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SECTION C [30 marks]

Answer two questions only in this section

18. (a) State two functions of the dielectric in a capacitor. [2 marks]
(b) Two pure capacitors with capacitance C1 = 5.0 F and C2 = 10.0 F are
connected in series to a 10.0 V battery.
(i) Derive an expression for the effective capacitance CT of the circuit and calculate
the value of CT. [4 marks]

(ii) Calculate the total energy stored in the circuit. [2 marks]

(c) The battery in (b) is replaced by an alternating current supply of maximum
voltage 10 V and frequency 120 Hz.
(i) Calculate the reactance of the combined capacitor. [2 marks]
(ii) Calculate the maximum current in the circuit. Comment on the phase of the
current with reference to the voltage supplied. [3 marks]
(iii) Describe briefly the behaviour of the energy stored in the combined capacitor
during a cycle of the alternating current supply. [2 marks]

19. (a) A magnetic field B passing through a horizontal wire loop PQRS of an area A and
making an angle θ with the plane of the loop is shown in the diagram below.

(i) Express, in term of B, A and θ, the magnetic flux ϕ through the loop. [1 mark]
(ii) State two alterations which can produce induced e.m.f n the loop. [2 marks]
(iii) If the magnetic flux through the plane of the loop PQRS is reduced, what is the direction
of the induced current in the loop? State the law used. [2 marks]
(b) (i) Define self- inductance. [2 marks]
(ii) An inductor in the form of solenoid has length 𝑙, cross-sectional area A and total
turns N. Show that the self-inductance L is given by
𝜇0 𝑁 2 𝐴
where 𝜇0 is the permeability of the free space. [2 marks]
(c) A 50.0 Hz a.c generator consists of a coil of N turns and area 2.0 × 10−2 𝑚2 which rotates
in a uniform magnetic field of 0.15 T. Calculate N so that the root mean square voltage
produced is 240 V. [2 marks]
(d) (i) At the moment an electric motor is switched on, a large amount of current flows
in the armature and causes damage. Why does this happen? [1 mark]
(ii) The electric motor is usually connected in series to an inductor to avoid the above
situation from occurring. How can the inductor help avoid the damage? [2 marks]
20. (a) define the reactance of a pure inductor. [1 mark]
(b) Derive an expression for the reactance XL, of a pure inductor in terms of it inductance
L and the frequency f of a source of current supplied. [3 marks]
[Assume that the expression of the source of current supplied is 𝐼 = 𝐼𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜋𝑓𝑡]
(c) An a.c. circuit contains a pure inductor of inductance 0.470 mH. It is operated by a
power supply with peak voltages of 120V and a frequency of 90.3 MHz.
Determine the
(i) the peak current of the inductor, [2 marks]
(ii) the peak power in the inductor. [2 marks]
(d) A capacitor has a Irms of 21 mA at a frequency of 60 Hz when the Vrms voltage across
it is 14 V.
(i) What is the capacitance of the capacitor? [3 marks]
(ii) If the frequency is increased, will the current in the capacitor increase, decrease or
stay the same? Explain. [2 marks]
(iii) Calculate the Irms in the capacitor at a frequency of 410 Hz. [2 marks]

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GPK Tingkatan 6