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Performance Analysis of Classifiers on Offline

Handwritten Signatures

Abstract— Signatures is one of the popular biometric that MOTIVATION

depicts or reveals the attribute of humans which are extensively There is an increasing need for developing a system which is
being used to authorize and authenticate day to day needs. fool proof and can detect maximum forged signatures. This
Signatures play a very crucial role since they are the most potential security reaps benefits for automatic cheque clearing
critical piece of information that are used by humans for
financial and commercial applications and legal transactions.
in banking industry. Signature authentication in this project is
Even today we have been practicing the traditional culture of executed by determining the difference between an reference
signing documents like cheques and legal papers. Therefore, it signature and a counterfeit one. In our work the prime focus is
is becomes necessity to recognize these signatures accurately on offline systems keeping in mind the situation of a least bank
with minimal effort in an accurate manner which becomes that can afford for the system i.e. retaining hard copies of
tedious by using the traditional manual verification technique. signatures on specimen forms. This approach is more apt in
Thus there is a requirement to develop an automated signature cases where authentication is to be applied for huge
recognition system. Verification systems can be designed either documents.
as an offline or online system based on the application. This SCOPE
work here focuses on offline authentication system that accepts
as image a scanned signature. Hence comes the need to perform
The project deals with static images of handwritten signatures.
pre-processing which on an offline system is too complex to The genuine signature samples taken from known writes and
implement since the stable dynamic characteristics would be the forgery set were generated imitating the genuine set.
missed out once a scanned image is used for analysis. Also since OBJECTIVE
signatures are truly unconventional and mainly styled Handwritten signatures of every individual may be obtained
representations need arises to design a reliable signature by taking specimen copies of their signature by hand and then
authentication system that can correctly classify signatures to scanned to form an image. Alternatively, a camera can be used
their appropriate classes namely genuine and forged. Finally the to capture these signatures. As a result during the capture
performance analysis has been carried out on the local and using these devices may result in noisy images. The noise may
global datasets and the accuracy has been tabulated using two
different classifiers. It is also observed in the work that intra
be generated due to photometric and geometric constraints.
personal variations are recorded and accuracy of 66% is The noise can also be due to hardware constraints as well
obtained for linear classifier and 74% for logistic classifier. .Therefore these images that contain noise cannot be used for
analysis and thus need arises to pre-process these images
Keywords— Offline signature, Voronoi, Linear Regression, before extracting features. The features are extracted locally
SVM, Statistical Classifier. and globally on the dataset of the individual and a feature
vector is designed which are then passed as input to the
I. INTRODUCTION classifiers to introspect their validity. The classifier decides
whether the signature is genuine or forgery.
Signature has been one of the prime unique feature to reveal a
person’s identity. Today most of the applications in business
and finance are being authorized via signatures. Signature, is II. PROBLEM STATEMENT
derived from "Signare" ,a latin word which means Signatures are the naïve sought authentication technique used
"Sign"[5].Signatures are stylish marker representation that for authorizing legal documents and banking transactions.
reveals a person’s identity uniquely written on documents. Thus need arises to design an efficient automated solution for
The signature can be defined as follows: "the name of a person signature verification since fraud detection has reached its
written with his or her own hand or the act of signing one's peek in real time wherever signatures are the piece of
name" [2], according to the American Heritage Dictionary. authorizing individual. Therefore, the objective of this work
A signer writes on documents as a mark of his identity. The is to develop a robust automated system that can categorize
first legalization of the handwritten signature has been the signatures based on some trivial features into a genuine
declared by the British government in the 19th century[8]. A class or a forged class.
signature is made up of special characters that are written This system may showcase acceptable trade-off between the
habitually often in unreadable state. acceptable and non-acceptable signatures into their desired
Handwritten signatures are now official means to depict the category. To measure this indifference which may hinder the
identity of person legally on wills, bank cheques, credit cards performance of the system, we propose to use standard
etc. The signatures are being used extensively to authenticate quality measures such as FAR and FRR to measure the
the personnel identify widely because of the non-invasive acceptance and rejection parameter values uniquely for every
process of collecting the human handwritten signatures. Also signature database in the system respectively.
it is accepted to be the most familiar authenticated style people
use for their daily transactions on need basis.
III. LITERATURE SURVEY The proposed work is carried out in phases and the results are
recorded accordingly. The first part talks about how the
In [1], E.N. Zois et al. developed offline signature recognition signature database was built, followed by second part which
and verification system where signatures are represented by describes how the obtained raw signature image is shaped into
subset of a line, convex and concave family of curvature an image ready for analysis i.e. pre-processing. Then finally
features. Signature trace segmentation is enabled by using feature extraction techniques are used to extract relevant
window centred upon the mass of thinned image. features that are used for training the recognition
Multidimensional feature vector is partitioned for extracting system.Lastly, by applying 80-20 cross validation technique
spatial details of acquired handwritten image. To classify, a the entire signature database is divided into reference and
hard margin support vector machine is used. probe images randomly of which a randomly a test image
chosen which will also have to go through the entire process
In [2], Prashanth developed an off-line signature and features are extracted. The feature values of the reference
verification system based on scores correlation. Vertical image and the probe image are compared resulting in a
splitting and horizontal splitting concepts are used to extract decision of fixing a threshold value on which is the entire
feature points. To get the left and right parts of the signature decision of categorizing the signature sample as class 0 or
image, the image is split with vertical line passing through the class 1 is evident in the experimentation by rightly classifying
geometric centre of the image. The geometric centre them as accepted or rejected signature sample. Fig. 1 depicts
calculated by locating a point where the number of black the block diagram of the proposed signature classification
pixels is half of the total number of black pixels in the system.
signature image. To get the top and bottom parts of the image,
the signature image is split with horizontal line passing
through geometric centre.

In [3], Parodi et al developed technique for rotation invariant

feature extraction which is based on a circular grid. Similar
features which are available for rectangular grids are used to
define the graphometric features for circular grid and in order
to achieve robustness against rotation, the property of rotation
invariance of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is used.
For classification tasks, the SVM based classifiers are used.
The advantage of this system is it is robust against rotation of

In [4], K. Tselios et al. developed an algorithm to model

handwritten elements of a signature trace. The probabilistic Figure 1: Block diagram for Offline Signature
counting is done by distributing the fixed two and three step Classification System
pixel path by conditioning there must be a confined
predetermined Chebyshev distance of two and three
respectively. This representation is used to correlate the
writing style of individual and pixel translation. Similarity DATAFLOW DIAGRAM:
scores and hard margin SVMs are combined and assessed as
a separate entities. By seeing the results, the proposed method
achieves low equal rates and is expected to provide a powerful
discriminative representation of signature.

In [5], Karounia et. al used neural networks approach for

developing an offline signature recognition system. A set of
simple shape based geometric features are used for
verification of signatures. Skewness, kurtosis, centre of
gravity and eccentricity are used as features. To remove any
spurious noise present and to isolate the signature part certain
pre-processing of scanned image is necessary. The system is
trained using signature database which is obtained from those
individuals whose signatures are authenticated by the system.


Figure 2: Context flow diagram for Level 0
The proposed system concentrates on designing an algorithm
which is used to classify the signature into accepted or rejected
category based on the input signature sample used for training.
Mean- The average of sum of all the values in the matrix.
Variance- The average of the squared differences from the
SD- It measures the amount of variation or dispersion on a set
of mean data values.

Figure 3: Dataflow diagram showing 1st level detail

FEATURE EXTRACTION DESCRIPTION: A histogram is an accurate representation of
the distribution of numerical data. A histogram is a graph. A
A. LENGTH PARAMETERS Histogram has two axis the x axis and the y axis. The x axis
DESCRIPTION: Width and height enables us determine the contains event and the y axis represents frequency.
area of the signature, which further helps in determining the
other features based on the length. The ratio of width to height HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL HISTOGRAM:
is known as aspect ratio and is calculated for every the Represents the column-wise and row-wise histogram
signature image. respectively. Histograms represent column-wise and row-
OUTPUT: wise the sum of differences in gray level values which are
measured with adjacent pixels by which image is made up.

DESCRIPTION: Each image is made up of collection of
pixels. The value of each pixel may range between 0 and 255.


DESCRIPTION: Normalization is a method used to measure
the change in pixel intensity values and record the same to
plot in range of 0 to 1.In our proposed work, Min-Max
normalization technique is applied to specifically fit the data
within the boundary decided.


Voronoi diagram is used to partition a plane in accordance
with distance to points plotted on a specific subset plane into
regions. In our work carried out, the seed points are decided
in advance and also information about to which region should
each seed correspond to looking into those points which is Output layout:
close to that defined seed than to any other in the defined
region cell is termed as Voronoi cells.
Classification involves identifying a unknown input sample
into a category of class it belongs to based on training data set
in which we have already recorded the values and the class to
which the signature samples belong to. Classification can be
achieved through supervised technique or an unsupervised Statistical Classifier
technique depending on the mode of operation. In our The pseudo code is as follows:
problem, classifier accepts a input signature and then Step 1: Features are loaded from the excel sheet.
performs analysis to announce as to which class number the Step 2: Threshold value for each feature is fixed.
input signature sample belongs to i.e class 0 or class 1. Thus Step 3: Given the test input, extract the feature and record
the major task of signature identification in our project is to them in the excel sheet. Again, read the features. Compare
recognize the actual class to which unknown input signature each feature with each threshold value.
should belong to. To perform this task, it should be noted that Step 4: If both matches then the given input signature is
input sample signatures class must match exactly to that of the supposed to be “genuine” else “forgery”.
closest sample.
After feature extraction, the features extracted from both Linear Classifier
genuine and forgery signatures are tabulated that as to be
classified using some classifier. The pseudo code is as follows:
In statistical classifier, analyzing each feature values in Step 1: Read the features the excel sheet.
feature tabulated table the suitable threshold for each feature Step 2: All features are given to an array list, i.e x
per person is chosen. Based on the obtained values in Step 3: Define a label such that “1” is for genuine and “0” is
comparison with fixed tthreshold values, system detects the for forgery, i.e y
signature and classifies them either under genuine label or Step 4: Using the function,y), fit the points on the
forged label. hyperplane where x is array and y is label.
H. Linear Classifier Step 5: Linear classifier plots the graph according to the
Linear classifier identifies as to which class the characteristics
of object belongs to and based on these values a new vector
called feature vector is formed and is supplied to the machine
for making decision.Accuracy levels are better as comparable
to non-linear classifiers.
Most of the algorithms used for classification operate in based
on linear function.Then a score for every k category is
calculated on each instance. Now dot product is combined
with with a vector of weights and the feature vector formed
for every instance. Then through these training samples the
machine learns the weight vector and the category with the
highest score is the predicted linear function.The linear
classifier operates by splitting the high dimensional space as
input with hyperplane. The points that lie on one side of the Figure .4 linear classifier for genuine signature
hyperplane splitting line are classified as “YES” class and
others into “no” class. A linear classifier is fastest and widely
accepted classifier for sparse data.
I. Logistic Regression
The logistic model is a binary statistical model which accepts
as input a continuous independent variable and delivers the
output as a dependent variable. It is observed that a unit
change in the input possibly multiplies the odds of the two
outputs by a constant factor. This binary logistic classifier
with the help of sigmoid function can estimate the binary
response probability through one or more features that are
mostly predictor variables. The experiments are conducted on
dataset containing 800(local) signatures and 1000(global)
signatures. The signatures contain both genuine and forged
Figure . 5 linear classifier for forgery signature
The pseudo code is as follows:
Step 1: Read the features from the excel sheet.
Step 2: Each feature is given to an array namely x1, x2, x3…
Step 3: Define a label such that “1” is for genuine and “0” is
for forgery.
Step 4: Append each array to the list.
Step 5: Initialize by fitting the number of features i.e theta
Step 6: Compute cost_function, gradient and sigmoid
function. Display all the values. VI. CONCLUSION
The proposed system involves the pre-processing of an input
image which necessarily is a signature of an individual
person. The images are pre-processed by cropping the image,
dilating it and further filtering the same. The features
including the width, height, area, number of black and white
pixels, mean, variance and standard deviation are extracted.
All the features are tabulated for all the signatures, including
the signature variants of the same person, then dominant
features are selected from the tabulated results and apply
linear classifier and logistic regression for the classification
of signature as genuine or forged category.
From the results obtained from the trained signatures, the
FAR and FRR; the FAR and FRR are calculated and found to
be 6.24 and 5.84 respectively for linear classifier and 7.38 and
4.65 respectively for logistic regression. The accuracy of the
proposed signature comes approximately 66% for linear
classifier and 74% for logistic regression.
The results encourage us towards the future refinement. The
accuracy attained so are not satisfactory and more focus is
required on offline-signature verification system. Future
work concentrates on hybrid algorithms to enhance the
accuracy. The project is done using linear classifier
considering only two features. It can be enhanced so that it
can consider all the features extracted using some powerful
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