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METALLOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS ON COPPER SINGLE CRYSTALS

SUBJECTED TO TORSIONAL FATIGUE CYCLING

H. M. BENDLER* and 11. D. NINE*

In the course of work on the development of slip fatigue striations and/or fissures may be seen to
bands and fissures in polyorystalline copper under- closely approximate the traces of octahedral planes on
going torsional fatigue,(l) it was observed that the the surface of the crystal. It is evident at once that
development of fissures was apparently confined to the degree of development of the striations is markedly
grains having a particular crystallographic orien- dependent on their azimuthal position on the crystal-
tation to the specimen axis. These obse~ations being greatest at positions between the (110) and
indicated the desirability of performing torsional (100) azimuths. In the (1 IO} azimuths where the slip
fatigue experiments on single crystals of known vector is parallel to the surface the striations essen-
orientation. Accordingly, single crystals of 99.999 tially disappear except for those cases where irregular
per cent purity copper were grown in a vacuum of cracks bridge the gap. The (100) azimuths likewise
3 x 10e5 mm Kg by the Bridgman technique. As remain undisturbed except for the largest fissures. If
grown the crystals were of circular cross section of a replica suitable for the electron microscope is
# in. dia. and 4 in. long. A gauge length %in. dia. and removed from one of the diffusely reflecting bands
1i in. long was electrolytically machined in the central lying along a (100) azimuth, the irregular patches
portion of each crystal. seen in Fig. 2 are observed.
The use of aluminized plastic replicas provided a A comparison of these irregular patches with the
convenient way of displaying the slip bands and dislocation concentrations as shown in Fig. 2(b) of the
fatigue striations that formed on the specimen surface. paper by Segall et uZ.@) suggests that the present
Fig. I is a low magnification photograph of such a observation is a surface effect related to the trans-
replica of a [OOl] axis crystal run to failure at a sur- mission observations. This comparison is reinforced
face shear strain ,tO.O025 for 8.3 x 105 cycles. The by noting that the diffusely reflecting bands are also
independent of the striations and occur at an azimuth
favorable to multiple slip.
A further observation resulting from the torsional
fatigue is the changing mode of failure with increasing
amplitude of torsion. The fatigue striation pattern
shown in Fig. 1 is typical of specimens fatigued in the

FIG. 1. Replica of the surface of a [OOl] axis copper


crystal run to failure in 8.3 x lo5 cycles at ho.0025
surface shear strain. x 4.9.
FIG. 2. Electron micrograph of a replica from an area in
* Research Laboratories, General Motors Corporation, the diffusely reflecting band near a.{loo) azimuth in Fig. 1.
Warren, Michigan. x 1500.
dCTA METALLURGICA VOL. II, JULY 1963 ii7
778 ACTA METALLURGICA, VOL. II, 1963

low amplitude or “F” region of the S-N curve. How- REFERENCES


ever, at higher amplitudes in the “H” region the 1. W. A. WOOD and H. M. BENDLER, Tram. AYWW.Inst. &Tin.
surface distortion changes markedly. In particular Engrs. 224, 180 (1962).
(Metall.)
2. R. L. SEOALL,I?.G. PARTRIDGE and P. B. HTRSCH,Phil.
the fracture surfaces closely follow the active slip Mug. 6, 1493 (1961).
planes in the “F” region while in the “If” region the 3. H. M. BENDLER and H. D. NINE, Lt;ature, 1069
Low?. 194,
(1962).
fracture surface is very i~egular.(s)