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Passivity-Based Analysis and Control of AC Microgrids

Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo

Project proposal submitted in partial fulfillment


of the requirements to be candidate for the degree of
Ph.D in Engineering

August 2, 2018
UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE PEREIRA
Doctoral Engineering Program
Area of Electrical Engineering
Request for evaluation

Project proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements to be candidate for


the degree of Doctor in Engineering at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo.


Universidad Tecnológica de Pereria. Student

Revised by:

Alejandro Garcés Ruiz, Ph.D.


Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Advisor

Cartagena, August 2, 2018


Doctoral project proposal i/23

Table of contents

General index i
1 General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3 Justification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 Literature review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5 Referential framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5.1 Passivity-based control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5.2 Hamilton’s systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.3 Lyapunov stability theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.4 Stability analysis of PCH systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.5 Interconnected systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.6 Dynamical system under analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.6.1 Dynamical model of a PWM-VSC for DERs integration . 13
5.6.2 Dynamical model of a PWM-CSC for SMES integration . 14
6 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.1 General Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.2 Specific Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.3 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8 Expected results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9 Available resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10 Activity schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

References 23

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Doctoral project proposal 1/23

1 General information
Title: Passivity-based analysis and control of AC microgrids.

Research area: Operation and control of power systems.

Courses associated to current research: Control of power systems, optimization,


non-linear control and energy storage systems.

Participants: Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo.

Adviser: Alejandro Garcés Ruiz.

External advisers: The following professors have accepted to be collaborators dur-


ing the developed of this research project: Gerardo René Espinosa Pérez at National
Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Marta Molinas at Norwegian University of
Science and Technology (NTNU). Carlos Alberto de Castro Jr. at University of Campinas
(UNICAMP). Fedérico M. Serra at National University of San Luis, Argentina.

2 Problem Statement
Modern electrical networks have changed from classical hydro-thermal electric systems
with passive loads to active electrical networks with distributed energy resources (DERs)
which includes renewable generation [1], energy storage systems [2–4] and dynamic loads
[5–8]. These technologies can be integrated to the electric power systems by using power
electronic converters under the concept of microgrids (MGs) [9–11], allowing improvements
in voltage regulation, reducing power oscillations caused by renewable energy, performing
frequency regulation and supplying energy to the loads during service outages [6]. However,
these improvements can be only achieved by using effective control strategies that consider
the MG as a whole and not only as individual components [12, 13].
Although there is not a standard definition, the U.S. Department of Energy, defines
a MG as “a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources with clearly
defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the
grid and can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-
connected or island modes”. Figure 1 shows schematically this concept.
In all MGs there exists power electronic converters based on forced commutation (e.g
voltage/current source [14] [12, 15]) or line commutation technologies [16]. These allow
advanced control strategies for operation in transient and steady state [5]. Diverse control
strategies have been explored in the specialized literature, namely: fuzzy-logic [17, 18],
feedback linearization [14, 15, 19], model predictive [20] and passivity-based control [21–
25], among others. Nevertheless, proportional-integral controls [5, 26] are the most used
approach.

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Doctoral project proposal 2/23

Main grid

P, Q

Microgrid

AC AC AC AC

AC AC DC DC G
Load 1
Microturbine
+−
G

Load 2 Wind Solar Energy storage device

Figure 1: Typical configuration of a microgrid

These controls are used when the MG operates in interconnection mode; however, they
must be modified in island mode in order to support voltage profile and regulate electrical
frequency by using a primary and secondary control strategies [27] that in turns, can be
centralized or distributed [6]. The former is highly efficient but relies on the communication
system [28] while the latter requires fewer communication channels, which implies fewer
investment costs and allows scalability [?, 29].
Closed-loop stability must be guaranteed in the increasingly complex MGs. However,
in many cases, the optimal tuning of a proportional-integral control in one device, could
affect negatively the stability of the grid. This is because the model of the system is
oversimplified and the control is locally designed. In this context, we can pose the following
research question ¿How to control each component such that the stability of the entire
MG is guaranteed under interconnected and islanded operation modes?
To answer this question it is necessary to use a generalized theory with the following
characteristics:

• Applicable to different type of devices (e.g renewable energies, batteries, energy


storage devices).
• Applicable to the non-linear model of the components.
• Easily integrable to the model of the entire system.
• Suitable to include the communication system.
• Guaranteed stability in different operative conditions.
• Scalable.

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Doctoral project proposal 3/23

Passivity-based control can be an appropriate control strategy that fulfills all these re-
quirements. However, a research project is required in order to apply this control paradigm
to MGs taking into account all the complexities inherent to power networks.
Notice that in specialized literature there exist few references that propose the appli-
cation of the passivation theory to operate ac power MG considering the natural passive
model of the electrical power system. Nevertheless, this approaches are mainly focuses in
single-phase electrical networks [30]. In review section 4 a detailed review of the state of
art will be presented.

3 Justification
The electric power system plays an important role in the economic development of any
country. Colombia has an interconnected power system with a liberalized market, but
there are challenges which require research under the new paradigm of the MGs. The
country relies on the hydroelectricity complemented by a minor percentage of thermo-
electricity which is required in order to deal with the phenomena of El Niño. This is a
complex whether pattern that results when temperatures in the Pacific Ocean increases
form the norm. Although it is a natural phenomenon that typically occurs every two to
seven years, the 2015-2016 El Niño was particularly intense as consequence of the global
warming. The level of the reservoirs decreases to less than 20%. This event demonstrated
the requirement for a diversified energy matrix.
There is a high potential of wind and solar energy in the Country; moreover, these
potentials increase when El Niño occurs. Hence, wind and solar are complementary to
hydroelectricity. These new renewable resources should be integrated into the paradigm of
MGs since large photovoltaic power stations could create additional environmental impacts
and compromise the use of land in agriculture.
On the other hand, there are some zones in the country which lack a reliable power
service. These non-interconnected zones include more than 1500 small towns totaling more
than 1 million inhabitants. MGs are also a promising alternative for the integration of
renewable sources and energy storage in these zones. Therefore, a research at a local level
is required to deal with the particular characteristics of the Colombian system taking into
account an equilibrium between theory and practice.
In this context, the strategies classically employed to operate conventional grids need
to be improved or changed, in order to consider the impact of variations in the energy
delivered by DERs [31]; besides, to improve the speed response of existing control strategies
to hold the correct system operation during power outages caused by external failures [6].
This research project focuses to explore the passivity properties of electrical grids
based on Hamiltonian formulations, in order to guarantee stability in closed-loop using
Lyapunov’s theory for autonomous systems [22, 23]. This control strategy was selected
because it allows to design global stable controllers by dividing the electrical network
into small subsystems [32]. For all subsystems it is possible to use Hamilton theory to
developed passive controllers that preserve their passive nature when interconnected with

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Doctoral project proposal 4/23

other passive systems [33].


There are multiple references that use passivity-based control theory to develop global
asymptotically stable controllers to integrated DERs on electrical power systems [21];
notwithstanding, it was not possible to find references that use this theory to operate all
devices interconnected at the same time in MG considering the natural passive model of
the electrical power system.
The focal point of this research project corresponds to the design of passivity-based
controllers to integrate DERs on MG. The DERs analyzed are:

• Renewable energy resources based on wind or photovoltaic technologies using voltage


source converter technologies.

• Energy storage systems such as: superconducting coils using current source converter
technologies, supercapacitors and batteries employing voltage source converter tech-
nologies.

A passivity-based control theory was selected because it is an adequate control tech-


nique to operate all DERs in MGs, since the dynamical model of these systems have a
Hamiltonian structure, which is the main characteristic in the design of stable controllers
using passivation theory [34]. Nevertheless, it is important to point out that classical
formulations such as Bryton-Moser or Lagrangian can be also employed as an alternative
formulations to design passivity-based controllers [35].

4 Literature review
This section presents a detailed literature review in the context of designing passivity
based controllers for distributed energy resources and MGs. The analysis is concentrated
in superconducting coils, supercapacitors, batteries, and photovoltaic and wind genera-
tion. Additionally, are presented general approximations to analyze entire ac MGs under
passivation theory approach.
In Table 1 the most popular control strategies for energy storage devices are presented.
The energy storage technologies presented will be the technologies analyzed in this research
project.
Notice that in Table 1 it is common to find diverse control strategies for any storage
devices technology; although, the passivity-based control it is also common, those articles
focuses only of analyzing one specific device, without taking into account the rest of the
electrical network, which does not bring the possibility to extend the stability properties
to all electrical network.
On the other hand, in Table 2 is presented the most important approaches to control
wind and photovoltaic generators in power systems.
In Table 2 has been presented some papers that explore different control techniques
to integrate wind and photovoltaic generators in power MGs, notices that passivity-based
control theory appears recurrently in the review of the state of art, which implies that it

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Doctoral project proposal 5/23

Table 1: Summary of investigations related related to energy storage devices


Energy storage technology Control approach Type of converter References
Passivity-based control PWM-CSC [36]
Linear matrix inequalities PWM-CSC [37]
Feedback linearization PWM-CSC and VSC [14, 15]
Superconducting coils
Passivity-based control VSC with DC/DC Chopper [38]
Model predictive control VSC with DC/DC Chopper [39]
Proportional-integral control VSC with DC/DC Chopper [40]
Passivity-based control DC/DC [41]
Supercapacitors Model predictive control VSC with DC/DC [42]
Fuzzy logic control VSC with DC/DC [43]
Adaptive Passivity-based control Bidirectional Boost converter [44]
Batteries Model predictive control DC/DC [45–47]
Fuzzy-sliding mode control DC/DC [48]

Table 2: Summary of investigations related to photovoltaic and wind generation


Generation technology Control approach Type of grid References
Passivity-based control Single-phase and Three-phase AC grid [49–51]
Instantaneous power theory Three-phase AC grid [52]
Adaptive fuzzy logic control Three-phase AC grid [53]
Wind generators Model predictive control Three-phase AC grid [54]
Adaptive control Three-phase AC grid [12]
Control by consensus Three-phase AC grid [55]
Backstepping control Three-phase AC grid [56]
Passivity-based P control Three-phase AC grids [57]
Photovoltaic generators Model predictive control Three-phase AC grid [58]
Instantaneous power theory Three-phase AC grid [59]

correspond an actual and powerful control strategy for distributed generators, as well as,
energy storage technologies.
In the literature related were found two approximations that analyze the whole mi-
crogrid as a completed entity. The first case [30] explores the structural properties of
MGs via passivation theory; nevertheless, this work focuses particularly in single-phase
MG with linear and nonlinear components. In the second case, see [60], are studying the
operating conditions that allow remaining stable an inverter-based MG. Additionally, it
is important to mention that there exist stability analysis in DC microgrids, as can be
consulted in [61–65]
Based on the previous state of art, it is clear that there are not approaches that
analyze three-phase MGs considering distributed generators and energy storage devices
at the same time via passivation theory. This situation is used in this research project as
an opportunity for investigation. The passivity theory is chosen as a tool of analysis of
electrical networks due to the most of the elements analyzed in this investigation can be
modeled by using Hamiltonian formulations [30].

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Doctoral project proposal 6/23

5 Referential framework
This section presents a basic description of the referential framework that is necessary to
understand this proposal. First, general concepts of passivity-based control are shown.
Next, basic properties of Hamiltonian systems are presented. Third, a general theory to
analyze time-invariant dynamical systems using Lyapunov stability theorems is defined.
Fourth part shows the stability analysis of Hamiltonian system using Lyapunov’s theorem.
The fifth section presents the main characteristic of interconnected systems. Finally, in
the sixth part, a nonlinear dynamical formulations for integration of distributed energy
resources through power electronic converters is modeled. These models will be the base
for this research.

5.1 Passivity-based control


The passivity-based control theory corresponds to a general methodology to develop con-
trollers for linear and nonlinear dynamical systems [34, 66]. This technique is oriented to
dynamical systems that have a mathematical model of concentrated parameters [35,67]. It
is considered that the dynamical systems are interconnected with other systems for some
power port through u and y variables, such that {u, y} ∈ Rn and their product has units
of power. In case of electric systems these variables are currents and voltages.
A passivity system can be represented in a general form as:
Z t
uT (τ ) y (τ ) dτ + E (x (t))

H (x (t)) − H (x (0)) = (1)
0

where x(t) ∈ R are state variables of the dynamical system, H(x(t)) : Rn → R is the
n

energy function of the dynamical system, commonly known as Hamilton function and
E(x(t)) : Rn → R represents the internal energy generation by the dynamical system.
Internal energy, given by E(x(t)), defines the demeanor of the dynamical system. In
case of passive systems, they do not generate energy by themselves, which implies that
they only store or dissipate the energy received from the external sources. For this reason,
a passive system defined by (1) can be rewritten changing E(x(t)) for D(x(t)) as follows:
Z t
uT (τ ) y (τ ) dτ

H (x (t)) − H (x (0)) + D (x (t)) = (2)
0
d
H (x (t)) ≤ u(t)T y(t)
dt
where D(x(t)) : Rn+ → R takes into account the dissipation effect in the dynamical system,
for example, the resistive effects in an electrical systems or friction in case of rotating
machines. The second part of (2) shows that a dynamical system is passive when the
total energy stored is always less or equal than the input energy. Equality is fulfilled for
conservative systems [68] and it has units of power.

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Doctoral project proposal 7/23

Figure 2 shows a typical behavior of a generic energy storage function for a passive
system. Notice that the energy storage function of this generic passive system has a
minimum in xo (the minimum point can be local or global).

H(x)

x
xo

Figure 2: Original energy storage function of a generic passive system

The main idea of the classical passivity-based control theory is to incorporate energy
principles in the design of the controllers. In this context, it is adopted a control strategy
that uses the intrinsic interconnection properties present in the dynamics of the system
and the controllers as interconnected energy devices. In this way, the passive structure
of the dynamical system is maintained by the closed-loop control by changing the energy
storage function in order to achieve a desired set-point [35].
The philosophy of the passivity-based control theory is depicted in the Fig. 3, where
the energy storage function is moved from the original minimum xo to a desired operative
point x∗ . This goal is achieved transforming H(x) into HD (x) through of the inputs of
the system [69].

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Doctoral project proposal 8/23

H(x) H(x)
HD (x)

HD (x∗ )

H(xo )
x
x∗ xo

Figure 3: Original and desired energy storage functions of a passive system

Stability properties of the dynamical system are maintained by preserving its passive
properties [35, 69].

5.2 Hamilton’s systems


A Hamilton’s system is a term commonly used in specialized literature to refers to systems
like port-controlled Hamilton systems (PCH), port-controlled Hamilton systems with dis-
sipation (PCHD) or generalized Hamilton systems, among others [34,66]. In this proposal,
this term is used to identify PCH systems.
One of the main aspects in the PCH formalism is the strong relation between energy
storage, dissipation and interconnection structures with the dynamical model of electrical
systems as is the case of electrical energy storage systems (EESS). Remark that the PCH
formalism can be extended to mechanical, chemical, thermodynamical, hydrodynamical
or electromechanical systems [34].
In general, a time-invariant PCH system might be represented in the standard input-
state-output form as follows:

ẋ = [J (x, u) − R (x)] ∇H (x) + G (x) u


(3)
y = G T (x) ∇H (x)
where x ∈ Rn , J (·, ·) = −J T (·, ·) is an antisymmetric interconnection matrix, R(·) =
R (·) ∈ R+ n×n is a positive semidefinite symmetric dissipation matrix, ∇H(·) ∈ Rn is the
T

gradient of the Hamilton function (H(·) ∈ R), G(·) ∈ Rn×p is the input matrix, y ∈ Rp and
u ∈ Rp are named the port variables and their inner product corresponds to the power
supplied by the dynamical system.
When the Hamilton’s system has bounded inputs, it is possible to find general condi-
tions to demonstrate passivity properties on the dynamical systems by using Lyapunov’s

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Doctoral project proposal 9/23

theory as follows:

Ḣ (x) = ∇H(x)T ẋ
(4)
T T
Ḣ (x) = ∇H(x) [J (x, u) − R (x)] ∇H (x)+∇H(x) G (x) u
After rearrange some terms in (4) is obtained (5).

Ḣ (x) = −∇H(x)T R (x) ∇H (x) + y T u (5)


where y T u is the power supplied rate. Notice that if the dissipation matrix R(·)  0 is
positive semidefinite. Equation (5) may be reduced as:

Ḣ (x) ≤ y T u (6)
Remark that (6) is a passive system since the change in the total energy stored is less
than or equal to the total energy supplied by the inputs ∀t ≥ 0 [35].

5.3 Lyapunov stability theory


This section presents the general conditions to guarantee stability of a nonlinear au-
tonomous dynamical system employing Lyapunov analysis. Most of these results were
taken from [32, 33, 68].
Consider the next general nonlinear autonomous dynamical system:

ẋ (t) = f (x (t)) , x (0) = x0 , t ∈ Ix0 (7)


where x(t) ∈ D ⊆ Rn , t ∈ Ix0 represent the state vector, D is an open set with 0 ∈ D,
f : D → Rn is continuous on D, and Ix0 = [0, τx0 ), 0 ≤ τx0 ≤ ∞.
For every initial condition x(0) ∈ D and every τx0 > 0, the dynamical system (7)
possesses a unique solution x : [0, τx0 ) → D on the interval [0, τx0 ). Denote the solution of
(7) with and initial condition x(0) = x0 by s(·, x0 ), so that the flow of the dynamical system
(7) given by the map s : [0, τx0 )×D → D is continuous in x and continuously differentiable
in t and satisfies the consistency property s(0, x0 ) = x0 and the semigroup property
s(τ, s(t, x0 )) = s(τ + t, x0 ), for all x0 ∈ D and t, τ ∈ [0, τx0 ) such that t + τ ∈ [0, τx0 ).
Unless otherwise stated, it is assumed that f (0) = 0 and f (·) is Lipschitz continuous on
D. The following definition introduces several types of stability corresponding to the zero
solution x(t) = 0 of (7) for Ix0 = [0, τx0 ).

Definition 5.1 i. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is Lyapunov stable if, for all  > 0,
there exists δ = δ() > 0 such that if kx(0)k < δ, then kx(t)k < δ, t≥ 0.

ii. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is (locally) asymptotically stable if it is Lyapunov
stable and there exists δ > 0 such that if kx(0)k < δ, then lim x (t) = 0.
t→∞

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iii. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is (locally) exponentially stable if it is Lyapunov
stable and there exist positive constants α, β and δ such that if kx(0)k < δ, then
kx(t)k ≤ α kx(0)k e−βt , t ≥ 0.

iv. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is globally asymptotically stable if it is Lyapunov
stable and for all x(0) ∈ Rn , lim x (t) = 0.
t→∞

v. The zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is globally exponentially stable if there exist positive
constants α and β such that kx(t)k ≤ α kx(0)k e−βt , t ≥ 0, for all x(0) ∈ Rn .

vi. Finally, the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is unstable if it is not Lyapunov stable.

Exponential stability implies asymptotic stability and asymptotic stability implies


Lyapunov stability. The following result, known as Lyapunov’s direct method, gives
sufficient conditions for Lyapunov, asymptotic, and exponential stability of a nonlinear
dynamical system. For this result, let V : D → R be a continuously differentiable

function with derivative along the trajectories of (7) given by V̇(x) = ∇V(x)T f (x).
Note that V̇(x) is dependent of the system dynamics (7). Since, using the chain rule,
d
dt
V (s (t, x))|t=0 = ∇V(x)T f (x) it follows that if V̇(x) is negative, then V(x) decreases
along the solution s(t, x0 ) of (7) through x0 ∈ D at t = 0.

Theorem 5.1 (Lyapunov’s Theorem) Consider the nonlinear dynamical system (7)
and assume that there exists a continuously differentiable function V : D → R such that

V(0) = 0, (8)
V(x) > 0, x ∈ D, x 6= 0, (9)
∇V(x)T f (x) ≤ 0, x ∈ D. (10)
Then the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is Lyapunov stable. If, in addition,

∇V(x)T f (x) < 0, x ∈ D, x 6= 0 (11)


then the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is asymptotically stable. Finally, if there exist scalars
α, β,  > 0, and p ≥ 1, such that V : D → R satisfies

αkxkp ≤ V (x) ≤ βkxkp , x ∈ D, (12)

∇V(x)T f (x) ≤ −εV (x) , x ∈ D, (13)


then the zero solution x(t) ≡ 0 to (7) is exponentially stable.

For a complete proof of the Lyapunov’s theorem, please refers to [33].

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Doctoral project proposal 11/23

5.4 Stability analysis of PCH systems


Consider a general perturbed autonomous system given in (14) with conditions on the
matrices explained in the section 5.2 [34, 35].

ẋ = [J (x, u) − R (x)] ∇H (x) + G (x) u + E (14)


Suppose that there exists a control law u ∈ Rp such that the PCH system defined by
(14) becomes into:

ẋ = [JD (x, u) − RD (x)] ∇HD (x) (15)


where JD (·, ·) and RD (·) are the interconnection and damping desired matrices and pre-
serve the same properties aforementioned for J (·, ·) and R (·), respectively. Additionally,
HD (·) represents the desired Hamiltonian function of the system, such that HD (x∗ ) cor-
responds to a local or global minimum point.
Recall that, a new function V(x) = HD (x) − HD (x∗ ) fulfills the first two conditions
of the Lyapunov’s theorem presented by (8) and (9) and it is only necessary to prove the
condition defined by (10) to guarantee that (15) is Lyapunov stable.
By taking the temporal derivative of V(x) is obtained the system (16).

ḢD (x) = ∇HD (x)T ẋ


(16)
T
ḢD (x) = ∇HD (x) (JD (x, u) − RD (x)) ∇HD (x)
After rearrange some terms in (16) considering the properties assigned to the intercon-
nection and damping desired matrices JD (·, ·) and RD (·), it is obtained (17).

ḢD (x) = −∇HD (x)T RD (x)∇HD (x) (17)


If RD (x) is a positive semidefinite matrix, then the equilibrium point of (15) is Lya-
punov stable, in addition, if RD (x) is a positive definite matrix, then the equilibrium
point of (15) is asymptotically stable.
As (15) fulfills the Lyapunov’s theorem conditions then, a general control law u that
converts (14) into (15), makes the equilibrium point of the closed loop system stable in
the sense of Lyapunov [21].

5.5 Interconnected systems


Electric power systems can be considered as multiple interconnected dynamical systems,
which are analyzed typically by separated parts. Nonetheless, to guarantee stable opera-
tion it is strictly necessary that each part that conforms the whole dynamical system is
stable under any operating condition.
This section analyses the interconnection of two passive systems. This analysis can be
applied recursively for large interconnected systems without loss of generality. Consider
the dynamical interconnection defined in Fig. 4 [32, 67].

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Doctoral project proposal 12/23

u1 e2 y2
+ S1

y2 e2 + u2
S2 +

Figure 4: Feedback connection

where S1 and S2 correspond to an arbitrarily dynamical systems.

Theorem 5.2 The feedback connection of two passive system is passive.

Proof: Let H1 (x) and H2 (x) be the storage functions of S1 and S2 , respectively. If
either component is a memoryless function, take Hi = 0. Then, eTi yi ≥ Ḣi . From the
feedback connection in Fig. 4, it is possible to obtain (18):

eT1 y1 + eT2 y2 = (u1 − y2 )T y1 + (u2 + y1 )T y2 = uT1 y1 + uT2 y2 (18)


After rearrange some terms, it is obtained the next expression:

uT y = uT1 y1 + uT2 y2 ≥ Ḣ1 + Ḣ2 (19)


where u and y are defined as [u1 u2 ] and [y1 y2 ], respectively.
If H(x) = H1 (x)+H2 (x), the total energy storage function for the feedback connection,
it is easy to verify that: uT y ≥ Ḣ, which completes the proof.
The most important consequence of this theorem is that it can be extended for large
interconnected dynamical system guaranteeing that, if each part of the system is passive,
then the feedback interconnection is also passive.
Observe that the electric power system corresponds a large interconnected dynamical
system, which implies that the passivity-based control theory is a natural strategy to
analyze this system verifying stability conditions.

5.6 Dynamical system under analysis


As aforementioned in the section 3, this research project focuses on the design of controllers
using passivity-based control theory to integrate distributed energy resources in microgrids.
In this sense, it has been selected energy storage systems based on electrical technology
such superconducting magnetic energy storage systems [15] and supercapacitor energy
storage systems [5]. Also, it is analyzed the interconnection of distributed generator such

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Doctoral project proposal 13/23

Renewable generation
Renewable generation
ENERGY
STORAGE

DC DC DC
Converter
AC AC AC

Main feeder

AC
DC
AC Grid
Controlable loads

Noncontrolable loads

Figure 5: Interconnection of distributed energy resources and loads that conform a typical
microgrid scheme

as photovoltaic or wind generation [31]. Figure 5 depicts a schematic configuration of a


typical microgrid.
The most important device that allows to integrate all distributed energy resources
and loads corresponds to the power electronic converter. In Fig. 5 the power electronic
converter is a generic ac - dc converter [16, 19], which can be constructed using voltage
or current technologies [12], as are the cases of pulse-width modulated voltage source
converter PWM-VSC [5] or pulse-width modulated current source converter PWM-CSC
[12, 15].

5.6.1 Dynamical model of a PWM-VSC for DERs integration


The typical configuration employed to integrate different distributed energy resources con-
sists of a VSC and a three-phase transformer in the ac side, as was depicted in Fig. 5 [31];
in the dc side it is used a capacitor that has the possibility to stored some energy in
order to guarantee a constant voltage level, which allows to interconnect DERs as renew-
able energy resources, banks of batteries, supercapacitor and controllable loads, among
other possible applications. In Fig. 6 it is presented the typical connection of a VSC for
distributed energy resources applications [5].

Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo August 2, 2018 UTP


Doctoral project proposal 14/23

Main grid
LT , RT
− AC
vk ek

LSC
vdc
isk ik
idc + DC
Ck
PWM-CSC

Figure 7: Classical SMES connection using a PWM-CSC

iDG Main grid


LT , RT
+ DC vk ek
Cdc vdc
− AC

VSC ik

Figure 6: Classical interconnection of a VSC for distributed generation applications

The dynamical model of the system can be easily obtained applying Kirchhoff’s laws,
energy balance based on the second Tellegen’s theorem and the Park’s invariant power
transformation to become abc reference frame into dq reference frame. In (20) it is shown
the resulting autonomous Hamiltonian model of this dynamical system,

       
LT ẋ1 −RL −ωLT md x1 ed
diag  LT   ẋ2  =  ωLT −RL mq   x2  −  eq  (20)
CSC ẋ3 −md −mq 0 x3 −iGD

where diag(·) denotes a diagonal matrix.


Notice that (20) exhibits a Hamiltonian structure, where x1 = id , x2 = iq and x3 = iq .
To obtain the general structure presented in (14) is only necessary to redefine the state
variables and reorganize some terms in (20). The meaning of the state variables and
parameters in the model (20) can be found in [31].

5.6.2 Dynamical model of a PWM-CSC for SMES integration


A PWM-CSC uses a more elaborate connection [12]. In this case, in the ac side of the
converter it is connected a capacitor banks to filter high order harmonics, at this point it
is employed a three-phase transformer to interconnect the converter to the main ac grid.
In the dc side, is connected a superconducting coil that stored energy in its magnetic field.
The typical connection of this devices is depicted in Fig. 7.
By employing the same circuit analysis used for the PWM-VSC, is easy to obtain the
autonomous Hamiltonian model of this dynamical system as given in (21).

Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo August 2, 2018 UTP


Doctoral project proposal 15/23

       
LT ẋ1 −RT −ωLT 1 0 0 x1 ed

 LT 
 ẋ2  
  ωLT −RT 0 1 0 
 x2  
  eq 

diag 
 C 
 ẋ3 =
  −1 0 0 −ωC md 
 x3 −
  0 

 C  ẋ4   0 −1 ωC 0 mq  x4   0 
LSC ẋ5 0 0 −md −mq 0 x5 0
(21)
These models can be rearranged as a Hamiltonian systems.

6 Objectives
6.1 General Objective
To design passivity-based controllers for distributed energy resources integration in three-
phase power microgrids.

6.2 Specific Objectives


1. To study the different mathematical models that represent the full dynamical behav-
ior of power electronic converters, that allow to integrate diverse distributed energy
resources to the microgrid.

2. To analyze the structural properties of the dynamical models obtained using different
references frames.

3. To propose linear and nonlinear controllers using passivity-based control theory to


integrate and operate the distributed energy resources in microgrids.

4. To develop a general dynamical model that allows to operate the microgrid using the
three-phase representation and to take into account different operating scenarios.

5. To develop passivity-based controllers for non-autonomous systems via dynamics of


the error theory with proportional integral actions.

6.3 Scope
This research project is delimited by the following conditions.

1. There are considered only the following distributed generation:

X Photovoltaic generation.
X Wind generation.

2. There are considered only the following energy storage devices:

Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo August 2, 2018 UTP


Doctoral project proposal 16/23

X Superconducting coils.
X Supercapacitors.
X Batteries based on lead-acid or ion-lithium technologies.

3. The main characteristics of the electrical grid are:

X Distribution voltage levels.


X Three-phase ac connection.
X The grid could be unbalanced in loads or impedance.
X It is not considered fault analyses inside of the microgrid.
X There is not dc feeders.

7 Methodology
In order to develop this project considering general and specific aims presented in the
section 6, we divide this research project into seven main activities as follows:

• Activity 1 actualize constantly and continuously the state-of-art related to nonlin-


ear control strategies applied on DERs as well as their optimal integration consid-
ering power electronic converters, in order to review different mathematical models
employed in the dynamical representation of distribution networks and microgrids.

• Activity 2 select the most appropriate dynamical models to represent the dynamical
behavior of different power electronic converters, such as voltage source converters
and current source converters. In addition of studying passivity-based control theory
by using Hamilton models and Lyapunov stability theory.

• Activity 3 evaluate the dynamic performance of the dynamical models previously


selected using Matlab toolboxes, such as: Ordinary Differential Equation package
(ODExx), Simulink environment or PLECS software.

• Activity 4 define the distribution system (or microgrid) configuration where will
be integrated all distributed energy resources, evaluate the dynamic performance of
the proposed controllers using passivity based control theory and compare it with
classical control techniques, such as, proportional-integral controllers or linear matrix
inequalities, among others.

• Activity 5 make physical implementation using laboratory devices when possible or


validate through simulation packages the proposed control methodology to integrate
distributed energy resources to the electrical network.

Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo August 2, 2018 UTP


Doctoral project proposal 17/23

• Activity 6 study non-autonomous nonlinear systems analyzing their characteristics,


employ the passivity-based control theory to design linear and nonlinear controllers
under time domain and compare with the previously design made for autonomous
case.

• Activity 7 publication and redaction of journal and conference papers and thesis
document.

8 Expected results
From a scientific perspective, the main result that is expected to be obtained is to achieve
a deep knowledge of the different dynamic representations of microgrids and their compo-
nents and, from this, to develop novel control schemes, passivity-based, that guarantee an
adequate operation of the microgrid. The main result will be constituted by a collection
of particular results that are detailed the above section. In a quantitative context, the
expected results from this research work are listed

• At least (2) international conference papers.

• At least (2) international journal papers classified as Q1 or Q2 by Scimago Journal


Rank.

9 Available resources
A detailed budget regarding funding sources is presented in Table 3. All values per item
are given in Colombian pesos.

Table 3: Detailed Budget


Element Number Total [COP$] Source
Desk at Lab 1B-148 1 2’500.000.00 ICE3 Research group
Personal computer 1 2’250.000.00 Own
Books — 1’000.000.00 UTP
Paper work — 500.000.00 UTP
Matlab software 1 License 1’000.000.00 UTP
Monthly income 48 3’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015
Conference assistance 1 3’000.000.00 UTP
Internship 1 6’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015
Research support 1 50’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015
Enrollment 8 5’000.000.00 COLCIENCIAS 727 2015
External resources 1 3’500.000.00 UNAM

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Doctoral project proposal 18/23

10 Activity schedule
Work \ Semester I II III IV V VI VII
Activity 1 X X X X
Activity 2 X X X
Activity 3 X X X X X
Activity 4 X X X X X
Activity 5 X X X X
Activity 6 X X
Activity 7 X X X X X

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Doctoral project proposal 19/23

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Doctoral project proposal 20/23

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Doctoral project proposal 23/23

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Oscar Danilo Montoya Giraldo August 2, 2018 UTP