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A PROJECT REPORT

on

“DRUG AND MATERIALS PREDICTION”

Submitted to
KIIT Deemed to be University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of

BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

BY

ANKUSH PAL 1505365


ANKIT RANJAN 1505364
ASHUTOSH DASH 1505374
SUCCESS PRADHAN 1505431
ANIMESH BISWAL 1505362

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


PROF. SARITA TRIPATHY
KIIT Deemed to be University
School of Computer Engineering
Bhubaneswar, ODISHA 751024

CERTIFICATE
This is certify that the project entitled
“DRUG AND MATERIALS PREDICTION“
submitted by

ANKUSH PAL 1505362


ANKIT RANJAN 1505364
ASHUTOSH DASH 1505374
SUCCESS PRADHAN 1505431
ANIMESH BISWAL 1505362

is a record of bonafide work carried out by them, in the partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Computer Sci-
ence & Engineering OR Information Technology) at KIIT Deemed to be university,
Bhubaneswar. This work is done during year 2018-2019, under our guidance.

Date: 3 / 3 / 19

PROF. SARITA TIPATHY


Project Guide
Acknowledgements

We are profoundly grateful to Prof. SARITA TRIPATHY for his expert


guidance and continuous encouragement throughout to see that this project rights its
target since its commencement to its completion. ........…

ANKUSH PAL
ANKIT RANJAN
ASHUTOSH DASH
SUCCESS PRADHAN
ANIMESH BISWAL
ABSTRACT

A hospital has given its data of years containing patient unique ID’s, patient
gender, patient age, team (the department in which his checkup has been carried
out), number of days he stayed in the hospital and finally on which day what was
issued to him.

Now, the task is to predict, if a patient gets admitted to the hospital and the team
which is taking care of the patient is known then we should be able to predict
what is going to be issued to that patient.
Contents

CHAPTER 1: Business Scenario .......................................................................................5

CHAPTER 2:Problem Statement .....................................................................................6

CHAPTER 3:Introduction to Machine Learning .......................................................... 7

CHAPTER 4:Machine Learning Algorithms ..............................................................8-9

CHAPTER 5: Neural Network ............................................................................... 10-13


CHAPTER 6:R Programming.…………………………………………………………..14

CHAPTER 7:Long Data to Wide Data Conversion in R ....................................... 15

CHAPTER 8: Neuralnet Library in R..................................................................... 16

CHAPTER 9:Training Modal & Making Prediction............................................. 17 - 21

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

REFERENCE
NAME OF PROJECT

CHAPTER 1
Business Scenario
Ubq technologies have various hospitals as their client. Hospitals have data
of various year which is sufficient enough to make a prediction or find out
patterns of repetition among the drugs or materials issued to a patient.
Now, they want make the prediction of all those items that are going to be
issued to a particular on a particular day .

Ubq receives denormalized data in excel from various hospitals,


normalizes it with SQL, creates required relationships. The raw data is
converted in meaningful set of information in this process. Analysis is
performed on top of this.

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CHAPTER 2
Problem Statement

A hospital has given its data of years containing patient unique ID’s,
patient gender, patient age, team (the department in which his checkup has
been carried out), number of days he stayed in the hospital and finally on
which day what was issued to him.

Now, the task is to predict, if a patient gets admitted to the hospital and the
team which is taking care of the patient is known then we should be able to
predict what is going to be issued to that patient.

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NAME OF PROJECT

CHAPTER 3
Introduction to Machine Learning
Machine Learning is an idea to learn from examples and experience, without being
explicitly programmed. Instead of writing code, you feed data to the generic
algorithm, and it builds logic based on the data given.
“A computer program is said to learn from experience E with some class of tasks T
and performance measure P if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P,
improves
with experience E.” .

Need of Machine Learning


Machine Learning is a field which is raised out of Artificial Intelligence(AI).
Applying AI, we wanted to build better and intelligent machines. But except for few
mere tasks such as finding the shortest path between point A and B, we were unable to
program more complex and constantly evolving challenges.There was a realisation
that the only way to be able to achieve this task was to let machine learn from itself.
This sounds similar to a child learning from its self. So machine learning was
developed as a new capability for computers. And now machine learning is present in
so many segments of technology, that we don’t even realise it while using it.

Finding patterns in data on planet earth is possible only for human brains. The data
being very massive, the time taken to compute is increased, and this is where Machine
Learning comes into action, to help people with large data in minimum time.

If big data and cloud computing are gaining importance for their contributions,
machine learning as technology helps analyse those big chunks of data, easing the task
of data scientists in an automated process and gaining equal importance and
recognition.

The techniques we use for data mining have been around for many years, but they
were not effective as they did not have the competitive power to run the algorithms.

If you run deep learning with access to better data, the output we get will lead to
dramatic breakthroughs which is machine learning.

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CHAPTER 4
Machine Learning Algorithms
Types of Machine Learning Algorithms :-
1.Supervised Learning

1. How it works: This algorithm consist of a target / outcome variable (or


dependent variable) which is to be predicted from a given set of predictors
(independent variables). Using these set of variables, we generate a function that
map inputs to desired outputs. The training process continues until the model
achieves a desired level of accuracy on the training data. Examples of
Supervised Learning: Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, KNN,
Logistic Regression etc.

2. Unsupervised Learning

How it works: In this algorithm, we do not have any target or outcome variable
to predict / estimate. It is used for clustering population in different groups,
which is widely used for segmenting customers in different groups for specific
intervention. Examples of Unsupervised Learning: Apriori algorithm, K-means.

3. Reinforcement Learning:

How it works: Using this algorithm, the machine is trained to make specific
decisions. It works this way: the machine is exposed to an environment where it
trains itself continually using trial and error. This machine learns from past
experience and tries to capture the best possible knowledge to make accurate
business decisions. Example of Reinforcement Learning: Markov Decision
Process

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List of Common Machine Learning Algorithms :

Here is the list of commonly used machine learning algorithms. These


algorithms can be applied to almost any data problem:

1. Linear Regression
2. Logistic Regression
3. Decision Tree
4. SVM
5. Naive Bayes
6. kNN
7. K-Means
8. Random Forest
9. Dimensionality Reduction Algorothm
10. Gradient Boosting Algorithm
11. Neural Network

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CHAPTER 5

Neural Network

The simplest definition of a neural network, more


properly referred to as an 'artificial' neural network
(ANN), is provided by the inventor of one of the first
neurocomputers, Dr. Robert Hecht-Nielsen. He defines a
neural network as:
"...a computing system made up of a number of simple,
highly interconnected processing elements, which process
information by their dynamic state response to external
inputs.

In "Neural Network Primer: Part I" by Maureen Caudill,


AI Expert, Feb. 1989

ANNs are processing devices (algorithms or actual


hardware) that are loosely modeled after the neuronal
structure of the mamalian cerebral cortex but on much
smaller scales. A large ANN might have hundreds or
thousands of processor units, whereas a mamalian brain
has billions of neurons with a corresponding increase in
magnitude of their overall interaction and emergent
behavior. Although ANN researchers are generally not
concerned with whether their networks accurately
resemble biological systems, some have. For example,
researchers have accurately simulated the function of the
retina and modeled the eye rather well.

Although the mathematics involved with neural


networking is not a trivial matter, a user can rather easily
gain at least an operational understanding of their
structure and function.

The Basics of Neural Networks


Neural neworks are typically organized in layers. Layers
are made up of a number of interconnected 'nodes' which
contain an 'activation function'. Patterns are presented to
the network via the 'input layer', which communicates to
one or more 'hidden layers' where the actual processing is
done via a system of weighted 'connections'. The hidden
layers then link to an 'output layer' where the answer is
output as shown in the graphic
below.

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4
Most ANNs contain some form of 'learning rule' which modifies the
weights of the connections according to the input patterns that it is
presented with. In a sense, ANNs learn by example as do their biological
counterparts; a child learns to recognize dogs from examples of dogs.

Although there are many different kinds of learning rules used by neural
networks, this demonstration is concerned only with one; the delta rule.
The delta rule is often utilized by the most common class of ANNs called
'backpropagational neural networks' (BPNNs). Backpropagation is an
abbreviation for the backwards propagation of error.

With the delta rule, as with other types of backpropagation, 'learning' is a


supervised process that occurs with each cycle or 'epoch' (i.e. each time the
network is presented with a new input pattern) through a forward
activation flow of outputs, and the backwards error propagation of weight
adjustments. More simply, when a neural network is initially presented
with a pattern it makes a random 'guess' as to what it might be. It then sees
how far its answer was from the actual one and makes an appropriate
adjustment to its connection weights. More graphically, the process looks
something like this:
Note also, that within each hidden layer node is a sigmoidal activation
function which polarizes network activity and helps it to stablize.

Backpropagation performs a gradient descent within the solution's vector


space towards a 'global minimum' along the steepest vector of the error
surface. The global minimum is that theoretical solution with the lowest
possible error. The error surface itself is a hyperparaboloid but is seldom
'smooth' as is depicted in the graphic below. Indeed, in most problems, the
solution space is quite irregular with numerous 'pits' and 'hills' which may
cause the network to settle down in a 'local minum' which is not the best
overall solution.

Since the nature of the error space can not be known a prioi, neural
network analysis often requires a large number of individual runs to
determine the best solution. Most learning rules have built-in mathematical
terms to assist in this process which control the 'speed' (Beta-coefficient)
and the 'momentum' of the learning. The speed of learning is actually the
rate of convergence between the current solution and the global minimum.
Momentum helps the network to overcome obstacles (local minima) in the
error surface and settle down at or near the global miniumum.
NAME OF PROJECT

Chapter 6 System Testing

WRITE HERE.

6.1 Test Cases and Test Results

T Test Case Test System Expected


e Title Condition Behavior Result
s
t
I
D
T AAAA BBBB CCCC DDDD
0
1
T AAAA BBBB CCCC DDDD
0
2
T AAAA BBBB CCCC DDDD
0
3

Note: Testing should be performed manually


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Chapter 7

Project Planning

7.1 SECTION 1

WRITE HERE.

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Chapter 8

Implementation

WRITE HERE, PARAGRAPH 1.

WRITE HERE, PARAGRAPH 2.

Figure 8.1: IMAGE CAPTION

1 PASTE YOUR CODE HERE

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Chapter 9

Screenshots of Project

9.1 SECTION NAME

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Chapter 10

Conclusion and Future Scope

10.1 Conclusion

WRITE HERE.

10.2 Future Scope

WRITE HERE.

• ITEM 1

• ITEM 2

• ITEM 3

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References

[1] NAME OF IEEE PAPER; NAME OF AUTHORS

[2] http://EXAMPLE.com

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