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2 tayangan6 halamanresearch article on performance analysis

Apr 03, 2019

ICNEWS-2018 Paper 45 Final Updated

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research article on performance analysis

© All Rights Reserved

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ICNEWS-2018 Paper 45 Final Updated

research article on performance analysis

© All Rights Reserved

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Handwritten Signatures

depicts or reveals the attribute of humans which are extensively There is an increasing need for developing a system which is

being used to authorize and authenticate day to day needs. fool proof and can detect maximum forged signatures. This

Signatures play a very crucial role since they are the most potential security reaps benefits for automatic cheque clearing

critical piece of information that are used by humans for

financial and commercial applications and legal transactions.

in banking industry. Signature authentication in this project is

Even today we have been practicing the traditional culture of executed by determining the difference between an reference

signing documents like cheques and legal papers. Therefore, it signature and a counterfeit one. In our work the prime focus is

is becomes necessity to recognize these signatures accurately on offline systems keeping in mind the situation of a least bank

with minimal effort in an accurate manner which becomes that can afford for the system i.e. retaining hard copies of

tedious by using the traditional manual verification technique. signatures on specimen forms. This approach is more apt in

Thus there is a requirement to develop an automated signature cases where authentication is to be applied for huge

recognition system. Verification systems can be designed either documents.

as an offline or online system based on the application. This SCOPE

work here focuses on offline authentication system that accepts

as image a scanned signature. Hence comes the need to perform

The project deals with static images of handwritten signatures.

pre-processing which on an offline system is too complex to The genuine signature samples taken from known writes and

implement since the stable dynamic characteristics would be the forgery set were generated imitating the genuine set.

missed out once a scanned image is used for analysis. Also since OBJECTIVE

signatures are truly unconventional and mainly styled Handwritten signatures of every individual may be obtained

representations need arises to design a reliable signature by taking specimen copies of their signature by hand and then

authentication system that can correctly classify signatures to scanned to form an image. Alternatively, a camera can be used

their appropriate classes namely genuine and forged. Finally the to capture these signatures. As a result during the capture

performance analysis has been carried out on the local and using these devices may result in noisy images. The noise may

global datasets and the accuracy has been tabulated using two

different classifiers. It is also observed in the work that intra

be generated due to photometric and geometric constraints.

personal variations are recorded and accuracy of 66% is The noise can also be due to hardware constraints as well

obtained for linear classifier and 74% for logistic classifier. .Therefore these images that contain noise cannot be used for

analysis and thus need arises to pre-process these images

Keywords— Offline signature, Voronoi, Linear Regression, before extracting features. The features are extracted locally

SVM, Statistical Classifier. and globally on the dataset of the individual and a feature

vector is designed which are then passed as input to the

I. INTRODUCTION classifiers to introspect their validity. The classifier decides

whether the signature is genuine or forgery.

Signature has been one of the prime unique feature to reveal a

person’s identity. Today most of the applications in business

and finance are being authorized via signatures. Signature, is II. PROBLEM STATEMENT

derived from "Signare" ,a latin word which means Signatures are the naïve sought authentication technique used

"Sign"[5].Signatures are stylish marker representation that for authorizing legal documents and banking transactions.

reveals a person’s identity uniquely written on documents. Thus need arises to design an efficient automated solution for

The signature can be defined as follows: "the name of a person signature verification since fraud detection has reached its

written with his or her own hand or the act of signing one's peek in real time wherever signatures are the piece of

name" [2], according to the American Heritage Dictionary. authorizing individual. Therefore, the objective of this work

A signer writes on documents as a mark of his identity. The is to develop a robust automated system that can categorize

first legalization of the handwritten signature has been the signatures based on some trivial features into a genuine

declared by the British government in the 19th century[8]. A class or a forged class.

signature is made up of special characters that are written This system may showcase acceptable trade-off between the

habitually often in unreadable state. acceptable and non-acceptable signatures into their desired

Handwritten signatures are now official means to depict the category. To measure this indifference which may hinder the

identity of person legally on wills, bank cheques, credit cards performance of the system, we propose to use standard

etc. The signatures are being used extensively to authenticate quality measures such as FAR and FRR to measure the

the personnel identify widely because of the non-invasive acceptance and rejection parameter values uniquely for every

process of collecting the human handwritten signatures. Also signature database in the system respectively.

it is accepted to be the most familiar authenticated style people

use for their daily transactions on need basis.

III. LITERATURE SURVEY The proposed work is carried out in phases and the results are

recorded accordingly. The first part talks about how the

In [1], E.N. Zois et al. developed offline signature recognition signature database was built, followed by second part which

and verification system where signatures are represented by describes how the obtained raw signature image is shaped into

subset of a line, convex and concave family of curvature an image ready for analysis i.e. pre-processing. Then finally

features. Signature trace segmentation is enabled by using feature extraction techniques are used to extract relevant

window centred upon the mass of thinned image. features that are used for training the recognition

Multidimensional feature vector is partitioned for extracting system.Lastly, by applying 80-20 cross validation technique

spatial details of acquired handwritten image. To classify, a the entire signature database is divided into reference and

hard margin support vector machine is used. probe images randomly of which a randomly a test image

chosen which will also have to go through the entire process

In [2], Prashanth et.al developed an off-line signature and features are extracted. The feature values of the reference

verification system based on scores correlation. Vertical image and the probe image are compared resulting in a

splitting and horizontal splitting concepts are used to extract decision of fixing a threshold value on which is the entire

feature points. To get the left and right parts of the signature decision of categorizing the signature sample as class 0 or

image, the image is split with vertical line passing through the class 1 is evident in the experimentation by rightly classifying

geometric centre of the image. The geometric centre them as accepted or rejected signature sample. Fig. 1 depicts

calculated by locating a point where the number of black the block diagram of the proposed signature classification

pixels is half of the total number of black pixels in the system.

signature image. To get the top and bottom parts of the image,

the signature image is split with horizontal line passing

through geometric centre.

feature extraction which is based on a circular grid. Similar

features which are available for rectangular grids are used to

define the graphometric features for circular grid and in order

to achieve robustness against rotation, the property of rotation

invariance of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is used.

For classification tasks, the SVM based classifiers are used.

The advantage of this system is it is robust against rotation of

signatures.

handwritten elements of a signature trace. The probabilistic Figure 1: Block diagram for Offline Signature

counting is done by distributing the fixed two and three step Classification System

pixel path by conditioning there must be a confined

predetermined Chebyshev distance of two and three

respectively. This representation is used to correlate the

writing style of individual and pixel translation. Similarity DATAFLOW DIAGRAM:

scores and hard margin SVMs are combined and assessed as

a separate entities. By seeing the results, the proposed method

achieves low equal rates and is expected to provide a powerful

discriminative representation of signature.

developing an offline signature recognition system. A set of

simple shape based geometric features are used for

verification of signatures. Skewness, kurtosis, centre of

gravity and eccentricity are used as features. To remove any

spurious noise present and to isolate the signature part certain

pre-processing of scanned image is necessary. The system is

trained using signature database which is obtained from those

individuals whose signatures are authenticated by the system.

Figure 2: Context flow diagram for Level 0

The proposed system concentrates on designing an algorithm

which is used to classify the signature into accepted or rejected

category based on the input signature sample used for training.

D. MEAN, VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION

DESCRIPTION:

Mean- The average of sum of all the values in the matrix.

Variance- The average of the squared differences from the

Mean.

SD- It measures the amount of variation or dispersion on a set

of mean data values.

OUTPUT:

V. RESULTS E. HISTOGRAM

FEATURE EXTRACTION DESCRIPTION: A histogram is an accurate representation of

the distribution of numerical data. A histogram is a graph. A

A. LENGTH PARAMETERS Histogram has two axis the x axis and the y axis. The x axis

DESCRIPTION: Width and height enables us determine the contains event and the y axis represents frequency.

area of the signature, which further helps in determining the

other features based on the length. The ratio of width to height HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL HISTOGRAM:

is known as aspect ratio and is calculated for every the Represents the column-wise and row-wise histogram

signature image. respectively. Histograms represent column-wise and row-

OUTPUT: wise the sum of differences in gray level values which are

measured with adjacent pixels by which image is made up.

B. PIXEL RATE

DESCRIPTION: Each image is made up of collection of

pixels. The value of each pixel may range between 0 and 255.

OUTPUT:

DESCRIPTION: Normalization is a method used to measure

the change in pixel intensity values and record the same to

plot in range of 0 to 1.In our proposed work, Min-Max

normalization technique is applied to specifically fit the data

within the boundary decided.

OUTPUT:

F. VORONOI DIAGRAM

Voronoi diagram is used to partition a plane in accordance

with distance to points plotted on a specific subset plane into

regions. In our work carried out, the seed points are decided

in advance and also information about to which region should

each seed correspond to looking into those points which is Output layout:

close to that defined seed than to any other in the defined

region cell is termed as Voronoi cells.

G. CLASSIFICATION

Classification involves identifying a unknown input sample

into a category of class it belongs to based on training data set

in which we have already recorded the values and the class to

which the signature samples belong to. Classification can be

achieved through supervised technique or an unsupervised Statistical Classifier

technique depending on the mode of operation. In our The pseudo code is as follows:

problem, classifier accepts a input signature and then Step 1: Features are loaded from the excel sheet.

performs analysis to announce as to which class number the Step 2: Threshold value for each feature is fixed.

input signature sample belongs to i.e class 0 or class 1. Thus Step 3: Given the test input, extract the feature and record

the major task of signature identification in our project is to them in the excel sheet. Again, read the features. Compare

recognize the actual class to which unknown input signature each feature with each threshold value.

should belong to. To perform this task, it should be noted that Step 4: If both matches then the given input signature is

input sample signatures class must match exactly to that of the supposed to be “genuine” else “forgery”.

closest sample.

After feature extraction, the features extracted from both Linear Classifier

genuine and forgery signatures are tabulated that as to be

classified using some classifier. The pseudo code is as follows:

In statistical classifier, analyzing each feature values in Step 1: Read the features the excel sheet.

feature tabulated table the suitable threshold for each feature Step 2: All features are given to an array list, i.e x

per person is chosen. Based on the obtained values in Step 3: Define a label such that “1” is for genuine and “0” is

comparison with fixed tthreshold values, system detects the for forgery, i.e y

signature and classifies them either under genuine label or Step 4: Using the function clf.fit(x,y), fit the points on the

forged label. hyperplane where x is array and y is label.

H. Linear Classifier Step 5: Linear classifier plots the graph according to the

points.

Linear classifier identifies as to which class the characteristics

of object belongs to and based on these values a new vector

called feature vector is formed and is supplied to the machine

for making decision.Accuracy levels are better as comparable

to non-linear classifiers.

Most of the algorithms used for classification operate in based

on linear function.Then a score for every k category is

calculated on each instance. Now dot product is combined

with with a vector of weights and the feature vector formed

for every instance. Then through these training samples the

machine learns the weight vector and the category with the

highest score is the predicted linear function.The linear

classifier operates by splitting the high dimensional space as

input with hyperplane. The points that lie on one side of the Figure .4 linear classifier for genuine signature

hyperplane splitting line are classified as “YES” class and

others into “no” class. A linear classifier is fastest and widely

accepted classifier for sparse data.

I. Logistic Regression

The logistic model is a binary statistical model which accepts

as input a continuous independent variable and delivers the

output as a dependent variable. It is observed that a unit

change in the input possibly multiplies the odds of the two

outputs by a constant factor. This binary logistic classifier

with the help of sigmoid function can estimate the binary

response probability through one or more features that are

mostly predictor variables. The experiments are conducted on

dataset containing 800(local) signatures and 1000(global)

signatures. The signatures contain both genuine and forged

signatures.

Figure . 5 linear classifier for forgery signature

Logistic Regression PERFORMANCE EVALUATION:

The pseudo code is as follows:

Step 1: Read the features from the excel sheet.

Step 2: Each feature is given to an array namely x1, x2, x3…

Step 3: Define a label such that “1” is for genuine and “0” is

for forgery.

Step 4: Append each array to the list.

Step 5: Initialize by fitting the number of features i.e theta

Step 6: Compute cost_function, gradient and sigmoid

function. Display all the values. VI. CONCLUSION

The proposed system involves the pre-processing of an input

image which necessarily is a signature of an individual

person. The images are pre-processed by cropping the image,

dilating it and further filtering the same. The features

including the width, height, area, number of black and white

pixels, mean, variance and standard deviation are extracted.

All the features are tabulated for all the signatures, including

the signature variants of the same person, then dominant

features are selected from the tabulated results and apply

linear classifier and logistic regression for the classification

of signature as genuine or forged category.

From the results obtained from the trained signatures, the

FAR and FRR; the FAR and FRR are calculated and found to

be 6.24 and 5.84 respectively for linear classifier and 7.38 and

4.65 respectively for logistic regression. The accuracy of the

proposed signature comes approximately 66% for linear

classifier and 74% for logistic regression.

The results encourage us towards the future refinement. The

accuracy attained so are not satisfactory and more focus is

required on offline-signature verification system. Future

work concentrates on hybrid algorithms to enhance the

accuracy. The project is done using linear classifier

considering only two features. It can be enhanced so that it

can consider all the features extracted using some powerful

classifier.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL PERSON: References

[1] E. N. Zois, A.Nassiopoulos, K. Tselios, E. Siores, G. Economou

“OffLine Signature Verification Using Two Step Transitional

Features”, MVA2011 IAPR Conference on Machine Vision

Applications, June 1315, 2011, Nara, JAPAN pp 295-298.

[2] C.R.Prashanth, K.B Raja, K.R Venugopal, L.M Patnaik “Standard

Scores Correlation based Off-line Signature Verification System”,

(ICACT-2009), pp.49-53.

[3] Marianela Parodi,Juan C. G´omez, Abdel Bela¨ıd, “A circular

gridbased rotation invarient feature extraction approach for off-line

signature verification”, 11th International Conference on Document

Analysis and Recognition, PP 1289-1293, 2011.

[4] K.Tselios, E.N.Zois,E.Siores, A.Nassiopoulos,G.Economou, “

Gridbased feature distributions for offline signature verification” IET

Biometrics PP 72-81,2012.

J. False Rejection Rate: [5] Karounia A., Dayab B., Bahlakb S., 2011, “Offline signature

False RR = Total GRP / Total GSP, where GRP is the total recognition using neural networks approach”, Elsevier Procedia

Computer Science, 3, pp. 155–161.

rejected patterns that are genuine, GSP is the total genuine

[6] Radhika K.R., Venkatesha M.K., Sekhar G.N., 2010, “Off-Line

reference patterns that are submitted. Signature Authentication Based on Moment Invariants Using Support

False Accept Rate: Vector Machine”, Journal of Computer Science, 6(3), 2010, pp. 305–

False AR = ASF / SSF, where ASF is total forgeries that are 311.

accepted, and SSF is the total forgeries that are submitted. [7] Ebrahimpour R., A. Amiri, M. Nazari, A. Hajiany, 2010, ‘Robust

Model for Signature Recognition Based on Biological Inspired

Features”, International Journal of Computer and Electrical

Engineering, 2(4), pp. 622626.

[8] J. B. Fasquel and M. Bruynooghe. 2004. A hybrid optoelectronic

method for fast off-line handwritten signature verification.

International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (2004).

[9] Ahmad S M S, Shakil A, Faudzi M A, Anwar R M and Balbed M A M.

2009. A Hybrid Statistical Modeling, Normalization and Inferencing

Techniques of an Off-line Signature Verification System. 2009 World

Congress on Computer Science and Information Engineering.

[10] Bhuyan M, Sarma K K, Das H. 2010. Signature Recognition and

Verification using Hybrid Features and Clustered Artificial Neural

Network (ANN)s. World Academy of Science, Engineering and

Technology 68 (pp 451-456).

[11] M. Tomar, and P. Singh, “A directional feature with energy based

offline signature verification network,” International Journal on Soft

Computing, vol.2, pp. 48–57, February 2011, “doi:

10.5121/ijsc.2011.2105”.

[12] R. Anjali, and M.R. Mathew, “An efficient approach to offline

signature verification based on neural network,” IJREAT International

Journal of Research in Engineering & Advanced Technology, vol.1,

pp. 1–5, June-July 2013.

[13] V.M. Deshmukh, and S.A. Murab, “Signature recognition &

verification using ANN,” International Journal of Innovative

Technology and Exploring Engineering, vol.1, pp. 6–8, November

2012.

[14] G.P. Patil, and R.S.Hegadi, “Offline handwritten signatures

classification using wavelets and support vector machines,”

International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative

Technology, vol.2, pp. 573–579, July 2013.

[15] A. Pansare, and S.Bhatia, “Handwritten signature verification using

neural network,” International Journal of Applied Information

Systems, vol.1, pp. 44–49, January 2012

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