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# Activities to develop

Each student in the group has to answer the following questions using academic
references to support the research:

1.What is the practical implications associated to a line with only reactive components or
only resistive components?
Parameters that affect a transmission line are:
Capacitance: refers to the characteristic of a system that stores electrical charge between its
conductors and a dielectric, thus storing an energy in the form of an electric field. The
capacitance in C.A. Alternate is of great importance because it is a trigger of the power
factor.
The capacitive reactance: is the resistance that the capacitors oppose the passage of
alternating current, also known as the load per unit of potential difference.
Example:
The conductance and capacitance that occur between conductors of a single-phase line or
from a conductor to the neutral of a three-phase line constitute the admittance in parallel.

2. In a practical transmission system. What is a good value for the reflection coefficient and
the VSWR? Explain

 reflection coefficient

The reflection coefficient relates the amplitude of the reflected wave with the amplitude of
the incident wave. It is usually represented with a T (uppercase gamma).

## The reflection coefficient is given by:

A good value for the reflection coefficient according to the above formula can be
determined to be 0 this implies that the entire signal is transmitted

 VSWR

Refers specifically to the behavior of the voltage (minimum and maximum) in a standing
wave phenomenon between a transmission line and its load at the end
The ideal value for VSWR is 1

3. What occurs with the voltage and current in a line with the following conditions: line
terminated in its characteristic impedance, line terminated in a short and line terminated in
an open?
Line terminated in its characteristic impedance: it is real, that is, purely resistive and does
not depend on the frequency, only on the distributed inductance and capacity and, the latter,
in turn, on the permittivity of the dielectric.

## Line terminated in a short circuit: In this case ZL= 0 y ΓL = 1∠180º

Line completed in open circuit: In these conditions, ZL= ∞ y ΓL = 1∠0º The input
impedance is:

4. What is the voltage reflection coefficient and what is an ideal value for a transmission
system?

It is defined as the relationship between the maximum voltage with the minimum voltage,
or maximum current with the minimum current of a wave, therefore the coefficient of
reflection of the current at any point of a line is the negative of the coefficient of voltage
reflection. This is also called a standing wave voltage ratio
Ζ −Ζ
The above because the reflection coefficient of the current is Pi = 𝑃𝑖 = Ζ0 + Ζ1 the inverse of
0 1
Ζ +Ζ
the voltage reflection coefficient = 𝑃𝑣 = Ζ 0− Ζ1 which leads us to conclude
0 1
That pi = -PV
In essence it is considered as a measure of the lack of compensation between the impedance
and the characteristic impedance of the transmission line
5. What is the effect of Lossy line on voltage and current waves?
As the current passes through a transmission line, and it has a finite resistance, there is an
inherent and inevitable loss of power. Sometimes this is called loss in the driver or loss by
heating the driver. The arc voltaic is a light discharge that occurs between two conductors
of a transmission line, when the potential difference between them is greater than the
breaking voltage of the insulating dielectric. In general, once the effect of arc voltaic or
corona effect occurs, the transmission line is destroyed.
6. In the Smith Chart identify a 𝑍𝐿=∝, a 𝑍𝐿=0, two resistive loads and two complex loads.
You have to assume the characteristic impedance.

𝑍𝐿=∝
By placing the cursor on the right side you see in Z that the value tends to be infinite in
both the real and imaginary parts
𝑍𝐿=0
Placing the cursor on the left side shows in Z that both the real and imaginary part tend to 0

he resistive load is located in the option Keyboard in the option Real (RE) we place a value
and in the imginary part (IM) we place 0
The complex loads are inserted in the option Keyboard in the RE part we place a value and
in the IM part we place a value any in this case
Choose one of the following problems, solve it and share the solution in the forum.
Perform a critical analysis on the group members’ contributions and reply this in the
forum.