Anda di halaman 1dari 12

Running head: Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies

Caribbean Maritime Institute

Kingston, Jamaica

Marine Terminal Operations

MTO 302

Research Essay

Research Question: The Designs and Technologies of Dry Bulk Terminals have Evolved over

the Years. What are the Benefits Derived from the Evolution of Dry Bulk Terminal

Technologies? What Are The Security and Safety Precautions One Should Take When on a Dry

Bulk Terminal?

Summary Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the Requirements of the Course

Samantha Masters

20131670

Mark Butler

September 17, 2015


I
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies

Table of Contents

Title Page

1. Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………. i

2. Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………….. ii

3. Abstract ………………………………………………………………………….. iii

4. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….2

5. The Evolution of Dry Bulk Terminals ……………………………………………..3

6. Modern Technologies of Dry Bulk Terminals …………………………………… 3

6.1 Ship Loading Systems ……………………………………………………….... 3

6.2 Ship Unloading Systems ……………………………………………………….4

6.3 Horizontal Conveyor Systems ………………………………………………….5

7. Safety ………………………………………………………………………………5

7.1 General Work Area …………………………………………………………….. 5

7.2 Storage ………………………………………………………………………….. 6

7.3 Hazardous Substances ………………………………………………………….. 6

7.4 Machinery ………………………………………………………………………. 6

8. Security ……………………………………………………………………………...7

8.1 Port Facility Security ……………………………………………………………. 7

9. Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………8

10. References …………………………………………………….................................... 9


II
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies

Acknowledgement

In fulfilling this assignment, I received the help of some respected individuals who

deserve my greatest gratitude. The completion of this assignment gives me much pleasure, and

so I’d like to thank my fiancé, Alexander Evelyn who has been my technical director while

conducting this assignment, and my parents for their constant love and support.

In addition, I’d like to thank my lecturer, Mr. Butler, who helped to guide my research

and gave me all the necessary resources to conduct this research assignment. I thank all the

people who contributed directly and indirectly to this research assignment.


III
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies

Abstract

The evolution of marine terminals over the years has created the need for specialization

for major types of cargo. With that specialization, came the need for specialized machinery for

the handling of these cargos; the need for safety codes and procedures to operate these

machineries and technologies; and security codes and measures to prevent illicit activities and

potential threats to port personnel. In this research essay, we will discuss the evolution of dry

bulk terminals and their technologies; the benefits that derive from such technology; and the

safety and security measures on should take when on a dry bulk terminal.
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 2

4. Introduction

Dry Bulk terminals are used all around the world to handle large quantities of bulk

commodities. In order to carry out these operations, certain technologies and machineries are

necessary. Overtime, these machineries and technologies have developed along with the design

of the terminals, becoming more specialized to the various commodities that are handled.

Dry bulk commodities are cargos which may be loose, granular, free-flowing or solid,

such as; grain, coal and ore, and are shipped in bulk rather than package form.

(TransportationDictionary.org. 2008).

A dry bulk terminal is a port facility specialized in the handling, storage and control of

dry bulk cargo to and from various transportation modes. (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia.

1979).

In addition, safety is a fundamental aspect of the operation of any industrial site or plant

and is therefore taken into consideration when discussing industrial operations.

Over the course of this research paper, a discussion will be had about the evolution of the

design of dry bulk terminals and the various machineries and technologies used on them, along

with the benefits of these changes.

Additionally, there will be mention of the various security and safety measures to be

exercised when on a dry bulk terminal.


Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 3

5. The Evolution of Dry Bulk Terminals

Historically, marine terminals were an unsystematic collection of buildings and

warehouses built along wharves in line with the waterfront.

Modern terminals are now, often constructed away from major urban centers because the

land and open spaces they require are just not available or it is not cost effective, and have

evolved from being general purpose facilities to highly specialized and highly mechanized

facilities equipped to very efficiently handle just one type of cargo such as liquid bulk, dry bulk

or containers. (Caribbean Maritime Institute, 2002)

6. Modern Technologies of Dry Bulk Terminals

Aside from the grab, which has been around for over 50 years, there have been many

relatively new technologies developed specially for dry bulk terminals, and are classified under

three major categories; ship loading systems, ship unloading systems, and horizontal conveyor

systems.

6.1 Ship Loading Systems

Ship loading systems are technically simple systems with which high rates of

productivity can be achieved. There are several types of ship loading systems, examples of

which are mentioned below.


Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 4

The radial loader designed in a way that enables cost efficient installation. The linear

loader’s construction is generally simple and less expensive, which allows for increase in loading

efficiency. The travelling and slewing loader is a combination of a radial and travelling unit, and

provides the advantage for vessels to be loaded on either side of a finger jetty1. (CMI, 2002)

6.2 Ship unloading systems

Ship unloading systems are capable of achieving efficient and trouble-free material

handling. Mentioned below, are five basic systems designed for the unloading of dry bulk

materials.

Grabs are highly efficient enabling throughputs of up to 5000 tonnes. Pneumatic systems

are suitable for handling bulk cargo of comparatively low specific gravity and viscosity such as

grains and cement, and allow for improvement in working conditions and reduction in material

loss. Vertical conveyors can efficiently handle all fine powdered, granular, lumpy, semi-liquid

and fibrous materials and can produce a digging rate of 150 to 600 tonnes per hour. Bucket

elevators are another alternative for handling rates in the 1000-5000 tonnes per hour range.

Slurry systems involve a clean process which minimizes material loss in ore handling procedures

and may produce discharge rates of 6000 to 8000 dry tones per hour for larger vessels.

(CMI, 2002)

1
finger jetty: a quay that projects into the water
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 5

6.3 Horizontal Conveyor Systems

Horizontal conveyor systems produce an average loading rate of 200 to 1000 tonnes per

hour. There are several types of horizontal systems mentioned below.

Belt conveyors are generally used as a mechanical carrier for bulk material. It is well

known for its simple construction, efficiency, low power requirements, adaptability,

dependability and economy of upkeep. Chain conveyors provide a dust free process and produce

rates of up to 5000 tonnes per hour. En masse conveyor: is similar to the chain conveyor, but is

different in operating principle and is dust tight. (CMI, 2002)

7. Safety

Operations on a marine terminal involve serious risks, and must therefore be managed

carefully to safeguard all individuals. As such, there have been general codes instituted

specifically to the safety of operations and personnel on a marine terminal.

7.1 General Work Area

Practicable steps must be implemented in order to provide safety in general work areas.

Walkways, roadways, and storage areas should be designed in a manner that allows for safe

movement of foot and mechanized traffic throughout the work place. Suitable personal

protective clothing and equipment is to be provided.


Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 6

7.2 Storage

All reasonable steps should be taken to ensure that all goods, materials, substances and

equipment in the workplace are so stacked, stored, secured, and kept that they cannot, whether of

their own accord or by virtue of any external force, constitute a danger to persons in their

vicinity.

7.3 Hazardous Substances

Any dangerous cargo should be packed, marked and labeled, handled, stored, and stowed

in accordance with the relevant requirements of the IMDG Code2, specifically dealing with the

handling of dangerous goods in port.

7.4 Machinery

All dangerous parts of machinery are to be guarded. For the purpose of cleaning, control

devices are to be secured in the inoperative state or position. Additionally, mobile plants must be

examined regularly by a competent person.

2
IMDG Code: International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 7

8. Security

Ports, and their facilities, have been under constant threat of penetration and use by drug

smugglers, stowaways, pirates, and terrorists. However, after 9/11 there became a heightened

sense of awareness and recognition for the role that security plays in the international maritime

industry. (Organization of American States, 2002) The International Code for the Security of

Ships and Port Facilities (ISPS), which is an amendment to the International Convention for the

Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), serves to establish an international framework involving

cooperation between contracting governments, government agencies, local administrators and

the shipping and port industries to detect security threats, and take preventative measures against

security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade. (Tsinker, 2004).

8.1 Port Facility Security

According to Section 2 of the ISPS Code, there are three necessary levels of security.

Level one requires the minimum appropriate protective measures; Level two requires appropriate

additional measure for a period of time due to heightened risk of a security incident; Level three

require further specific protective measures maintained for short period of time due to a probable

or imminent threat, though a specific target is not identified. (ISPS Code. 1974)

Layered security rings are a method of implementing security levels. External security

rings include intelligence operations outside and inside the port perimeter and close liaison with

the government and law enforcement institutions. Perimeter security rings include physical

security barriers, both on land and water as well as measures for detection of intruders. Inner
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 8
security rings involve patrolling a port’s interior area. Vessel security rings involve strict access

control at the gangway3, and a search of all items carried onboard and knowledge at all times of

who is onboard. Site and asset-specific security rings involve protection of specific buildings

such as administrative offices, bonded and high-risk warehouses, critical assets, and essential

equipment. (Tsinker, 2004)

9. Conclusion

Finally, modern terminal have evolved to be highly specialized in the handling of specific

bulk commodities. Dry bulk terminals utilize three major types of machinery; ship loading

systems, ship unloading systems, and horizontal conveyor systems.

Ship loading systems such as the radial loader, linear loader etc. tend to be generally cost

efficient and productive, yielding efficiencies of an average 500 to 1000 tonnes per hour. Ship

unloading systems such as grabs, bucket elevators and slurry equipment tend to be highly

productive and efficient, producing average rates of 1000 to 5000 tonnes per hour. Horizontal

conveyor systems are relatively efficient producing average rates of 200 to 1000 tonnes per hour.

Marine terminals are high risk environments; hence safety and security become very

important factors. Safety entails the procedures put in place to prevent accidents and injuries on

the terminal, and security involves the measures taken to prevent illicit activities and potential

threats to port personnel.

3
Gangway: narrow passages used to board or disembark ships.
Dry Bulk Terminal Technologies 9

References

Caribbean Maritime Institute. (2002). “Study Guide” Marine Terminal Operations.


Code of Practice for Health and Safety in Port Operations. (2004).
International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities. (1974)
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). (1974). Chapter 11, Section2.
International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities
Lodewijks, G., Schott, D.L. & Ottjes, J.A. (2007), “Modern Dry Bulk Terminal Design”, Bulk
Solids Handling
Organization of American States. (2002). Port Security Enhancement Activities.
Tsinker, Gregory P. (2004). “Port Engineering” Planning, Construction, Maintenance, and
Security. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
TransportationDictionary.org. (2008).
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia. (1979).
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (1986). “Development and
Improvement of Ports” Development of Bulk Terminals.

Minat Terkait