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kurikulum standard sekolah menengah

MATHEMATICS
FORM 3
Authors
Chiu Kam Choon
Vincent De Selva A/L Santhanasamy
Punithah Krishnan
Raja Devi Raja Gopal

Editor
Premah A/P Rasamanie

Designers
Lim Fay Lee
Nur Syahidah Mohd Sharif

Illustrators
Asparizal Mohamed Sudin
Mohammad Kamal B Ahmad

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn Bhd.


2019
KEMENTERIAN
PENDIDIKAN
MALAYSIA

Book Series No: FT083002 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


KPM2019 ISBN 978-983-00-9651-3
First Published 2019 The publishing of this textbook involves
© Ministry of Education Malaysia cooperation from various parties. Our
wholehearted appreciation and gratitude goes
All rights reserved. No part of this book may out to all involving parties:
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, • Committee members of Penambahbaikan
either electronic, mechanical, photocopying, Pruf Muka Surat, Textbook Division,
recording or otherwise, without the prior Ministry of Education, Malaysia.
permission of Director General of Education
Malaysia, Ministry of Education Malaysia. • Committee members of Penyemakan
Negotiation are subject to an estimation of Pembetulan Pruf Muka Surat, Textbook
royalty or an honorarium. Division, Ministry of Education, Malaysia.
Published for the Ministry of Education • Committee members of Penyemakan
Malaysia by: Naskah Sedia Kamera, Textbook Division,
PENERBITAN PELANGI Sdn. Bhd. Ministry of Education, Malaysia.
66, Jalan Pingai, Taman Pelangi,
80400 Johor Bahru, • Officers in Textbook Division and the
Johor Darul Takzim. Curriculum Development Division,
Ministry of Education, Malaysia.
Layout and Typesetting:
PENERBITAN PELANGI Sdn. Bhd. • Chairperson and members of the Quality
Font type: Times New Roman Control Panel.
Font size: 11 poin
• Editorial Team and Production Team,
Printed by: especially the illustrators and designers.
THE COMERCIAL PRESS SDN. BHD.
Lot 8, Jalan P10/10, • Everyone who has been directly or indirectly
Kawasan Perusahaan Bangi, involved in the successful publication of
Bandar Baru Bangi,
this book.
43650 Bangi,
Selangor Darul Ehsan.

ii
Contents
Introduction v

Symbols and Formulae vii

CHAPTER Indices 1
1 1.1 Index Notation 2
1.2 Law of Indices 6

CHAPTER Standard Form 30


2 2.1 Significant Figures 32
2.2 Standard Form 37

CHAPTER Consumer Mathematics: Savings and Investments,




3 Credit and Debt 50
3.1 Savings and Investments 52
3.2 Credit and Debt Management 73

CHAPTER Scale Drawings 86


4 4.1 Scale Drawings 88

CHAPTER Trigonometric Ratios 106




5
5.1 Sine, Cosine and Tangent of Acute Angles in Right-angled
Triangles 108

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iii
CHAPTER Angles and Tangents of Circles 128


6
6.1 Angle at the Circumference and Central Angle Subtended
by an Arc 130
6.2 Cyclic Quadrilaterals 144
6.3 Tangents to Circles 150
6.4 Angles and Tangents of Circles 160

CHAPTER Plans and Elevations 168


7 7.1 Orthogonal Projections 170
7.2 Plans and Elevations 182

CHAPTER Loci in Two Dimensions 198


8 8.1 Loci 200
8.2 Loci in Two Dimensions 204

CHAPTER Straight Lines 224


9 9.1 Straight Lines 226

Answers 252

Glossary 262

References 263

Index 264

Saiz sebenar

iv
Introduction
This Form 3 Mathematics Textbook is prepared based on Kurikulum Standard Sekolah
Menengah (KSSM). This book contains 9 chapters arranged systematically based on Form
3 Mathematics Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran (DSKP).

At the beginning of each chapter, students are introduced to stimulating materials related
to daily life to stimulate their thinking about the topic. In addition, Learning Standard and
word list also give a visual summary about the chapter’s content.

This book contains the following special features:


Description

What will you learn?


Contains learning standard that students will learn
in each chapter.
Applications of knowledge in this chapter in related
Why
Why do
do you
you learn
learn this
this chapter?
chapter?
Why do you learn this chapter? career fields.

Exploring
Exploring Era
Era
History of ancient academy or original exploration
of the chapter in Mathematics.
WORD B A N K Word list contained in each chapter.

Brainstorming Helps students to understand the basic mathematical


concept via individual, pair or group activities.
Individual In pairs In groups

Gives additional information about the chapter


BULLETIN
learned.

Questions that test students’ capability to understand


QU I Z
certain technique in each chapter.

Grabs students’ attention to additional facts that


REMINDER need to be reminded of, mistakes that students
commonly make, and carelessness to be avoided.

TIPS
Exposes students to additional knowledge that they
need to know.
Presents mind-stimulating questions for enhancement
SMART MIND of students’ critical and creative thinking. Saiz sebenar

v
Description

SMART Exposes students to the use of technological tools in


the learning of mathematics.

DISCUSSION CORNER Develops communication skills mathematically.

FLASHBACK Helps students to remember what they have learnt.

SMART FINGER
1,234567.89
7 8
4 5
1 2
AC 0
9 ÷
6 x
3 -
. +
Shows the use of scientific calculators in calculations.

P R O J E C T
Enables students to carry out assignments and then
present their completed work in class.
Test students’ understanding on the concepts they
MIND TEST
have learnt.
Indicates HOTS questions to help in developing
students’ higher order thinking skills.
Prepares more diversified exercises which
Dynamic Challenge incorporate the elements of LOTS, HOTS, TIMSS
and PISA assessment.

Enables students to scan QR Code using mobile


device.

Covers applicable concepts of digital tool calculators,


EXPLORING MATHEMATICS
hands on activities and games that aim to provides
additional activities to effectively enhance students’
understanding.

CONCEPT MAP Overall chapter summary that students learnt.

Looks back whether students have achieved the


SELF-REFLECT learning standard.

Checking Answers Checks answers with alternative methods.

Activities with elements of Science, Technology,


S T EM Engineering and Mathematics.

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vi
Symbols and Formulae
SYMBOLS
√ root > is more than or equal to
π pi , is less than
a : b ratio of a to b < is less than or equal to
A × 10n standard form where ∆ triangle
1 < A , 10 and n is an integer ∠ angle
= is equal to ° degree
≈ is approximately equal to ' minute
≠ is not equal to '' second
. is more than

FORMULAE
am × an = am + n sin θ
tan θ = ——–
am ÷ an = am – n cos θ

(am)n = amn
Pythagorean theorem:
a0 = 1
1 c2 = a2 + b2
a–n = —
an c b
1
b 2
= c2 – a2
a—n = n√ a
m 1
— 1
a a 2
= c2 – b2
a—n = (am) n = (a—n )m
m Distance between
a—n = n√ am = (n√ a )m = √(x2 – x1)2 + (y2 – y1)2
two points
I = Prt
MV = P(1 + —) r nt
n

(
Midpoint = ———,

x1 + x2 y1 + y2
2
———
2 )
A = P + Prt
opposite side vertical distance
sin θ = ——————– Gradient, m = ————————
horizontal distance
opposite side

hypotenuse
e
us

adjacent side y2 – y1
ten

cos θ = ——————– m = ———


po

hypotenuse x2 – x1
hy

θ
opposite side y-intercept
tan θ = ——————– adjacent m = – —————
adjacent side side x-intercept

Download the free QR Code scanner to your mobile devices. Scan QR Code or visit
the website http://bukutekskssm.my/Mathematics/F3/Index.html to download files for
brainstorming. Then, save the downloaded file for offline use.
Note: Students can download free GeoGebra and Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP)
software to open related files.
http://bukutekskssm.
my/Mathematics/F3/ Saiz sebenar
Index.html

vii
Answers
CHAPTER 1 Indices MIND TEST 1.2c
MIND TEST 1.1a 1. (a) 4 (b) 72 (c) m4n5
1. Base Index 2. (a) 66 (d) 3xy3 (e) m (f) –5h
5 3 (b) (0.5)7 2. (a) 8 8 ÷ 84 ÷ 83 = 8 3. 8
–4 7 (b) m4n 6 ÷ m 2 n5 = m2n
—1
2 10 (c)
—1 4
2 ( ) m10n4 × m 2 n2


(c) ——————
m 7n
= m5n 5
m 6 27x3y6 × xy 2
(d) (–m)5 (d) —————– = 3x 2 y5
n 0 9 x y
2 3
0.2 9
( )
3
3 (e) 2
1— MIND TEST 1.2d
–— 4 3
7
1. (a) 1210 (b) 320 (c) 76 (d) (– 4)21
x 20
( )
6
(f) 1
–— (e) k24 (f) g26 (g) (–m)12 (h) (–c)21
2— 1 n
3 2 2. (a) True (b) False (c) False (d) False
8 1
MIND TEST 1.2e
3. (a) (–3) × (–3) × (–3)
(b) 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 1. (a) 22
× 38
(b) 119 × 915 (c) 136 ÷ 712
(d) 515 × 320 (e) m15n20 p10 (f) 16w8x12
2 2 2 2 2
(c) — × — × — × — × — 729a30 8a15
(g) ——— (h) ­——
3 3 3 3 3 b 27b12
24
1 1 1
(d) (–2—) × (–2—) × (–2—) 44
4 4 4 2. (a) 112 × 44 (b) 33 × 62 (c) —
66
(e) k×k×k×k×k×k 6 4 4 4
(d) (– 4) × (–5) (e) x y
(f) (–p) × (–p) × (–p) × (–p) × (–p) × (–p) × (–p)
(f) h10k6 (g) m11n15 (h) b2d6
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(g) — × — × — × — × — × — × — × — 3. (a) 6mn8 (b) 10x8y3 (c) de
m m m m m m m m

(h) (3n) × (3n) × (3n) × (3n) × (3n) 1.2f
MIND TEST
MIND TEST 1.1b 1 1 1 1
1. (a) — (b) — (c) — (d) —–
( ) 53 8 4 x 8 y16
4 3
1. (a) 34 (b) 56 (c) — 4 3 5
5 (e) a (f) 202 (g) — (h) – —–
( ) n 4 n6
5 7 1 2
(d) (0.2) (e) (– 4) (f)
–—
( )
5 7 14
( )
2 3 12
4 (i) —– 5
(j) – –— (k) — (l) – —
MIND TEST 1.1c 7m 8m4 2 3
( ) ( )
10
y 3y 4
(m) — (n) —– (o) (2x)5
1. (a) 6 561 (b) –1 024 (c) 15.625 x 2x

243 1 2. (a) 5–4 (b) 8–3 (c) m–7 (d) n–9
(d) –32.768 (e) ——— (f) ——–
32 768 1 296 1 1 1 1
7 19 (e) —–– (f) —–— (g) —— (h) ——
(g) 2— (h) –12— 10–2 (–4)–3 m–12 n–16
9 27 –9

MIND TEST 1.2a



( )
7
(i) —
4
(j) —
y –10
x ( )

1 24

1. (a) 37

(b) (– 0.4)8 (c) —
4 9
7
( ) 3. (a) —
4
(b) —–
314
(c) 26 × 52
1 1 m6n
( )
2 10 n12 (d) ——– (e) —– (f) —–
(d) –1— (e) – 6m9 (f) —– 3 7 8m8
3m n 18
5 5
(g) –15x7 (h) y12
MIND TEST 1.2g
MIND TEST 1.2b –13 –1 1
– 1

1. (a) 125 (b) 2 1877 (c) (–1 024) 5 (d) n 10
1. (a) 55 × 95 (b) (0.4)3 × (1.2)9 2. (a) √4 (b) 5 32 (c) 3 –729 (d) 15 n
√ √ √
3
Saiz sebenar
(c) 4x6y7 (d) – —k6p11 3. (a) 7 (b) – 6 (c) 8 (d) –8
2

252
252
MIND TEST 1.2h 3. (a) 3 (b) 0 (c) –8
(d) –5 (e) 5 (f) 2
–34 –23 (g) 2 (h) –1 (i) 1
–m
an 729 6
–5
121 2
–3 –3
w7 x5
–2
(—1681) (—hk ) Self Mastery

[(—hk ) ]
1 1

[(1681—) ]
–1 –1 –1 –1 –1 3 –4 2 –3
(am) n (7295)6 (1213)2 (w3)7 (x2)5 1. (a) 1 000 (b) 500 000 (c) 50
3 3
2. (a) — (b) — (c) 15
–1
(an )m
–1
(7296 )5 (1212)3
–1 –1
(w7 )3
–1
(x5 )2 [(1681—) ]–14 3
[(—hk ) ]
–13 2
4 2
3. (a) –1, 6 (b) 1, –7 (c) –1, 4
1 2
(—1681) (—hk )
3 3 2
n 4 4. (a) x = —, y = 2 (b) x = 1, y = – —
√ am 6√7295 √1213 7√ w 3 5√ x 2
6 3

5. 12°C 6. RM27 130 7. RM61 462.77
(n√ a )m (6√729)5 (√121)3 (7√ w )3 (5√ x )2 ( —1681)
4 3
( —hk )
3
2

CHAPTER 2 Standard Form

1.2i MIND TEST 2.1a


MIND TEST
1. (a)
9 (b) 4 (c) 4 (d) 8 1. (a) 2 s.f. (b) 5 s.f. (c) 5 s.f. (d) 4 s.f.
(e) 256 (f) 16 (g) 216 (h) 343 (e) 2 s.f. (f) 5 s.f. (g) 4 s.f. (h) 6 s.f.
(i) 7 (j) 1 331 (k) 169 (l) 1 000 MIND TEST 2.1b
4 4
— —
2. (a) 2 √6 561 1, 3 4, 9 2, 81 1, 243 5 , 27 3 1. (a) 47 200 47 000 50 000
3 3 3
— — —
(b) 25 2 , 125 1, 625 4 , 2 √15 625 1, 3 125 5 , 5 3 (b) 5 260 5 300 5 000
(c) 306 310 300

MIND TEST 1.2j (d) 20.7 21 20
c7 10x (e) 8.60 8.6 9
1. (a) — (b) mn6 (c) —–2 (f) 5.90 5.9 6
de 3z
(g) 0.694 0.69 0.7
1
2. (a) ——– (b) 648 (c) 86 400 (h) 0.0918 0.092 0.09
401
2 (i) 0.00571 0.0057 0.006
7 125 2. (a) 12.02 (b) 2.83 (c) 11.1
(d) — (e) 81 (f) —–
54 8 (d) 24 (e) 6.61 (f) 13
3. 3 456 4. 48 (g) 20 (h) 36.0
Dynamic Challenge MIND TEST 2.2a
Test Yourself 1. (a) 3.5 × 101 (b) 4.81 × 102
1. (a) True (b) False (25) (c) False (1) (c) 5.075 × 103 (d) 9.725 × 101



15
(d) False (32x ) (e) True (f) False —4
2
a ( )

(e) 3.1243 × 103 (f) 9.0 × 10–1
(g) 2.3 × 10–1 (h) 3.75 × 10–2
2. (a) 2.5 (b) 37.5 (c) 423

(g) False [(5√32)2] (h) True

(i) False ——–
1
625 m ( ) (d) 5 070 (e) 91 000 (f) 0.62
(g) 0.0729 (h) 0.001034 (i) 0.0008504
2. 5 4 × 55 53( 3 ) 3. (a) 1.05 × 106 metres (b) 2.16 × 1011 bytes
(√25) 9 (c) 7.5 × 1011 litres (d) 9.5 × 10–5 metres
512 ÷ 5 3
(e) 1.23 × 10–7 metres (f) 8.9 × 10–17 metres
(—15 ) –9 ( 3 √125) 9
MIND TEST 2.2b
–32 56 × 5 5 1. (a) 5.97 × 104 (b) 3.93 × 106
(5 6 ) ———–
52 (c) 1.021 × 108 (d) 1.574 × 105
(e) 5.46 × 108 (f) 8.59 × 104
1
—–
5–9
(—–
5
)
1 3
–3 (g) 5.77 × 104 (h) 1.08 × 10–3
(i) 6.09 × 10–5 (j) 9.91 × 10–3
3.
20 as
1
—–
3– 4 as
( )
3

5
–2
2 –3
as 7 × 5 as
(5–1 × √25)3
(k) 7.68 × 10–4 (l) 8.685 × 10–6

( 5 72 MIND TEST 2.2c


3)
2
1 34 —­­ —­­
53 1
Skills Enhancement 1. (a) 1.48 × 108 (b) 3.75 × 10–8
n7 2 x4 y7 (c) 2.52 × 108 (d) 2.12 × 103
1. (a) —– (b) —— (c) xy (e) 4.5 × 10–3 (f) 6.4 × 103
m 2
(g) 2.95 × 103 (h) 8.6 × 108
4 25
2. (a) —– (b) — (c) 1 (d) 2 (e) 7 (f) 1 2. 3.126 × 103 3. 63 Saiz sebenar
4. 103 micrometres
125 7

253
253
5. (a) Real estate
MIND TEST 2.2d
(b) Risk potential = Low
1. 2.02 × 105 m3 Return = High
2. (a) 9.17 × 107 km (b) 4.44 × 109 km (c) 4.35 × 109 km Liquidity = Low
Dynamic Challenge (c) Mr Osman’s action is wise because our country
focuses on the tourism sector. Therefore, it is
Test Yourself appropriate to set up the homestay. Besides, the
1. (a) 24 000 (b) 54 300 (c) 9 000 (d) 300 000 investment in the homestay has low risk.
(e) 5 000 (f) 5.00 (g) 0.28 (h) 40
MIND TEST 3.1e
(i) 420 (j) 10 (k) 1.04 (l) 502
2. (a) 3.48 × 108 (b) 5.75 × 104 (c) 5.11 × 104 1. Purchase of shares every month or periodically but
(d) 2.96 × 109 (e) 8.84 × 10–2 (f) 3.31 × 10–4 not at a lump sum.
(g) 9.77 × 10–8 (h) 5.43 × 104 2. (a) Investor 2. This is because the purchase of 2
3. (a) –2, 0.025, 0.025, 1.35, 1.375 shares on a regular basis allows him to purchase
(b) –3, 0.0034, 5.74, 0.0034, 5.7434 many units of shares and the average cost per
(c) –3, 0.0042, 1.75, 0.0042, 1.7458 unit can be reduced.
(d) –3, 0.0043, 3.7, 0.0043, 3.657 (b) RM1.80. 13 268 units of shares
4. (a) 1.2 × 104 (b) RM214 5. 97 people (c) ● The average cost per unit share can be reduced
● Reduce the risk of loss
Skills Enhancement
1. (a) 5.57 × 102 m2 (b) RM10 824 MIND TEST 3.1f
2. (a) (i) 70.9 kmh–1 (ii) 47.1 kmh–1 (iii) 68.4 kmh–1 1. (a) Mr Rasamanie – Real estates (Low Risk)
Self Mastery Mr Nik Izwan – Savings (Low Risk)
Real estates (Low Risk)
1. (a) Mercury = 7.48 × 107 km2
Shares (High Risk)
Neptune = 7.62 × 109 km2
(b) Mr Nik Izwan. This is because if there is a loss
Jupiter = 6.14 × 1010 km2
in one of the investments, it can be covered by
(b) 6.133 × 1010 km2
other investments.
2. (a) 4.37 g (b) 4.99 g
(c) Economic factor and political factor of the
location of the real estate.
CHAPTER 3 Consumer Mathematics:
2. 23.16%
Savings and Investments, Credit and Debt
MIND TEST 3.1a MIND TEST 3.2a
1. ● For a well-planned life in the future 1. Personal loans are short term loans for consumer use.
● As an additional income 2. ● Prepare your budget
● For emergency use ● Plan your expenses
2. ● Open a Fixed Deposit Account 3. Credit card – He is not require to pay interest if his
● This is because the money will not be used for a debts are settled in interest-free period as compared
given period to loan.
● Higher interest rates are also offered
Dynamic Challenge
3. Cheques are commonly used by businessmen/
businesswomen for payments in large amounts while Test Yourself
most people only make daily payments in small 1. Savings is the balance after making mandatory
amounts. expenditure from salary.
MIND TEST 3.1b 2. ● High interest rate.
● Savings period is subject to a specified time.
1. RM610.10 2. RM1 159.70 3. RM106.17 3. RM8 640
MIND TEST 3.1c Skills Enhancement
1. Return on investment is the value of return of the 1. Increase the number of shares purchased and the
investment. average cost per unit will be lower than if purchased
2. (a) RM2 000 all at once.
(b) RM24 000 + RM230 000 = RM254 000 2. Purchase of land lots, houses, factories and so on.
3. RM320 3. (a) Dividend (b) Capital gain (c) Bonus share
4. (a) Lee Chong needs to have the knowledge to assess
MIND TEST 3.1d and select shares while Mokhtar’s investment is
1. The higher the risk, the higher the return. assisted by a professional company.
2. Bank Negara Malaysia guarantees on deposits in the (b) Lee Chong’s risk is higher compared to
bank. Mokhtar’s.
Saiz sebenar
3. It can be cashed immediately. 5. RM300 6. (a) RM360 (b) 3 000 units (c) 9 000 units
4. Real estate’s price usually increases but rarely falls. 7. RM1 000, 3%, 3 years 8. RM634.12

254
254
Self Mastery CHAPTER 5 Trigonometric Ratios
1. RM3 750 2. 8.85% MIND TEST 5.1a
3. RM7 000 4. RM400
5. RM233.33 6. RM52.87 Angle Hypotenuse Opposite side Adjacent side
7. (a) Masnah Rasam’s view is not recommended ∠QPR PR QR PQ
because she has to pay interest.
(b) RM320, 8% ∠PRQ PR PQ QR
(c) Cash, because no interest needs to be paid. ∠MNK KN KM MN
8. RM15 000 ∠MKN KN MN KM
9. 4% ∠FEG EG FG EF
10. RM900
∠EGF EG EF FG
CHAPTER 4 Scale Drawings ∠BAE AE BE AB
∠AEB AE AB BE
MIND TEST 4.1a
∠BCD CD BD BC
1. Diagram 1, Diagram 2, Diagram 4
∠BDC CD BC BD
MIND TEST 4.1b MIND TEST 5.1b
1 1 2
1. (a) 1 : — (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 : — (d) 1 : —
2 2 3 ∆DEF

2. Length = 6 cm Width = 2 cm EF DE EF
1. sin x = —– cos x = —– tan x = —–
3. 10 km DF DF DE
4. 6 cm DE EF DE
sin y = —– cos y = —– tan y = —–
MIND TEST 4.1c
DF DF EF
∆KLM
1 KL LM KL
2. (b) (i) 1 : — (ii) 1 : 2 sin x = —– cos x = —– tan x = —–

2 KM KM LM
LM KL LM
MIND TEST 4.1d sin y = —– cos y = —– tan y = —–
KM KM KL
1. 1 944 cm2 2. 34.8 cm ∆PQR
3. 560 m2 4. 20 cm QS PS QS
sin x = —– cos x = —– tan x = —–
5. (a) 7 200 m2 (b) 2 hours 24 minutes PQ PQ PS
QS RS QS
Dynamic Challenge sin y = —– cos y = —– tan y = —–
QR QR RS
Test Yourself
MIND TEST 5.1c
1
1. 1 : —
1. Trigonometric ratios of angle x and angle y are the
5
2. (a) I and III (b) I = 1 : 2 same. This is because all side lengths are reduced by
1 the same rate.
III = 1 : — 38 28 19
2 2. (a) (i) —– (ii) — (iii) —
(c) (i) I = 1.5 cm 2 (ii) I = 1 : 4 145 29 70

2 1 1 7 4
III = 24 cm III = 1 : — (iv) — (v) — (vi) —
4 2 8 7
The ratio of area is not proportional to the (b) No
scale of the scale drawings.
3. (a) 17.0 cm (b) 203.5 m2 MIND TEST 5.1d
15 12 15
Skills Enhancement 1. (a) sin θ = — cos θ = — tan θ = —
39 13 36
1. 540 kmh–1 24 7 24
2. 50 cm × 50 cm tile. RM633.20 can be saved. (b) sin θ = — cos θ = — tan θ = —
25 25 7
3. (a) 2 829 m2 (b) 4 : 13 15 8 15
(c) 1 971 m2 (d) RM3 960 (c) sin θ = — cos θ = — tan θ = —
17 17 8
Self Mastery 5 12 5
(d) sin θ = — cos θ = — tan θ = —
1. (a) 48 m2 (b) 8 : 1 (c) 1 440 m3 13 13 12
15 8 15
2. (a) 8 400 m2 (e) sin θ = — cos θ = — tan θ = —
17 17 8
tan θSaiz
= 0.75sebenar
(b) 1 : 500. The most relevant value for scale.
(c) (i) 60 pieces (ii) RM31 500 (f) sin θ = 0.6 cos θ = 0.8

255
255