i.e. 10 to 1). Teacher presents another slide
show, see Figure 1.8: Figure 1.8: Number ladder (c) Teacher Distributes a Worksheet (i)
Jump on the Number Blocks Teacher asks pupils to sing the ÂNumbers Up and DownÊ
song while jumping on the number blocks around the pond, that is, counting on or
counting back again and again! „Let us sing the ÂNumbers Up and DownÊ song together‰
(see Figure 1.9). Figure 1.9: Number blocks

## 22. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 22 (ii) Arranging Pupils in Sequence Teacher selects

two groups of 10 pupils and gives each group a set of number cards, 1 to 10, see Figure
1.10. Teacher asks them to stand in front of the class in groups. Teacher asks both
groups to arrange themselves in order. The group that finishes first is the winner. The
losing group is asked to count on and count back the numbers in ones. Repeat the game.
Figure 1.10: Number cards (iii) Going Up and Down the Stairs Pupils are asked to count
on in ones while going up the stairs and count back in ones while going down the stairs.
As a mathematics teacher, you have to generate as many ideas as possible about the
teaching and learning of whole numbers. There is no „one best way‰ to teach whole
numbers. As we know, the goal for children working on this topic is to go beyond simply
counting from one to 10 and recognising numerals. The emphasis here is developing
number sense, number relationships and the facility with counting. The samples of
teaching and learning activities in this topic will help you to understand basic number
skills associated with childrenÊs early learning of mathematics. They need to acquire
ongoing experiences resulting from these activities in order to develop consistency and
accuracy with counting skills.

## 23. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 23 Ascending order Descending order Digit Early

numbers Number Numeral One-to-one matching correspondence Pre-number Concepts
Seriation Whole numbers 1. Describe the chronological development of numbers from
ancient civilisation until now. Present your answer in a mind map. 2. Teaching number
concepts using concrete materials can help pupils learn more effectively. Explain. 1.
Pupils might have difficulties in understanding the meaning of 0 and 10 compared to the
numbers 1 to 9. Explain. 2. Learning outcomes: At the end of the lesson, pupils will be
able to count numbers in ascending order (1 to 9) and descending order (9 to 1) either
through: (a) Picture cards first and number cards later; or (b) Number cards first and
picture cards later. Suggest the best strategy that can be used in the teaching and
learning process of numbers according to the above learning outcomes.

24. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 24 APPENDIX Busy People One busy person sweeping
the floor Two busy people closing the door Three busy people washing babyÊs socks
Four busy people lifting the rocks Five busy people washing the bowls Six busy people
stirring ÂdodolÊ Seven busy people chasing the mouse Eight busy people painting the
house Nine busy people sewing clothes Resource: Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum
Numbers Up and Down I'm learning how to count, From zero up to ten. I start from
zero every time And I count back down again. Zero, one, two, three, Four and five, I
say. Six, seven, eight and nine, Now I'm at ten ~ Hooray! But, I'm not finished, no not
yet, I got right up to ten. Now I must count from ten back down, To get to zero again!
Ten, nine, eight, seven, Six and five, I say. Four, three, two, one, I'm back at zero ~
Hooray! Resource: Mary Flynn's Songs 4 Teachers

25. TOPIC 1 NUMBERS 0 TO 10 25 WORKSHEET How many seeds are there in each
apple? Count and write the numbers.

26. Topic 2 Addition within 10 and Place Value LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of
this topic, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major mathematical skills related to
addition within 10 and place value; 2. Recognise the pedagogical content knowledge
related to addition within 10 and place value; and 3. Plan teaching and learning activities
for addition within 10 and introduction to the place value concept. INTRODUCTION
Adding is a quick and efficient way of counting. Sometimes we notice that adding and
counting are alike, but adding is faster than counting. You will also see that addition is
more powerful than mere counting. It has its own special vocabulary or words, and is
easy to learn because only a few simple rules are used in the addition of whole numbers.
When teaching addition to young pupils, it is important that you recognise the
meaningful learning processes which can be acquired through real life experiences. The
activities in this topic are designed as an introduction to addition. It provides the kind
of practice that most young children need. What do children need to know in addition?
Children do not gain understanding of addition just by working with symbols such as
Â+Ê and Â=Ê. You have to present the concept of addition through real-world
experiences because symbols will only be meaningful when they are associated with
these experiences. Young children must be able to see the connection between the
process of addition and the world they live in. They need to learn that certain symbols
and words such as ÂaddÊ, ÂsumÊ, ÂtotalÊ and ÂequalÊ are used as tools in everyday
life.

27. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 27 This topic is divided into
two main sections. The first section deals with pedagogical skills pertaining to addition
within 10 and includes an introduction to the concept of place-value. The second section
provides some samples of teaching and learning activities for addition within 10. You will
find that by reading the input in this topic, you will be able to teach addition to young
pupils more effectively and meaningfully. PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS OF ADDITION
WITHIN 10 2.1 In this section, we will discuss further the pedagogical skills of
addition within 10. This section will look into the concept of 'more than', teaching and
learning addition through addition stories, acting out stories to go with equations,
number bonds up to 10, reading and writing addition equations and finally reinforcement
activities. 2.1.1 The Concept of ‘More Than’ It is important for pupils to understand and
use the vocabulary of comparing and arranging numbers or quantities before learning
about addition. We can start by comparing two numbers. For example, a teacher gives
four oranges (or any other concrete object) each to two pupils. The teacher then gives
another orange to one of the pupils and asks them to count the number of oranges each
of them has. Teacher: How many oranges do you have? Who has more oranges? Teacher
introduces the concept of Âmore thanÊ, Âand one moreÊ as well as Âadd one moreÊ for
addition by referring to the example above. The pupils are guided to say the following
sentences to reinforce their understanding of addition with respect to the above
concept. e.g.: Five oranges are more than four oranges. Five is more than four. Four and
one more is five. Four add one more is five. Teacher repeats with other numbers using
different picture cards or counters and pupils practise using the sentence structures
given above.

28. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 28 2.1.2 Teaching and
Learning Addition Through Addition Stories Initially, addition can be introduced
through story problems that children can act out. Early story situations should be
simple and straightforward. Here is an example of a simple story problem for teaching
addition with two addends: Salmah has three balls. Her mother bought two more balls
for her. How many balls does Salmah have altogether? At this stage, children have to
make connections between the real world and the process of addition by interpreting
the addition stories. Children must read and write the equations that describe the
process they are working with. The concept of ÂadditionÊ should be introduced using
real things or concrete objects. At the same time, they have to read and write the
equations using common words, such as ÂandÊ, ÂmakeÊ, as well as ÂequalsÊ as shown in
Figure 2.1: Figure 2.1: Acting out addition stories However, you have to study effective
ways in which your pupils can act out the stories. Based on the situations given, pupils
can act out the stories in different ways as follows: (a) Act out stories using real
things as counters such as marbles, ice-cream sticks, top-up cards, etc.; (b) Act out
stories using counters and counting boards (e.g. trees, oceans. roads, beaches, etc.); (c)
Act out stories using models such as counting blocks; and (d) Act out stories using
imagination (without real things). Figure 2.2 shows some appropriate teaching aids for
teaching and learning addition.

29. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 29 Figure 2.2: Acting out
addition stories using appropriate teaching aids 2.1.3 Acting Out Stories to go with
Equations Figure 2.3 suggests a way for acting out stories to go with equations using
the ÂplusÊ and ÂequalÊ signs: Figure 2.3: Flowchart for ÂActing out stories to go with
equationsÊ

30. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 30 After pupils are able to
write equations according to teacher-directed stories, they can begin writing equations
independently using suitable materials (refer to Figure 2.2). Here are some examples of
how to use the materials. Example 1: Counting Board (e.g. Aquarium) I have two clown
fish in my aquarium. My mother bought three goldfish yesterday. How many fish do I
have altogether? See Figure 2.4. 2 clown fish and 3 gold fish make 5 fish altogether. 2
+ 3 = 5 Figure 2.4: Story problem ACTIVITY 2.1 Use the above example to show that 2
+ 3 = 3 + 2 = 5. 2.1.4 Number Bonds Up to 10 Activity 1: Count On and Count Back in
Ones, from 1 to 10 There are three boys playing football. Then another boy joins them.
How many boys are playing football altogether? See Figure 2.5. 3 + 1 = 4 Figure 2.5:
Count on: Using an Abacus Teachers can also use number cards as a number line. The
teacher reads or writes the story problem and then begins a discussion with pupils on
how to use the number line to answer the question as in the example shown in Figure 2.6:

31. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 31 „Four pupils and three
pupils are seven pupils‰ „Four plus three equals seven‰ 4 + 3 = 7 Figure 2.6: Count on:
Aligning number cards to form a number line Teachers are encouraged to teach the
addition of two addends within 5 first, followed by addition within 6 until 10. Pupils
need to be ÂimmersedÊ in the activities and go through the experience several times.
By repeating the tasks, pupils will learn the different number combinations for bonds
up to 10 efficiently. Activity 2: Count On and Count Back in Ones, from 1 to 10 The
activities on number bonds provide opportunities for teachers to apply a variety of
addition strategies. The objective of these activities is to recognise the addition of
pairs of numbers up to 10. You can start by asking your pupils to build a tower of 10
cubes and then break it into two towers, for example, a tower of four cubes and a
tower of six cubes, (refer Figure 2.7) or any pairs of numbers adding up to 10. Example:
Figure 2.7: Number towers Guide pupils to produce addition pairs up to 10, e.g. 4 + 6 =
10 or 6 + 4 = 10. Repeat with other pairs of numbers. Ask pupils what patterns they can
see before getting them to produce all the possible pairs that add up to 10. Record
each addition pair in a table as shown in Table 2.1:

32. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 32 Table 2.1: Sample Table
for ÂAddition ActivityÊ: Addition Pairs Up to 10 After Breaking Height of Tower
Before into Two Towers Breaking into Two Towers (Cubes) Height of First Tower
(Cubes) Height of Second Tower (Cubes) 10 0 10 10 1 9 10 2 8 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7
10 8 10 9 10 10 Discuss the results with pupils and ask them to practise saying the
number bonds repeatedly to facilitate instant and spontaneous recall in order to master
the basic facts of addition up to 10. To develop the skill, the teacher should first break
the tower of 10 cubes into two parts. Show one part of the tower and hide the other.
Then, ask pupils to state the height of the hidden tower. To extend the skill, you may
progressively ask the pupils to learn how to add other pairs of numbers, such as 9, 8, 7
and so on. ACTIVITY 2.2 What is the Âcommutative law in additionÊ? How do you
introduce this concept to your pupils? Explain clearly the strategy used for the
teaching and learning of the commutative law in addition. 2.1.5 Reading and Writing
Addition Equations As we know, there are two common methods of writing the addition
of numbers, either horizontally or vertically, as shown below:

33. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 33 (a) Adding horizontally, in
row form (i.e. Writing and counting numbers from left to right). Example: 4 + 5 = 9 The
activities discussed above are mostly based on this method, which are suitable for
adding two single numbers. (b) Adding vertically, in column form (i.e. Writing and
counting numbers from top to bottom). Example: 3 + 4 7 This method is suitable for
finding a sum of two or more large numbers because putting large numbers in columns
makes the process of adding easier compared to putting them in a row. ACTIVITY 2.3
Numbers are most easily added by placing them in columns. Describe how you can
create suitable teaching aids to enhance the addition of two addends using this method.
2.1.6 Reinforcement Activities To be an effective mathematics teacher, you are
encouraged to plan small group or individual activities as reinforcement activities for
addition within 10. Here are some examples of learning activities that you can do with
your pupils. (a) Number Shapes Have pupils take turns rolling a number cube to see how
many counters they have to place on their number shapes. Then they fill in the
remaining spaces with counters of different colours. Finally, they describe the number
combinations formed, as illustrated in Figure 2.8. Repeat with different number shapes.

34. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 34 Figure 2.8: Number
shapes (b) Number Trains Let pupils fill their number-train outlines (e.g. 7, 8 or 9) with
connecting cubes of two different colours. Ask them to describe the number
combinations formed. See Figure 2.9. Figure 2.9: Number train In addition, pupils can
also describe the number combination formed as Âthree plus three plus two equals
eightÊ, that is (3 + 3 + 2 = 8). PLACE VALUE 2.2 This section teaches you how to
introduce the place-value concept to your pupils. 2.2.1 Counting from 11 to 20 Pupils will
be able to read, write and count numbers up to 20 through the same activities as for
learning numbers up to 10 covered in Topic 1. Similar teaching aids and methods can be
used. The only difference is that we should now have more counters, say, at least 20. In
this section, we will not be focusing on counting numbers from 11 to 20 because it would
just be repeating the process of counting numbers from 1 to 10. You are, however,
encouraged to have some references on the strategies of teaching and learning
numbers from 11 to 20.

35. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 35 ACTIVITY 2.4 Describe
a strategy you would use for the teaching and learning of ÂCounting from 11 to 20Ê.
2.2.2 Teaching and Learning about Place Value The concept of place value is not easily
understood by pupils. Although they can read and write numbers up to 20 or beyond, it
does not mean that they know about the different values for each numeral in two-digit
numbers. We are lucky because our number system requires us to learn only 10
different numerals. Pupils can easily learn how to write any number, no matter how
large it is. Once pupils have discovered the patterns in the number system, the task of
writing two-digit numbers and beyond is simplified enormously. They will encounter the
same sequence of numerals, 0 to 9 over and over again. However, many pupils do not
understand that numbers are constructed by organising quantities into groups of tens
and ones, and the numerals change in value depending on their position in a number. In
this section, you will be introduced to the concept of place value by forming and
counting groups, recognising patterns in the number system and organising groups into
tens and ones. The place-value concept can be taught in kindergarten in order to help
pupils count large numbers in a meaningful way. You can start teaching place value by
asking pupils to form and count manipulative materials, such as counting cubes, ice-
cream sticks, beans and cups, etc. For example, ask pupils to count and group the
connected cubes from 1 to 10 placed either in a row or horizontally as shown in Figure
2.10. Figure 2.10: Connected cubes placed horizontally You can now introduce the
concept of place value of ones and tens (10 ones) to your pupils. The following steps can
be used to demonstrate the relationship between the numbers (11 to 19), tens and ones.
The cubes can also be arranged in a column or vertically as shown below. Here, you are
encouraged to use the enquiry method to help pupils familiarise themselves with the
place-value of tens and ones illustrated as follows:

36. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 36 Example: Teacher asks:
What number is 10 and one more? See Figure 2.11 (Pupils should respond with 11). Can
you show me using the connecting cubes? The above step is repeated for numbers 12,
13, , 20. Figure 2.11: Connected cubes placed vertically In order to make your lesson
more effective, you should use place-value boards or charts to help pupils organise
their counters into tens and ones. A place-value board is a piece of thick paper or soft-
board that is divided into two parts of different colours. The size of the board
depends on the size of the counters used. An example of the place-value board is given
in Figure 2.12: Figure 2.12: Place value board

37. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 37 The repetition of the
pattern for numbers 12 to 19 and 20 will make your pupils understand better and be
more familiar with the concept of place value. They will be able to learn about counting
numbers from 11 to 20 or beyond more meaningfully. At the same time, you can also
relate the place-value concept to the addition process. For example, 1 tens and 2 ones
make 12, which means 10 and two more make 12. ACTIVITY 2.5 In groups of four,
create some reinforcement activities for teaching numbers 11 to 20 using the place-
value method. Describe clearly how you will conduct the activities using suitable
Âhands-onÊ teaching aids. SAMPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES
2.3 This section provides some samples of teaching and learning activities you can carry
out with your pupils to enhance their knowledge of addition within 10 and the place-
value concept. Activity 1: Adding Using Patterns Learning Outcomes: At the end of this
activity, your pupils should be able to: (a) Add two numbers up to 10 using patterns; (b)
Read and write equations for addition of numbers using common words; and (c) Read and
write equations for addition of numbers using symbols and signs. Materials: Picture
cards; and PowerPoint slides.

38. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 38 Procedure: (a) Adding
Using Patterns (in Rows) (i) Teacher divides the class into 5 groups of 6 pupils, and
gives 10 oranges to each group. Teacher then asks each group to count the oranges, see
Figure 2.13. Teacher says: „Can you arrange the oranges so that you can count more
easily?‰ Discuss with your friends. Teacher says: „Now, take a look at this picture
card.‰ Figure 2.13: Picture card: Addition using patterns (ii) Teacher says: „Can you
see the pattern? Let us count in groups of fives instead of counting on in ones.‰ For
example: Five and five equals ten, or 5 + 5 = 10 (iii) Teacher says: „Now, let us look at
another pattern. How many eggs are there in the picture given below (see Figure 2.14)?‰
Figure 2.14: Picture card: Addition using patterns (in rows) (iv) Teacher says: „Did you
count every egg to find out how many there are altogether? Or did you manage to see
the pattern and count along one row first to get 4, and then add with another row of 4
to make 8 eggs altogether?‰ „Well done, if you have done so!‰ Let your pupils add
using different patterns of different numbers of objects with the help of PowerPoint
slides. Guide your pupils to read and write equations of addition of numbers in words,
symbols and signs (You may discuss how to write the story-board of your PowerPoint
presentation).

39. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 39 (b) Adding Using Patterns
(in Columns) (i) Teacher says: „Let us look at the pictures and try to recognise the
patterns (see Figure 2.15). Discuss with your friends.‰ Figure 2.15: Picture cards (ii)
Teacher discusses the patterns with pupils. For example, teacher shows the third
picture [Picture (c)] and tells that it can be divided into two parts, namely, the top and
bottom parts as shown in Figure 2.16: Figure 2.16: Picture card: Addition using patterns
(in columns) (iii) This is a way of showing how to teach addition using columns by the
inquiry-discovery method. As a conclusion, the teacher explains to the pupils that
arranging the objects in patterns will make it easier to add them. Using columns to add
also makes the addition of large numbers easier and faster. (c) Teacher distributes a
worksheet on addition using patterns (in rows or in columns).

## 40. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 40 Activity 2: Addition

within the Highest Total of 10 Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, your
pupils should be able to: (a) Add using fingers; (b) Add by combining two groups of
objects; and (c) Solve simple problems involving addition within 10. Materials: Fingers;
Counting board (tree); Picture cards; Number cards; Counters; Storybooks; Apples; and
Other concrete objects, etc. Procedure: (a) Addition Using Fingers (i) Initially, use
fingers to practise adding two numbers as a method of working out the addition of two
groups of objects, see Figure 2.17. e.g.: Figure 2.17: Finger addition

41. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 41 (b) Addition of Two
Groups of Objects (i) Teacher puts three green apples on the right side of the tree
and another four red apples on the left side. Teacher asks pupils to count the number
of green apples and red apples respectively. (ii) Teacher asks: „How many green apples
are there? How many red apples are there?‰ (iii) Teacher tells and asks: „Put all the
apples at the centre of the tree. Count on in ones together. How many apples are there
altogether?‰ (iv) Teacher guides them to say and write the mathematical sentence as
shown: „Three apples and four apples make seven apples‰. (v) Repeat with different
numbers of apples or objects. Introduce the concept of plus and equals in a
mathematical sentence. e.g. „There are two green apples and three red apples in Box A.‰
„There are five apples altogether.‰ „Two plus three equals five.‰ (vi) Teacher sticks
the picture cards on the whiteboard. Encourage pupils to add by counting on in ones (e.g.
4 ... 5, 6 ,7) and guide them to say that „Four plus three equals seven‰ (see Figure
2.18). Figure 2.18: Picture card: Addition of two groups of objects (vii) Introduce the
symbols for representing „plus‰ and „equals‰ in a number sentence. Ask them to
stick the correct number cards below the picture cards to form an addition equation as
above. Repeat this step using different numbers. (c) Problem Solving in Addition (i)
Teacher shows three balls in the box and asks pupils to put in some more balls to make
it 10 balls altogether.

42. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 42 (ii) Teacher asks: „How
many balls do you need to make up 10? How did you get the answer?‰ Let them discuss
in groups using some counters. Ask them to explain how they came up with their
answers. (iii) Repeat the above steps with different pairs of numbers. (iv) Teacher
discusses the following problem with the pupils. Sarah has to read six story books this
semester. If she has finished reading four books, how many more story books has she
got to read? (v) Teacher asks them to discuss the answer in groups. Encourage them to
work with models or counters and let them come up with their own ideas for solving the
problem. For example: (Note: They can also use mental calculation to solve the problem.)
Activity 3: Reinforcement Activity (Game) Learning Outcomes: By the end of this
activity, your pupils should be able to: (a) Complete the addition table given; and (b)
Add two numbers shown at the toss of two dices up to a highest total of 10. Materials:
Laminated Chart (Addition Table Table 1.2); Two dices for each group; and Crayons or
colour pencils.
43. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 43 Procedure: (i) Teacher
guides pupils to complete the addition table given. (Print out the table in A4 size paper
and laminate it). You can also use the table to explain the additive identity (i.e. A + 0 =
0 + A = A). Table 2.2: Adding Squares + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Instructions for Game: (i) Toss two dices at one go. Add the numbers obtained and
check your answer from the table. (ii) Colour the numbers 10 in green (Table 2.2). List
down all the pairs adding up to 10. (iii) Colour the numbers totalling 9 in red. List down
all pairs adding up to 9. (iv) Continue with other pairs of numbers using different
colours for different sums.

44. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 44 Activity 4: Place Value
and Ordering Learning Outcomes: By the end of this activity, pupils should be able to:
(a) Read and write numerals from 0 to 20; (b) Explain the value represented by each
digit in a two-digit number; and (c) Use vocabulary for comparing and ordering numbers
up to 20. Materials: Connecting cubes; Counting board; Place-value block/frame; and
Counters. Procedure: (a) Groups of Tens (i) Teacher divides the class into 6 groups of 5
pupils each. Teacher distributes some connecting cubes (say, at least 40 cubes) to each
group. (ii) Teacher asks the following questions and pupils are required to answer them
using the connecting cubes: What number is one more than 6?, 8?, and 9? 11?, 17? and
19? What number comes after 5?, 7?, and 9? 12?, 16? and 19? Which number is more, 7
or 9?, 3 or 7?, 14 or 11? etc. e.g.: 14 is more than 11 as shown in Figure 2.19. Figure 2.19:
Representing numbers using connecting cubes

45. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 45 16 is one more than a
number. What is that number? Repeat the above steps with different numbers. (b)
Place Value and Ordering (i) Teacher introduces a place-value block and asks pupils to
count beginning with number 1 by putting a counter into the first column (see Figure
2.20 (a). Teacher asks them to put one more counter on the board in that order. Repeat
until number 9 is obtained. Teacher then introduces the concept of „ones‰. 1 ones
represents 1 2 ones represent 2, ..., 9 ones represent 9 Figure 2.20 (a): Representing
numbers with place-value block and counters (ii) Teacher asks: „What is the number
after 10? How do you represent number 11 on the place-value block?‰ Teacher
introduces the concept of „tens‰ and „ones‰ as follows, see Figure 2.20 (b):

46. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 46 Figure 2.20 (b):
Representing numbers with place-value block and counters (iii) Teacher asks pupils to
put the correct number of counters into the correct column to represent the numbers
11, 12, etc. until 20. (iv) Teacher asks pupils to complete Table 1.3. Table 2.3: Place
Value Number Tens Ones Number Tens Ones 11 1 3 12 9 13 17 16 14 4 19 1 8 20 15 1 (v)
Teacher distributes a worksheet to reinforce the concept of place value learnt. A
teacher should know his/her pupilsÊ levels of proficiency when applying strategies to
solve problems related to addition. Problem solving related to addition depends on
pupilsÊ ability to work based on their counting skills.

## 47. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 47 At an early stage, it is

enough if they could work using counting all or counting on. However, you have to guide
and encourage them to work by seeing the relationship or answer by knowing and
mastering the number combinations or number bonds. Adding Addition Equation Place
Value Sum Plus 1. An effective way to teach addition is to ask pupils to act out the
stories in real life using their imagination (without real things) and their own ideas.
Elaborate using one example. 2. Describe clearly how you would teach addition up to 10
involving zero using real materials. 3. Counting numbers from 11 to 20 should be taught
after pupils are introduced to the concept of place value. Give your comments on this.
Based on the following learning outcome, „At the end of the lesson, pupils will be able to
count numbers from 11 to 20 using place-value blocks‰, suggest the best strategy or
method that can be used in the teaching and learning process to achieve this learning
outcome.

## 48. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 48 APPENDIX WORKSHEET

(a) Count and add. (i) (ii) (b) Count and add. (c) Draw the correct number of fish on each
plate and complete the equation.

49. TOPIC 2 ADDITION WITHIN 10 AND PLACE VALUE 49 (d) Match the following.
(e) Match the following (Read and add).