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Energy Sources Vocabulary

For the following words, you must 1. Write the word, 2. Rewrite (copy) the given definition 3. Put the word
into a sentence or reword the definition into your own words and 4. Draw a picture illustrating the word.
You may use the sheets provided or you can create your own format. This will be two homework grades.
You will have a vocabulary quiz on Thursday, April 11th (minor/quiz grade). You WILL NOT be able to
use your lists on the vocab quiz.

List # 1 – due Friday, April 5th

1. Photosynthesis: The process by which plants and some other organisms capture the
energy in sunlight and use it to make food.
2. Chloroplast: A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures
energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
3. Chlorophyll: a green pigment, present in all green plants responsible for the absorption
of light to provide energy for photosynthesis.
4. Eukaryotic: Cells that have a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus
5. Prokaryotic: Cells without a nucleus
6. Oxidize/oxidation: A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen
(example: iron oxidizes, forming rust)
7. Cellular respiration: The process by which all cells break down simple food molecules
to release the energy they contain; process where organisms take in oxygen and release
carbon dioxide.
8. Organelle: A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
9. Ribosomes: A small grain-like structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are
10. Mitochondria: Rod-shaped cell structures that convert energy in food molecules to
energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.

List #2 – due Tuesday, April 9th

11. Food Pyramid: A nutritional diagram in the shape of a pyramid that tells a person how
much of what types of foods to eat.
12. Carbohydrate: a nutrient that provides energy, typically made of sugars or starches
13. Lipids (Fats): The body uses fat as a fuel source, and fat is the major storage form of
energy in the body.
14. Proteins: a nutrient that is especially for the growth and repair of body tissue; building
15. Glucose: a simple carbohydrate (sugar) that is an important energy source in living
organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates
16. Basal Metabolic Rate: the rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital
functions going, such as breathing and keeping warm
17. Calories: a unit used in measuring the amount of energy food provides when eaten and
18. Metabolism: the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to
maintain life
19. Cellular respiration: The chemical process that generates most of the energy in the
cell, supplying molecules needed to make the metabolic reactions
20. Consumption: The using up of a resource.
21. Toxic Substance: Any chemical or mixture that may be harmful to the environment and
to human health if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin.
22. Drug: A medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or
otherwise introduced into the body.