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Diunggah oleh Hector Rodriguez

- Articulo Further Results on Stability of Networked Control Systems
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of the requirements to be candidate for the degree of

Ph.D in Engineering

August 2, 2018

UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE PEREIRA

Doctoral Engineering Program

Area of Electrical Engineering

Request for evaluation

the degree of Doctor in Engineering at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Universidad Tecnológica de Pereria. Student

Revised by:

Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Advisor

Doctoral project proposal i/23

Table of contents

General index i

1 General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3 Justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

4 Literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5 Referential framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5.1 Passivity-based control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5.2 Hamilton’s systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

5.3 Lyapunov stability theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

5.4 Stability analysis of PCH systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

5.5 Interconnected systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

5.6 Dynamical system under analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

5.6.1 Dynamical model of a PWM-VSC for DERs integration . 13

5.6.2 Dynamical model of a PWM-CSC for SMES integration . 14

6 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

6.1 General Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

6.2 Specific Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

6.3 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

7 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

8 Expected results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

9 Available resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

10 Activity schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

References 23

Doctoral project proposal 1/23

1 General information

Title: Passivity-based analysis and control of AC microgrids.

non-linear control and energy storage systems.

ing the developed of this research project: Gerardo René Espinosa Pérez at National

Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Marta Molinas at Norwegian University of

Science and Technology (NTNU). Carlos Alberto de Castro Jr. at University of Campinas

(UNICAMP). Fedérico M. Serra at National University of San Luis, Argentina.

2 Problem Statement

Modern electrical networks have changed from classical hydro-thermal electric systems

with passive loads to active electrical networks with distributed energy resources (DERs)

which includes renewable generation [1], energy storage systems [2–4] and dynamic loads

[5–8]. These technologies can be integrated to the electric power systems by using power

electronic converters under the concept of microgrids (MGs) [9–11], allowing improvements

in voltage regulation, reducing power oscillations caused by renewable energy, performing

frequency regulation and supplying energy to the loads during service outages [6]. However,

these improvements can be only achieved by using effective control strategies that consider

the MG as a whole and not only as individual components [12, 13].

Although there is not a standard definition, the U.S. Department of Energy, defines

a MG as “a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources with clearly

defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the

grid and can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-

connected or island modes”. Figure 1 shows schematically this concept.

In all MGs there exists power electronic converters based on forced commutation (e.g

voltage/current source [14] [12, 15]) or line commutation technologies [16]. These allow

advanced control strategies for operation in transient and steady state [5]. Diverse control

strategies have been explored in the specialized literature, namely: fuzzy-logic [17, 18],

feedback linearization [14, 15, 19], model predictive [20] and passivity-based control [21–

25], among others. Nevertheless, proportional-integral controls [5, 26] are the most used

approach.

Doctoral project proposal 2/23

Main grid

P, Q

Microgrid

AC AC AC AC

AC AC DC DC G

Load 1

Microturbine

+−

G

These controls are used when the MG operates in interconnection mode; however, they

must be modified in island mode in order to support voltage profile and regulate electrical

frequency by using a primary and secondary control strategies [27] that in turns, can be

centralized or distributed [6]. The former is highly efficient but relies on the communication

system [28] while the latter requires fewer communication channels, which implies fewer

investment costs and allows scalability [?, 29].

Closed-loop stability must be guaranteed in the increasingly complex MGs. However,

in many cases, the optimal tuning of a proportional-integral control in one device, could

affect negatively the stability of the grid. This is because the model of the system is

oversimplified and the control is locally designed. In this context, we can pose the following

research question ¿How to control each component such that the stability of the entire

MG is guaranteed under interconnected and islanded operation modes?

To answer this question it is necessary to use a generalized theory with the following

characteristics:

storage devices).

• Applicable to the non-linear model of the components.

• Easily integrable to the model of the entire system.

• Suitable to include the communication system.

• Guaranteed stability in different operative conditions.

• Scalable.

Doctoral project proposal 3/23

Passivity-based control can be an appropriate control strategy that fulfills all these re-

quirements. However, a research project is required in order to apply this control paradigm

to MGs taking into account all the complexities inherent to power networks.

Notice that in specialized literature there exist few references that propose the appli-

cation of the passivation theory to operate ac power MG considering the natural passive

model of the electrical power system. Nevertheless, this approaches are mainly focuses in

single-phase electrical networks [30]. In review section 4 a detailed review of the state of

art will be presented.

3 Justification

The electric power system plays an important role in the economic development of any

country. Colombia has an interconnected power system with a liberalized market, but

there are challenges which require research under the new paradigm of the MGs. The

country relies on the hydroelectricity complemented by a minor percentage of thermo-

electricity which is required in order to deal with the phenomena of El Niño. This is a

complex whether pattern that results when temperatures in the Pacific Ocean increases

form the norm. Although it is a natural phenomenon that typically occurs every two to

seven years, the 2015-2016 El Niño was particularly intense as consequence of the global

warming. The level of the reservoirs decreases to less than 20%. This event demonstrated

the requirement for a diversified energy matrix.

There is a high potential of wind and solar energy in the Country; moreover, these

potentials increase when El Niño occurs. Hence, wind and solar are complementary to

hydroelectricity. These new renewable resources should be integrated into the paradigm of

MGs since large photovoltaic power stations could create additional environmental impacts

and compromise the use of land in agriculture.

On the other hand, there are some zones in the country which lack a reliable power

service. These non-interconnected zones include more than 1500 small towns totaling more

than 1 million inhabitants. MGs are also a promising alternative for the integration of

renewable sources and energy storage in these zones. Therefore, a research at a local level

is required to deal with the particular characteristics of the Colombian system taking into

account an equilibrium between theory and practice.

In this context, the strategies classically employed to operate conventional grids need

to be improved or changed, in order to consider the impact of variations in the energy

delivered by DERs [31]; besides, to improve the speed response of existing control strategies

to hold the correct system operation during power outages caused by external failures [6].

This research project focuses to explore the passivity properties of electrical grids

based on Hamiltonian formulations, in order to guarantee stability in closed-loop using

Lyapunov’s theory for autonomous systems [22, 23]. This control strategy was selected

because it allows to design global stable controllers by dividing the electrical network

into small subsystems [32]. For all subsystems it is possible to use Hamilton theory to

developed passive controllers that preserve their passive nature when interconnected with

Doctoral project proposal 4/23

There are multiple references that use passivity-based control theory to develop global

asymptotically stable controllers to integrated DERs on electrical power systems [21];

notwithstanding, it was not possible to find references that use this theory to operate all

devices interconnected at the same time in MG considering the natural passive model of

the electrical power system.

The focal point of this research project corresponds to the design of passivity-based

controllers to integrate DERs on MG. The DERs analyzed are:

source converter technologies.

• Energy storage systems such as: superconducting coils using current source converter

technologies, supercapacitors and batteries employing voltage source converter tech-

nologies.

nique to operate all DERs in MGs, since the dynamical model of these systems have a

Hamiltonian structure, which is the main characteristic in the design of stable controllers

using passivation theory [34]. Nevertheless, it is important to point out that classical

formulations such as Bryton-Moser or Lagrangian can be also employed as an alternative

formulations to design passivity-based controllers [35].

4 Literature review

This section presents a detailed literature review in the context of designing passivity

based controllers for distributed energy resources and MGs. The analysis is concentrated

in superconducting coils, supercapacitors, batteries, and photovoltaic and wind genera-

tion. Additionally, are presented general approximations to analyze entire ac MGs under

passivation theory approach.

In Table 1 the most popular control strategies for energy storage devices are presented.

The energy storage technologies presented will be the technologies analyzed in this research

project.

Notice that in Table 1 it is common to find diverse control strategies for any storage

devices technology; although, the passivity-based control it is also common, those articles

focuses only of analyzing one specific device, without taking into account the rest of the

electrical network, which does not bring the possibility to extend the stability properties

to all electrical network.

On the other hand, in Table 2 is presented the most important approaches to control

wind and photovoltaic generators in power systems.

In Table 2 has been presented some papers that explore different control techniques

to integrate wind and photovoltaic generators in power MGs, notices that passivity-based

control theory appears recurrently in the review of the state of art, which implies that it

Doctoral project proposal 5/23

Energy storage technology Control approach Type of converter References

Passivity-based control PWM-CSC [36]

Linear matrix inequalities PWM-CSC [37]

Feedback linearization PWM-CSC and VSC [14, 15]

Superconducting coils

Passivity-based control VSC with DC/DC Chopper [38]

Model predictive control VSC with DC/DC Chopper [39]

Proportional-integral control VSC with DC/DC Chopper [40]

Passivity-based control DC/DC [41]

Supercapacitors Model predictive control VSC with DC/DC [42]

Fuzzy logic control VSC with DC/DC [43]

Adaptive Passivity-based control Bidirectional Boost converter [44]

Batteries Model predictive control DC/DC [45–47]

Fuzzy-sliding mode control DC/DC [48]

Generation technology Control approach Type of grid References

Passivity-based control Single-phase and Three-phase AC grid [49–51]

Instantaneous power theory Three-phase AC grid [52]

Adaptive fuzzy logic control Three-phase AC grid [53]

Wind generators Model predictive control Three-phase AC grid [54]

Adaptive control Three-phase AC grid [12]

Control by consensus Three-phase AC grid [55]

Backstepping control Three-phase AC grid [56]

Passivity-based P control Three-phase AC grids [57]

Photovoltaic generators Model predictive control Three-phase AC grid [58]

Instantaneous power theory Three-phase AC grid [59]

correspond an actual and powerful control strategy for distributed generators, as well as,

energy storage technologies.

In the literature related were found two approximations that analyze the whole mi-

crogrid as a completed entity. The first case [30] explores the structural properties of

MGs via passivation theory; nevertheless, this work focuses particularly in single-phase

MG with linear and nonlinear components. In the second case, see [60], are studying the

operating conditions that allow remaining stable an inverter-based MG. Additionally, it

is important to mention that there exist stability analysis in DC microgrids, as can be

consulted in [61–65]

Based on the previous state of art, it is clear that there are not approaches that

analyze three-phase MGs considering distributed generators and energy storage devices

at the same time via passivation theory. This situation is used in this research project as

an opportunity for investigation. The passivity theory is chosen as a tool of analysis of

electrical networks due to the most of the elements analyzed in this investigation can be

modeled by using Hamiltonian formulations [30].

Doctoral project proposal 6/23

5 Referential framework

This section presents a basic description of the referential framework that is necessary to

understand this proposal. First, general concepts of passivity-based control are shown.

Next, basic properties of Hamiltonian systems are presented. Third, a general theory to

analyze time-invariant dynamical systems using Lyapunov stability theorems is defined.

Fourth part shows the stability analysis of Hamiltonian system using Lyapunov’s theorem.

The fifth section presents the main characteristic of interconnected systems. Finally, in

the sixth part, a nonlinear dynamical formulations for integration of distributed energy

resources through power electronic converters is modeled. These models will be the base

for this research.

The passivity-based control theory corresponds to a general methodology to develop con-

trollers for linear and nonlinear dynamical systems [34, 66]. This technique is oriented to

dynamical systems that have a mathematical model of concentrated parameters [35,67]. It

is considered that the dynamical systems are interconnected with other systems for some

power port through u and y variables, such that {u, y} ∈ Rn and their product has units

of power. In case of electric systems these variables are currents and voltages.

A passivity system can be represented in a general form as:

Z t

uT (τ ) y (τ ) dτ + E (x (t))

H (x (t)) − H (x (0)) = (1)

0

where x(t) ∈ R are state variables of the dynamical system, H(x(t)) : Rn → R is the

n

energy function of the dynamical system, commonly known as Hamilton function and

E(x(t)) : Rn → R represents the internal energy generation by the dynamical system.

Internal energy, given by E(x(t)), defines the demeanor of the dynamical system. In

case of passive systems, they do not generate energy by themselves, which implies that

they only store or dissipate the energy received from the external sources. For this reason,

a passive system defined by (1) can be rewritten changing E(x(t)) for D(x(t)) as follows:

Z t

uT (τ ) y (τ ) dτ

H (x (t)) − H (x (0)) + D (x (t)) = (2)

0

d

H (x (t)) ≤ u(t)T y(t)

dt

where D(x(t)) : Rn+ → R takes into account the dissipation effect in the dynamical system,

for example, the resistive effects in an electrical systems or friction in case of rotating

machines. The second part of (2) shows that a dynamical system is passive when the

total energy stored is always less or equal than the input energy. Equality is fulfilled for

conservative systems [68] and it has units of power.

Doctoral project proposal 7/23

Figure 2 shows a typical behavior of a generic energy storage function for a passive

system. Notice that the energy storage function of this generic passive system has a

minimum in xo (the minimum point can be local or global).

H(x)

x

xo

The main idea of the classical passivity-based control theory is to incorporate energy

principles in the design of the controllers. In this context, it is adopted a control strategy

that uses the intrinsic interconnection properties present in the dynamics of the system

and the controllers as interconnected energy devices. In this way, the passive structure

of the dynamical system is maintained by the closed-loop control by changing the energy

storage function in order to achieve a desired set-point [35].

The philosophy of the passivity-based control theory is depicted in the Fig. 3, where

the energy storage function is moved from the original minimum xo to a desired operative

point x∗ . This goal is achieved transforming H(x) into HD (x) through of the inputs of

the system [69].

Doctoral project proposal 8/23

H(x) H(x)

HD (x)

HD (x∗ )

H(xo )

x

x∗ xo

Stability properties of the dynamical system are maintained by preserving its passive

properties [35, 69].

A Hamilton’s system is a term commonly used in specialized literature to refers to systems

like port-controlled Hamilton systems (PCH), port-controlled Hamilton systems with dis-

sipation (PCHD) or generalized Hamilton systems, among others [34,66]. In this proposal,

this term is used to identify PCH systems.

One of the main aspects in the PCH formalism is the strong relation between energy

storage, dissipation and interconnection structures with the dynamical model of electrical

systems as is the case of electrical energy storage systems (EESS). Remark that the PCH

formalism can be extended to mechanical, chemical, thermodynamical, hydrodynamical

or electromechanical systems [34].

In general, a time-invariant PCH system might be represented in the standard input-

state-output form as follows:

(3)

y = G T (x) ∇H (x)

where x ∈ Rn , J (·, ·) = −J T (·, ·) is an antisymmetric interconnection matrix, R(·) =

R (·) ∈ R+ n×n is a positive semidefinite symmetric dissipation matrix, ∇H(·) ∈ Rn is the

T

gradient of the Hamilton function (H(·) ∈ R), G(·) ∈ Rn×p is the input matrix, y ∈ Rp and

u ∈ Rp are named the port variables and their inner product corresponds to the power

supplied by the dynamical system.

When the Hamilton’s system has bounded inputs, it is possible to find general condi-

tions to demonstrate passivity properties on the dynamical systems by using Lyapunov’s

Doctoral project proposal 9/23

theory as follows:

Ḣ (x) = ∇H(x)T ẋ

(4)

T T

Ḣ (x) = ∇H(x) [J (x, u) − R (x)] ∇H (x)+∇H(x) G (x) u

After rearrange some terms in (4) is obtained (5).

where y T u is the power supplied rate. Notice that if the dissipation matrix R(·) 0 is

positive semidefinite. Equation (5) may be reduced as:

Ḣ (x) ≤ y T u (6)

Remark that (6) is a passive system since the change in the total energy stored is less

than or equal to the total energy supplied by the inputs ∀t ≥ 0 [35].

This section presents the general conditions to guarantee stability of a nonlinear au-

tonomous dynamical system employing Lyapunov analysis. Most of these results were

taken from [32, 33, 68].

Consider the next general nonlinear autonomous dynamical system:

where x(t) ∈ D ⊆ Rn , t ∈ Ix0 represent the state vector, D is an open set with 0 ∈ D,

f : D → Rn is continuous on D, and Ix0 = [0, τx0 ), 0 ≤ τx0 ≤ ∞.

For every initial condition x(0) ∈ D and every τx0 > 0, the dynamical system (7)

possesses a unique solution x : [0, τx0 ) → D on the interval [0, τx0 ). Denote the solution of

(7) with and initial condition x(0) = x0 by s(·, x0 ), so that the flow of the dynamical system

(7) given by the map s : [0, τx0 )×D → D is continuous in x and continuously differentiable

in t and satisfies the consistency property s(0, x0 ) = x0 and the semigroup property

s(τ, s(t, x0 )) = s(τ + t, x0 ), for all x0 ∈ D and t, τ ∈ [0, τx0 ) such that t + τ ∈ [0, τx0 ).

Unless otherwise stated, it is assumed that f (0) = 0 and f (·) is Lipschitz continuous on

D. The following definition introduces several types of stability corresponding to the zero

solution x(t) = 0 of (7) for Ix0 = [0, τx0 ).

Definition 5.1 i. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is Lyapunov stable if, for all > 0,

there exists δ = δ() > 0 such that if kx(0)k < δ, then kx(t)k < δ, t≥ 0.

ii. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is (locally) asymptotically stable if it is Lyapunov

stable and there exists δ > 0 such that if kx(0)k < δ, then lim x (t) = 0.

t→∞

Doctoral project proposal 10/23

iii. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is (locally) exponentially stable if it is Lyapunov

stable and there exist positive constants α, β and δ such that if kx(0)k < δ, then

kx(t)k ≤ α kx(0)k e−βt , t ≥ 0.

iv. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is globally asymptotically stable if it is Lyapunov

stable and for all x(0) ∈ Rn , lim x (t) = 0.

t→∞

v. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is globally exponentially stable if there exist positive

constants α and β such that kx(t)k ≤ α kx(0)k e−βt , t ≥ 0, for all x(0) ∈ Rn .

vi. Finally, the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is unstable if it is not Lyapunov stable.

Lyapunov stability. The following result, known as Lyapunov’s direct method, gives

sufficient conditions for Lyapunov, asymptotic, and exponential stability of a nonlinear

dynamical system. For this result, let V : D → R be a continuously differentiable

∆

function with derivative along the trajectories of (7) given by V̇(x) = ∇V(x)T f (x).

Note that V̇(x) is dependent of the system dynamics (7). Since, using the chain rule,

d

dt

V (s (t, x))|t=0 = ∇V(x)T f (x) it follows that if V̇(x) is negative, then V(x) decreases

along the solution s(t, x0 ) of (7) through x0 ∈ D at t = 0.

Theorem 5.1 (Lyapunov’s Theorem) Consider the nonlinear dynamical system (7)

and assume that there exists a continuously differentiable function V : D → R such that

V(0) = 0, (8)

V(x) > 0, x ∈ D, x 6= 0, (9)

∇V(x)T f (x) ≤ 0, x ∈ D. (10)

Then the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is Lyapunov stable. If, in addition,

then the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is asymptotically stable. Finally, if there exist scalars

α, β, > 0, and p ≥ 1, such that V : D → R satisfies

then the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is exponentially stable.

Doctoral project proposal 11/23

Consider a general perturbed autonomous system given in (14) with conditions on the

matrices explained in the section 5.2 [34, 35].

Suppose that there exists a control law u ∈ Rp such that the PCH system defined by

(14) becomes into:

where JD (·, ·) and RD (·) are the interconnection and damping desired matrices and pre-

serve the same properties aforementioned for J (·, ·) and R (·), respectively. Additionally,

HD (·) represents the desired Hamiltonian function of the system, such that HD (x∗ ) cor-

responds to a local or global minimum point.

Recall that, a new function V(x) = HD (x) − HD (x∗ ) fulfills the first two conditions

of the Lyapunov’s theorem presented by (8) and (9) and it is only necessary to prove the

condition defined by (10) to guarantee that (15) is Lyapunov stable.

By taking the temporal derivative of V(x) is obtained the system (16).

(16)

T

ḢD (x) = ∇HD (x) (JD (x, u) − RD (x)) ∇HD (x)

After rearrange some terms in (16) considering the properties assigned to the intercon-

nection and damping desired matrices JD (·, ·) and RD (·), it is obtained (17).

If RD (x) is a positive semidefinite matrix, then the equilibrium point of (15) is Lya-

punov stable, in addition, if RD (x) is a positive definite matrix, then the equilibrium

point of (15) is asymptotically stable.

As (15) fulfills the Lyapunov’s theorem conditions then, a general control law u that

converts (14) into (15), makes the equilibrium point of the closed loop system stable in

the sense of Lyapunov [21].

Electric power systems can be considered as multiple interconnected dynamical systems,

which are analyzed typically by separated parts. Nonetheless, to guarantee stable opera-

tion it is strictly necessary that each part that conforms the whole dynamical system is

stable under any operating condition.

This section analyses the interconnection of two passive systems. This analysis can be

applied recursively for large interconnected systems without loss of generality. Consider

the dynamical interconnection defined in Fig. 4 [32, 67].

Doctoral project proposal 12/23

u1 e2 y2

+ S1

–

y2 e2 + u2

S2 +

Proof: Let H1 (x) and H2 (x) be the storage functions of S1 and S2 , respectively. If

either component is a memoryless function, take Hi = 0. Then, eTi yi ≥ Ḣi . From the

feedback connection in Fig. 4, it is possible to obtain (18):

After rearrange some terms, it is obtained the next expression:

where u and y are defined as [u1 u2 ] and [y1 y2 ], respectively.

If H(x) = H1 (x)+H2 (x), the total energy storage function for the feedback connection,

it is easy to verify that: uT y ≥ Ḣ, which completes the proof.

The most important consequence of this theorem is that it can be extended for large

interconnected dynamical system guaranteeing that, if each part of the system is passive,

then the feedback interconnection is also passive.

Observe that the electric power system corresponds a large interconnected dynamical

system, which implies that the passivity-based control theory is a natural strategy to

analyze this system verifying stability conditions.

As aforementioned in the section 3, this research project focuses on the design of controllers

using passivity-based control theory to integrate distributed energy resources in microgrids.

In this sense, it has been selected energy storage systems based on electrical technology

such superconducting magnetic energy storage systems [15] and supercapacitor energy

storage systems [5]. Also, it is analyzed the interconnection of distributed generator such

Doctoral project proposal 13/23

Renewable generation

Renewable generation

ENERGY

STORAGE

DC DC DC

Converter

AC AC AC

Main feeder

AC

DC

AC Grid

Controlable loads

Noncontrolable loads

Figure 5: Interconnection of distributed energy resources and loads that conform a typical

microgrid scheme

typical microgrid.

The most important device that allows to integrate all distributed energy resources

and loads corresponds to the power electronic converter. In Fig. 5 the power electronic

converter is a generic ac - dc converter [16, 19], which can be constructed using voltage

or current technologies [12], as are the cases of pulse-width modulated voltage source

converter PWM-VSC [5] or pulse-width modulated current source converter PWM-CSC

[12, 15].

The typical configuration employed to integrate different distributed energy resources con-

sists of a VSC and a three-phase transformer in the ac side, as was depicted in Fig. 5 [31];

in the dc side it is used a capacitor that has the possibility to stored some energy in

order to guarantee a constant voltage level, which allows to interconnect DERs as renew-

able energy resources, banks of batteries, supercapacitor and controllable loads, among

other possible applications. In Fig. 6 it is presented the typical connection of a VSC for

distributed energy resources applications [5].

Doctoral project proposal 14/23

Main grid

LT , RT

− AC

vk ek

LSC

vdc

isk ik

idc + DC

Ck

PWM-CSC

LT , RT

+ DC vk ek

Cdc vdc

− AC

VSC ik

The dynamical model of the system can be easily obtained applying Kirchhoff’s laws,

energy balance based on the second Tellegen’s theorem and the Park’s invariant power

transformation to become abc reference frame into dq reference frame. In (20) it is shown

the resulting autonomous Hamiltonian model of this dynamical system,

LT ẋ1 −RL −ωLT md x1 ed

diag LT ẋ2 = ωLT −RL mq x2 − eq (20)

CSC ẋ3 −md −mq 0 x3 −iGD

Notice that (20) exhibits a Hamiltonian structure, where x1 = id , x2 = iq and x3 = iq .

To obtain the general structure presented in (14) is only necessary to redefine the state

variables and reorganize some terms in (20). The meaning of the state variables and

parameters in the model (20) can be found in [31].

A PWM-CSC uses a more elaborate connection [12]. In this case, in the ac side of the

converter it is connected a capacitor banks to filter high order harmonics, at this point it

is employed a three-phase transformer to interconnect the converter to the main ac grid.

In the dc side, is connected a superconducting coil that stored energy in its magnetic field.

The typical connection of this devices is depicted in Fig. 7.

By employing the same circuit analysis used for the PWM-VSC, is easy to obtain the

autonomous Hamiltonian model of this dynamical system as given in (21).

Doctoral project proposal 15/23

LT ẋ1 −RT −ωLT 1 0 0 x1 ed

LT

ẋ2

ωLT −RT 0 1 0

x2

eq

diag

C

ẋ3 =

−1 0 0 −ωC md

x3 −

0

C ẋ4 0 −1 ωC 0 mq x4 0

LSC ẋ5 0 0 −md −mq 0 x5 0

(21)

These models can be rearranged as a Hamiltonian systems.

6 Objectives

6.1 General Objective

To design passivity-based controllers for distributed energy resources integration in three-

phase power microgrids.

1. To study the different mathematical models that represent the full dynamical behav-

ior of power electronic converters, that allow to integrate diverse distributed energy

resources to the microgrid.

2. To analyze the structural properties of the dynamical models obtained using different

references frames.

integrate and operate the distributed energy resources in microgrids.

4. To develop a general dynamical model that allows to operate the microgrid using the

three-phase representation and to take into account different operating scenarios.

the error theory with proportional integral actions.

6.3 Scope

This research project is delimited by the following conditions.

X Photovoltaic generation.

X Wind generation.

Doctoral project proposal 16/23

X Superconducting coils.

X Supercapacitors.

X Batteries based on lead-acid or ion-lithium technologies.

X Three-phase ac connection.

X The grid could be unbalanced in loads or impedance.

X It is not considered fault analyses inside of the microgrid.

X There is not dc feeders.

7 Methodology

In order to develop this project considering general and specific aims presented in the

section 6, we divide this research project into seven main activities as follows:

ear control strategies applied on DERs as well as their optimal integration consid-

ering power electronic converters, in order to review different mathematical models

employed in the dynamical representation of distribution networks and microgrids.

• Activity 2 select the most appropriate dynamical models to represent the dynamical

behavior of different power electronic converters, such as voltage source converters

and current source converters. In addition of studying passivity-based control theory

by using Hamilton models and Lyapunov stability theory.

selected using Matlab toolboxes, such as: Ordinary Differential Equation package

(ODExx), Simulink environment or PLECS software.

• Activity 4 define the distribution system (or microgrid) configuration where will

be integrated all distributed energy resources, evaluate the dynamic performance of

the proposed controllers using passivity based control theory and compare it with

classical control techniques, such as, proportional-integral controllers or linear matrix

inequalities, among others.

validate through simulation packages the proposed control methodology to integrate

distributed energy resources to the electrical network.

Doctoral project proposal 17/23

employ the passivity-based control theory to design linear and nonlinear controllers

under time domain and compare with the previously design made for autonomous

case.

• Activity 7 publication and redaction of journal and conference papers and thesis

document.

8 Expected results

From a scientific perspective, the main result that is expected to be obtained is to achieve

a deep knowledge of the different dynamic representations of microgrids and their compo-

nents and, from this, to develop novel control schemes, passivity-based, that guarantee an

adequate operation of the microgrid. The main result will be constituted by a collection

of particular results that are detailed the above section. In a quantitative context, the

expected results from this research work are listed

Rank.

9 Available resources

A detailed budget regarding funding sources is presented in Table 3. All values per item

are given in Colombian pesos.

Element Number Total [COP$] Source

Desk at Lab 1B-148 1 2’500.000.00 ICE3 Research group

Personal computer 1 2’250.000.00 Own

Books — 1’000.000.00 UTP

Paper work — 500.000.00 UTP

Matlab software 1 License 1’000.000.00 UTP

Monthly income 48 3’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015

Conference assistance 1 3’000.000.00 UTP

Internship 1 6’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015

Research support 1 50’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015

Enrollment 8 5’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015

External resources 1 3’500.000.00 UNAM

Doctoral project proposal 18/23

10 Activity schedule

Work \ Semester I II III IV V VI VII

Activity 1 X X X X

Activity 2 X X X

Activity 3 X X X X X

Activity 4 X X X X X

Activity 5 X X X X

Activity 6 X X

Activity 7 X X X X X

Doctoral project proposal 19/23

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