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Surface Well Test



Surface Well Testing


The main objective of this book would be to make understand an

individual on what basically a well test setup is and its operations
which will in turn help in understanding the operation of each and
every individual equipment used in the SWT spread, to the
monitoring and calculation of the well parameters which help in
further readings of the well conditions. This gives a primary view
on surface well testing.

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1. About Superior Energy
1.01 History 4
1.02 SES-Mission and Vision 6
1.03 SES Policies and Audit System 8
2. TAS Audit Checklist(Internal Audit) 10
3. Well Site Survey 15
4. Tool Box Talk 16
5. SES JSA 17
6. Permit To Work-SES 18
7. Well Objectives
7.01 About Petroleum 19
7.02 History of Oil 20
7.03 Oil and Gas Migration 23
7.04 Reservoir Rocks 24
8. Flow of Fluid 28
9. Porosity/Permeability 33
10. Equipments Related to Well Test 39
11. Classified Zones 41
12. Safety 42
13. Identification and Operational Uses of Different Well Test Equipments
13.01 Surface Test Tree
13.02 Coflexip Hoses 45
13.03 Surface Safety Valve 63
13.04 Emergency Shutdown System(ESD) 68
13.05 Chemical Injection Pump
13.06 Sand Filters 74
13.07 Cyclonic Desander 82
13.08 Pipe work 83

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13.09 Data Header 84

13.010 Centrifuge 87
13.011 Fluid/Flow Measurments 102
13.012 Measurment of Shrinkage Tester 104
13.013 Choke Manifold 106
13.014 Heat Exchangers
13.015 Seperator 109
13.016 DP Recorder 161
13.017 Gravitometer(Ranarex) 173
13.018 Hydrometer 182
13.019 Meter Factor/Shrinkage factor 205
13.020 Dead Weight Tester 255
13.021 Flow Meter 256
13.022 Daniel Orfice 259
13.023 PRV 260
13.024 Control Valves 262
13.025 Level Controller 271
13.026 Pressure Controller 299
13.027 Air Regulator 316
13.028 Oil and Gas Manifold 319
14. Tanks
14.01 Surge Tank 336
14.02 Gauge Tank 369
15. Transfer Pumps
15.01 Centrifugal Pumps 371
15.02 Screw Pumps 372

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15.03 Diaphragm Pumps 373

16. Burners and Booms 374
17. Flame Arrestor 377
18. Compressors and Hoses 378
19. Fittings 386
20. Safe Lifting and Mobilization 458
21. HMV Vehicle Checklist 461
22. LMV Inspection Checklist 462
23. Lashing Equipment Inspection 464
24. Road Survey 465
25. SIMOPS 471
26. Job Safety Analysis 477
27. Accountability Matrix 473
28. Risk Assesment 492
29. Acronyms 493
30. P & ID Well Test 494

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About Superior Energy


The company that exists today traces its roots back

two decades, beginning as an oilfield products
manufacturing firm and eventually branching out
into services.
By the mid-1990s, Superior offered a full inventory of
specialized tools for drilling, production and well
workover activities. To finance further growth in this
high-capital business, Superior initiated a public
offering of stock in 1995.
Superior Energy's tremendous growth — accomplished in a relatively short time — has been the
result of hard work, strategic acquisitions and a focus on exceeding customer expectations.
Following its public offering, Superior grew quickly by acquiring more than 10 small- and mid-
sized well intervention and oilfield tool rental companies in just three years, growing revenues
from $23.6 million to $91.3 million in that time.
In 1999, Superior Energy Services merged with Cardinal Services, the market leader in
mechanical wireline services in the Gulf of Mexico and also the largest owner and operator of
liftboats in the region.
By the mid-2000s, the Gulf of Mexico market was awash with overcapacity and suffering from
low commodity prices. To increase asset utilization, Superior Energy Services looked globally.
In 2003, Superior acquired Premier Oilfield Services of Aberdeen, Scotland, providing immediate
access to the North Sea, Europe, the Middle East and West African markets.
In 2003, Superior Energy Services formed SPN Resources to acquire mature Gulf of Mexico
properties that required the intervention services, tools and disciplines typically employed for
In 2006, Superior Energy Services expanded its onshore operations in North America through its
acquisition of Warrior Energy Services, a natural gas and oil well services company that provided

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wireline and well intervention services to exploration and production companies. The deal made
Superior the leading North American production enhancement company.

The year 2008 launched an expansion of Superior's capabilities — this time in the offshore
market, beginning with a pair of 175-ft class lift boats, the Superior Liberty and the Superior
Future, being christened by the Marine Services Division. Later that year, the Superior Pride, a
derrick barge, was put to work. As its capabilities continued to expand, so did its reach. The
Superior companies, working individually and in tandem, continue to expand the company's
reach from New Zealand to Singapore and Norway and Kazakhstan.
In 2012, Superior, in keeping with its proactive approach to growth, began to shift its efforts to
land markets and international expansion through two milestones — the sale of its liftboat fleet
and the merger with Complete Production Services.
Through the merger with Complete Production
Services, Superior gained greater access to the
North American land market, as well as completion
and intervention services not previously offered to
customers. The combination of the two companies
and resulting excess cash flow have positioned
Superior to accelerate our efforts to meet our
growing international opportunities.
Winning strategy- Superior Energy Services' approach to growth has been a proactive one —
taking advantage of industry cycles, leveraging off its existing base and adapting to changing

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Superior Energy Services- Mission and Vision

Our Mission

Superior Energy Services offers drilling-related and production related solutions to energy
producers. We provide a diverse set of products and services in select global markets that add
value to our customers' operations with an emphasis on quality, integrity and safe operations.

Our Vision

We will make finding and producing energy more efficient by bringing together complementary
products and services to plan, deliver and execute solutions as one seamless unit operating
under one common culture. In turn, we will earn a reputation as the global leader in providing
safe, efficient and high-quality solutions throughout the lifecycle of the well.

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Superior Quality Policy

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Superior HSEQ Policy

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TAS Audit Checklist (Internal Audit)

HSE Audit Checklist

Audit Carried Out by:

Auditee: Location :
Unit: Audit Date:
S= Satisfactory, NS= Not Satisfactory, NA= Not Applicable Audit No:

S.No Item Observation S/NS/NA Remarks

A Training & Certifications

2 First Aid
3 Fire Fighting
4 H2S Awareness
5 Defensive Driving
6 Crane Operators Training
7 Lifting Operations (for crew)
9 Use of SCBA
10 Other Trainings, if any

B Documents / Display in units

1 HSE Policy
2 Zero Tolerance Behaviours
3 Life Savers
4 Emergency Contact Numbers
7 List of Authorized personnel for working with unit

C Safety Items / Equipment (with valid TC / Calibration)

1 Multi Gas Detectors
2 Personal H2S monitors
3 NORM measuring instrument
4 Use of PPEs

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6 H2S filters with mask
7 Fire Extinguishers
8 Eye Wash with Emergency shower
9 First Aid Box
10 Intrinsically safe torch
11 Safety Harness / Fall arrestor
12 Intrinsically safe mobile

TAS Audit Checklist (Internal Audit) (conti…)

D Road Safety
All passenger vehicles / heavy vehicles are certified CIL
2 Compliance with CIL JMP
3 Spark arrestors are installed
4 Tyre conditions (No Retread or remolded tyres)
5 PESO approved oil tankers
TREM Card available with vehicles carrying hazardous
materials / chemicals.
Fire Extinguisher(s) in good condition and with monthly
inspection tag.
8 Implementation of daily vehicle inspection checklist

E Lifting Operations
All lifting equipment / accessories are inspected &
1 certified by third party competent person and with
current colour code and identification number.

2 Crane operators are trained and certified by third party.

3 Lifting Plan is available

Record available of lifting equipment / accessories with
5 Daily inspection of lifting equipment / accessories.
Banksman with hi vest jacket for signaling during lifting
7 Drum lifting equipment is used for lifting drums.

8 Overall condition of lifting equipment / accessories is

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good. SWL is marked.

F Units / Equipment / Instruments

Test Certificates of all equipment / instruments are

1 available with unit. (Pressure Test, MPI, functional test

2 Railings are installed to avoid fall from height.

3 Equipment are earthed.

4 Equipment are in good condition.

5 Iron are tested and certified

6 PCE are tested and certified

Spark arrestors are installed on Diesel operated

Fall arrestor / protection cage is provided on ladder to
avoid fall.

TAS Audit Checklist (Internal Audit) (conti…)

G Electrical Safety

1 DG sets are DGMS approved.

All equipment are earthed & bonded and resistance

reading is recorded.
Hazardous area classified and equipment are spotted as
per the zone classification.

4 Warning Sign Boards are displayed for electrical hazards.

Temporary cables are laid such that not creating trip

hazards, protected properly to avoid cable damaged.
Secondary containment is available to avoid diesel
spillage - D G set, Diesel drum

7 Electrical panel, cables are in good condition.

8 CO2 type Fire extinguisher available.

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Integrity of Intrinsically safe / FLP electrical equipment is

H Chemical Safety

1 MSDS of all chemicals are available.

PPEs are available as per MSDS and being used during

handling chemical.
Appropriate material handling equipment are used for
handling chemical.
Chemicals are stored properly - Not in direct sunlight,
4 properly segregated, no leakage / spill in storage area,
Secondary containment etc.

5 Crew is aware of chemical hazards and precautions

6 Spill kit is available

Appropriate warning signs of chemical hazards are


I Job Execution

List of Authorized personnel available with the unit and

All control measures identified in PTW, JSA & Site
2 specific risk assessment are discussed in TBT and
implemented and ensured by performing authority / PE.

TAS Audit Checklist (Internal Audit) (conti…)

Area cordoned off & Appropriate Warning sign boards
3 are displayed - High pressure, High noise, explosive
operations etc.

4 PCE are rigged up and hydraulic hoses are connected.

Job specific PPEs are used - Ear plug, PPEs for handling
chemicals, safety harness, NORM PPEs etc.
Precautionary measures are being taken for H2S safety:
Personal H2S monitors, H2S filter mask, SCBA, Buddy

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System, Environment monitoring based on risk
assessment by PE.
Proper Access & Egress to be provided - Use Scaffolding
if required.
Scaffolding is certified by Competent scaffolding
8 supervisor and green tag is placed. Frequency is weekly
or when changes are made.
All pressurized and Temporary lines are secured
including return lines.
Spill preventions measures are taken - use of drip tray,
drum etc.
Job is being carried out considering agreed safety
measures during SIMOPs meeting.

12 No spillage of chemicals / oil at location.

13 Disposal of waste as per CIL policy at location.

14 Overall housekeeping is good.

15 Adequate Lighting is provided for night operations.

16 Good housekeeping is maintained at well site.

Adequate weather protection measures are taken

considering season - summer, winter, and monsoon.

Other Observations

1 Crew using mandatory PPE's

2 Good cable management

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Well Site Survey

Note: A well site survey has to be conducted by the HSE personnel before a unit moves into the
wellpad. This is to be done to ensure the suitable working conditions for the crew working.

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Well Objectives
After completing this section, you should be able to

• Know about the formation of oil.

• Know where you will possibly find it.
• Know how companies use technology to find oil.
• Know the types of reservoirs.
• Know a little of how they drill for oil.
• Know different methods of bringing oil to the surface.

What is Petroleum?
There are many theories as to the origin or of petroleum, the Organic Theory is one of them.

Petroleum is a fossil fuel. It is called a fossil fuel because it was formed from the remains of tiny
sea plants and animals dead and decayed millions of years ago. These dead plants and animals
sank to the bottom of the oceans. They were buriedby thousands of feet of sand and silt.

Over time, this organic mixture was subjected to enormous pressure and heat as thelayers
increased. The mixture changes chemically, breaking down into compoundsmade of hydrogen
and carbon atoms – hydrocarbons. Finally, an oil-saturated rock -much like a wet household
sponge – was formed.

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All organic material does not turn into oil. Certain geological conditions must existwithin the oil-
rich rocks. First, there must be a trap of non-porous rock that preventsthe oil from seeping out,
and a seal (such as salt or clay) that keeps the oil fromrising to the surface. Even under these
conditions, only about 2% of the organicmaterial is transformed into oil.
A typical petroleum reservoir is mostly sandstone or limestone in which oil is trapped.
Oil in it may be as thin as gasoline or as thick as tar. It may be almost clear or black.
Petroleum is called a non-renewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.
We cannot make more petroleum in a short time.

History of Oil
People have used
naturally available
petroleum since
ancient times, though
they didn’t know how
to find it. The ancient
Chinese and
Egyptians burned oil
for lighting.Before the
1850’s, Americans
often used whale oil
for light. When whale
oil becamescarce,
people began looking
for other oil sources.
In some places, oil seepednaturally to the surface of ponds and streams. People skimmed this oil
and made itinto kerosene. Kerosene was commonly used to light America’s homes before
thearrival of the electric light bulb.As demand for kerosene grew, a group of businessmen hire
Edwin Drake to drill foroil in Titusville, Pennsylvania. After much hard work and slow progress,
hediscovered oil in 1859. Drake’s well was 69.5 feet deep, very shallow compared totoday’s

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Drake refined the oil from his well into kerosene for lighting. Gasoline and otherproducts made
during refining were simply thrown away because people had no usefor them.

In 1892, the horseless carriage, or automobile, solved this problem, since it requiredgasoline. By
1920, there were nine million motor vehicles in America alone, and gasstations were opening
everywhere. This of course meant that oil wells sprung upeverywhere to ease the demand for

When tiny organisms die, they sink to the

bottom of the sea and are mixed with
mudand silt. Over time, hundreds of feet
of mud containing the organisms
accumulate.Bacteria removes most of
the oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and
sulphur, leavingmainly hydrogen and
carbon. Lack of oxygen keeps the animals
and plants fromdecaying completely.

The partially decomposed organisms

create a slimy mass, which is then
coveredwith layers of sediments. Many
sediments are tiny particles that come

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from the breakdown of larger rocks, usually by weathering. Over millions of years, manylayers of
sediment pile on top of the once-living organisms. The weight of the sediment compresses the
mud into a fraction of its original thickness.

When the depth of burial reaches about 10,000 feet, heat, time and pressure turn theorganisms
into different types of petroleum.Higher temperatures usually produce lighter petroleum. Lower
temperatures create athick material, like asphalt. As the heat continues to alter the substances,
gas isoften produced. Depending on how much gas is present, sometimes it will staymixed with
the oil and sometimes it will separate. At temperatures above 500degrees Fahrenheit, the
organic matter is destroyed and neither oil nor gas isformed.

The mud and silt become more and more compressed and turn into a rock known asshale. As
the mud is being compressed into shale, the oil, gas and saltwater aresqueezed out. The fluids
move from the original rock, known as the source rock, to anew rock, called a reservoir rock.
It is economically unfeasible for humans to extract oil and gas unless worthwhile amounts are
trapped in reservoirs. Many people assume petroleum is contained inunderground hollow

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cavities, or lakes. In truth, an oil reservoir is a rock with manypores which hold petroleum, much
like a sponge holds water.


Oil and gas moves away or migrates from the source rock. Migration is triggeredboth by natural
compaction of the source rock and by the processes of oil and gasformation. As hydrocarbon
chains separate from the kerogen during oil and gasgeneration, they take up more space and
create higher pressures in the source rock.The oil and gas move through the minute pores and
cracks in the source rock andthen into rocks where the pressure is lower. Migration is a slow
process with oil andgas traveling perhaps only a few kilometers over a million years.

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Igneous Rocks

Igneous Rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, eitherbelow the
surface as intrusive or on the surface as extrusive. Igneous rocks makeup approximately ninety
five percent of the upper part of the Earth’s crust, but theirgreat abundance is hidden on the
Earth’s surface by a relatively thin but widespreadlayer of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
These rocks form the barrier to traphydrocarbons below the ground. Igneous rocks can be of
many types common tothese are Granite and Basalt.

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Sedimentary Rocks.
These rocks are formed in three main ways, by the deposition of the weatheredremains of other
rocks (known as clastic sedimentary rocks), by the depositions ofthe results of biogenic activity
and by precipitation from solution. Sedimentary rocksinclude common types such as limestone
and sandstone. Sedimentary rocks oftenform porous and permeable reservoirs in sedimentary
basins in which petroleum andother hydrocarbons can be found.

Limestone Sandstone

Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic rocks are formed from other sedimentary deposits by alteration undergreat heat
and/or pressure. Examples of metamorphic rocks are;
• Marble - metamorphosized limestone.
• Hornfeld - converted from shale or tuff.
• Gneiss - similar to granite but metamorphically consolidated.
Oil and gas are not usually found in igneous or metamorphic rocks as both are sonon-porous
that hydrocarbons cannot accumulate or be extracted from them. Thefew exceptions are when
hydrocarbons have seeped from near-by sedimentaryformations through cracks and fractures.

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A reservoir rock must be able to contain oil, gas and water, which are the reservoirfluids. Pores
in the reservoir rock are first filled with saltwater from the sea. When oiland gas flow into the
rock, some of the water is displaced. However, not all of thewater is forced out. Therefore, oil
drillers usually find water with high concentrationsof oil and gas.

Oil and gas travel through pores of the reservoir rock, with the help of water, untilthey reach an
impermeable layer of rock through which they cannot pass. Shale’s arethe most common
impermeable rock.

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OIL TRAPS Reservoir Cap Rock

Oil traps usually form because of rock movements deep within the Earth’s surface.Over many
years, rock formations break and slide, causing spaces where petroleumis trapped. The most
common type of trap is an anticline, where rocks are pushed upto form a dome. Oil and gas
might lie in reservoir rock just under the top of the dome,which is capped by an impermeable
layer of rock.

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Another common type of trap is the fault trap, which is formed by a fault, or fracture,of the
layers of rock. The rock on one side of the fault sometimes slips down so thata porous reservoir
rock is next to a nonporous rock formation. This creates a seal,and the petroleum is trapped.
When salt or other form of intrusion forces up through the strata to form varioustypes of plug
and dome etc.
The formation of unconformity formations relies on the erosion of inclined formationwhich has
more recently been covered up with an impenetrable overlying layer.Lenticular reservoirs,
where the permeability of an oil bearing formation changesfrom average value to zero. This can
take the form of many different occurrences,Shale deposits in the formation and pinch-outs.
Now that the oil has been cooked, moved and trapped, it will stay there until rockformation
movement causes a change in its surroundings, or until humans decide todrill a well in that spot.

Flow of Fluid

Flow in porous media is a very complex phenomenon and as such cannot be described as
explicitly as flow through pipes or conduits. It is rather easy to measure the length and diameter
of a pipe and compute its flow capacity as a function of pressure; in porous media, however,
flow is different in that there are no clear-cut flow paths which lend themselves to

The primary reservoir characteristics that must be considered include:

• Types of fluids in the reservoir

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• Flow regimes
• Reservoir geometry
• Number of flowing fluids in the reservoir

Types of Flow

The isothermal compressibility coefficient is essentially the controlling factor in identifying the
type of the reservoir fluid. In general, reservoir fluids are classified into three groups:

• Incompressible fluids
An incompressible fluid is defined as the fluid whose volume (or density) does not
change with pressure.

• Slightly compressible fluids

These “slightly” compressible fluids exhibit small changes in volume, or density, with
changes in pressure.

• Compressible fluids
These are fluids that experience large changes in volume as a function of pressure. All
gases are considered compressible fluids.

Flow Regimes

There are basically three types of flow regimes that must be recognized in order to describe the
fluid flow behavior and reservoir pressure distribution as a function of time. There are three
flow regimes:

• Steady-state flow
The flow regime is identified as a steady-state flow if the pressure at every location in
the reservoir remains constant, i.e., does not change with time.

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• Unsteady-state flow
The unsteady-state flow (frequently called transient flow) is defined as the fluid flowing
condition at which the rate of change of pressure with respect to time at any position in the
reservoir is not zero or constant.

• Pseudosteady-state flow
When the pressure at different locations in the reservoir is declining linearly as a
function of time, i.e., at a constant declining rate, the flowing condition is characterized as the
pseudosteady-state flow.

Flow regimes

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Reservoir Geometry

The shape of a reservoir has a significant effect on its flow behavior. Most reservoirs have
irregular boundaries and a rigorous mathematical description of geometry is often possible only
with the use of numerical simulators. For many engineering purposes, however, the actual flow
geometry may be represented by one of the following flow geometries:

• Radial flow
In the absence of severe reservoir heterogeneities, flow into or away from a wellbore
will follow radial flow lines from a substantial distance from the wellbore. Because fluids move
toward the well from all directions and coverage at the wellbore, the term radial flow is given to
characterize the flow of fluid into the wellbore.

Ideal radial flow into a wellbore

• Linear flow
Linear flow occurs when flow paths are parallel and the fluid flows in a single direction. In
addition, the cross sectional area to flow must be constant.

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Ideal linear flow into vertical fracture

• Spherical and hemispherical flow

Depending upon the type of wellbore completion configuration, it is possible to have a

spherical or hemispherical flow near the wellbore. A well with a limited perforated interval
could result in spherical flow in the vicinity of the perforations.

Spherical flow due to limited entry

Hemispherical flow in partially penetrating well

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The mathematical expressions that are used to predict the volumetric performance and
pressure behavior of the reservoir vary in forms and complexity depending upon the number of
mobile fluids in the reservoir. There are generally three cases of flowing systems:

• Single-phase flow (oil, water, or gas)

• Two-phase flow (oil-water, oil-gas, or gas-water)
• Three-phase flow (oil, water and gas)

A pore is a small, open space in a rock. A rock’s porosity is the ratio of pore volume to total
volume and is expressed as a percentage.

The shapes of sediments affect the porosity of a rock. Generally, sediments are notperfectly
round, but occur in many shapes. Sediment size and how closelysediments are packed also are
variables. The third factor that determines a rock’sporosity is the amount of material that
precipitated from seawater and accumulatedin the pores. A porosity of 5 to 20 percent is usually
considered average forsedimentary rocks.

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If the pores are connected, the rock is said to be permeable.

Permeability is the ease with which a fluid can move through a porous rock. Sandstone is the
mostporous and permeable of the sedimentary rocks. That’s why much of the world’s oiland gas
occurs in sandstone. Carbonate rocks such as limestone and dolomite arealso good reservoirs
for oil and gas.

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Bacterial Action Heat Bombardment

Burial Petroleum

Chemical Reactions Pressure Time

Equipment Related To Well Test


The section contains an introduction to Well Test Equipment


After completing this section, you should be able to

 Know what equipment is required on a basic Well Test.

 Know in what position you would find this equipment.
 Know what each piece of equipment does.

Surface testing equipment

The reservoir engineering term for the time period in which the well experiences changes in
pressure is called the pressure transient. At the surface, the fluids produced during pressure
transients must be handled using temporary installations of surface testing equipment because
permanent production facilities usually have not yet been installed. This equipment must safely
and reliably perform a wide range of functions as:

 Quickly control pressure and flow rates at the surface and shut in the well (applicable to
both exploration well testing and development testing, such as cleanup)

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 Separate the resulting effluent into three separate fluids (oil, gas and water), accurately
meter the fluids and collect and separate solids as applicable
 Collect surface samples
 Dispose of the resulting fluids in an environmentally safe manner.

Standard set of equipment

A standard set of surface testing equipment consists of

 Flowhead
 Surface Safety Valve
 Sand Filters
 Choke Manifold
 Emergency Shutdown (ESD) System
 Heat Exchanger
 Separator
 Gauge Or Surge Tank
 Transfer Pump
 Oil and Gas Manifolds
 Burners and Booms.

We do not completely cover the Sub Sea Test Tree (SSTT) on this course but be aware that one
will be fitted if the rig is either a Semi-Submersible or Drill Ship. The SSTT, allows for a safety
system to be placed inside the BOP on the ocean floor and this in turn enables the rig to be
disconnected and moved show it be necessary.
Equipment layout
The surface equipment and its layout for performing well tests vary considerably depending on
the environment, well conditions and test objectives. Considerations dictating the equipment
layout include the following:

• Location
• Land or Offshore Operation

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• Well Conditions
• Flow Rate and Pressure
• Effluent Properties (Oil Properties And Hydrate Formation)
• Sand Production
• Presence of Corrosive Fluids (H2S, CO2, Acid).

Surge tank


& Data
Centre 3 Phase Separator

Choke Manifold

A SWT Setup Overview

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A SWT Setup

Safety is a major factor in designing and conducting a well test. General safety considerations
that pertain to the type and layout of surface testing equipment are as follows:
• Equipment layout and spacing must be in accordance with classified zones.
• All pieces of surface testing equipment must be grounded.
• The electrical connection required for certain pieces of surface testing equipment, such
as transfer pumps or laboratory cabins, must be safe and approved according to
industry standards.
• Piping used for high-pressure wells must be anchored.
• Piping must be color coded to identify the working pressure of the pipe. It is also helpful
to label the piping to identify the fluids passing through it.

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• The dominant wind direction must be identified to properly orient equipment that vents
or burns gas.

Classified zones

This section describes why classified zones were established, defines classified zones and
identifies the surface testing equipment associated with each zone.

A wellsite is classified into zones or areas based upon the probability that flammable gases or
vapors may be present around a specific piece of equipment. For safety purposes, both the
American Petroleum Institute (API) and French Association of Oil and Gas Explorers and
Producers have defined zones.

The following classified zones are listed in order from most to least hazardous. General safety
procedures recommend no overlap of classified zones within a well testing layout. Zone
restrictions do not dictate the placement of all well test equipment. For example, the ESD
system and oil and gas manifolds, although usually placed in Zone 2, are not restricted to that
specific zone. However, the location of other well test equipment defines certain zones.

Zone 0
Zone 0 is defined as an area or enclosed space where any flammable or explosive substance
(gas, vapor or volatile liquid) is continuously present in a concentration within the flammable
limits of the substance. Thus, the borehole and the well below the wellhead are classified as
Zone 0.

Zone 1
Zone 1 is defined as an area where any flammable or explosive substance (gas, vapor or volatile
liquid) is processed, handled or stored, and where, during normal operations, an explosive or
ignitable concentration of the substance is likely to occur in sufficient quantity to produce a

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• The location of the gauge tank is classified as Zone 1 because the presence of flammable
gases in the immediate vicinity of the gauge tank vent is normal.
• Most of the electric-driven transfer pumps are designed for use in Zone 2; however,
their use in Zone 2 may be subject to geographical restrictions or client approval.
• At the choke manifold, samples of well effluent are taken, typically at the beginning of a
• Because sampling causes some gas release to the atmosphere, the choke manifold is
designated as Zone 1.
• Because the Flowhead is used as a means of introducing tools into the well during a well
test, the area around the flowhead is classified as Zone 1; when tool introductions are
not being made, the area around the flowhead is classified as Zone 2.

Zone 2
Zone 2 is defined as an area where any flammable or explosive substance (gas, vapor or volatile
liquid) is processed and stored under controlled conditions, but the production of an explosive
or ignitable concentration in sufficient quantity to constitute a hazard is likely to occur only
during abnormal conditions.

• The separator is designated as Zone 2 because it releases flammable gases or vapors

only under abnormal conditions, such as a leak.
• Diesel-driven transfer pumps are classified as Zone 2 if they are equipped with
automatic shutdown devices, spark arrestors, inertia starters or special electric starters.
• The indirect-fired heater is classified as Zone 2 because it uses a naked flame to heat
well effluent. The steam exchanger is also Zone 2 because its surfaces can reach high
• Piping is defined as a Zone 2 area.

Clean zone

A clean zone is an area where no flammable or explosive substances are processed, handled or
stored. Clean zones are also referred to as nonhazardous or safe areas. An example of a clean
zone is the living quarters of an offshore drilling rig.

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 Highly Toxic and explosive gas.

The Table below explains the properties of H2S gas.

Properties Description

Color None

Odor Extremely offensive, “Rotten Eggs”

Density 1.189, Heavier than Air

Explosive Limits 4.3% - 46%

Ignition Temperature 500 F (260 C)

Water Solubility 4 volumes of gas in 1 volume of Water @

32 F (0 C)

Operation Requirements in H2S environment

 Prejob safety meeting with all personnel

 Constant supervision & experienced personnel
 H2S certified engineers mandatory
 Carry a mask
 Do not allow H2S to escape in atmosphere
 Monitor wind direction
 Wear Breathing Apparatus
 Operate instruments with Air or Nitrogen

Surface Well Testing

Effects of H2S on Equipment

 Corrosive attack- water mixes with H2S forming FeS and releasing H2 which reacts with
CO2 forming CH2CO3 (carbonic acid) which corrodes the pipes
 Carbide attack- The hydrogen atoms reacts with the carbon molecules present and form
CH4 (methane) which leaves the steel spongy and greatly weakened.
 Hydrogen embrittlement- It occurs when the hydrogen atoms invade the steel lattice
structure along the planes of stress and once inside combine with the other free atoms
to form molecular hydrogen H2. The molecular hydrogen is heavier than the atomic
hydrogen and extracts tremendous pressure against the steel structure causing it to
crack and eventually fail.
The failure can be quite sudden and occur at stress levels far more than the material’s normal
yield strength. The temperature, pressure and the H2S concentration affect the rate at which
the free hydrogen invades the steel. Tensile strength of the steel and the stress level to which it
is subjected determines its susceptibility to attack. Generally the steel with relatively low
hardness (Rc22 or less) and low yield strength (≤75000psi) are ductile enough to resist
permanent damage.

The Table below explains the effects of H2S gas

Concentration Toxic Effects

1 ppm (0.0001%) Can be smelled, above this use of PPE mandatory

10 ppm (0.0001%) Maximum 8 hour Work Period allowed

100 ppm (0.01%) Odor disappears, Sense of smell deadens, Eyes &
Throat Burn

200 ppm (0.02%) Odor disappears, Sense of smell deadens, Eyes &
Throat Burn

500 ppm (0.05%) Balance Lost, Prompt Resuscitation required

700 ppm (0.07%) Unconsciousness, breathing stops, death occurs

Surface Well Testing

unless not immediately attended

1000 ppm (0.1%) Brain Damage & Death

Heat Radiation

The table below gives the heat radiation levels

Quantity Description

330 Btu/hr/ft2 Greatest solar radiated heat at soil level

440 Btu/hr/ft2 Upper limit for harmless exposure of bare

human skin

1500 Btu/hr/ft2 API RP 521 Recommended

3000 Btu/hr/ft2 Personnel may escape

4000 Btu/hr/ft2 Heats wood & Ignites it

1000 BOPD Radiates 93 MMBtu/Hr

1 MMscf/D Radiates 13 MMBtu/Hr

1000 bbl water per day Injected into the flame 6 MMBtu/Hr

Heat sources have been identified basically as due to burning of produced gas through flare and
heat radiation from sun.

The effects of heat are: Damage to the flaring system due to high temperature, unsafe
environment to work, heat stroke, etc.

The possible solutions to avoid heat are: use long booms to avoid contact, install water screens
behind the burner, and for personal safety working in heat drink plenty of water and avoid
working under sun, take adequate rest.

Surface Well Testing


The Table explains about the noise exposure recommendations

Noise Level (dBA) Permissible Exposure

90 8 hr/D

95 4 hr/D

100 2 hr/D

105 1 hr/D

110 ½ hr/D

115 10 min/D

Electrical safety
For electrical connections and equipment used the following parameters has to be considered.

 Protection Method
 Temperature Classes
 Classification of Hazardous Areas
 Classification of Gases
 Intrinsic Safety
 Explosion Proof

Surface Well Testing

Identification and operational uses of the different equipment

Surface Test Tree

Well Head

Surface Well Testing

Operational Uses of Surface Test Tree

The Surface Test Tree is a temporary Christmas tree and is used to isolate theproduced fluids
from the formation from escaping at the surface. It acts as anemergency shut in and there is the
ability to kill the well through the STT. It allow forremediation work to be carried out.
It has the following parts:

Surface Well Testing

Test tree flowheads are installed on the DST test string to give a means of entry into the
DST tubing by:

• Kill, circulating, or stimulation fluids

• Wireline or Coil Tubing

They also provide an exit through a flow wing valve for the well stream fluids to flow to
the surface test equipment.

The basic designed Surface Test Tree incorporates four valves - master, swab, kill, and
flowline (hydraulic actuator). The assembly also has a swivel to allow pipe rotation for
manipulating downhole tools without turning the test head. A lifting sub is supplied
with the tree to allow rig elevators to raise and lower the tree in the derrick. Some
designs may incorporate a hydraulically actuated kill valve, lower master valve, and/or
chemical injection sub. Two distinct styles of test trees exist: (1) component and (2)
solid block.

Since they are a complicated piece of equipment they should only be operated and
maintained by competent persons. To operate the valves with the tree installed on a
floater, takes considerable skill and dexterity.

Surface Well Testing


Tensile Rating of ACME Threads on Surface Test Trees

This does not cover ACME thread connections used by any other PSL or Sub PSL. Note:
Surface Test Tree includes the following components that make up the assembly:

• Handling Sub
• Main Block / Flow Cross
• Saver Sub
• Swivel
• Chemical Injection Sub
• Top / Bottom Crossover

Surface Well Testing

Surface Test Tree ACME Thread Tensile Load Capabilities (75k psi yield, Sour Service)
Minimum Design Material Temperature to 250°F

The 1990 HRS Technical Report figures did not take into account elevated temperature
strength reduction or torque that may be applied to the connections. It also did not
evaluate the strength of the whole connection. It was based solely on the pin end.

The Tensile Ratings vs. Pressure have now been revised based upon:
• Temperatures up to 250°F, and an additional rating from above 250°F to 350°F
• Stresses not exceeding 2/3rds of the minimum yield strength of the material as
per API 6A
• Pressure ratings in increments of 2,000 psi up to MAWP
• 4,000 ft/lb of make up torque
• 75,000 psi yield material.

Where the MAWP was not achievable the maximum attainable pressure has been
indicated. The ratings do not allow for any torque that may be applied through rotation
of the string while the tree is supporting the string. This has a detrimental effect on the
tensile rating of the threads. Rotation of the string shall be permitted only with the
string weight supported and rotated below the lowest Surface Test Tree thread (i.e. via
the slips).

The ratings are only for the ACME connection. These do not take into account any other
part of an assembly or component. The two tables immediately below are for Sour
Service material only with 75,000 psi yield strength.

Surface Well Testing

Thread Size 4 3/8 - 6 Stub 4 3/8 - 6 Stub 5 3/4 - 4 5 3/4 - 4 Stub 7 1/2 - 4
Bore Size 2.68" bore 3.00" bore 2.68" bore 3" bore 5.13" bore
Pressure (psi) Tensile Rating (lbs)
0 380,000 310,000 850,000 780,000 900,000
5,000 360,000 290,000 770,000 750,000 830,000
7,500 340,000 260,000 720,000 720,000 740,000
10,000 300,000 210,000 670,000 660,000 580,000
12,500 240,000 N/A 610,000 590,000 N/A
13,400 210,000 N/A - - -
15,000 N/A N/A 450,000 450,000 N/A
Surface Test Tree ACME Thread Tensile Load Capabilities (75k psi yield, Sour Service)
Minimum Design Material Temperature to 250°F
Thread Size 4 3/8 - 6 Stub 4 3/8 - 6 Stub 5 3/4 - 4 5 3/4 - 4 Stub 7 1/2 - 4
Bore Size 2.68" bore 3.00" bore 2.68" bore 3" bore 5.13" bore
Pressure (psi) Tensile Rating (lbs)
0 380,000 310,000 850,000 780,000 900,000
5,000 360,000 290,000 770,000 750,000 830,000
7,500 340,000 260,000 720,000 720,000 740,000
10,000 300,000 210,000 670,000 660,000 580,000
12,500 240,000 N/A 610,000 590,000 N/A
13,400 210,000 N/A - - -
15,000 N/A N/A 450,000 450,000 N/A

The tables show that we cannot rate the Sour Service 4 3/8 – 6 Stub ACME to 15,000 psi
WP for 75,000 psi yield material. Also in general terms the Tensile Ratings of all the
ACME connections is reduced.

The table immediately below is for Standard Service material only with 100,000 psi yield
strength and up 150°F operating temperature.

Surface Well Testing

Surface Test Tree ACME Thread Tensile Load Capabilities (100k psi
yield, Standard Service)
Minimum Design Material Temperature to 150°F
Thread Size 4 3/8 - 6 Stub ACME
Bore Size 2.68" bore
Pressure (psi) Tensile Rating (lbs)
0 530,000
5,000 510,000
7,500 500,000
10,000 470,000
12,500 430,000
15,000 390,000

It is absolutely essential to check the rating of each component and thread profile of the
string. The least rating determines the rating of the entire string. For example, many 5
¾ Stub ACME Swivel and Surface Test Tree assemblies have been specified as 400,000
lbs @ MAWP, which is less than the 250°F ratings defined in the tables above.

Tree Types
There are a wide variety of Surface Test Trees currently out in circulation around our
various geographical regions. The vast majority are listed in the following table.

Nominal Pressure Rating Manufacturer Points of Note

Bore (Working)
3 1/8” 5000 psig Cameron Standard Service
3 1/16” 10000 psig McEvoy/Willis
3 1/16” 10000 psig Cameron 5” and 4 3/8” end connections, some also
have Hydraulic Kill
3 1/16” 15000 psig WOM

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5 1/8” 10000 psig Cameron

5 1/8” 10000 psig Cameron/WOM Magnum Conversion
5 1/8” 10000 psig Anson
5 3/8” 10000 psig Cameron Anson Conversion
6 3/8” 5000 psig Cameron
7 1/16” 5000 psig Cameron/WOM Magnum Conversion
7 3/8” 10000 psig Anson Some have manual valves and some are fully
hydraulic. Some have 6 3/8” flow wing and
some have 4 1/16” flow wing. Some Block
type and some “Y” type.

Existing Equipment

• Review equipment currently in your location for connection size, bore and
pressure rating.

• Revise rating of identified equipment as per tables above and or with

manufacturer if part of an assembly. Document the new ratings in data packages
and on spec sheets.

• Hard stamp new rating on equipment

• If not clearly specified on the unit or in its data package, contact manufacturer
for information and details of the tensile rating of their assembly.

• DO NOT rotate the string while it is supported by the Surface Test Tree

• Only rotate the string when the string weight is supported below the lowest
Surface Test Tree thread, and only rotate from below the lowest Surface Test
Tree thread (i.e. via the slips).

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New Equipment

When purchasing equipment that has ACME threads that will be used in tension:

• Specify required End Connection.

• Specify the required tensile load at 0 psi

• Specify the required tensile load at MAWP

• Specify bore size

• Specify minimum and maximum temperature range

• Specify minimum yield strength of material (at least 75,000 psi)

• Specify Sour Service (NACE MR0175) or Standard Service

ACME Connections Makeup Torque

The Acme and Stub Acme threads do not provide the seal, the O-rings do. Production
Applications recommends that a minimum of 4,000 ftlbs torque is applied to make up
these ACME connections. 6,000 ftlbs would be a good figure for a maximum value.

Several reasons exist:

1. When setting packers etc rotation is applied to the string, once the packer sets
this is transferred into torque. When the slips are removed there is a chance of
the torque in the string releasing. This torque can get back as far as the Surface
Test Tree and if the joints are not torqued up they can back off.

2. When rotating string to set the packer or rotating string for any other reason, if
the connections are not torqued up there is a good chance that they will back
off. Especially if there is any binding in the swivel assembly.

Also, the above is the reason why it is recommended painting/marking a line down the
Surface Test Tree assembly. It allows personnel to physically see any backing off of
connections while string is being rotated.

Surface Well Testing

For the threaded parts of the assemblies (i.e. Swivel Housing to Bearing Retainer), refer
to the manufacturers instruction manual. Generally these are not torqued. Some of the
assemblies are just screwed together, others are screwed together, backed-off a small
amount and then pinned in place.

General Rules
• Always wear a safety harness (in good condition).

• Do not ascend to the tree on the tugger by using the DST tubing as an aid to
ascent. Always ascend on the tugger away from the tree, then once above the
tree swing over and come down on the tree; otherwise there is a danger of being
caught under the tree as the rig heaves.

• When hoisting subassemblies such as wireline BOPs, etc. to the top connection,
ensure that it is properly lifted with a certified lifting strap.

Standard Operation Practices

• Ensure that the test tree is rated in excess of the maximum anticipated shut-in
wellhead pressure.

• The tree is suitable for sour service if the well is of sour nature.

• Visually inspect the main body for signs of structural damage likely to affect
integrity of assembly.

• Check lead targets (if installed) for signs of erosion.

• Inspect all inlet and outlet connections. Check threads and sealing surfaces for
damage. Ensure thread protectors are replaced.

• On each of the manual valves ensure that the number of turns to open/close the
valve is noted. This should minimize the likelihood of closing in on wireline or
coil tubing. The true position (fully open or fully close) of the valve should never
be in doubt.

Surface Well Testing

• Function the hydraulic actuator mechanism ensuring that it travels freely the full
travel without internal pressure. With the valve in the closed position measure
the protrusion of the stem and note. Check the operation of the ESD panel
supplying the hydraulic fluid to the actuator.

• Rotate swivel – one turn to the right and one turn to the left.

Repairs and maintenance undertaken at this point should follow recommended

maintenance procedures.

Pressure Testing
Prior to the Surface Test Tree being taken to the drill floor and rigged up onto the test
string the assembly will be pressure tested to ensure the integrity of the tree body,
valves and flanged connections. Please refer to figure below. In initial tests pressure
applied via D with needle valves in test caps in positions A, B and C. The Barton surface
pressure recorder should be used to record these tests. The test pressure and test
period are usually dictated by our clients’ requirements.

Prior to pressure testing:

• Erect warning barriers around the test area.

• Announce over P.A. system that pressure testing

is about to commence.

• Ensure all non-essential personnel are clear of

test area.

1. Open valves 1 through 4 and A through D. (Establish the actuator

rating but usually ~1500 psi control line pressure required to open
and maintain Actuator Valve (4)).

2. Fill assembly with water.

Surface Well Testing

3. Close needle valves A, B and C and commence pumping to test

pressure. Visually inspect all connections for sign of leaks.

NOTE: Do not attempt any remedial action while there is pressure


4. Once at test pressure isolate pump and monitor for test period. [Test
one - full internal]

5. Close valves 2, 3, and 4 (control line pressure zero).

6. Bleed pressure slowly via needle valves A, B, and C to zero.

7. Monitor for test period. [Test two - against kill, swab and flowline
valves internally]

8. Close valve 1, open valve 2 (kill line) slowly bleeding pressure above
master valve, monitor for test period. [Test three - master valve
from below]

9. Bleed pressure via pump vent to zero.

10. Rig-up onto a wing (kill line) with test equipment.

11. Open valve 2. (Valves 1, 3 and 4 closed).

12. Commence pumping to test pressure.

13. Once at test pressure isolate pump and monitor for test period. [Test
four - master valve from above]

14. Close Valve 2 and monitor for test period. [Test five - kill valve]

15. Bleed pressure via pump vent to zero.

Repairs and maintenance undertaken at this point should follow recommended

maintenance procedures.

Moving Surface Test Tree to rig floor:

All 3” Flowheads should be lifted using the dedicated four leg lifting bridle.

Surface Well Testing

7” and 5” Flowheads should be lifted using the swiveling pad eyes fitted to the side of
the main block. The “crash frame” fitted to the Flowhead must not be used for lifting
the assembly.

The Anson 5” and 7” Surface Test Trees are fitted with dedicated swiveling pad eye
fitting points attached to the main block of the tree. These are designed to support the
entire assembly weight. The swiveling pad eye lifting points are secured to the side of
the Surface Test Tree body using 1 1/8” collar bolts. These collar bolts must be torqued
to a recommended torque value of between 305 and 523 ft-lbs. If these collar bolts are
tightened to a torque somewhere between these extremes, any torque effects that may
be applied inadvertently during lifting operations should not loosen them.

1. While in the process of moving tree to the rig floor ensure that all personnel are
aware and avoid being trapped under the tree should the rig heave.

2. Remove and store the shipping slings before the tree is hoisted by the rig

3. Before the tree is made up to the handling joint to be made up to the DST string
ensure that the swivel is free to turn and that either the upper or lower master
valve is closed.

4. While the tree is being made up to the DST string, ensure the lock out cap is on.
This will avoid damage to the actuator stem. Be careful of grease nipples and
their web protectors.

5. After the tree is made up to the DST string ensure that the lock out cap is
removed and excessive weight from the flow lines (Coflexip or metal hoses) is
not being supported by the tree connections (use tuggers, if necessary).

6. Before pressure testing check the swivel. It is good practice when working on a
floating rig to mark a white line down across the joints on the STT to be able to
observe if any of them are backing out.

Surface Well Testing

Once the surface test tree has been rigged up onto the test string there will be further
pressure tests to ensure the assembly’s integrity prior to the test program commencing.
These tests will normally be performed in conjunction with pressure testing of the test
string. There are various permutations employed by our clients to achieve this, one
such approach is outline below.

Valve configuration as follows:

• Kill valve open.

• Actuator valve open.

• Swab valve closed.

• Master valve closed (or fluid will be pumped downhole).

• Choke manifold valves open.

Pressure test procedure:

1. Commence pumping and slowly flush lines. (Utilizing rig pump via kill

2. Close front valves on choke manifold and commence pumping to working


3. Once at test pressure isolate pump and monitor for test period. [Test
one - against master and swab valves] Also checks integrity of Coflexip,
data header and choke connections.

4. Bleed pressure via pump vent to zero.

5. Close flowline actuator valve.

6. Commence pumping slowly to test pressure.

7. Once at test pressure isolate pump and monitor for test period. [Test
two - against flowline actuator valve]

8. Bleed pressure via pump vent to zero.

Surface Well Testing

9. Open master valve and flowline actuator valve.

10. Close kill valve.

11. Commence pumping slowly to test pressure.

12. Once at test pressure isolate pump and monitor for test period. [Test
three - against kill valve]

13. Bleed pressure via pump vent to zero.


After all pressure testing is complete. Attach all necessary x-overs and check the drift in
the tree bore to minimum specified by client. This will eliminate possible problems if
wireline or coil tubing tools are to be run into the well.

Pressure Locks
Considerable problems are caused by attempting to open the valves with pressure
locked in between the gates and seats. This may occur during pressure testing. This
pressure must be relieved by either:

1. “Stinging” the valve through the body filler port using a tool specially supplied by
McEvoy. NOTE: This must be done with extreme caution.

2. Bleeding off the pressure through a port in the bonnet of the valve (if available).

3. Equalizing pressure on the both sides by applying the equal pressure of the high
side to the low side. This allows the valve to open freely and pressure may be
safely bled off at the pump.

Once the pressure testing is complete the tree should be left in the following condition
prior to the opening of the downhole tools.

• Swab valve closed

• Kill valve closed (unless otherwise directed)

Surface Well Testing

• Flowline valve open

• Master valve(s) open

Seat Replacement
The removal of worn seats must be done with a seat extraction tool and not with a bar,
screwdriver, etc. If the seats are removed improperly, the counter bores which receives
the seats may be distorted “oval” or scarred. This will cause further problems when the
new seats are pressed home.

The size of the counter bore can be found stamped under the bonnet of the valves. If
any machining is done, these sizes must be updated.

The sealing compound chambers in the seats must be filled. This is done by closing the
valves 4-5 turns and then injecting the sealing compound through the appropriate
grease injection ports. Each time the valve is functioned the displacement of the stem
and seat helps to inject a small amount of sealing compound onto the face of the valve
to aid in sealing.

Grease the valve stem bearings through the grease nipples in the valve bonnets.

To prevent damage when shipping, put protectors (i.e. other half of union complete
with bull plug for pressure testing) over the union connections.

Post Test Inspection

A full inspection of assembly should be made between test periods. Any maintenance
and repair should be carried out using recommended maintenance procedures.

End of Job Status

An end of job status report must be submitted to Maintenance Supervisor.

Actuator Types on Surface Test Trees

The common actuator types fitted to EXPRO’s Flowhead are:

• Baker CAC

Surface Well Testing

• Anson

• McEvoy


All of these actuators are proven and reliable providing adequate levels of care and
maintenance is administered to the internal components. All of these actuator types
will provide satisfactory closure times in accordance with API RP 14C. Quick Exhausts
can be used to speed up closure times if necessary.

Stiff Joint
A stiff joint is a heavy walled joint of tubing that is placed in the upper section of the test
string. This joint replaces thin wall tubing sections which run through the rotary table
and below the surface test tree. These joints provide extra support, safety and stability
to the control head if the elevators are removed.

Check Valve
A check valve is installed on the Kill side of Surface Test Tree. The valve is designed to
prevent well effluent from flowing back through the kill line to the kill pumps.

Use of the check valve allows the kill valve to be left open and enables the kill pump to
be left on-line at all times. This action enhances emergency kill operation response
since personnel are not required to ascend the STT in a riding belt to manipulate valves
prior to commencing operations.

The check valve is designed with a lock-out pin to be used during pressure testing
operations. When the pin is screwed in, it will keep the check valve flapper off seat,
allowing the test liquid to flow back through the check valve. This allows pressure to be
bled off at the kill pump manifold rather than the choke manifold immediately before
testing is to begin.

Surface Well Testing

Lower Master Valve

The lower master valve is an optional item which can be run below the swivel. This
valve provides added security because it can be closed manually or by remote control
should a leak develop in the swivel assembly or STT. The lower master valve can also be
used when pressure testing the above rotary table installation; this prevents test fluid
and pressure from entering the test string.

Chemical Injection Sub

In some tests, chemical injection is required in the surface test tree. The chemical injection sub
is designed to allow chemicals to be injected into the vertical upper test string. When the well is
flowing, the chemical mixes with the well effluent and flows through the surface equipment.
When the well is shut-in, the chemicals fall down the test string.

Coflexip Hoses
Coflexip hoses are primarily used as kill and flow
lines from the surface test tree wings. They are
used for 10,000 and 15,000 psi applications to
replace hard piping. In most cases this is due to
the movement of the rig. By using 40 foot long
flexible hoses instead of hard piping, many
connections are eliminated and no sharp corners
are present which could be subject to flow

Coflexip line is composed of:

Surface Well Testing

• A length of flexible pipe

• Two end-fittings complete with lifting/handling collars

The whole surface, both inside and outside of a standard end-fitting is protected against
corrosion, wear, abrasion and handling by a protective covering of Ni-Kanigen. If the
inner coating is damaged or cracked, traces of corrosion and rust may be visible and an
inspection should be completed. The end-fittings consist of:

• The termination which ensures the seal and mechanical attachment

of the end-fitting to the flexible pipe. To move the line, use a
shackled sling through the eyes of the lifting collar.

The termination bears stamped markings indicating:

◊ Manufacturer ◊ Internal diameter

◊ Serial number ◊ Length of line
◊ Application ◊ Stamp of certifying authority
◊ Working Pressure ◊ Date of factory pressure Test
◊ Test pressure

• The connector to allow the connection of the end-fitting to any other

connector. All types of connectors can be supplied with any end-
fitting, the most frequent being API hubs, hammer unions and


Surface Well Testing

construction of the Coflexip consists of ‘non-bonded’ structure of seven layers.

1. The thermoplastic inner liner makes the pipe leak proof. This layer limits the
upper temperature and the chemical compatibility of the line. Standard lines are
rated from -20oC to 100oC with a Rilsan material liner. The inner liner of high
temperature, corrosive lines is Coflon and good between -20oC and 130oC.

2. The zeta spiral layer takes the hoop stress due to the internal pressure and
external loads. This layer limits the minimum bending radius of the line (roughly
12 x ID). If the limit is exceeded, irreversible damage to the line will occur,
leading to perforation of the inner tube when under pressure. Over bending
generally occurs during handling of the line near the end-fitting. Due to the
heavy nature of the line, never allow the Coflexip to support its own weight.
Thus ensure that while manipulating the Coflexip during installation, a length of
about 3 feet behind the termination is not bent.

3. The flat steel layer reinforces the zeta layer under high pressure.

4. The intermediate thermoplastic sheath improves the dynamic behavior of the

line with its anti-friction material. This layer is not leakproof.

5. The double cross wound steel armor wires resist axial load caused by internal
pressure and external axial loads. This layer also provides the line with its
resistance to torsion.

6. The thermoplastic outer sheath is leakproof and therefore protects the armor
wires against corrosion and the line against hydrostatic external pressure.

7. The stainless steel outer wrap protects the plastic outer sheath against
mechanical damage caused by impacts, wear, handling, etc.

Note: A flexible steel line is a mixed construction of steels and thermoplastics. Heat
diffusion which occurs during welding may cause irreversible damage leading to a
dangerous line.

Surface Well Testing

Coflexip has determined that certain operating conditions may be a source of early
failure of a line. The three main parameters are exposure of relatively long periods to:

• High Temperature
• High Pressure
• High CO 2 Concentrations with H 2 S Present
The following limitations should apply:

Pressure Temperature Concentrations

15,000 psi 130oC CO 2 + H 2 S < 10%

10,000 psi 130oC CO 2 + H 2 S < 30%

10,000psi 110oC CO 2 + H 2 S < 50%

Note: In the event that any such line is known to have been exposed to conditions
above these limits for 48 hours, the line should be removed from service and

Compatibility of High Temperature Rated Lines

Corrosion Resistance of Coflon Inner Lining


0oF 75oF 150oF 200oF 250oF

-18oC 24oC 66oC 93oC 121oC

Crude Oil 100% S S S S S

Methane 100% S S S S S

Hydrogen Sulfide < 20% S S S S S

Diesel 100% S S S S S

Methanol 100% S S S S S

Surface Well Testing

Zinc Bromide Saturated S S S S ?

Calcium Bromide Saturated S S S S ?

Calcium Chloride Saturated S S S S ?

Xylene (100%) 15 Min - 24 H S S S S S

Hydrochloric Acid 15 - 30% S S S S S

Hydrofluoric Acid 3 - 7.5% S S S S ?

Sodium Hydroxide 50% S S L NR NR

S = Satisfactory L = Limited

NR = Not Recommended F = Forbidden

Operational Uses of the Coflexip Hose

It is made up of several layers of materials for strength and durability

Surface Well Testing
Minimum Bend Radius (MBR = 12 x ID).

It has two main uses:

• Allows for the movement of the rig up and down

• Has no sharp bends should solids be returned

The Coflexip hoses are normally connected from the STT and hang down to the rigfloor, where
they are then connected to the Choke Manifold or fixed pipe. Make surethat the bend radius of
the Coflexip is not out with the designated guidelines. Thehoses should be supported where

Surface Safety Valve

Since the consequences of uncontrolled flow are so severe,
especially offshore, well safety systems are important
enough that they are sometimes mandated by law. Safety
systems must be fail-safe. Failure of the energy source or
any component must cause the system to shut in the well at
one or more points.

Safety systems sense conditions and shut in the well or wells

when conditions deviate from the preset limits. Shutting in the well averts further
danger due to:

• Uncontrolled flow from ruptured pressure vessel

• Fueling any fire that has started or may start

• Overfilling vessels with fluid and/or pressure

Most surface safety valves are reverse-acting gate valves with piston-type actuators.
Control pressure applied to the piston pushes the gate to the down/open position.
Valve body pressure against the lower stem area moves the gate to the up/closed

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position. Usually a spring is used to close the valve if valve body pressure is not present.
Valve body pressure and piston/stem area ratio determine the control pressure

The larger the area the less control pressure needed to maintain the valve open.

A hydraulic actuator valve is normally located on the flow wing of the EXPRO Surface
Test Tree. However, when a non-EXPRO tree is being used or test conditions dictate, a
hydraulic or pneumatic actuated valve can be located on the flowline close to the
wellhead, upstream of the choke manifold.

SSV usually have an actuator stem protruding from a threaded boss on the actuator
cylinder head for several reasons.

• Stem position gives a visual position indication.

• A manually operated jack can be attached to open a closed valve.

• A lockout cap or fusible cap can keep the valve open during wireline operations
or when the control system is down.

The power required by most pilots and safety valves is pneumatic or hydraulic. Many
production safety systems are pneumatically powered because compressed air or gas is
readily available. Care should be taken by EXPRO to avoid using rig air supply as this is
sometimes intermittent. Power is consumed only when a valve is being opened; most
of the time the system is static. However, any accidental shut off of air supply will shut-
in the well. Most EXPRO actuators are hydraulic because of size and efficiency. These
systems require independent supply.

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Valve control is performed by hydraulic/pneumatic or pneumatic/pneumatic relays.

These relays permit the use of either bleed (two-way) or block and bleed (three-way)
sensors. Relays are reset manually to put the system back in service after a closure.
This safety feature ensures that personnel are present to determine that the cause for
closure has been corrected and that reopening will not be hazardous.

Conditions that are possibly monitored include:

• Pressure - high or low

• Levels - high or low

• Fire

• Toxic or flammable gas mixtures

• Manual controls at exits and critical locations

In addition, the system can be adapted to land or offshore operations incorporating

subsurface safety devices.

On receipt of equipment on location a general inspection of the actuator valve should
be made. This inspection should include:

• Visual inspection of unions for damage. These unions may be Weco connections,
Graylock connections or flanged connections. Ensure threads are clean and
undamaged. Inspect sealing surfaces.

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• Visual check on main body for signs of structural damage likely to affect integrity
of assembly.

Two Types of valves are used:

Pneumatic Surface Safety

Valve. (Operated with air
only.) This is normally used
in land jobs.

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Operational Uses of Surface Safety Valve (SSV)

Due to more awareness to the possibility of damage to the environment, by the discharge of
fluid to the atmosphere, surface safety valves are now being incorporated into the systems to
isolate the equipment from the surface test tree.
In some areas of the world this is the only safety shut in fitted. This is mostly on land jobs, where
a permanent Christmas tree has been fitted. It is connected to the main ESD system and is
operated when shutdown occurs.

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SSV Specification SSV Type 1 SSV Type 2 SSV Type 3

Service H2S (Fluid Class DD) H2S (Fluid Class DD) H2S (Fluid Class DD)

Working Pressure (PSI) 5000 10,000 15,000

Temperature -4 F to 250 F, 350 F for 12 hr

ID (in.) 3.0 3.0 3.0

Inlet 3 in. 1002 F 3 in. 1502 F 3 in. API 6BX Flange

Outlet 3 in. 1002 M 3 in. 1502 M 3 in. API 6BX Flange

Length 3.7 ft 4.3 ft 4.3 ft

Height 3.9 ft 3.9 ft 4.1 ft

Width 2.0 ft 2.0 ft 2.0 ft

Weight (lbm) 1100 1188 1450

Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD Systems)

ESD Systems are made up of several pieces of equipment:

ESD Control Panel Surface Test Tree

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Shut Down Pilots

Liquid Level Pilots

ESD Shutdown
Shutdown Valve
Stations Pressure Pilots
If offshore this valve will be found on the Surface Test Tree, Flow Wing
Side. It isthe primary means of shutting in at the surface. If onshore then
there may be a shut-in valve on theChristmas tree or if not then we can
use a SSV (Surface Safety

In many cases now the SSV is use as a secondary surface shut-in. The ESD
Shutdown valve is connected to the ESD Panel by a hydraulic hose,
offshore andsometimes onshore by an air hose when using Pneumatic
Surface Safety Valve.

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Pull Switch on Panel

Pilot on SSV

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Pull Station

ESD Control
Panel Hook-
Take the following actions when hooking up ESD

1. Connect air supply to control panel and

turn on air.

2. Check air supply pressure to panel is at

least +/- 100 psig.

3. Spot ESD remote stations and tie into

control panel ESD loop using 6mm
polythene liner.

Note: This polythene liner must be the coloured black variety and not the see-through
type as this is biodegradable. In Holland ¼” low pressure hose with JIC fittings may be

4. Tie in high pressure pilot valve (if applicable) to ESD loop as per figure above.

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5. Check that there is sufficient oil in the oil reservoir, if not, top up with a suitable
hydraulic oil.

6. Loosely connect hydraulic line from panel to quick exhaust (if fitted) on actuator,
else connect line directly to actuator.

7. Purge line from control panel to quick exhaust/actuator and secure.

8. For Baker model “C” actuators, apply +/- 2000 psig hydraulic pressure to
actuator and remove cap and disk that holds stem down to prevent damage
during transit.

9. Verify operation of hydraulic valve(s) by cycling fully open to fully closed using
the control panel and then re-open.

10. Verify operation of safety valve(s) by using remote pull stations.

11. Open safety valve and maintain control pressure in accordance with the charts
for the type of actuator.

Pressure Testing
Prior to the test program commencing the actuator valve assembly will be pressure
tested to ensure the integrity of the valve body, valve and connections. See procedures
headed ‘EXPRO Surface Test Tree’ for guidelines on pressure testing actuator valve
when part of the STT assembly.

The procedure for testing a hydraulic actuator valve on a flowline is a follows. This test
will normally be conducted in conjunction with tests on the choke manifold.

Prior to all pressure testing:

• Erect warning barriers around test area.

• Announce over P.A. system that pressure testing is about to commence.

• Ensure all non-essential personnel are clear of test area.

1. Open hydraulic actuator valve. Control line pressure ~1,500 psi.

(Choke manifold valves open).

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2. Commence pumping slowly to flush lines.

3. Stop pumping.

4. Close actuator valve. Control line pressure zero.

5. Commence pumping slowly to test pressure. Visually inspect all

connections for sign of leaks.

Note: Report leaks immediately. Do not attempt any remedial action while
there is pressure applied.

6. Once at test pressure isolate pump, if possible, and monitor for test

7. Bleed pressure via pump vent to zero.

8. Open hydraulic actuator valve.

The flowline actuator valve is normally in the open position for the duration of the well
test. A pressure dependent on the size of the valve and ratio of piston will be required
in the control line between the hydraulic actuator and the ESD (Emergency Shut Down)
control panel. Some actuators may require even more control pressure to maintain an
open at high flow pressures (Note: always refer to actuator specifications). Care should
therefore be taken in the running of this control line. The actuator valve is the primary
element in the ESD system.

Post Test Inspection

A full inspection of the assembly should be made between test periods. Any
maintenance and repair should be carried out using recommended maintenance

Quick Exhaust

Depending on the time it takes for the valve to shut in, it may be necessary to fit aquick exhaust.

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Quick exhausts can either be hydraulic or pneumatic. They allow for the quickrelease from the
ESD valve of operating fluid or air, depending of the type of valve.This can vastly reduce the time
it takes for the valve to close.

ESD Panel

ESD Panel is usually positioned close to the

Emergency Shutdown Valve. Thisallows for
much quicker operation. The panel works
with Air over Hydraulics. Thismeans that air
is controlling the hydraulics which means it
works perfectly as anemergency shutdown

The panel comes in many different styles,

above is only one of the styles. It isdesigned
so that there is an air pilot system that can be run to different areas of therig. From any of these
positions the air can be vacated from the pilot system whichoperates the panel shutting in the
ESD Valve.

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1. Connect the inlet air to the panel, making sure that the supply is enough tooperate the panel,
normally around 90 to 130 psi.
NOTE: Some panels only allow 100psi maximum pressure. You must check thisbefore fitting area
to panel and regulate as necessary.
2. Check the level of hydraulic fluid in the panel. You should start with a fulltank.
3. Connect the hydraulic hose from the panel to the ESD Valve. Make sure thatthe hose and
fittings are of the right pressure rating.
4. Turn the pilot system to override and open the valve.
5. Operate the emergency shut in on the panel. This will evaluate the amount oftime it takes for
the valve to shut when relieving the operating fluid back to thepanel. You can then decide
whether to fit a quick exhaust.
6. Connect up the pilot line/s to the panel and run to ESD shutdown stations,pilots etc.
Shutdown stations should be strategically placed around the Well
Test Equipment and in places like the rig floor and if necessary at thebeginning of the burner

Air inlet
Pilot Air Outlet Hydraulic Outlet & return

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7. Once all the stations and pilot have been fitted you can add air to the system.This will
normally be around 30 psi. Sometimes however it may be more orless, this is dependent on the
shutdowninstruments fitted. If you have a leakof air in the system it may be necessary to use a
mixture of soapy water todetermine where the leak is situated.

8. Each shutdown station must be checked for reaction time on the valve. Themaximum shut-in
time for the valve is 10 seconds. Should the pilot systemtake too long to shut in then it may be
necessary to vacate the air from thesystem quicker. You may have to fit pneumatic quick
exhausts within thesystem to allow the system to drop air pressure sooner.

9. It may be necessary at times to lock the ESD Valve open. This could be dueto Wire Line or Coil
Tubing Operations. A cap on the ESD Valve may have tobe fitted.

Shutdown Station, Pilots etc.

Shutdown stations can consist of PULL, PUSH OR TURN to operate.

HI/LO Pressure and Liquid Pilots

Pressure: There are many different types available here are some of them.

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Hi- Low pilot

Where would you position Pressure HI/LO pilots:

1. Upstream of Choke.
2. Downstream of Choke
3. Separator
4. Tanks
5. Diverter Manifolds
6. Any place where you have a chance of over/under pressure.

Liquid Pilots: They also come in many different styles, here are a couple.

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Where would you position Liquid HI/LO pilots:

1. Separators
2. Tanks
3. Anywhere where you have a chance of high or low levels.

Chemical Injection Pumps

Operational Uses for

Chemical Injection Pumps

Injection of chemicals is
often necessary for many reasons:
MAC 24 Pump Haskel Pump TEXSTEAM PUMP
Chemicals are normally injected either at the STT or Choke Manifold.

Sand Filters

The sand filter is used to remove the sand and other solid particles
form the well effluent to prevent erosion of downstream
equipment typical applications for the unit completion clean-up and
maximum sand free test rates. The filter is located after the well
flowhead upstream of the choke manifold. It has two filter pots and
interconnected with a bypass valve and bypass drain.

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The frame mounted pots have telescopic lifting support to replace the filters. Based on the
50%solids slurry with a solid specific gravity of 2.7, the maximum sand concentration for a
continuous operation will be approximately 10 lb/min (4.5 kg/min).
Standard Filter sizes available: 100, 200, 400 Microns.

Dual Pod Sand Filter

Cyclonic Desander

The frame-mounted cyclonic desander unit is

a solids removal unit that consists of:

• Desander vessel that contains a

single cyclone insert
• Sand accumulator vessel.

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The entire well stream is fed into the desander vessel, where it is directed into the
Cyclonic separation of the sand takes place in the insert, with sand falling down into the
accumulator. The insert size is selected to meet the specified design conditions for a range of
flow rates, fluid properties and sand loads. The desander and accumulator vessels are separated
by a double block-and-bleed ball valve system, and the accumulator is also drained through a
similar arrangement.

The desander is left on-line during the purging process. The solids separated during purging
collect in the holding space beneath the insert in the desander vessel and are passed to the
accumulator once the accumulator is reopened to the process. Projects for which the cyclonic
desander is usually specified include underbalance drilling and four-phase separation processes.

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Operational Uses of Sand Filters

There are two basic reasons for having a sand filter:

1. Solids produced directly from the formation

2. Solids that have been either introduced to the Well Bore or Formation.

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Solids produced directly from the formation

Sand is a problem in many oil and gas fields throughout the world. This is directlyrelated to the
accelerated production of water, the unconsolidated nature of somereservoirs, and the
properties of some heavy and viscous crudes. As a result, manyoperators are experiencing large
quantities of sand in the well fluids, accompaniedby problems or erosion and solids
accumulation, and/or equipment blockage.
Solids that have been either introduced to the Well Bore or Formation

These solids could have been introduced during the drilling i.e. Drilling Mud. They could also be
Frac sand. This method is used to enhance the permeability of theformation.

Pipe Work

They come in many different sizes and lengths and Fittings. The most commonconnections are:
Weco-206, 602 and 1502.

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How do we identify the pressure rating, standard of service and endconnections?

SWT pipe

All well testing flow pipe, assemblies and data headers have a direct impact upon the
safety of personnel. Therefore, the piping should be subject to certain testing and
inspection procedures before being placed into service. All well test piping should
comply with ANSI B31.3 and API-6A. It should comply with NACE MR-01-75 if necessary,
and if required, Det Norske Veritas (DNV) or American Bureau of Shipping (ABS).

Ensure enough of correct size and pressure rated pipe is available for the surface rig-up.
Piping may consist of straight lengths, elbows, swivels, hoses, and crossovers.
Additional assemblies may be needed to reduce flow cutting and erosion in the flow
system: target elbows, block tees, and lead targets. Grease swivels, check unions and
seals. The pipe should be pressure tested to working pressure prior to sending on a job.

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Pressure Ratings of Unions

Pressure Rating (PSI)

Standard Service Sour Service

Figure Number Cold Working Test Cold Working Test

100 1,000 1,500 NA NA

200 2,000 3,000 NA NA

206 2,000 3,000 NA NA

600 6,000 9,000 NA NA

602 6,000 9,000 6,000 9,000

1002 10,000 15,000 7,500 12,000

1502 15,000 22,500 10,000 15,000

2002 20,000 30,000 NA NA

2202 NA NA 15,000 22,500

End Connections

End Connections are identified with a colour coding system. Do not assume that if the
ends are not coloured you know what they are. You must always check.

Type of Service

Standard service pipework does not have any colour on the pipe.

Sour Service will have a green band on the centre of the pipe.

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All of our pipework should be rated to Sour Service. Do not assume that it is, always
check if there is no colour band on the pipe. Report this to your supervisor.

Pressure Rating

Pressure rating is identified in three ways:

• Stamped clearly on the pipe

• Marked on the metal band on the pipe
• Welded on the wing.

If all three are not shown on the piece of pipework do not assume that it is of a certain
pressure always check. Report this to your supervisor.

Remember! Always flow into the thread.

NOTE: It is imperative that a piece of pipe should adhere to all of the above

Other types of connections on Pipework

Clamp connectors are a self –energizing, metal-to-metal seal designed to withstand the
severest conditions of working environment such as corrosive and erosive elements and
high and low temperatures. They are a high pressure, low weight alternate to flanges
and once made up properly are comparable to a welded joint in sealing integrity.

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Each connector has three components:

1. A metal seal ring

2. Metal Hubs
3. Clamp assembly

Assembly of Techlok clamp

1. Hub and seal ring seating surfaces must be clean and free from foreign matter.
Damage to hub seats is not acceptable and should be rectified before assembly.
Align the hubs so that the seal ring can be installed between the hubs.
2. Usually seal rings are coated which acts as lubricant during make up. If required
light oil or MoS2 can be used. Take care that no solid particles are present in the
lubrication. Install the seal ring in the sealing surface of the hubs.

Note: The seal ring must be able to rock when inserted into the hub. If it does not
replace it with a new one.

3. Install the clamps around the hubs. Apply lubrication to the hub clamp contact
area to reduce friction. This will aid assembly.
4. Insert the stud bolts into the clamp ear holes. Install the nuts, ensuring the
spherical surfaces of the nuts and the clamps are in proper position for mating.
Lubrication of the studs and the spherical faces of the nuts and the clamp is
5. Tighten the studs in a criss-cross pattern, to keep the spacing between the clamp
halves approximately equal.
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6. To properly pre-load the connector against the gasket loads, fluid pressure
loading, and thermal shock loading and pipe reaction loads, the studs should be
torqued to the values shown in the table below.
7. At full make-up the hub faces will shoulder flush against the seal ring rib. The
seal ring rib will prevent over torqueing & seal damage.


1. For all bolt sizes a torque wrench is recommended to ensure that the minimum
pre-load values are met. Assembly should include jarring the clamps during the
bolting process, i.e. a sound blow to the back of the clamp with a soft hammer
until bolt torque does not change after jarring.

2. To prevent permanent damage from distortion to other components of the

connection, maximum torque applied should not exceed twice the values shown
in the table. The connector should not be tightened while under pressure
loading or severe mechanical loads.

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Disassembly of Techlok clamps

1. Ensure all pressure in process lines is bled off to zero, prior to breaking out lines.
(Always check! Never take for granted that the line has been depressurised.)

2. Slacken nuts but do not remove from the studs, then slacken clamp segments.
Gradually run nuts back along the studs until just loose. If clamp segments
remain bound onto hubs, then both segments must be slackened by hitting the
inner face of the clamp with a suitable hammer (soft headed).

3. Once certain no trapped pressure, remove studs and clamp connection.

Different types of flange Connections

There are two type of flanges used, API and ASA (ANSI). You will find the type of flange
normally stamped on the outer edge.

API Flanges
Working pressures of equipment components were at one time referred to by an API
series designation such as series 600 – meaning a working pressure of 2000 psi. These
series designations have been discontinued and replaced with more easily remembered
terms indicating the actual allowable cold-working pressures in PIS.
Standard API cold working pressure ratings, test pressure ratings and the corresponding
former series designation are list in the table below.

The maximum working pressure is the maximum operating pressure to which the
equipment should be subjected. The hydrostatic test pressure is the static body test
pressure imposed by the manufacturer to prove adequacy in design, materials and

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workmanship. Equipment should never be subjected to pressures above the

recommended working pressure.
ASA (ANSI Flanges)
The ASTM (American Society of Testing Materials) define the specifications of steel used
for the manufacture of ASA (ANSI) flanges.

ASA (ANSI) flanges are manufactured in steels of varying quality:

1. carbon steel

2. stainless steel

3. nickel steel

They come in the following series of sizes and the following pressures:
ASA 150 275 psi
ASA 300 720 psi
ASA 400 960 psi
ASA 600 1440 psi
ASA 900 2160 psi
ASA 1500 3600 psi
ASA 2500 6000 psi
To work out the pressure rating of a flange type you must multiply the ASA size by 2.4.
This however does not apply to the ASA 150 flange size.
When describing a flange the following should be indicated:

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1. Nominal diameter

2. API or ASA

3. Number of series

4. Type of flange

5. Type of face or gasket

6. Bore if necessary

7. Threading if necessary

8. Steel type for ASA (ANSI) flange

Types of gaskets used with different flanges

There are two common types of sealing faces on flanges:

1. Raised Face (RF)

2. Ring joint (RTF)

The raised face uses a flat gasket, common type spiral wound, for sealing between
flange faces, whereas the ring joint uses a soft metal ring for sealing. The ring joint gives
a better sealing when using high pressures or large diameter piping.

Spiral wound

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ASA flanges are normally raised face flanges and will normally use the spiral wound
gasket type sealing. However they can come with ring joint sealing. In this case care
must be taken so that the proper pressure rating is used.

API flanges are always Ring Joint seals.

There are four types of seals:

1. R oval

2. R octagonal

3. RX

4. BX

How do you tighten an Ring Gasket Flange?

Use the following technique to tighten the bolts on the flange. Starting at position 12
o’clock work across then to 3 and across. Follow the diagram below.

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Once you have been round all the bolts you will find that position 1 will be slack. You
must go round several times until when you go back to position 1 there is no slackness.
If you have used a ring gasket and then removed it, you cannot re-use it. It must be a
new ring gasket.

End Connections

End Connections are identified with a colour coding system. Do not assume that ifthe ends are
not coloured you know what they are. You must always check.


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Colour Coding for SWT pipes

Type of Service

Standard service pipework does not have any colour on the pipe.
Sour Service will have a green band on the centre of the pipe.
All of our pipework should be rated to Sour Service. Do not assume that it is, alwayscheck if
there is no colour band on the pipe. Report this to your supervisor.

Pressure Rating

Pressure rating is identified in three ways:

• Stamped clearly on the pipe
• Marked on the metal band on the pipe
• Welded on the wing.

If all three are not shown on the piece of pipework do not assume that it is of acertain pressure
always check. Report this to your supervisor.

Remember! Always flow into the thread

NOTE: It is imperative that a piece of pipe should adhere to all of the abovecharacteristics.

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Thickness Testing of Pipework

During certain operations it is necessary to take thickness checks on pipework. Thiswould be any
time solids are to be flowed back.

How often should we carry out a thickness check?

During these operations it will be necessary to carry out thickness checks ondesignated spots
where erosion could occur. This should take place at least onceper shift.

Where should I take these thickness tests during operations?

Initially a thickness test should be carry out on each spot before flowing occurs and acheck
made against initial thickness of pipework. The place where the thicknessshould be measured
would be any position where an increase in velocity of thematerial passing through the
pipework could occur. This would be on elbows, teesand bends.

Thickness Check
to be carried out

It is necessary that these thicknesses are recorded and kept for reference purposes.
Make sure that you use the right form for submission.

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How to carry out a thickness Check

Hand held ultrasonic thickness testers come in many different styles, but they allwork in the
same way, by sending out an ultrasonic pulse which bounces back to theinstrument which then
measures the response time, and thereby determines thethickness of the metal. Some thickness
Testers as in the one on the previous pagecan take into consideration the paint on the pipe. If
the one you are using does notthen you must clean off the paint to the bare metal before

Each tester comes with its own calibration block. Before switching on you must havethe
calibration block ready with some ultrasonic gel placed on each thickness of theblock. Switch on
the tester and press calibration, then place the probe on each ofthe thicknesses of the block it
should read that thickness.

When you are ready to do the pipework then place a spot of gel on each position thatyou are
going to test and then place the probe on that position. The gel acts as abuffering agent allowing
for good communication between the probe and pipe.If you do not have any ultrasonic gel you
can use a mixture of silicon gel and solvent.(Not too much solvent) 10 – 1 mix usually works

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Pipe Rack

The pipes are racked up in a pipe rack for saving the pipes from damage (threads) or any
accumulation of dust in the thread or wing parts. Care has to be taken about the threads as it is
the main source of connection. Once there has been a damage the pipe or elbows or crossovers
cannot be used. Pipe baskets are used to store the elbows, crossovers and the hoses.

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Data Headers
Why do we use Data Headers?

1. During a well test it is necessary

to accurately measure and
record the pressure and
temperature of the fluids
produced before they pass
through the choke manifold by
both manual and electronic

2. It is also desirable to have the Data Header

ability to inject chemicals,
such as hydrate inhibitors,
de-emulsifiers, anti-foam
agents etc. Into the flowline
and have a point for sampling
from which the well effluents
can be drawn for analysis.

3. Hi-low pressure pilots can be

fitted upstream and
downstream for protection should we have an overpressure/rupture in the

5,000 and 10,000 psi data headers are normally constructed of line pipe tapped and
fitted with ½” NPT half-couplings as shown in the drawing. ¾ “couplings are provided to
allow for fitting of temperature probe (downstream of the choke).

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For connecting instruments to the data header they should be double isolated with two
valves. Any connections of above 10,000 psi must be autoclave.
On high pressure wells only one instrument per port should be fitted.

Operational Uses of Data Headers

Data Headers are fitted upstream and downstream of the choke manifold. Thisallows for the
necessary instrumentation to be fitted.

What Instrumentation?

Upstream: Pressure Gauges, Pressure Recorders, Pressure Transducers, Chemical

Injection point, Sand monitoring, Deadweight Testers and Hi/Low Pressure Pilots.

Downstream: Pressure Gauges, Temperature Gauges, Pressure and Temperature

Transducers, Sampling.

When fitting all instrumentation to the data headers upstream, they must havedouble isolation.

Fittings on data headers if over 10,000psi must be autoclave.

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It is used to measure the basic sediments and water (BS&W) which helps in finding the total
volume of oil and water produced for a period of time with the total recovery.
𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵&𝑊𝑊 = (𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 ÷ 𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇 𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 × 100) %

Centrifuge Tube Centrifuge

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The pH of the water produced must always be taken care

off when entering into the testing setup. The pH should
be 7 in its scale (neutral). The pH cannot not be less than
7 as it is acidic in nature or more than 7 as its base in
nature which will affect the strength of the material
(pipes and equipment) and reduce the life of the
equipment. pH Paper

Usually pH papers are used for measuring the pH. Advanced digital pH meters are available to
measure the pH.


The salinity of water can be measured by an instrument called

refractometer. Salinity is the amount of salt content present in the
water. It is important to know the salinity of the water as to take
measures on if there are scale formations due to the salt in the well

tubing or production lines. Refractometer

Working procedure:
 Apply a small sample of distilled water to the prism end of the refractometer. Close lid.
While viewing towards a light source, use the zero adjustment wrench to line up the
base line with the 0 scale.
 Apply a small sample of produced water to the prism end of the refractometer. Close lid.
While viewing towards a light source, determine the point on the scale that a color
change occurs.

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Fluid & Flow Measurements

The information obtained from a production test is used to evaluate the well's
performance. The information is basically pressures, temperatures, rates and
composition of the produced well effluents. Information is the essence of the test. The
equipment hook up, controlling the flow, the wastage of valuable reservoir products,
the inevitable resulting pollution, supplies, work and costs are carried out only to enable
the gathering of the flow performance information. The equipment must function
properly and the operations must be carried out in a safe manner with the primary
objective of the test being to obtain and record reliable information at regular time

To do this, we must be sure that all measurement instruments are properly connected
and calibrated. The tours of observing and recording information must be carried out
deliberately, on time, without haste, and all pertinent additional observations must be
recorded clearly and briefly in the notes. As the test progresses, the specialist reviews
the accumulated information, by use of preliminary plots and calculations, in order to
continuously assess the well's performance and to help detect early indications of
possible difficulties with the test equipment or the well.

The following should be noted on the test report at the appropriate times or frequently
checked for proper operation of the test equipment.

Measurements upstream of choke

1. Bottom hole pressures

2. Wellhead pressures

3. Casing pressure

4. Bottom hole temperature

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5. Wellhead temperature

6. ESD (emergency shut-down) supply pressure

7. Chemical injection rate (if applicable)

Choke Sizes
1. Wellhead choke sizes

2. Manifold choke sizes

3. Heater choke sizes

Post Choke Measurements

1. Downstream pressure

2. Downstream temperature

3. Basic sediment and water (BS&W)

4. Mud weights

5. Liquid viscosity

6. Heater temperature

Fluid Measurements
1. Gas flow rate

• Separator static pressure

• Differential pressure

• Gas meter run temperature

• Gas gravity

• Orifice plate size

• Gas meter run size

• Hydrogen sulphide content of gas (if present)

• Atmospheric pressure and temperature

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2. Oil and/or condensate rate

• Oil meter readings

• Oil or condensate gravity

• Oil meter run temperature

• Shrinkage

• Oil BS&W

• Oil tank readings

3. Water rate

• Water meter readings

• Water salinity

• Water acidity, alkalinity

• Water tank readings

4. Gas / condensate / oil / water samples taken for analysis

Oil burner supply pressures

1. Oil supply

2. Air supply

3. Water supply

4. Igniter gas supply

1. Occurrence of anything pertinent to test

2. Test procedural changes

3. Rate estimates

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4. Equipment malfunctions

5. Safety issues

Well Effluent Tests

Each of the following measurements should be made at least twice during each choke
size, and possibly more, depending on customer requirements.

1) Oil

• Shrinkage

• Specific gravity (A.P.I. gravity)

2) Water

• Salinity

• Specific gravity

3) Gas

• Specific gravity

• H 2 S, CO 2 , etc. (if applicable)

Determining Shrinkage:
We covered this subject in Well Test Manual 1, this is therefore
a refresher on Shrinkage.

Measurement of Shrinkage with Shrinkage Tester

A diagram of the shrinkage tester is given. It operates as

1. Close liquid inlet valve.

2. Open liquid bleed valve.

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3. Close gas decompression valve.

4. Open gas inlet valve slowly, purge shrinkage tester by allowing gas to
flow out oil bleed valve.

5. Close oil bleed valve and allow shrinkage tester to reach separator

6. Open oil inlet valve and allow oil level to reach zero on graduated

7. Close oil inlet and gas inlet valves.

8. Record tester pressure and temperature.

9. Allow tester to decompress by opening decompression valve (this

should have a 1/64th calibrated orifice in the valve).

10. Leave it 30 minutes to decompress.

11. Read the shrinkage percentage and temperature.

12. Close decompression valve and drain oil.

Meter Test and Shrinkage Measurement in Tank

Should be taken at least once during each flow rate where conditions permit.

1. Divert flow to tank.

2. Allow stroke of oil dump valve to stabilize.

3. Simultaneously take initial tank and meter readings.

4. Wait (allow sufficient volume to significantly reduce any errors -

larger volume smaller the error). Note oil meter run temperature.

5. At the exact end time, take the final meter reading.

6. Simultaneously operate the tank bypass valve to direct oil to the

other tank compartment or the burner.

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7. Wait until the surface of the liquid in the tank is calm and there is no
froth i.e. until liquid is fully degassed. Take final tank level.

8. Take mean tank temperature. If necessary, take a sample to measure


9. Correction Meter Factor = Tank Final – Initial Volume x K(tank) /

Meter Final – Initial Volume x K(meter)

NOTE: The above applies to an atmospheric test tank and the meter factor calculated in
this way will include shrinkage.

NOTE: A pressurized vessel should be depressurized to atmospheric pressure to

calibrate meters accurately.

Other Measurements
We covered all the following measurements in Well Test 1, and therefore for any information
regarding the following, please refer to that manual.
H 2 S and CO 2 Sampling
Oil API Gravity
Gas Gravity

The only two we never covered in Well Test Manual 1 are Liquid weight (mud weight) and
Viscosity. These are very seldom carried out and therefore not common in occurrence.

Determining Mud, Water Density

Primarily used during clean-up operations the mud scale provides a means of
determining the density of a mud or water. The normal scale available is used for 8-18
pounds per gallon fluid.

Surface Well Testing

The simple procedure is to fill the scale's cup with the liquid sample and replace the lid
allowing some sample to squeeze out the vent. After wiping off the cup's exterior place
the scale on the base's fulcrum rest. Move the rider until the scale is in balance, as
determined by the spirit level. Read the density at the edge of the rider nearest the

Determining Liquid Viscosity

The most common means of determining a mud viscosity (resistance to flow) in a field
location is the Marsh Funnel. The funnel is 6" in diameter at the top
and 12" long. A mesh screen fitted across one-half of the top removes
foreign material from the mud to be tested.

With a finger plugging the lower outlet, pour the sample through the
top screen until the level reaches the underside of the screen. Remove finger
immediately from outlet and measure the number of seconds for a quart of sample to
run out. Report funnel viscosity in seconds.

Note: Time for a quart of clean fresh water at 70oF is 26 (+.5) seconds.

Field Data
• Day and Time. Record date and time for each reading - for time use 24 hour

• Flow or shut in time. Use to record actual flow time or shut in time in hours.

Wellhead Data
• Wellhead temperature. Temperature of flow stream measured upstream of any

• Tubing pressure. Surface pressure of well measured upstream of any choke.

Surface Well Testing

• Casing pressure. Pressure of casing annulus recorded with the same frequency
as tubing pressure.

• Heater choke. A record of the choke(s) sizes used on the heater during the test.
Normally recorded in 64th inch increments.

• Manifold choke. A record of the choke sizes used on the manifold during the
test. Notation should be made as to type (positive or adjustable) and exact time
that any size change occurred.

Downhole Data
• BHP w/ depth. A record of bottom hole pressures during the test obtained from
a certain depth in the well, usually near the perforations.

• BHT w/ depth. A record of bottom hole temperatures during the test obtained
from a certain depth in the well, usually near the perforations.

Gas Metering
• Orifice size. The sizes of the orifice plates used during the course of the test.
Ensure the size is recorded accurately or inaccuracies in the gas rate will result.

• Static pressure. A record of the pressures at the separator's gas meter run,
downstream of the orifice plate.

• Temperature. This column is to record the temperature of the gas downstream

of the orifice on the gas meter run.

• Differential pressure. The difference of pressure measured across the orifice

plate in units of inches of water.

• Gas gravity. A record of the gas gravity as compared to air with a specific gravity
of 1. Usually measured by a Ranarex, its frequency will depend upon operational

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• %N 2 , %H 2 S, %CO 2 . The percentages of non-hydrocarbon constituents that will

be deducted from the calculated gas rates. Measurements are typically
determined by use of Dragger tubes or similar devices.

Oil or Condensate Metering

• #1 Tank. Used to record the readings from the primary oil or condensate tank.
Header should note whether barrels or inches are being registered. It is
extremely important that these readings are taken at exact time intervals or
significant errors could result.

• #2 Tank. Used to record the readings from the secondary oil or condensate tank.
Header should note whether barrels or inches are being registered. It is
extremely important that these readings are taken at exact time intervals or
significant errors could result.

• #1/#2 Oil temperature. This column is used to record the measured oil
temperatures at the volume measurement points. For meter readings, the
temperature should be obtained from the oil meter run and not from the
separator vessel or gas meter run. For tank readings, the temperature should be
an average tank temperature obtained during the tank strap.

• Oil gravity. This column is used to record the measured API gravity corrected to
60oF. If the gravity is not corrected to 60oF at the time of measurement with a
hydrometer, the temperature of the sample should be recorded.

• Meter reading. Used to record the readings from the primary oil or condensate
meter. Column is a running total of barrels being registered by the meter. It is
extremely important that these readings are taken at exact time intervals or
significant errors could result.

• W f . Weathering factor is 1 - shrinkage. Shrinkage is the amount of volume

reduction caused by changes in temperature and pressure from the separator

Surface Well Testing

conditions to the final stock tank conditions. Weathering factor is the amount of
oil remaining after shrinkage has occurred.

Example: After using a shrinkage tester, the shrinkage was determined to be 8%. The
weathering factor would therefore be .92.

W f = 1 - shrinkage

W f = 1 - .08

W f = .92

• BS&W. Basic sediment and water is measured by centrifuging a sample of oil

being metered and determining the amount of sediment and water as a
percentage. The oil BS&W should not be confused with the clean-up BS&W
obtained prior to separation, normally at the data header or choke manifold.
Each should be recorded in a different appropriate place.

Water Metering
• #1 Tank. Used to record the readings from the primary water tank. Header
should note whether barrels or inches are being registered. It is important that
these readings are taken at exact time intervals or significant errors could result.

• #2 Tank. Used to record the readings from the secondary water tank. Header
should note whether barrels or inches are being registered. It is important that
these readings are taken at exact time intervals or significant errors could result.

• Salinity. A record of the salinity of produced water indicating the degree of

formation water present. Value is obtained by titration, resistivity, and
refractometer or hydrometer method.

• Meter reading. Used to record the readings from the primary water meter.
Column is a running total of barrels being registered by the meter. It is
extremely important that these readings are taken at exact time intervals or

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significant errors could result. Since temperature has minimal effect on water's
thermal expansion, water temperature is not needed.

Corrected Oil Rate

Three forms of the corrected oil rate calculation exist since the location of oil
measurement will have different factors involved. If measurement is occurring at the oil
meters, a meter factor and shrinkage factor must be included. If measurement is
occurring at the tanks then the meter/shrinkage factor has already been included in the
volume reading and no further adjustment for those factors are necessary.

Abbreviations used in the Oil Calculation

Vt Volume Tank. Used to determine the C mf during each flow rate.

Vm Volume Meter. Used to determine the C mf during each flow rate.

K This factor corrects for volume changes caused by temperature changes above
or below the temperature designated as the standard temperature, usually 60oF.
The temperature used to make the correction is measured during the tank
strapping. If temperature varies at different levels, then an average is suitable.

Before locating the K value, the API gravity corrected to 60oF must first be
determined. Once this is achieved, the K factor can be located between the
appropriate API group and observed temperature. Errors will occur if the
hydrometer temperature is mistakenly used instead of the tank temperature.

C mf Correction for Meter Factor. This Factor correct the meter for temperature
above or below the standard temperature range and also corrects for shrinkage.

C mf= V t (Final reading) - V t (Initial reading) X K

V m (Final reading) - V m (Initial reading) X K

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1 - BSW/100 this factor is a means of converting the BS&W percentage to a non-BS&W

or remaining oil factor.
Example: Upon centrifuging a sample of oil obtained from the oil dump line, a
BS&W of 2% was measured. The factor for the remaining oil is .98.

(1 - BSW/100) = (1 - 2/100) = (1 - .02) = .98

Therefore, multiplying the measured volumes times .98 would discount the water and

Vo This volume is the volume of stock tank oil at standard conditions produced
during the time interval between successive meter readings. It is found by
multiplying the various factors times each other.

V o =V m x C mf x K x (1 - BSW/100)

Qo This corrected rate is achieved by converting the corrected oil volume (V o ) to a

daily rate STO BPD (stock tank oil barrels per day) by using a suitable
multiplication factor.

A corrected volume (V o ) produced in ‘x’ minutes would require a multiplication

factor of ‘y’ to determine a daily rate. Factor equals (24 x 60) / x.


15 96

30 48

60 24

120 12

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Calculation 1

C mf= V t (Final reading) - V t (Initial reading) X K

V m (Final reading) - V m (Initial reading) X K

V o =V m x C mf x K x (1 - BSW/100)

Q o = V o x Time factor

Note: The C mf is worked out this way when we use the tank to calculate the shrinkage (W f ). The
tank must be given enough time to allow for total shrinkage.

This would be the preferred method of calculating the oil rate as the shrinkage would be more

You must take the K factor into consideration when calculating the Volume Tank , as the
temperature in the Tank will more than likely be different from 60oF (Standard temperature
condition). This should be taken into consideration for the other calculations as well.

Calculation 2

In this calculation we use two other factors:

Mf This a meter factor and only takes into consideration the difference in fluid flowing
through the meter under standard conditions and not with shrinkage. The shrinkage is
calculated next.
M f = V t (Final reading) -V t (Initial reading) X K

V m (Final reading) - V m (Initial reading) X K

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Wf Weathering factor (Shrinkage Factor) is calculated by using a shrinkage tester situated

on the separator. (See earlier in this section on how to carry out a shrinkage test)

C mf = M f x W f (From this point on the calculation is the same as in Calculation 1)

Volume Oil = Volume Meter x C f x K factor (1-BSW/100)

Q oil = Volume oil x Time factor

Calculation 3

Calculation 3 is based on a situation when you are two phasing and only measuring gas and
liquid leaving the separator. (Not separating the oil and water).

In this case the only difference from Calculation 1 is that the BS&W is taken from downstream
side of the choke. All other calculations remain the same.

NOTE: Shrinkage is the biggest factor we take into consideration when calculating an oil rate.
If we are doing a calculation using the calibration tank to prove the M f then the shrinkage
done at the separator is not accurate because flowing to the tank we are continually losing gas
from the oil through the back pressure valve. We therefore have already some shrinkage.
Using the tank and taking the shrinkage from it, is the most accurate measurement.

Water Rates
Since water is virtually unaffected by changes in thermal expansion and shrinkage,
water volume readings do not require the same correction factors as oil. A meter factor
(M) may be necessary if the water meter is registering in error and tank readings are not
being used to measure the volumes produced.

Surface Well Testing

Water flow rate (Qw)

This rate is achieved by converting the water volume (V w ) since the previous reading to
a daily rate (BPD) by using a suitable multiplication factor.

A water volume (V w ) produced in ‘x’ minutes would require a multiplication factor of ‘y’
to determine a daily rate. Factor equals (24 x 60) / x.


15 96

30 48

60 24

120 12

Ratios are a convenient means of observing the trends of a well's potential and
deliverability. They are the prime indicators of phase changes occurring in the reservoir
or at surface. Ratios are determined by comparing volumes produced per volumes
produced or rates per rates. Possible ratios include:

GOR Gas Rate (SCF/D) / Oil Rate (BPD)

OGR Oil Rate (BPD) / Gas Rate (SCF/D)

WOR Water Rate (BPD) / Oil Rate (BPD)

OWR Oil Rate (BPD) / Water Rate (BPD)

GWR Gas Rate (SCF/D) / Water Rate (BPD)

WGR Water Rate (BPD) / Gas Rate (SCF/D)

GLR Gas Rate (SCF/D) / Oil + Water Rate (BPD)

LGR Oil + Water Rate (BPD) / Gas Rate (SCF/D)

Surface Well Testing

Note: Units used for ratios (such as SCF/D, MSCF/D or MMSCF/D) should result in a
significant answer. Example - Suppose the test rates involved produced at a GOR of
123,003 SCF per barrel of oil. A better indicator would be realized by changing to
MSCF/D per oil BPD, resulting in a GOR of 123 MSCF/BBL. Whatever units are used
should be legibly noted on the test report's column header.

Sampling of Well Effluent

An accurate determination of the characteristics of the reservoir fluids is essential for

engineers to set the parameters on which future production will depend. This section
describes methods by which satisfactory samples of the well reservoir fluids can be
obtained. The pertinent properties of the samples are determined by subsequent
laboratory testing.

The prime objective of reservoir fluid sampling is to collect from a hydrocarbon reservoir
a sample that is representative of the fluid present in the reservoir at the time of

The two methods for sampling reservoir fluids are described:

• Subsurface sampling

• Surface sampling

The choice of method is influenced by the type of reservoir fluid the producing
characteristics and mechanical condition of the well.

Conditioning the well before sampling is almost always necessary. Well conditioning is
especially important when the reservoir fluid is saturated at the prevailing reservoir
pressure because the reduction in pressure around the well bore which results from
producing the well can alter the fluid composition before it reaches the well bore.

Surface Well Testing

The objective of conditioning the well is to remove the altered (non-representative) oil.
Conditioning normally requires:

• Minimum rate

• GLR constant

• Separator pressure and temperature constant.

Special Problems in Oil and Gas Separation

A specialist will often face problems of well performance, equipment malfunctions or
safety. These problems must be solved, safely and efficiently, with solutions based on
knowledge and experience. This section will discuss three categories of problems and
offer possible solutions:

• Well Producing Conditions

• Separator and Servicing Problems

• Special Processing Requirements

Emulsions are stable mixtures of two immiscible liquids. Emulsions are stabilized by an
emulsifying agent which is a film of surface active agents that reduces the interfacial tension
between the oil and water. Given sufficient time, most emulsions will dissipate naturally.
However, to reduce the retention time needed and break the emulsion, the film of emulsifiers is
normally altered by heat, chemicals, mechanical devices or a combination of the three.

During the extraction of crude oil from a well, an emulsion is formed when asphaltenes
stick to the outside of extremely small water droplets in the crude, causing a stabilized
mixture of oil and water. Several factors can contribute to emulsion stability in specific
cases, including the asphalting content and state of aggregation, the ratio of resins to
asphaltenes in the crude, the aromaticity of the crude, the wax type and wax content,

Surface Well Testing

and the presence of any inorganic micro-particulates, such as iron sulphide, clays, silica,
or calcium solids.

In crude oil production, stable emulsions make processing more difficult because the
contaminants are suspended in the crude and because the thick emulsion makes it more
difficult to flow and measure. Water also causes problems downstream of the producing well.
Since the water is almost always salted, it may lead to corrosion of equipment and pipelines. It
also increases the cost of the oil transportation. Thus, it is economically important to separate
brine from crude oil directly at the production site.

The two main emulsion types are: (1) water-in-oil (invert) emulsion and (2) oil-in-water (direct)
emulsion. However, water and oil mixtures can actually take four different forms. First, a small
portion of water may dissolve completely in oil, creating a permanent solution that contains up
to one per cent water. Second, if viscosity is appropriate but insufficient asphaltenes and resins
are present, the mixture can become an unstable emulsion, held together by viscosity alone for
a few minutes or hours. Third, a semi-stable emulsion occurs when the oil's asphaltene-resin
content is at least three per cent by weight and its viscosity is sufficient. This kind of emulsion
has a viscosity 20 to 80 times greater than the original oil, and usually breaks down within a few
days. A portion of these semi-stable emulsions may also become stable emulsions—the fourth
form of water and oil mixture. Stable emulsions require at least eight per cent asphaltenes and
are 500 to 1000 times as viscous as the original oil. These near-solid emulsions can take months
or years to break down naturally.

To remove the contaminants and to

make the crude more liquid, the
emulsion may be broken down by
stimulating the well production with
Wate Oil Water Oil
added solvent or increased
temperature. It is common practice in production facilities to break oil
emulsions using a combination of expensive demulsifier chemical addition
followed by mechanical and/or electrostatic water/oil phase separation

Surface Well Testing
Several methods are used to break water-oil emulsions:


The demulsifiers or emulsion breaker chemicals are surface active and must specifically target
the particular emulsion being produced. The desired chemical will penetrate the fluid, disrupt
the emulsifying film, breaking the emulsion and allowing the liquids to disperse. It is practically
impossible to predict the product or mixture that will give the best results on an emulsion.

Testing of demulsifiers should be made in the production field as soon as the samples can be
collected. A simple method called the bottle-test is typically used. Several bottles of emulsion
samples (~100 ml) are gathered and subjected to different chemicals. The tests are repeated at
several demulsifier concentrations in order to determine the optimum concentration and
evaluate its performance.

Once determined, demulsifiers are usually injected pure. Dilution of the product is needed only
when the injection rate is very small and below the capabilities of the pump. The injection point
of demulsifiers depends on several factors including the nature of the emulsion and the surface
equipment. The demulsifiers can be injected downhole, in the manifold or pipelines and by
batch in storage tanks. The first two are most commonly used.


Mixing increases the collision number between particles and their coalescence. In practice, the
mixing is natural during the flow of the emulsion in surface equipment.

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An elevated temperature accelerates the water separation by increasing the probability of the
water droplets to collide and decreasing the viscosity of the continuous phase.

Electrical Tension (voltage)

Special production equipment is employed to break the emulsions. An electrical voltage of

about 20,000 volts is applied between electrodes, thus creating an electrical field in which the
water droplets will be polarized when deformed by elongation. This process increases the
number and the energy of the collision between the particles and aids coalescence. This process
is economical for water content in oil above 5 percent.

Foaming Crude Oil

If the pressure is reduced on certain types of crude oil, tiny spheres (bubbles) of gas are
encases in a thin film of oil when the gas comes out of solution. This results in foam, or
froth, being dispersed in the oil and creates what is known as 'foaming' oil. In other
types of crude oil, the viscosity and surface tension of the oil may mechanically lock gas
in the oil and cause an effect similar to foam. Usually, oil foam will not be stable or
long-lasting unless a foaming agent is present in the oil. Crude oil is more likely to foam Liquid
if: Film

• API gravity is <40

• Operating temp is <160

• Oil is viscous (>53cp)

Foaming greatly reduces the capacity of oil and gas separators since a much longer
retention time (up to 20 minutes) is required to adequately separate and stabilize a
given quantity of oil. Foaming oil cannot be measured accurately with positive-
displacement meters or conventional volumetric metering vessels. These problems,
combined with the loss oil and gas due to improper separation, emphasize the need for
special procedures in handling foaming oils.

Surface Well Testing

Oil and gas separators of special design are available for handling foaming crude oil. The
size and shape of the separator and the size, location, and configuration of the internal
parts can be such that the foam will be broken within the separator.

The main factors that assist in "breaking" foaming oil are:

1. Settling or retention time

2. Agitation
3. Heat
4. Chemicals (ex. Foam breakers or solvents w/silicone additives)
5. Vortex inlets

Vortex Inlets

These methods "reducing" or "breaking" foaming oil are also used to remove entrained
gas from oil.

Paraffin Deposition
Paraffin deposition in oil and gas separators reduces their efficiency and may render
them inoperable by partially filling the vessel and/or blocking the mist extractor and
fluid passages. Paraffin can be effectively removed from separators by steaming or by
use of solvents. However, the best solution is to prevent initial deposition in the vessel
by heating or chemically treating the fluid upstream of the separator.

Surface Well Testing

PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner can be dispersed in water or acid to clean tubular goods
before other stimulation treatments. Thus, removing paraffin and/or inorganic scale
that can slough off the tubing during treatment could eliminate damage to the
formation during the stimulation treatment. The aqueous dispersion of PARASPERSE
paraffin cleaner does not actually dissolve all the paraffin contacted. It actually breaks
the paraffin up into small particles that are dispersed along with the PARASPERSE
paraffin cleaner. This dispersed paraffin could plug small orifices, such as chokes or
pump valves.

Warning: PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner is a highly flammable material with a low flash

Chemical inhibitors can prevent formation or coat metal surfaces and prevent
accumulation. Up to, but not exceeding, 40% by volume of PARACHEK® 160 paraffin
inhibitor or any other oil-soluble paraffin inhibitor can be added to PARASPERSE paraffin
cleaner, which in turn can be added to any aqueous treating fluid. Using this method,
acid- or water-based fracturing fluids can be used to squeeze paraffin inhibitors into the
formation during other stimulation treatments. The benefit of such a system is
providing long-term paraffin inhibition in conjunction with paraffin cleanup and other
stimulation treatments.

Another deterrent, successful in most instances, involves coating of all internal surfaces
of the separator with a plastic/Teflon for which paraffin has little or no affinity. The
weight of the paraffin will cause it to slough off of the plastic-coated surface before it
builds up to harmful thickness.

Paraffin buildup downhole can cause serious reduction in production to the point of
complete blockage. Some of the possible solutions employed, besides the PARASPERSE,
may include:

• Wireline scrapping

• Hot oil treatments/circulation

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• Bacteria injection (certain types feed on paraffin)

Heavy Oil Production

Thousands of crude oil wells on large oil reservoirs in North and South America are not in
production or are marginal because the oil is too thick (viscosity to high) to produce. By
decreasing viscosity, petroleum production is greatly enhanced for heavy viscous crude oil that
previously could not be extracted from an oil reservoir.

The HOK (Heavy Oil Kit) unit was designed by EXPRO Production
Applications to provide a method to flow test heavy oil wells,
(14-17 0API) allowing a versatile system of multiple stages of
separation and multiple heating medium systems
(HeatExchangers & heating coils inside vessels and tanks) with
multiple points of chemical injection. The concept of multiple
systems of heat transfer and chemical injection to reduce the
viscosity prior to disposal/storage combined with versatility is
the design provided.

Note: Paraffin based heavy oils can be tested with this system, however Asphaltene
based heavy oils must be reviewed individually due to precipitants and their ability to
fall out of the oil at high temperatures causing vessel and pipe plugging with Asphalt
based hydrocarbons.

Liquid Load up in Gas Wells

The occurrence of liquid loading up in the flowing tubing or annular string is usually
associated with wells of low to moderate gas productivity and high water or oil to gas
production ratios.

Initial indications of liquid in the hole may be an unusually low shut-in wellhead
pressures and/or a large difference between tubing head and casing head pressures if
there is no packer in the hole. Frequently, no further production problems arise in
producing the loaded well after an initial unloading or well bore clean up sequence.

Surface Well Testing

However, if the condition persists, it will be characterized by a decreasing wellhead

flowing pressure, accompanied by corresponding decreasing flow rate, while the static
side of a well without packer (casing when flowing through the tubing, or vice-versa)
remains relatively constant or even increases. It is at this point that the operator must
use his best judgment and all possible related information to determine whether the
well is loading up, or beginning to hydrate or "freeze up", since the wellhead pressures
alone have the same initial trend in both cases. The flowing temperature at the
wellhead must be observed frequently, and carefully, since loading up does not usually
result in a marked decrease in temperature, while hydrating promotes a choking of the
flow string with a subsequent rapid temperature drop.

It may not be possible to run a standard increasing four point test on a low productivity
well which tends to load up, since each rate is increasingly affected by a back pressure
component, within the flow string, caused by the rising liquid column. In this case, a
minimum deliverability level test is sometimes possible. The test is then performed in
decreasing flow-after-flow rate sequences, starting with high drawdowns, where the
liquid can be unloaded continuously, and decreasing the flow rate by increasing the
back pressure, in a step-wise fashion of no less than 4 to 6 hours and preferably longer
durations per rate, in fairly small (5% to 10%) pressure increments until the well begins
to load up. Where it is practical to carry on each successive decreasing flow rate to
stabilized conditions a valid back pressure test is also obtained, together with the
minimum deliverability test.

Hydrating Conditions
The formation of hydrocarbon ice crystals or hydrates will occur at any point in a gas or
liquid hydrocarbon flow system, where the temperature reaches the
hydrate point for the pressure condition and the nature of the fluid in
the system. Hydrates may occur at temperatures as high as 120oF but
the normal danger zone is temperatures less than the 70's. Hence, Water Cage
hydrating, or "freezing", as it is also named, is not an unusual Hydrocarbon

Surface Well Testing

phenomenon, and should always be expected as a possibility.

As a general rule, the hydrating temperature rises with higher pressures, and starting
with methane, also rises with the higher carbon components. To elaborate on this
trend, for a given stream composition, lowering the pressure of the system will, at equal
temperature, tend to prevent hydrating. Since the throttling of a stream causes a drop
in temperature by expansion, some of the common hydrating points on a surface flow
system are:

• Chokes

• Valves

• Orifices

• Sharp bends or restrictions in piping

Hydrating in the subsurface well flow string may begin before any sign of hydrates have
been observed at the surface testing system. The first indication of hydrates forming in
the tubing or annular flow string is a drop in flowing wellhead pressures, followed by an
initially slow, then progressively rapid drop in wellhead flowing temperature. It is of
utmost importance to check the wellhead temperature at frequent intervals as soon as
the gas rate or flowing pressure is observed to decrease in an unusual fashion.

Hydrates may be prevented to form, where the conditions are controllable, by lowering
the pressure, increasing the heater temperature, or preventive injection of hydrate
inhibitors, such as methanol, which is the most effective, or glycol, upstream of the
points where hydrating is expected to set in.

In the well flow string, hydrating may be prevented to occur for a limited time, by
previous injection of methanol. Where a well has been completed with tubing, but
without a packer, hydrate inhibition by methanol injection on the shut-in wellhead valve
(either tubing or casing) can be carried out during the whole flow period. Chemicals
injected at the flowing wellhead side will be blown by the gas stream into the surface

Surface Well Testing

flow line and assist in preventing hydrates in the surface flow system. But this will not
prevent hydrating of the flowing tubing or casing.

In cases of wells with severe hydrating tendency, the test procedure may have to be
modified in an attempt to prevent hydrating. This can sometimes be achieved by an
initial flow sequence at a high rate in order to warm the subsurface flow string up or by
conducting the test in the range of high pressure drawdowns, where it is permissible to
do so.

Tested determination of the minimum hydrate free deliverability may be carried out
safely, and reliable, by a procedure somewhat similar as the one proposed for liquid
loading wells, with the difference that it is the wellhead flowing temperature which
becomes the critical factor.

The test is of the conventional flow-after-flow decreasing rate type. It begins with
spotting some methanol (one barrel at the most) into the tubing, and opening the flow
for the largest permissible draw-down. Rates should be long enough to reach complete
flowing temperature stabilization at the tubing head and preferably all of the same
duration, but no less than 8 to 12 hours each. The rates are decreased in small step
wise fashion, with continuous frequent temperature checks, until the onset of hydrating
in the tubing is indicated by a noticeable pressure and temperature drop.

The well is to be immediately shut-in before a solid hydrate plug is allowed to form. A
barrel of methanol should then be injected into the tubing to remove the hydrates
which have begun to form on the tubing wall. A wellhead pressure and temperature
recorder is of valuable assistance to conduct this type of test.

In order to prevent hydrating in the surface flow lines, methanol should be injected
slowly and continuously near the tubing head wing valve. Where it was possible to carry
on each rate to the point of flowing pressure stabilization, this type of test will also be a
valid back pressure test.

Every attention should be given to prevent the tubing from freezing up completely, and
to closing in the well in time, where the casing is packed off, since it becomes difficult

Surface Well Testing

and expensive to remove a hydrate plug once it has set in. Where wells have an opened
casing, pumping of hot oil in the clear annular space will thaw hydrates in the tubing.
However, application of hot oil or methanol on top of a hydrate plug is usually of little
effect. If the plug happens to be very short, it may be pushed down by the allowable
overpressure of the pump depending on the wellhead pressure rating.

Sand, Mud, etc.

Sand production is more likely to occur with high productivity wells. The sand may
originate from the formation rock and be "sloughed off" into the wellbore, or it may be
sand recovered following a frac stimulation job where sand was used as a propping
agent. Sand production will cause rapid erosion of chokes, elbows and coil bends in the
heater or heat exchanger.

The risk of sand production increases with higher drawdowns. In order to determine the
recommended drawdown for a particular zone, the log data and sand production history
of other wells in the field must be reviewed. By using the calculated maximum
drawdown as a guideline, the risk of sand production will be reduced.

Underbalanced perforating is believed to produce perforations which are cleaner and

less prone to sand production because of reduced differential pressures at the
perforations. Other services that may be employed, depending on the well’s
parameters, include:

• Gravel packs w/ sand screens

• Sand consolidation treatments

• PerfStim perforating

Sand production can be monitored at surface by:

• BS&W samples at the choke manifold. Centrifuge samples should be checked

for sand content at regular intervals.

• Erosion probes at choke manifold

Surface Well Testing

Small erosion probes just downstream of the choke give an early

indication of sand production, however, may be knocked out by the force
of the gas flow or fluid slugs.

• Erosion probe lubricators are placed between the choke manifold and heater
and are the main early indicators of sand erosion.

Erosion probe lubricators enable one to withdraw an erosion probe

from the well stream during flowing operations. The erosion on the
probe can be observed to give an indication of sand production and its
effects on surface equipment.

• Sand detectors measure the acoustical noise created by sand impinging either
on a probe in the flow stream or on the internal wall of the flow pipe. The
produced volumes of sand can be estimated from the sand detector readings.

These tools are used primarily on producing wells where a baseline for
background noise can be established. On short duration drillstem tests,
it is difficult to establish a baseline before the test is over.

• A portable ultrasonic meter will provide a quick and reliable check on the
presence of any metal thickness loss in the flow piping. Metal thickness at
various elbows should be checked and recorded at regular intervals during the
flow period.

• If a well test is to be performed on a formation that is known to produce large

volumes of sand, or if a sand frac stimulation treatment has just been
completed, then specialized equipment should be used during testing

The least damaging way to handle produced sand during well cleanup, or testing, is to
use chokes that are more durable than an adjustable stem/seat type choke. Positive
chokes can take more erosion, and cost considerably less to replace. Production chokes
are commonly used in applications such as UBA.

Surface Well Testing

Elimination of unnecessary bends in the piping system, as well as, targeted turns is
advisable. In addition the well should be produced with the minimum drawdown
compatible with the flowing operation.

It is often uneconomical to supply high pressure sand traps, installed upstream of the
choke, with sufficient volumetric capacity. With most normal test installations, some
produced sand will be recovered in the separator, and may have to be discharged at
regular intervals through the separators clean out valves, which should have a ceramic

If sand and other solids are continuously produced in appreciable quantities with well
fluids, they must be removed by settling, centrifuging, or filtering before the liquid
enters the separator. Medium grained sand in small quantities can be removed by
settling in a vertical sand separator with a conical bottom and periodically draining the
residue from the vessel.

Sand Management Systems (SMS) use the Wellhead DeSander and sand filter vessels to
remove most of the sand in the flow. The wellstream fluids pass through the Wellhead
DeSander prior to flowing into the downstream separation process. The Wellhead
Desander itself comprises of a single cyclone insert housed inside a vessel designed to
the appropriate pressure, up to 10,000 psi as standard, and fitted with quick access
closures, and a range of different sized cyclone inserts to allow on-site optimization of
the system.

Cyclones operate under pressure. The feed, a mixture of gas, oil, water
liquids and solids enters the cyclone tangentially through the inlet, which
forces the mixture to spin inside the cyclone. This spinning motion
generates centrifugal forces which causes the gas to disengage quickly and
exit through the vortex finder. The liquid passes down into the conical
section of the Wellhead DeSander where the reduction in diameter accelerates
the fluid generating centrifugal forces strong enough to cause the solids to be separated
from the liquid. The solids are forced towards the wall, and then travel down the length

Surface Well Testing

of the conical section of the cyclone in a spiral pattern towards the solids outlet, the
under-flow. The gas and liquid migrate towards the center of the cyclone where the
flow reverses and moves towards the over-flow, through the vortex finder.

The sand that is removed falls down into an Accumulator section, beneath the DeSander
for disposal. The Accumulator is periodically isolated from the Wellhead DeSander and
de-pressured, and the sand flushed out. Before being re-opened to the Wellhead
DeSander the Accumulator is pre-filled with clean water to prevent hydrocarbons
passing down into the Accumulator. This ensures the sand flush is clean. Whilst the
Accumulator being purged, the Wellhead DeSander remains on-line with sufficient hold-
up volume to collect sand separated while the Accumulator is off line.

Erosion Detection Procedure

• The areas prone to erosion are identified.
• The equipment is monitored with such frequency that the
safety of the installation is not compromised.
• All readings are recorded.
• Violation of the design parameters of the equipment is
Specifications and Testing Intervals
• Specifications for location and testing intervals shall be as
defined below or, if shorter, the shortest period derived from any of the
documents lists:
• On completion of rig up, those areas where erosion may occur downstream of
the choke manifold shall be identified and the first six (6) areas selected for
• Circle those points and sequentially number them with pipe marker and enter
required details on form TTR 001/92.

Surface Well Testing

• An initial thickness reading of all selected points shall be taken as per the
procedure contained within the thickness tester instruction pamphlet.

• Upon opening the well the minimum time frequency for thickness readings of
the first three (3) points downstream of the choke shall be six (6) hours in the
case of an oil well. In the case of a gas well, thickness readings shall be taken
more frequently.
• Immediately upon initial production of sand as noted from BS&W or from any
other source (including third party service) a further reading from the first three
(3) points shall be taken.
• If sand production is sustained and/or erosion is detected the frequency for
testing shall be increased.
• If erosion is detected at the first three (3) points above, a further three (3) points
downstream of those are to be tested.
• Any indication of erosion from an Erosion Probe installed in the system shall
immediately be backed up by readings on the above mentioned.
• At the end of each flow period all identified points shall be checked and erosion
probes shall be removed and inspected.
• A final thickness reading shall be taken prior to the rig down and form TTR
001/92 will be completed.
Reference documents:

- Well Program
- Thickness Tester Pamphlet
- TTR 001/92 (recording form)
- Quality Procedure (Minimum Pipe Wall Thickness)
- World Oil's Sand Control Handbook
- Otis Surface Safety Manual OEC-5115A

Surface Well Testing

Identification of Erosion Detection Documents

All erosion detection procedure documents shall be provided with a title block defining
the following, as far as are relevant for the respective document:

• Project reference
• Document title
• Document number and revision indicator
• Dates of issue and revisions
• Names of Originator, Project Leader and Authorizer

Detailed instructions for use of the title-block and standard formats shall be established.
Erosion Detection Procedure Changes
For a variety of reasons, i.e. client requirements, well condition, etc., procedures may be
subject to a change. These changes shall be made offshore in conjunction with the
designated Client Rep to expedite the safe continuation of the well test.
Any changes that have to be made during the well test will be communicated to town as
soon as practical and a study of these procedural changes will be made by the Project
Leader for possible inclusion in this document. The issue and control of revisions of
documents shall be initiated by the Project Leader and authorized by the Supervisor.
The following persons shall be responsible for the implementation of this procedure:
Test Supervisor shall be responsible for:
• The selection of the points to be monitored.
• Ensuring the crew understands the requirements of this
• Appointing shift supervisors to oversee the implementation of the
• Ensuring the procedure is adhered to and that form TTR 001/92 is
completed as required.

Surface Well Testing

Shift Supervisors shall be responsible for:

• Appointing a choke manifold Operator
• Ensuring the Operator understands the requirements of this
• Ensuring that sufficient readings are taken with regard to the
intervals laid down and well conditions.
• Ensuring that form TTR 001/92 is completed as required.
• Upon notification of a design specification violation shall shut the
well in and alert the customer representative.
Choke Manifold Operators shall be responsible for:
• Obtaining the sand content of the well effluent by BS&W readings
or by any other method.
• Taking thickness readings as prescribed in Specifications and
Testing Intervals (Para 3).
• Completing form TTR 001/92.
• Alerting the shift supervisor of a design specification violation.

Salt may be carried in suspension in the oil. This salt may be removed by means of
centrifuging, settling, or fresh water. Mixed with the oil the water absorbs the salt then
the water can be removed by an appropriate means.

CO2 Testing
Certain problems exist and must be dealt with when flowing high concentrations of CO 2
(greater than 9%).

• CO 2 phase changes caused by temperature and pressure changes.

• BTU/HR heat requirements to accommodate these phase changes.
• Make-up of fuel requirements to allow combustion of the burnable effluents.
• Potential danger of H 2 S being present and therefore SO 2 emissions from the
combustion of H 2 S.

Surface Well Testing

CO 2 exists both in a liquid form and a gaseous form. Liquid CO 2 can cause freezing. The
CO 2 should be kept in a gas vapor form until the heater chokes and in a gaseous state
from the heater chokes to the back pressure valve. The critical point of CO 2 is 1071 psi
and 90oF. Preferably, the upstream flowing pressure should be maintained above 1300
psi to keep the CO 2 in gas vapor form. There may be times when the upstream
pressures will not reach 1300 psi. If this happens, freezing downhole is more likely
because of phase changes occurring there.

Under normal flow testing, the flow at surface would pass through a choke manifold.
However, since CO 2 is so susceptible to phase changes with temperature changes, the
choke manifold may need to be eliminated from the test system. The well will be
controlled by the heater choke.

The heater choke will cause a pressure drop, temperature drop and production of liquid
CO 2 . Inside the heater all liquid CO 2 is changed into a gas and this phase change causes
a tremendous energy loss. To have gaseous CO 2 downstream and allow operations to
run smooth - attempt to keep the well effluents exiting the heater at 110oF or greater
with a back pressure from 600 - 900 psi.

The best pipe seal rubber material to use at present according to elastomer engineers is
a saturated Nitrile with a 90 durometer. Each union and rubber should be coated with a
Hi-Temp Teflon grease before final knock-up. Use large I.D. pipe and eliminate all bends
and chokes in flowline not needed, upstream and downstream.

Chemical pumps with discharge lines pumping methanol and inhibitor may be installed
at the wellhead and upstream of the back pressure valve(s).

With flowing wellhead temperatures below 100oF, heat requirements of approximately

.5 MMBTU/HR per 1.0 MMCF/D are required because of the phase changes occurring.
As the wellhead temperature increases less BTU/HR will be needed. A heater bath
containing triethylene glycol allows the bath temperatures to exceed 300oF. Fuel gas
used should be propane gas in a gaseous state not liquid.

Surface Well Testing

If the temperature drops, liquid CO 2 can flow to the separator causing the dumps to
discharge liquid CO 2 to the tanks. Separator pressures between 600 - 900 psi are
preferred. Temperatures at the separator or gas run should be between 110 - 150oF.
Do not go over 150oF as stainless steel has a fatigue failure problem with corrosive
gasses over 160oF. If the temperature gets below 100oF in the separator, some CO 2
gases will phase change back to liquid. In the sight glasses it will look like water, but
when dumped to the tank, the CO 2 will phase change and flash off to a gas expanding at
65 fold and possibly blowing the tanks.

Water dumped through the meters may contain some CO 2 . If temperatures drop and
liquid CO 2 is dumped, the possibility of freezing the internals of the meter exists. Be
extra cautious when using positive displacement meters.

Grease the Daniels gate and internals frequently. Only Teflon plate holders should be
used. Be aware of possible poor sealing involved with Teflon holders and the meter run
line bore.

Back pressure valve(s) with controller(s) should be placed in line as close to flare end(s)
as possible. This is done on CO 2 wells so that the pressure drop and subsequent phase
change takes place as close to the disposal point as possible. While temperatures
upstream of the back pressure valve should be 110 - 120oF, downstream temperatures
may be 60oF colder.

Flare stacks used should have automatic ignition. Thermocouples should provide back-
up ignition of the pilot and warning if the pilots go out. A make-up fuel of a low
combustible temperature is needed for lighting the combination of combustible natural
gas and non-combustible CO 2 . The make-up fuel (propane) has to be in a gaseous state
not liquid to operate properly. Correct amounts of air and gas have to be injected for
the system to work properly. Too much air or gas can cause poor ignition.

Hydrogen sulfide, H 2 S, often called "sour gas," packs a double barreled punch. First,
there is its direct effect on humans. H 2 S is a poisonous gas--it kills. Second, there is the

Surface Well Testing

indirect threat to human safety caused by H 2 S attack on metals, especially steel, used in
pressure control equipment. H 2 S can literally destroy the strength of steel, causing it to
fracture while under pressure with disastrous results.

Effects on Personnel:

Physical and Chemical Characteristics

H 2 S is a colorless, flammable gas having an offensive odor and sweet taste. The smell at
low concentrations is similar to that of rotten eggs. It is highly toxic. In fact, it is almost
as toxic as hydrogen cyanide and is between five and six times as toxic as carbon
monoxide. Another hazardous feature of H 2 S is that it is heavier than air

(density = 1.19).


As stated, H 2 S is an extremely toxic gas. The sense of smell is lost after two to fifteen
minutes of exposure in concentrations as low as 0.010 to 0.015% volume of the gas.
Exposure to higher concentrations for less than a minute dulls the sense of smell
completely and gives the person a false sense of security.

It is rather hard to visualize the small concentrations or amounts about which we are
speaking. Generally, we speak of H 2 S concentrations in parts per million (PPM).
Suppose we have a room or box in the form of a cube, 100 inches to the side. Each
individual cubic inch in this volume would represent one part per million.


Exposure results in irritation, principally smarting of the eyes, a persistent cough,

tightening or burning of the chest, and skin irritation. Recovery from sub-acute
poisoning is usually complete.

In high concentrations of H 2 S, the results are almost instantaneous resulting in asphyxia

(or strangulation) with seeming paralysis of the respiratory system. Symptoms of acute

Surface Well Testing

poisoning are heavy breathing, pallor, cramps, paralysis of the pupil, loss of speech, and
almost immediate loss of consciousness. Death may follow with extreme rapidity,
caused by respiratory and cardiac paralysis. The reason for the speed with which H 2 S
reacts is that it is very quickly absorbed by the bloodstream.

Experience has shown that there is no predictable pattern to any one person's exposure
to H 2 S and any departure from normal behavior in a suspected environment should be

Remember, one sniff of a sufficiently high concentration of H 2 S can cause acute



There is no known antidote for H 2 S. However, prompt and safe action may save many
lives. Victims should be removed to fresh air immediately by rescuers who are
protected by gas masks.

Artificial respiration should be administered if breathing has stopped. Although

breathing is paralyzed, the heart may continue beating for ten minutes after the attack.
If breathing is slow, labored, or impaired, artificial respiration should be supplemented
by the administration of diluted oxygen with hose and face mask.

Note: Do to poor sealing of gas mask, men with beards are not allowed to work on
H 2 S jobs.

Operating Procedures
Find out as much as possible about the conditions in and around the well. Check
specifically for:

• Concentration of H 2 S

• Type of well fluid

• Presence of any other corrosive source such as CO 2

Surface Well Testing

Check the site for hazardous areas such as cellars, mud pit, etc. where H 2 S might
accumulate. Remember, H 2 S is heavier than air; be cautious of low areas. When it is
necessary to enter confined areas, such as tanks, cellars or pits, always use self-
contained breathing apparatus and station a rescue man outside. Also, be cautious of
ice; H 2 S is soluble in water and high concentrations may be frozen in water surrounding
the well. When such ice melts, the H 2 S will be released.

Use "buddy system" - at least two men should be alert and looking out for each other
during each shift's operations. If someone should go down: first, don mask then
attempt rescue. Safe areas should be upwind and uphill.

Don mask during any operations where release of H 2 S is expected or conceivable. These
include obtaining samples, shrinkage tests, orifice plate and choke changes, etc.

Make certain that gas masks and breathing apparatus are in proper working order and
that air or oxygen tanks are full and free of oil. Have spare masks and apparatus in case
of failure or if additional personnel are required. Effects on Equipment

H 2 S attacks steel in three ways

1. Corrosive attack: When water is present along with H 2 S, the iron in steel reacts
with sulphur forming iron sulfide (FeS) and releases free hydrogen. Carbon
dioxide (CO 2 ) combines with water to form carbonic acid (CH 2 CO 3 ) which in turn
attacks the steel. In either case, water is necessary to permit the reaction to

2. Carbide attack: Once liberated by the corrosive action or furnished from any
source, the hydrogen atoms may unite with the carbon in the steel to form
methane gas, CH 4 . This leaves voids making the steel spongy and greatly

3. Hydrogen embrittlement: The most spectacular effect of hydrogen on steel is

known as hydrogen embrittlement. It occurs when hydrogen atoms invade the
steel lattice structure along planes of stress and once inside, combine with other

Surface Well Testing

free atoms to form molecular hydrogen, H 2 . The molecular hydrogen is much

larger than the atomic hydrogen and exerts tremendous pressure against the
steel structure causing it to crack and eventually fail.

Failure can be quite sudden and can occur at stress levels far lower than the material's
normal yield strength. Temperature, pressure and H 2 S concentration affect the rate at
which the free hydrogen invades the steel. Tensile strength of the steel and the stress
level to which it is subjected determine its susceptibility to attack. Generally, steel with
relatively low hardness (Rc22 or less) and low yield strength (say less than or equal to
75,000 psi) are ductile enough to resist permanent damage.

H2S Equipment
• Select proper equipment for the pressure and service expected. H 2 S equipment
can be used for non-H 2 S service; however, non-H 2 S equipment cannot be used
for H 2 S service.

• Check pressure rating and compatibility of all connections. Do not exceed

working pressure of the equipment. Note that the lowest pressure rating of a
part, piece of equipment within a flow stage determines the rating of the rest of
the equipment within that stage.

• Do not weld, file or use metal stamps on pressure equipment.

Acceptable Limits of Flow

This segment is a portion of SES MS that has been written to give field operations
guidance on acceptable levels of solids, H 2 S, CO 2 , acids etc that can be passed through
EXPRO Production Applications Surface Testing Equipment.

Note: Although this document advises acceptable levels or quantities it does not
however mean that equipment will not be damaged. The customer is responsible for
any damage to equipment caused by erosion/corrosion due to well effluents.

Surface Well Testing

Hydrogen Sulfide - H 2 S

• All equipment in contact with H 2 S must comply with NACE MR-01-75.

• 17-4PH (also known as UNS S17400 or AISI 630) metal parts are forbidden
without approval from Production Applications engineering.

• For H 2 S levels of 10ppm and above BA sets must be worn when sampling,
changing orifice plates, changing chokes, etc and a buddy system used.
Additional personnel will be required for high PPM wells.

• It is recommended that hip sets tied into a cascade system be used on Surface
Test Equipment, as these are small and lightweight.

• All equipment must be sniffed after initial opening to corrosive effluents. All
personnel in test area are to wear BA sets until this check has been completed
and the Onsite H 2 S Safety Representative has given the OK to remove masks.

• It is recommended that 3rd Party Safety Company be used to manage safety

aspects on all wells above 10ppm.

• Separator gas is not to be used for instrument air or burner pilots if H 2 S present.

• It is recommended that H2S inhibitors such as EXPRO’s Crack Check 97 be used

on all corrosive wells. H 2 S inhibitors are generally Amine based products and are

• Seal selection must be correct. Viton is a fluorocarbon, and therefore cannot be

used with Amine inhibitors. Use Saturated Nitrile such as HNBR (90 duro) or
metal to metal seals where Amines are used or CO 2 content is higher than 8% in
presence of H 2 S.

• Flexible hoses have specific limitations to concentrations and duration of

exposure based on pressure and temperature. Consult manufacturer data for
limits and keep within these limits.

Surface Well Testing

Carbon Dioxide CO 2

Seal selection must be correct. In presence of CO 2 alone, seals made from Nitrile
materials should be OK. Use Saturated Nitrile such as HNBR (90 duro) or metal to metal
seals where Amines are used or CO 2 content is higher than 8% in presence of H 2 S. Viton
is a fluorocarbon, and therefore cannot be used with Amine inhibitors.

Seal failure can be caused by explosive decompression. This is where CO 2 is entrained

into non-metal seals under pressure. When the system is depressurized suddenly the
CO 2 expands 60 fold and ruptures the seal.

• Shutdown and depressurization of the well test system must be controlled. If

seal failure occurs during operations this will result in uncontrolled release of
hydrocarbons etc.

• Replace seals after test.

• Flexible hoses have specific limitations to concentrations and duration of

exposure. Consult manufacturer data for limits and keep within these limits.

LSA Scale (Low Specific Activity)

Radioactive deposits often referred to as LSA (Low Specific Activity) scale, can under
certain circumstances be formed inside production equipment in oil production. These
deposits contain elevated levels of radioactivity, mainly 226Ra, 228Ra and their daughter
products, and represent a health and waste problem for the oil industry.

Risk to personnel due to potential for inhalation and ingestion of LSA scale particles as a
result of handling contaminated equipment. As a result, work involving possible
exposure to LSA scale requires a high standard of personal protective equipment
including the use of full facemask respirators, waterproof suits and gloves.

Surface Well Testing

When handling equipment contaminated with LSA scale, it is important to take the
correct safety and protective measures. These measures should concentrate on limiting
the inhalation of dust, and includes:

• Creating controlled areas for cleaning of contaminated equipment

• Keeping the LSA scale wet during cleaning

• Use dusts masks and protective clothing

• Using these protective measures, the doses to workers will be low.

• Radioactive deposits represent a significant waste problem for the oil industry.
Contaminated equipment should be sent to specialist licensed companies for

• There are two types of monitor that are suitable to check for LSA scale: -

1. Mini 900 Monitor with 44A Probe and,

2. Mini 900 Monitor with EP15 probe.

• The 44A Probe senses gamma’s which can penetrate steel (the maximum
thickness of steel that the gamma’s can be detected through is unknown at
present; therefore a null reading cannot guarantee unit is clear of LSA scale

• The EP15 is an alpha/beta probe and cannot sense LSA scale inside vessels,
tubulars etc or through wetted surfaces. It should therefore only be used to
detect LSA scale on dry accessible surfaces.

It must also be noted that although both probes use the same monitor, the probes
should not be interchanged as the probe and monitor are calibrated as a set.

Surface Well Testing


Flexible hoses have specific limitations to concentrations and duration of exposure.

Consult manufacturer data for limits.


Any acids used must be neutralized (pH of 7 is neutral)

before being flowed through well test equipment.


Personnel injury can occur if not adequately protected.

Proper and suitable Personal Protective Equipment must
be worn.

Flexible hoses may have specific limitations to type, concentration and duration of
exposure. Consult manufacturer data for limits and keep within these limits.

Sand – (Formation and Frac)

• Oil wells – Before increasing choke size rate must be 3 lbs/1000bbls or less.

• Gas wells – If solids production is greater than 0.5% then alternative means of
production should be used e.g. sacrificial lines, target Tees, Target Elbows.

• Gas Wells - Frequent monitoring of wall thickness is to be carried out whenever

sand is produced.

• Use sand filters and sand detection equipment on wells that are known to
produce sand.

• Frac – STT etc must be protected with a tree saver.

• It is recommended that for heavy Frac cleanup work such as screened out
Bauxite fracs that hydraulic chokes be used.

Surface Well Testing


• Water – 25% of oil rate if using Sea Emerald burners. If not using Sea Emerald
burners then a water treatment and handling system will need to be designed
for the well conditions.

Note: In wells that are slugging water and during clean up phases there is a high
probability of greater than 25% water content that can lead to flaring difficulties.

• BS&W expected during clean-up is very high a separate dedicated clean-up line
that goes direct from choke to disposal point should be used, or equipment
installed upstream of process and control equipment to remove the solids.

Stabilized Flow Conditions

Prior to diverting flow through the Separator or other measuring equipment the
following stabilized flow conditions must exist;

• BS&W less than 0.5% solids

• Salinity of water is same salinity as formation water

• pH should be neutral (pH 7)

• Wellhead pressure should be stable

• Flow rate should be stable

• Bottom Hole Pressure should be stable (if data available)

• Drawdown less than 30% at sandface (if data available)

All EXPRO Production Applications Surface Testing Equipment is designed for corrosive
service, meeting NACE MR-01-75 latest edition, and ASME VIII Div I. This means that the
metals are soft, and will cut easily in corrosive service if measures to reduce pressure
drop and the removal of solids is not performed. However, for environmental reasons
or, if the pressure downstream of the choke is high and the flowrate is still to be
increased, then it is permissible to divert the flow into the separator as long as consent

Surface Well Testing

given by the customer and management. Customer will be responsible for repair of any
damage and cleaning.


• Flexible hoses have specific limitations. Consult manufacturer data for limits.

• Gas Wells – maintain velocities of less than 50 ft/sec (15 m/sec) at wellhead

Separator Operating Problems

Variation in Static and Differential Pressure on the Barton
The following summarizes the main incidents and their causes which may arise and
which can be detected by examining the static pressure (P f ) and the differential
pressure (h w ) recordings on the chart.

Differential rising

• Choke flow cutting (additional indication - WHP dropping)

• Liquid in LP Barton line

• Leak in LP Barton line or bellows housing

• Ambient or separator temperature increase

Differential dropping
• Choke plugging (additional indication - WHP increasing)

• Liquid puddle in front of orifice plate

• Liquid in HP Barton line

• Leak in HP Barton line or bellows housing

• Ambient or separator temperature decrease

Static steadily rising (causing a high pressure condition)

• Back pressure valve malfunction, restricted, etc.

Surface Well Testing

• Downstream valving or piping restricted or closed (check burner manifold valve

position and any sign of coolness)

Static will not increase (causing a low pressure condition) -

• Back pressure valve/controller malfunction (check valve movement)

• Relief valve or burst disc is leaking (check for pipe coolness and/or burn at relief

• Restriction upstream of inlet at choke or valve

• Valve on separator open such as a drain line

Irregularities in the Flow Rate

This phenomenon is a great problem during well testing since it leads to inaccuracies in
the gas flow rate readings and significantly reduces the separator's capacity. It should
also be noted that samples taken from the separator on an irregularly flowing well are
incompatible from the point of view of representativity.

Several reasons can be found for irregular flow rates:

• Well slugging: the heading phenomenon is characteristic of oil wells with a

bottom hole pressure lower than bubble point pressure and a high GOR or gas
wells that are retrograde condensate. In these conditions it is possible to
increase the separating pressure or even decrease the flow rate in order to
reduce the size of the phenomenon and stabilize flow.

• Blockage in pipes due to hydrates: a heater must be installed or the existing

heater duplicated and/or a hydrate formation inhibitor (such as methanol/glycol)
must be injected by means of a chemical injection pump.

• Instrument regulation incorrectly set: a bad choice of proportional band may

give rise to the cycling phenomenon in the regulating valves, resulting in
pulsation of flow rates of the various fluids. This phenomenon may be
suppressed by the choosing a greater proportional band setting.

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Abnormal Separation
Separator flooding: too much liquid flow volume for capacity of separator as evidenced
by significant liquid exiting the gas flare. Frequently occurs during cleanup, especially
when swabbing or coil tubing. Possible solutions include allowing well to clean-up more
before going through unit, providing more or larger stages of separation, reducing rates,

Carryover: entrained liquid mist droplets exiting with gas to the flare. Gray smoke
indicates water carryover, black smoke - oil, orange flame - condensate. Possible
reasons could be liquid levels too high, mist extractor damage, or drain line leaking.
Slight carryover is common due to the downstream pressure drop and ensuing gas
phase change.

Blowby: gas exiting with liquids. Possible causes include - low liquid levels, gas
vortexing at liquid outlet, level control failure and normal solution gas breakout.

Gas-liquid mixtures can easily be detected (flare which smokes or makes a deadened
noise, whistling sound in the meters), but this is not the case with liquid mixtures which
can only be detected by examining samples. It is strongly recommended that liquid
BS&W samples be taken regularly.

Retention Time too Short

1. Put a second separator in parallel or series (dependent on test)

2. Outfit pressurized tank as a "super separator".
3. Inject a chemical agent to aid fluid separation.
4. If approved, decrease flow rate of the well.
Operating at Low Flow Rate

With low gas flow rate it is sometimes difficult to get good control since the pressure is
controlled by a back pressure valve which is too large to give stable control whatever

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proportional setting is employed. Besides replacing valves or units, there is very little
that can be done in this instance.

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Choke Manifold

Choke Manifold

Operational Uses of Choke Manifold

In this section we will cover the choke manifold more thoroughly than all of the otherpieces of
equipment. The reason behind this, being, that during your early workingexperience most of
your practical experience will be on this piece of equipment.

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What is a choke used for?

It is the primary means of controlling the flow from the well.

What does it do?

Reduces the flow by means of a reduction in the size of orifice flowing through.
What does it consist of?

A series of blocks, spools, valves, fixed orifice and adjustable orifice. This allowsshould any part
of the choke be damaged, it can easily be replaced.

There are two types of choke fitted to the manifold:

Adjustable Choke.

It primary function is to allow for the fixed choke to be changed during flowingoperations.
Secondly should be used during clean-up operations. The adjustable choke operates by a cone
shaped end sliding in and out of a fixed Adjustable choke been which has a tapered inside lip to
allow for more accurate flow control. By turning the wheel anti clock wise you pull the cone
away from the Choke Bean allowing a larger area for the fluid to pass by the cone.


Adj. Choke Housing

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To set the size of the Adjustable Choke there is a sleeve with a scale marked on it.The sleeve is
attached to the stem of the Adjustable Choke and as the stem movesin and out so does the
sleeve showing the scale. Before use this scale must bezeroed to calibrate. To do this you must
loosen the Allen screw holding the sleeve inplace. Shut in the adjustable all the way and turn
and fix the zero point on the sleeveto the zero point on the outer casing.This will have to be
carried out during every shut in.

During clean-up operations it may be necessary to rock the adjustable choke handleback and
forward, should the choke block up. Before doing this you must inform thescan operator and
supervisor. So that they are aware of the problem and also tomake a note of the in the
sequence of operations.
There is a screw on the outside housing of the stem that can be used to secure thestem in
position should there be excessive vibration. This must be loosened whenaltering the adjustable
choke size.During each shutdown period the Adjustable choke should be pulled out and
thecone/Adjustable choke bean examined for wear. Also check the “O” ring andthreads on the
cap and seat. Grease the threads with a high temperature grease.When putting backtogether do
not over tighten. This is not necessary as it is an “O”ring seal.

Bolt or Wing nut to stop

adjustable from moving off
set point due to vibration.

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Damaged adjustable Choke

Stem and Seat

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Master Flow Adjustable Choke

Fixed Choke.
Its main purpose is to provide a more accurate means of controllingthe well.

What do we can the insert we put into the fixed side? It is called a choke bean. It issized in 64ths
of an inch. E.g. 32/64ths is 1/2inch choke 16/64ths is a 1/4inch choke.

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What should be on the choke before insertion into the housing?

Each choke bean should have a gasket fitted. This gasket can be a metal seal,
Teflon seal or “O” ring seal. MAKE SURE IT IS FITTED.

If this seal is not in place then there is more than a fair chance that you will cut outthe choke
and the threads on the housing. Should this occur, not only will you haveto throw away the
choke bean, but you will have to replace the whole +ve or fixed chokeassembly.

There should always be a fixed choke bean in the fixed side. If there was no chokebean fitted
and the valve was passing there is every chance of damaging the internalthreads.

Before the choke goes offshore all choke beans should be checked for size andmake sure that
they are marked accordingly. A full range of chokes should beavailable when going offshore.
Always carry spare gaskets.

Standard Choke Bean Table (3” Choke Manifold)

Choke Bean Size Imperial Choke Bean Imperial Choke Bean Metric Choke Bean
64ths Size (Fractions) Size (Inches) Size (mm)
4 1/16 0.0625 1.5875
8 1/8 0.125 3.175
12 3/16 0.1875 4.7625
16 1/4 0.25 6.35
20 5/16 0.3125 7.9375
24 3/8 0.375 9.525
28 7/16 0.4375 11.1125
32 1/2 0.5 12.7
36 9/16 0.5625 14.2875
40 5/8 0.625 15.875
44 11/16 0.6875 17.4625
48 3/4 0.75 19.05

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52 13/16 0.8125 20.6375

56 7/8 0.875 22.225
60 15/16 0.9375 23.8125
64 1 1.0 25.4
72 1 1/8 1.125 28.575
80 1 1/4 1.256 31.75
88 1 3/8 1.375 34.925
96 1 1/2 1.5 38.1
104 1 5/8 1.625 41.275
112 1 3/4 1.75 44.45
120 1 7/8 1.875 47.625
128 2 2 50.8

What position should the valves be in when getting ready to open up?

 Both front valves closed.

 Both back valves open.
 Sample point needle valves closed.
 Needle valve to downstream gauge open.
 Adjustable choke set off zero.
 Positive choke installed - choice dependent on well performance.

Opening the well through the choke.

An opening choke size is agreed upon and usually a small size.

Adjustable choke set to predetermined size.

Open front valve on adjustable choke monitoring upstream and downstreampressure


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Problems associated with Flowing through the choke!

It is necessary that you understand what is happening when working at the chokemanifold. Here
are some problems, causes and solutions.

1. Upstream and downstream pressure rising:

• You may have a blockage downstream of the choke. Investigatewhere the problem is
occurring and fix. It may only be a valve partially shut, the heater choke on a smaller size
than the choke. If you cannot fix the problem it may be necessary to shut in and sort out
the problems. As soon as this problem occurs inform the supervisor.

• If you are flowing during a clean-up, this may be an indication that thewell is cleaning
up. You will know this by the increase in back pressure to the burners.

2. Upstream pressure rising and downstream pressure falling:

• You may have a blockage at the choke, solids packing around the adjustable choke. To
cure this rocks the choke. It may be necessary to rock it quite severely. Inform
supervisor and scan before carrying out this operation.
• This could be caused by hydrates forming at the choke (freezing). To solve this you can
start injecting methanol before the choke. If this does not cure the problem then you
can either increase the choke to increase the temperature or shut in to clear the

3. Upstream pressure dropping and downstream pressure dropping.

• You have a blockage upstream of the choke. This could be caused by solids or hydrating.
Inject methanol at the STT for hydrating. If it is solids then it is likely that you will have
to shut in and clear the problem.

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• When flowing back during a clean-up it is possible to have a drop in pressure due to
liquid (water) coming to the surface. Once the water has reached the surface, the
pressure to rise back to normal, or until the next slug of water comes to the surface.

4. Upstream pressure dropping and downstream pressure rising.

• This is a sure sign that your choke is cutting. Change sides and remove, inspect and
replace choke if necessary.

How to change fixed chokes

• Check that the sample points/bleed valves are closed.

• Set adjustable choke to same as on the fixed side.
• You will need two men to do this.
• Check to make sure the downstream valve on the adjustable side is open.
• The person on the adjustable side will crack open the upstream valve until he feels the
• At this stage the person on the fixed side will start to shut in at the upstream fixed side.
• Both persons will work together with one person controlling the operation, by looking at
the upstream gauge to try and maintain a stabilized pressure throughout the operation.
• Once the sides have been changed then the operator on the fixed side will shut the
downstream valve on the fixed side.
• He will then bleed of the pressure by opening the bleed valves.
• Once there is no pressure coming from the bleed valves he will loosen the cap on the
fixed side, only by two turns.
• He will then make sure that there is no pressure trapped by pushing in the plug on the
cap. If it moves freely then there is no pressure.
• Remove the cap completely. Make sure that there is a catchment tray positioned under
the end of the fixed choke.
• Once the cap is removed, check the threads on the cap/choke body. Check that the seal
(“O” ring or other) is intact. Place carefully at the side. Be aware that the cap is heavy.

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• Using the proper equipment and PPE remove the Choke Bean from Choke Manifold.
Inspect for damage and clean. When removing the choke bean there is every likelihood
that a large amount of fluid will be trapped behind it. This will come out as you remove
the bean.
• Inspect inside of the housing for damage.
• The new bean will be inspected for size, gasket and to make sure that there is no
damage to it. Have someone else inspect the bean for size.
• Grease the new bean with a high temperature grease. Then insert the bean into the
housing. Make sure that it goes all the way in. If it doesn’t then this can cause gas/fluids
to pass on the outside and will cut the bean and housing.
• Grease the threads on the cap and choke body with high temperature grease.
• Turn the cap until it is hand tight. Several light taps should secure the cap if it is an “O”
ring seal. If it is a metal seal then it will require substantial tightening. Be very careful
with the instrumentation during this operation. It may be necessary to remove it.
• Close the bleed valves.
• Slowly open the downstream valve on the fixed side to equalize the pressure across the
fixed side upstream valve.
• During this time the person on the adjustable choke has been slowly opening it up to
the new size of fixed been. The Data acquisition should be informed of this operation.
• Now reverse the operation of changing sides.


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Steam Heat Exchangers

Normally fed by either the rig steam system or by Steam Boiler/Generator, whichever supplies
the steam they are used to heat the Well Stream Fluids andshould be placed as near after the
choke as possible.

Heater types and applications

Heaters are used in almost all aspects of petroleum production and processing. They vary in size
and complexity from a simple hot-water bath to a sophisticated cracking furnace in a refinery.
Heaters are generally classified as direct or indirect fired.

In a direct-fired heater, the fluid being heated flows through tubes that are surrounded by a
firebox and are in direct contact with the heat source. A domestic boiler is an example of a
direct-fired heater. There are limitations to the use of direct-fired heaters in the oil industry.

In an indirect fired heater, the well fluid being heated flows through tubes that are surrounded
by water in a vessel. The heat source heats the water via a firebox.

Hydrate prevention

Natural gas contains water vapor. Under certain choked flow conditions, sufficient expansion
occurs to lower the temperature of the flow and cause hydrate formation, which is when
particles of water and some light hydrocarbons in the natural gas become solid. Hydrate
formation is a serious problem; if particles freeze in the surface equipment, the valves and
flowmeters become inoperative and chokes are blocked.
Natural gas hydrates resemble granular snow. These chemical compounds of hydrocarbons and
water form at temperatures above the normal freezing point of water when certain
hydrocarbons are dissolved in water under low-temperature and high-pressure conditions. High
velocity, pressure pulsation and agitation accelerate the phenomenon, as do certain gases,

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particularly H2S and CO2. A heater is used to help maintain the temperature above the point at
which hydrates can form.

Viscosity reduction

High viscosity impairs the flow of an effluent through a pipe. It is usually not a problem in well
testing. However, the combined effects of changes in composition as the reservoir fluid is
brought to the surface ambient temperature may raise the viscosity and affect testing efficiency.
Because viscosity is temperature dependent, a heater can be used to lower the viscosity and
prevent high viscosity problems.

Emulsion breakdown

With the inevitable production of water from a reservoir, it is necessary to separate oil from
water. Under certain conditions, the oil and water emulsify and do not separate unless
chemicals are injected or the effluent temperature is raised with a heater.
It is frequently necessary to heat the produced wellstream above the wellhead flowing
temperature in order to:

1. Prevent hydrating at the separators.

2. Compensate for heat loss through a flow control throttling device (choke) which
consumes a large amount of wellstream heat through free expansion.
3. Assist in separation of water in oil or oil in water emulsions.
4. Aid in separation of foamy oil.
5. Lower the oil viscosity to promote better flow and atomization at the burners.
6. Prevent waxes from coming out of solution in wax bearing oils, which could foul
the separator.
Heaters are on occasions used to cool the well fluid. To achieve this cooling, a water
medium is pumped into the shell to pull heat out of the well effluent. Baffle plates

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made up, alternately top and bottom, ensure the water makes a tortuous flow path to
eliminate stagnant hot spots.

Well Stream Heaters

There are two basic designs of
wellstream heaters in general use with
production testing equipment. One is
the indirect heater; the other is the
steam heat exchanger. Both designs
usually incorporate a choke or chokes
located approximately at two-thirds
downstream in the heating piping (coils).

Three types of indirect heaters available

are: Indirect Water Bath Heater

1. Gas fired
2. Diesel fired
3. Electrical
Indirect gas or diesel fired heaters consist of a large, low pressure tank which contains a
large volume of water or glycol mixture heated by a burner nozzle inside a fire tube.
The well fluid passes through high pressure flow tubes or coils which are installed in the
tank and immersed in the water. The coils make numerous passes to provide the largest
amount of surface area possible for heat transfer.

Because of the length of the coils and the number of bends, the heater can exhibit a
considerable back pressure. At low rates this may not be a problem but at high rates
this can present a considerable problem. For this reason modifications have been made
to some heaters that include larger coil IDs and elimination of chokes. While this has

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reduced the back pressure exhibited, there is a compromise in that the effective surface
area for fluid heat transfer has been reduced.

Unfortunately, all the heat put into any heater vessel is not 100% efficiently exchanged
to the well fluids flowing through. Heat loss is always present.

When the heaters are opened for inspection a small hole will be seen in the end of each
coil’s 180o bend. Erosion will be at its worst on the crown of the bend. If erosion takes
place, the “tell-tale” hole should allow a release of flow to the shell of the vessel at a
controlled rate providing sufficient time to remedy.

Gas fired burners may use 1) natural gas obtained from the separator at a point
downstream of the gas orifice meter or 2) gas from an external source such as a
propane tank. The piped separator or external gas usually makes one pass through the
heater bath to prevent possible hydrate formation and then is regulated down to 15 psi
for burning. The burner has a gas-air mixing arrangement with air being controlled by
an adjustable shutter. A thermostat controls the heater bath temperature. A pilot light
with 3-5 psi gas burns constantly to ignite the main burner when necessary.

CAUTION: Extreme care should be taken during attempts to light the burner. Only
remote ignition of pilot is advisable. Allow system to purge with fresh air before
attempting to light a gas saturated fire tube.

On any well with H2S an external supply of gas is required. Be aware that the heater
stack’s spark arrestor may suffer from soot blockage due to the inefficient burning of
rich liquid gases such as bottled LPG. Poor burner air drafting may result unless a clean
burn is maintained or modifications to the spark arrestor are made.

A phenomenon requiring consideration is the Joule-Thomson effect. When natural gas

expands from a high pressure to a lower pressure without heat transfer there is an
accompanying temperature drop or refrigeration effect which is normally referred to as
the Joule-Thomson effect. Possible economic advantage can be taken of the available
pressure drop to lower the separation temperature of the hydrocarbon mixture, causing
more liquid condensation of the natural gas.

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Another phenomenon which must be considered is the formation of hydrates of natural

gas. Hydrates are unstable, solid chemical compounds of natural gas and water which
exist in snow-like form at temperatures above 32oF under pressure but decompose at
atmospheric pressure. They appear to be hydrates of a mixture of the component gases
and not a mixture of the hydrates of the individual gases. Thus these hydrates form at a
temperature for a given gas mixture rather than at the hydrate temperature for the
individual pure components in the mixture. It is also a known fact that the presence of
liquid water is generally considered necessary for the formation of hydrates.
Turbulence accelerates the formation of hydrates and freezing occurs frequently
downstream from valves, regulators, chokes, sharp bends, etc. Until the first hydrate
crystal forms, there exists no nucleus for further formation; but once started, hydrates
form rapidly from the available free water.

When testing high pressure gas wells at low rates it is especially important to have the
heater at operating temperature before the well is passed through it. This set of
conditions, high pressure drop at the choke and possible low temperatures, is conducive
to the formation of hydrates with its resulting problems. During the clean-up period
separator gas can be obtained by cracking the inlet valve with the separator’s
downstream valves closed and trapping a sufficient supply of natural gas.

NOTE: Do not flow the well through the heater during the clean-up period, since any
entrained solids could damage the coils and necessitate expensive repairs.

Flowing wells at higher flow rates usually increases the flowing wellhead temperature
because the formation heat comes to the surface. Due to the higher temperatures and
less pressure drop at the choke there is less likelihood of hydrates and the heater’s use
may be reduced or even eliminated.

Diesel fired heaters use a diesel burner assembly which incorporates a diesel pump for
pressure and an electrical fan to supply forced air for good burning. Generally, diesel
units have more efficient BTU ratings than the gas fired.

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Electrical heaters consist of two electrical elements replacing the fire tube arrangement.
The heated water/glycol allows heat transfer to the coils and thus the well effluent.
Electrical supply of 110 or 220 volts is required for the electrical control system. This
unit was designed to meet stringent environmental guidelines.

NOTE: Heaters may have a high pressure side upstream of choke and a low pressure
side downstream. Care must be exercised when testing to ensure low pressure coils are
not subjected to excess pressure. The heater should have a direct bypass manifold such
that the flow tubes can be isolated during well cleaning up operations or depressurized
to check/change the choke.

Check working pressure and

pressure test. If the heater is
indirect fired (using diesel or
separator gas) check operation
of pilot main burner and safety
shut down controls. Ensure
bath is filled with fresh water
(donotusesaltwater) and that the
thermostat operates correctly. Check
that the regulators are set to give
correct pilot and burner gas pressure.

Heat Exchanger

Heat exchangers consist of an outer

shell into which is passed a series of
coils. The coils are subdivided into HP
and LP coils. The pressure drop from
HP to LP coils is usually made through
an adjustable choke. Some older heat

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exchangers may have twin parallel long nose chokes.

The outer shell is rated at approximately 250 psi or more and is fitted with relief valves.
The coils are usually 5-10,000 psi HP and 2000 psi LP. Each heater must be checked and
its respective ratings determined.

The vessel is supplied by heat from an external source - rig

steam or EXPRO third party contracted boiler unit. The
steam, once condensed, is passed through a fluid trap and
usually dumped to the sea.

On receipt of equipment on location, a general inspection
of the heat exchanger should be made. This should

• Inspect all inlet and outlet connections. Check

threads are clean and undamaged. Replace seals
where necessary.

• Visually check for signs of structural damage which

may affect the integrity of the equipment.

• Visually check all piping and valve assemblies.

Function test all valves.

Before operation of steam heat exchanger, while in service or in testing, the entire
installation should be grounded by means of a cable which allows the static electricity to
disperse and avoid flashes. The cable should have maximum of 1/3 ohm per foot. It
should be connected to a place where there is no paint, either on the vessel or on the
rig. In the case of onshore testing, the ground should be an iron stake at least three feet

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long, driven into the ground and watered regularly to keep the earth wet and provide
good contact.

Pressure Testing
The pressure test should be done in conjunction with the complete rig up and should
comprise of:

• LP coil test
• HP coil test
• Inlet/bypass manifold test
NOTE: Once the pressure test is completed it is imperative that the system be purged
to remove standing water or when steam is applied, the outlet valve be open to
prevent water trapped in the coils from expanding.

To determine the appropriate choke size when flowing through twin parallel chokes use
the following formula:

D 3 = (D 1 2 + D 2 2). 5

The chokes are secured by unibolt fittings. The bleed screw must be removed and any
pressure bled off before attempting to release the securing bolt. Once the securing bolt
is loosened a sharp tap on the lugs of the connection should break the connection. The
bolt should then be removed and the choke withdrawn carefully to prevent damage.

To replace the choke, reverse the procedure but ensure the choke stem is backed out
before you start. Once the securing bolt is made up tight, zero the choke and replace
the bleed screw with a new gasket in place.

Steam Generators
The quality of the water used in the boiler will affect the life and the performance of the
boiler. The feed water must meet certain specifications. An example of one unit’s

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• Total dissolved solids - 2000 ppm maximum

• Total alkalinity - 300 ppm
• PH value - 9-11
Boilers may be gas fired or oil fired. When starting an oil-fired boiler, care must be taken to
ensure that the fuel pump is properly primed otherwise the pump could be severely damaged.

General Safety
The boiler must be sited in a safe area.

Checks should be made on the quality of the

feed waters and the water treated with
proprietary chemicals as necessary. At
regular intervals open the boiler steam valves
by lifting the relief lever.

Check the water level and safety cut off

controls under operating conditions by
interrupting the feed water supply.

Check the operation of the flame failure

device by withdrawing it and covering its

Ensure all steam hoses are in good condition

and properly made up. Always ensure before applying steam to the heat exchanger that
the inlet and outlets to the coils are open.

The steam-heat exchanger design most commonly used for testing has a capacity of 4.3
MMBtu/hr. It has a shell and also a tube, which is a high pressure vessel. Steam provided to the
shell is passed around the tube bundle. Heat is transferred from the steam to the tube bundle
and, in turn, to the effluent. A choke between the inlet and outlet of the steam-heat exchanger
allows preheating the effluent before the pressure is dropped at the choke

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Schematic Diagram
Internal Structure

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Indirect bath heater

The indirect bath heater consists of

• Vessel for water bath at

atmospheric pressure, including
4-in. split coil with intermediate
choke, adjustable choke with
11⁄2-in. [3.81-cm] seat and solid
stem tip.
• Manifold equipped with three
31⁄8-in. gate valves rated 5000-
psi [345-bar] working pressure
• Diesel shutdown valve actuated by pilot light stoppage and temperature controller (Fig.
• Flame arrestor on burner air inlet
• Spark arrestor on chimney exhaust.

181 P & ID
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A separator designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from
oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. An oil and gas separator generally
includes the following essential components and features.

1. A vessel that includes:

• primary separation device and/or section

• secondary “gravity” settling section
• mist extractor to remove small liquid particles from the gas
• gas outlet
• liquid settling section to remove gas from oil and/or separate
oil and water
• oil outlet
• water outlet
2. Adequate volumetric liquid capacity to handle liquid surges

3. Adequate vessel diameter and

length to allow most of the liquid to
separate from the gas without

4. A means to control oil and water

levels - liquid controller and
diaphragm control valve

5. A back pressure controller and

valve on the gas outlet to maintain
a steady pressure in the vessel
Side view- Oil and Water outlines
6. Pressure relief devices

Oil and gas separators can operate at pressures ranging from a high vacuum to 5000 psi.
Most separators operate in the pressure range of 20 to 1500 psi. Separators may be

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referred to as low, intermediate, and high pressure. Low-pressure vessels usually

operate at pressures ranging from 10 to 225 psi. Medium-pressure separators usually
operate at pressure ranges of 230 to 700 psi. High-pressure vessels generally operate in
the pressure range from 750 to 1500 psi.

Oil and gas separators can have three general configurations: horizontal, vertical, and
spherical. The different configurations are available for two-and three-phase operation.
In the two-phase units, gas is separated from the liquid with the gas and liquid being
discharged separately. In three-phase separators, well fluid is separated into gas, oil,
and water with the three being discharged separately. Some units may be two stage;
consisting of a high pressure two-phase vessel and a low pressure three-phase vessel
used in conjunction.

Variations of Separators and Functions:

• Separator - Conventional, handles highest instantaneous flow

• Trap - same as separator
• Knockout vessel - removes one component (H2O, liquid, sand)
• Flash chamber - low pressure, second or third stage
• Expansion vessel - first stage on low-temp separator unit
• Scrubber - similar to separator, handles fluid w/ less liquid
• Filter - dry type scrubber, removes dust, scale, rust

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Separator vessel

The principal internal components of a separator are

shown in the cross section figure. The coalescent plates
prevent droplets larger than 15 microns from being
carried into the outlet gas stream, and the mist

Side view -Gas Outlet Line Internal PartsFront
of a Separator
which is the
last obstacle the gas encounters before leaving the separator vessel, blocks fine liquid droplets
still in the gas stream. The blocked droplets coalesce and fall back into the oil phase.

The Vessel consist of:

• Primary separation section or device
• Secondary gravity settling section
• Mist extractor to remove liquid particles from gas
• Gas outlet
• Liquid settling section to remove the gas from the liquid or water and oil.
• Oil outlet
• Water outlet
Two Main Functions of Oil and Gas Separators

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Removal of Liquid from Gas

Separation of liquid from gas begins as the fluid flows through the formation into
the wellbore and progressively increases through the tubing, flow lines, and surface
handling equipment. Under certain conditions the fluid may be completely separated
into liquid and gas before the oil and gas separator is reached. In such cases, the
separator affords only an ‘enlargement’ to permit gas ascent to one outlet and liquid
descent to another. In other words, the oil and gas separator may perform only the
function of providing space in which final separation is accomplished by density
difference of the liquid and gas.

Difference in densities of the liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons may accomplish

acceptable separation in an oil and gas separator. However, it is usually necessary to
use mechanical devices commonly referred to as ‘mist extractors’ to remove liquid mist
from the gas before it is discharged from the separator. Also, it may be desirable or
necessary to use some means to remove non-solution gas from the oil before it is
discharged from the separator.

Mist Extractors
• Residual liquid in the form of mist can be effectively removed from the gas
stream in an oil and gas separator by a well-designed mist extractor. However,
condensable vapors in the gas cannot be removed by mist extractors.
Condensation of these vapors due to reduction of temperature may occur after
the gas has been discharged from the separator.

• This existence of condensed liquid in the gas effluent from an oil and gas
separator, in many instances, does not necessarily reflect upon the efficiency of
the separator. Since condensable vapors may have the characteristics of natural
gas when at separator temperature and pressure, condensation of these vapors
into liquid between liquid and gas may accomplish separation of liquid droplets
from a gas stream where the velocity of the stream is slow enough and sufficient

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time is allowed to accomplish separation. Limiting the gas velocity in a separator

may obtain satisfactory separation without a mist extractor. However, mist
extractors are generally installed in
conventional oil and gas separators, to assist
in separation and to minimize the amount of
liquid (mist) carried out with the gas.

Mist extractors can be of many different

designs, utilizing one or more of the principles of 1)
impingement, 2) change of flow direction, 3) change
of velocity, 4) centrifugal force, 5) coalescing packs
and 6) filters.

If a flowing stream of gas containing liquid mist is impinged against a surface, the
liquid mist may adhere to, and coalesce on, the surface. After the mist coalesces into
larger droplets the liquid will gravitate to the liquid section of the vessel. If the liquid
content of the gas is high, or the mist particles are extremely fine, several successive
impingement surfaces may be required to effect satisfactory removal of the mist.

Change of Flow Direction

When the direction of flow of a gas stream containing liquid mist is changed
abruptly, inertia causes the liquid to continue in the original direction of flow.
Separation of liquid mist from the gas is thus effected, since the gas will more readily
assume the change of flow direction and continue to flow away from the liquid mist
particles. The liquid thus removed may coalesce on a surface, or it may fall directly into
the liquid section below.

Change of Velocity
Separation of liquid and gas is also effected with either a sudden increase or
decrease in velocity. Both conditions utilize the difference in inertia of gas and liquid.

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With a decrease in the velocity of gas, the higher inertia of the liquid mist carries it
forward and away from the gas. The liquid may then coalesce upon some surface and
gravitate to the liquid section of the separator. With an increase in gas velocity, the
higher inertia of the liquid causes the gas to move away from the liquid, and the liquid
may fall to the liquid section of the vessel, which shows one version of a vane-type mist
extractor used in oil and gas separators to remove liquid from gas.

Centrifugal Force
If a gas stream carrying liquid mist flows in a circular motion at sufficiently high
velocity, centrifugal force throws the liquid mist outward against the walls of the
container or element. Here it coalesces into progressively larger droplets and finally
gravitates to the liquid section below. Centrifugal force is one of the most effective
methods of separating liquid mist from gas. Efficiency of this method increases as the
velocity of the gas stream increases.

Small centrifugal-force-type mist extractors have been inserted in small-diameter (4

to 12 in.) vessels, and these “separators” have handled relatively large volumes of gas.
This type of separator (or scrubber) is used in scrubbing gas in gas gathering
transmission, and distribution systems. However, a small-diameter vessel usually is not
practical for use on oil and gas producing wells as the primary separator because of the
possibility that the small vessel may be filled with a “slug” or “head” of liquid and cause
the liquid to flow out the gas line.

Therefore, a larger conventional separator vessel should be used to separate well

fluids because miniature vessels may cause trouble by “overloading” with liquid.

Coalescing Packs
Coalescing packs afford an effective means of separating and removing liquid mist
from a stream of gas. One of their most appropriate uses is the removal of liquid mist
from gas in transmission and distribution systems.

Coalescing packs can be made of Berl saddles, Raschig rings, knitted wire mesh, and
other such materials. The packs imply a combination of impingement, change of

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direction, change of velocity, and centrifugal force in separating and removing liquid
mist from gas. These packs provide a large surface area for collection and coalescence
of the liquid mist.

A word of caution is appropriate concerning the use of coalescing packs in oil and
gas separators for general field use. Coalescing packs may be made of fragile material
which can be damaged during transit or installation if they are installed in
manufacturing shop prior to shipment to point of use. Knitted wire mesh may foul or
plug from paraffin deposition and other foreign material and thus make a separator
which utilizes this material inoperative after a short period of service.

Even though coalescing packs are very effective in removing liquid mist from gas, it
is usually preferred to use vane-type mist extractors for oil and gas separators because
they may be used under widely varying conditions. The use of coalescing type mist
extractors, because of their “fouling” tendency, is appropriately restricted to gas
scrubbers used in gas gathering, transmission, and distribution systems.

Porous filters have proven effective in removing liquid mist from gas in certain
applications. In effect, the porous material strains or filters the liquid mist from the gas.
In addition, the porous material may utilize the principles of impingement, change of
flow direction, and change of velocity to accomplish separation of the liquid mist from
the gas.

Pressure drop through mist extractors used in separators should be as low as

possible and still maintain maximum separating efficiency. Generally speaking, filter-
type mist extractors will have the highest pressure drop per unit volume of capacity and
the coalescing type will have the lowest. Pressure drop through the other types of mist
extractors will range between these two extremes.

Removal of Gas from Liquid

Most crude oils are saturated with natural gas at reservoir pressure and
temperature. The physical and chemical characteristics of the oil and its conditions or

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pressure and temperature determine the amount of gas it will contain in solution. The
rate at which the gas is liberated from a given oil is a function of change in pressure and

The volume of gas that an oil and gas separator will remove from crude oil is
depending upon (1) physical and chemical characteristics of the crude, (2) operating
pressure, (3) operating temperature, (4) rate, (5) size and configuration of the separator,
and other factors.

Fluid rates and liquid depth in the separator determine the ‘retention’ or ‘settling,’
time of the oil. Retention time of from 1 to 3 minutes is generally adequate to obtain
satisfactory separation of crude oil and gas unless foaming oil is being handled.

When separating foamy oil, retention time should be increased to 5 to 20+ minutes,
dependent upon the stability of the foam and on the design of the separator.
Improvement in field processing systems and productions procedures, such as electronic
metering, emphasize the need for complete removal of non-solution gas from the oil.
Agitation, special baffling, coalescing packs, and filtering elements assist in removing
non-solution gas that otherwise may be retained in the oil because of viscosity and
surface tension of the oil.

With a steady demand for natural gas and the widespread reliance on metering of
liquid hydrocarbons and for other reasons it is important to remove all non-solution gas
from the oil. Removal of gas from oil can be accomplished in several ways.


Gas not in solution will separate from oil if the oil is allowed to settle in a sufficient
length of time. To increase retention time for a fixed liquid rate requires an increase in
the size of the vessel or an increase in liquid depth in the separator.

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Increasing the depth of oil in the separator may not result in increased emission of
non-solution gas from the oil because “stacking up” of the oil may tend to prevent the
non-solution gas from emerging from the oil.

The weir maintains the oil level and the interface controller maintains the water
level. The oil is skimmed over the weir and the level of the oil downstream of the weir is
controlled by a level controller that operates the oil dump valve.

An alternative configuration known as a “bucket and weir” eliminates the need for a
liquid interface controller. Both the oil and water flow over weirs where level control is
accomplished by displacer floats. The oil overflows into an oil bucket where its level is
controlled. The water flows under the oil bucket and then over a water weir to be
controlled. Height of the weirs and levels can be critical for proper separation and

Agitation is helpful in removing non-solution gas which may be mechanically locked
in the oil by surface tension and viscosity of the oil. Agitation may cause the gas bubbles
to coalesce and separate from the oil in less time than would be required if agitation
were not employed. Agitation is obtained by stirring, vibrating, or baffling.

Inlet Diverter
An inlet flow diverter is installed on the inlet to a separator. Variations include the
use of a flat metal plate, centrifugal diverter, concave plating, etc. The element diverts
the oil flow and disperses it in such manner that gas can readily escape from the oil.
This type of element provides additional benefits by eliminating high-velocity
impingement of the fluids against the opposite wall of the separator.


As illustrated, baffles placed in the path of the oil spread it into thin layers as it flows
from the inlet element to the oil section of the separator. The oil is rolled over and over
as it cascades down the baffles, and the combination of spreading and rolling is effective

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in releasing entrained gas bubbles. This type of baffle is successful in handling foaming

A special type of baffling in the form of coalescing packs can be used to remove non-
solution gas from the oil. This type of element causes the oil to be spread into thin
layers, which allows the gas bubbles to break out of the oil film that encases them.

Heat reduces surface tension of oil and thus assists in releasing gas that is
mechanically retained in the oil. The most effective method of heating crude oil is by
passing it through a heated salt-water bath. Flow of the oil in small streams or thin
layers upward thru the hot salt water afford slight agitation, which is helpful in
coalescing the gas bubbles. A heated salt-water bath is perhaps the most effective
method for removing foam bubbles from foaming oil.

Any chemical that reduces the surface tension of crude oil will assist in freeing non-
solution gas from the oil. Chemicals that reduce the surface tension of oil will
appreciably reduce the foaming tendency of the oil and thereby increase the capacity of
a separator when handling foaming oil. In one particular case the capacity of an oil and
gas separator was increased from 3,800 to 9,600 B/D when a certain chemical was
injected into the oil upstream of the separator with no other change being made in the

Two Stage Separation

High stage or primary separation occurs in a receiver vessel where the total
wellstream effluent is separated into liquid and vapor by using the large difference in
densities of the two phases. In principle, the separator could be simply a sufficiently
large pressure vessel which would lower the velocity of the stream passing through it
enough for complete separation. In order to reduce the dimensions and cost of
separators, several flow systems or devices are used in assisting separation. These can

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be considered as belonging to two basic types - 1) contacting separators and 2)

centrifugal separators.

The contact separator is usually a larger vessel. The velocity of the flow stream is
considerably reduced due to this larger size. Liquid mist extractors are installed in the
gas chamber. The mist extractors are usually baffles, Dixon plates, mesh contractors,
etc. The advantage of a contact separator is good handling of liquid slugs, some foam
and heavy crude oils. Their disadvantages are their relatively large size, weight and cost
in relation to their separating capacity.

The centrifugal separator uses the inlet stream velocity to spin it in a cylindrical
chamber causing the heavier liquid droplets to be thrown against the wall discharging
the gas through the center of the cylinder.

Oil from such units will usually contain less non-solution gas than that of non-
centrifugal units. Their advantage is mainly small size relative to their separation
capacity. Their disadvantage is an inability to handle large liquid slugs due to their small
size and possibly allow carryover of liquids.

The liquid phase may itself be separated into the lighter density oil and the heavier
water, thus obtaining three phase separation. This liquid separation requires relatively
large water-oil contact area to be effectively carried out, making the small diameter,
vertical separators somewhat unsuitable for three phase separation. Water in oil or oil
in water emulsion will not separate readily by gravity from each other. In this case,
heating of the well stream and the use of emulsion breaking chemicals injected into the
stream may be of assistance.

A second stage process removes solution gas from the high pressure oil or
condensate discharged by the primary separator. The separator is physically similar to
the primary unit and fabricated for a lower pressure rating. In production practice, two,
three or more stage (multi-stage) separation is carried out under controlled pressure
and temperature conditions in view of obtaining maximum volume and higher grade of
either stabilized oil or condensate. In testing practice, multi-stage separation is

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primarily carried out in sour gas tests in order to lessen poisonous gas hazards and
minimize the gas volume to be vented from the storage or metering tanks. In well
testing where the well products are burned, multi-stage separation serves little useful
purpose, provided measurements and sampling of the high pressure hydrocarbon liquid
are reliable.

Stabilization of Liquids
If an oil and gas separator is operated under a vacuum and/or at a temperature
higher than ambient, the liquid hydrocarbons flowing through will be stripped of more
gas and/or vapors than otherwise would be removed. This tends to stabilize the liquids
and results in loss of less gas and condensable vapors from the storage tank.

By the use of a stabilization unit, the yield of stock-tank liquid can be increased by 10
to 15 percent over that obtainable with standard separator.

When a stabilizer of this type is used, a separator installed upstream of the stabilizer
removes gas from the liquid and the liquid is discharged to the stabilizer. The liquid
discharged from the stabilizer to the tanks is completely stabilized and has a field vapor
pressure of 11 to 13 psi, which is less than atmospheric pressure. Therefore, there will
be no loss of gas or vapor from the tank.

In some installations, the initial cost of a stabilizer may be less than the initial cost of
multiple-stage oil and gas separators. Use of a stabilization unit has resulted in liquid recovery
comparable to that from four to six stages of separation. Each set of conditions should be
studied carefully to determine whether or not a stabilizer should be used. If a highly volatile
liquid is being handled, the use of stabilizers may result in increased monetary yield.

Capacity of test separator

The Capacity of Test Separator depends on the In-Situ conditions of Pressure & Temperature.
• Viscosities & Densities of Liquids
• Vessel Operating Liquid Level
• Vessel Internals
• Required Liquid Gas Separator Efficiency

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Capacity and internal pressure calculation:
 Settling Velocity

 Drag Coefficient

 Reynolds Number

 Critical Velocity

Dm = liquid droplet diameter (µm)
Ρ = in – situ density (air = 1)
µ = viscosity (cp)
L = effective vessel length (ft)
h = pad height (ft)
The subscripts g & l denote gas & liquid, respectively.
The gas rate in cuft/ s is,

And in MMscf/D is


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Ag = gas cross-sectional area (sqft)
P = operating pressure (psi)
T = operating temperature (deg R)
Z = gas compressibility factor
Oil Capacity is calculated as,

Qo = Oil Capacity (BOPD)
V = Oil Volume (bbl)
T = retention time (s)

Capacities of Oil and Gas Separators

The oil and gas capacity rating of conventional separators are “nominal”. These ratings
are determined by calculations and are usually verified by field test. Manufacturers of
oil and gas separators should provide capacity ratings that are conservative under
average operating conditions. Actual capacities of oil and gas separators will vary with
the following factors:

• Diameter and length of separator vessel

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• Design and arrangement of separator internals

• Number of stages of separation
• Physical and chemical characteristics of well fluids (gravity, viscosity, phase
equilibrium, etc.)
• Operating pressure and temperature of separator
• Liquid level maintained in separator
• Well fluid flow pattern, whether steady or surging
• Foreign material content of well fluid
• Foaming tendency of the oil
• Physical condition of separator and its components.
Calculations of the gas capacities (see capacity curves) for oil and gas separators are
based on Stokes’ law, which can be written as follows:

V L = KvD2P L - P g

V L = relative velocity of falling liquid droplets in gas, ft/sec.

Kv = viscous resistance constant

D = diameter of falling droplets, ft.

P L = density of falling droplets, lb/cu. ft.

P g = density of gas, lb/cu. ft.

V g = viscosity of gas, ft/lb. sec. units

These calculations assume that liquid-gas separation is accomplished by the difference

in densities of the liquid and gas and by proper gas velocities within the separator. Net
relative gas velocities in the separators were selected which would obtain separation of
all liquid mist particles of 100 microns diameter or larger. It is assumed that mist
extractors used in the separators will effect separation of the liquid mist particles down
to approximately 30 microns in diameter. Capacities of conventional “gas scrubbers”

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can be determined from the same curves used for oil and gas separators. If knitted wire
mesh is used as the mist extractor in the gas scrubber, the gas capacity of the scrubber
will be about 90 per cent of the capacity given in the curves for the corresponding size
and type of oil and gas separator. This reduction in capacity is caused by possible
ultimate liquid loading of the wire mesh.

The oil-and-gas-capacity curves included herein are arranged so that they may be used
reversibly (1) to determine the size of a separator or scrubber required to handle a given
volume of fluid and (2) to determine the volume of fluid which a given separator or
scrubber will handle.

Capacities of Horizontal Separators

The gas capacity of a horizontal separator is proportional to the cross-sectional area of

the vessel available for gas flow. Thus the diameter of a horizontal separator and the
depth of the liquid determine its gas capacity for a given set of conditions. Changing the
shell length from the conventional 10 ft. does not greatly change the gas capacity except
under certain circumstances such as handling foaming oil. The liquid capacity of a
horizontal separator depends upon the volumetric liquid-settling capacity of the
accumulation (settling) section of the vessel. This volumetric capacity is determined by
shell diameter, shell length, and liquid depth.

Capacities of Vertical Separators

The gas capacity of a vertical separator is directly proportional to the cross-sectional
area of the separator. Shell length is a minor and indeterminate factor, for instance, a
50 per cent increase in shell length may increase gas capacity only approximately 5 per
cent, while a similar decrease in length may result in only approximately 3 per cent
decrease in gas capacity. Changes in gas capacity due to changes in shell length are
dependent upon-well fluid characteristics, operating pressure, vessel design, and other
pertinent factors and usually must be determined by field testing under actual operating

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The liquid capacity of a vertical separator is primarily influenced by the volume of oil in
the accumulation (settling) section of the vessel. Normal practice is to use a liquid
depth above the oil outlet connection for from one to three diameters of the vessel.
The optimum liquid depth depends upon the design of the separator, the rate of
through-put, and the characteristics of the liquid being separated.

Capacities of Spherical Separators

Spherical separators are more appropriately used for two-phase separation than for
three-phase separation. This is especially true of sizes smaller than 36-in. diameter.

Field tests should be made on spherical separators to determine and/or confirm their
capacity because, of the three shapes of separator vessels available, they are the most
difficult to rate properly on oil and gas capacities.

Sizing Oil and Gas Separators

To assure acceptable separation at all times, an oil and gas separator should be sized so
that it will never operate above its maximum capacity. A separator must be sized for
the maximum instantaneous flow rate to which it will be subjected rather than for the
total daily production rate. Many wells produce by “head” or “slugs” as a result of
natural causes or intermittent gas lift. Such a well may produce a total of only 200 bbl
of liquid in 24 hours.

However, if that well “heads” or “intermits” only once each hour it may produce one-
twenty-fourth of its total daily production in a matter of 2 or 3 minutes, which would
result in an instantaneous flow rate of approximately 2,400B/D. The separator should
be sized to handle the maximum instantaneous rate of fluid produced during these hour
intervals, or it must be of sufficient size to store a portion of these slugs while it
separates and discharges the balance.

Similar sizing procedure should be followed where long flow lines are subject to
instantaneous unloading, which is sometimes caused by periodic accumulation and
release of gas in the formation, in the tubing, or in the flow line. Under these conditions

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the separator is subjected to an instantaneous rate of flow much higher than the total
daily rate of flow and should be sized accordingly.

Conversely, it is extravagant to install oversize separators under conditions where their

additional capacities will never be used. Pumping wells, continuous flow gas-lift wells,
and some flowing wells produce at uniform rates. For these applications separator sizes
may be selected based upon total daily production.

Field tests should be made on oil and gas separators to determine their oil and gas
handling capacities under given conditions. Rated capacities on separators are intended
for “general” or “average” conditions, but the only way to determine the exact capacity
of a particular separator under a given set of conditions is actually to test the separator
under operating conditions.

Operational Uses of a Separator

A separator designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids producedfrom oil and
gas wells into gaseous and liquid components.
How many phases can a separator usually work on?
Three phases:Gas, Oil, Water
A fourth phase to separate sand can also be included in special cases of high sand with
It is usually a 1440 psi rated, but can go to 2000 psi.It is usually horizontal, but can be vertical.

Separator Operation
The oil enters the separator and either hits a deflector plate. This helps separate the liquids
from the gas. The liquids fall to the bottom of the separator and travel along the separator
where near the far end is a weir plate. As the liquid inside the separator has a certain retention
time. The gas breaks out of the liquid and the oil and water separate. As the oil is on the top, the
levels are set so that only oil will pass over the weir plate into the oil compartment. A pressure
must be maintained within the separator to push the fluids out. This pressure is dependent on
many factors. These will be covered in future courses. Where the oil and water leave the

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separator there is a Vortex Breaker. This stops the fluids from swirling down the pipe as you
would see in a kitchen sink when you empty the water out. The levels are maintained by
controllers which are air operated. A float system allows the controllers to adjust the levels

On the side of the Separator you will see sight glasses. These give the operator a visual display
on how much Fluids (either oil or water) are contained in each compartment. On the water side
you will be required to see an interface between the oil and the water.

Meters on the lines provide the operator and Data Gathering Software a meaning of measuring
the flow rate.

As the Gas flows along the top of the separator it passes a set of plates positioned in the
center of the separator. As the gas passes over the plates small droplets of oil which is
entrained in the gas forms on the plates. As the oil collects it then runs down the plates
and falls into the liquid below.

Before the gas leaves the separator is passes through a mist extractor which is basically
a wire mesh (like wire wool). Oil collects on the mesh and then falls into the oil
compartment below.
The pressure within the separator is maintained by a valve on the outlet of the gas line.
This is set at a prescribed pressure setting and maintained by a pressure controller
which monitors the pressure on the outlet line.
For measurement the gas passes through an orifice (small hole in a metal plate). The
difference between the upstream and downstream pressure as it passes through the
plate and is measured. This is used in part to calculate the gas rate. During cleanup
operations the separator is bypassed until such time as there are not solids and a
sufficient amount of gas to run the separator.
Comparison of Horizontal, Vertical and Spherical Separators

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Sl. No. Considerations Horizontal Vertical Spherical one

monotube monotube compartment
1 Efficiency of separation 1 2 3
2 Stabilization of separated 1 2 3
3 Adaptability to varying 1 2 3
conditions (such as
“heading” flow)
4 Flexibility of operation 2 1 3
(such as adjustment to
liquid level)
5 Capacity (same diameter) 1 2 3
6 Cost per unit capacity 1 2 3

7 Ability to handle foreign 3 1 2

8 Ability to handle foaming 1 2 3
9 Adaptability to portable 1 3 2
10 Space for installation 1 3 2
vertical plane
11 Space for installation 3 1 2
horizontal plant
12 Ease of installation 2 3 1
13 Ease of inspection and 1 3 2
14 Handling low API gravity 3 1 2
and LP oil
15 Handling gas and 2 3 1
condensate production
*Rating: 1- Most favourable, 2-Intermidate, 3-Least favourable

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With the overall performance the horizontal one is more favourable, but the separator
performance depends on the internals, assosiated accessories and the type of the well.

Measurements at separator
The separator is mainly used to calculate the flow rate of oil water and gas. To calculate the
flowrate certain parameters has to be measured and they as follows:

 Separator Pressure
 Gas Line Pressure
 Gas Line Temperature
 Oil Line Temperature
 Orifice Differential Pressure
 Orifice Plate Size
 Gas Gravity
 H2S and CO2 at Separator
 Oil Shrinkage (oil line on Sep)
 Oil Meter Rate (Turbine Meters)
 Water Meter Rate (Turbine Meters)
 Oil Gravity
 BS&W from Oil line at Sep
 Water Salinity
 Water PH

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The separator pressure, temperature, differential pressure are obtained by using appropriate
sensors or gauges.
Theoretical 3 Phase Separator Water Capacities Revised 12/12/94





Capacity, bwpd





1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Retention Time, min

4" Water Level

9" Water Level
14" Water Level
19" Water Level

Vessel Inside Diameter, in ID .12 = 42

Effective Length (Seam to Weir Plate), ft Le = 8

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Theoretical Separator Gas Capacity (MMSCFD) versus Pressure (PSIG) SEPARATE

Revised 12/12/94
Theoretical 3 Phase Separator Oil Capacities Revised 12/12/94 65



8000 55





Gas Capacity (MMscfd)

Capacity, bopd







1000 5

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
0 Separator Pressure (psig)
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Retention Time, min
10.5" Liquid Level
14" Liquid Level
4" Water Level
17.5" Liquid Level
9" Water Level
21" Liquid Level
14" Water Level
19" Water Level
Vessel Inside Diameter, in 12 .ID = 42
Specific Gravity SG = 0.6
Vessel Inside Diameter, in ID .12 = 42
Liquid Specific Gravity, deg API API = 30
Effective Length (Seam to Weir Plate), ft Le = 8
Oil Operating Liquid Level, in h o .12 = 21
Temperature, deg F T F = 100
Liquid Droplet Diameter, micron Dpmicron = 100
Effective Length (Seam to Mist Extractor), ft Le = 8

Safety Features for Oil and Gas Separators

Generally speaking, oil and gas separators are installed at relatively remote distances
from other valuable lease equipment. However, where they are installed on offshore
platforms or in close proximity (sited in a zone 1) to other equipment, it is important
that precautions be taken to prevent damage to surrounding equipment and personnel
in event of failure of the separator, its controls, or accessories. The following safety
features can be obtained on nearly all standard oil and gas separators.

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High and Low Pressure Controls

High/low pressure controls are installed on separators to prevent excessively high or
low pressures from interfering with normal operations. These high/low pressure
controls can be mechanical, pneumatic, or electric and can sound a warning, actuate a
shut-in valve, open a bypass, or perform other pertinent functions to protect the
separator and surrounding equipment.


The Barton Model 202E single DP and Model 208E
Dual DP Flow Recorders measure and record system
operation parameters, including gas and liquid flow
rate, liquid level in a vessel, and other system
variables that can be measured by differential pressure and static pressure methods.

Main Components
Differential Pressure Unit
The Barton Model 199 Differential Pressure Unit (DPU) actuates the recorders (single DPU on
M202E and two DPUs on M208E).
The DPU is a dual bellows assembly enclosed within pressure housings. The bellows are liquid
filled and withstand over ranges equal to the working pressure of the housing without
calibration change. Movement of the bellows is transmitted through a torque tube from the
DPU to the recording mechanism. The torque tube is hermetically sealed to eliminate friction
and leakage; it does not require lubrication.
The DPU is attached to the back of the recorder case. The torque tube is
inserted through a hole in the case and connected to the DP drive arm of the
recorder mechanism. Movement of the bellows is transmitted by the DPU drive arm to the
torque tube as a rotary motion, which in turn rotates the recorder mechanism. The pressure
housings of the DPU are connected bypipe or tubing to the high- and low-pressure sides of the
primary device locatedin the process system.

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The range of the DPU is determined by the force required to
move the bellows through their normal range of travel. The
Range Springs, which are available in various ranges, balance
the DP applied to the unit. The number of springs and their
ratings depends on individual DP range requirements. See BUA
photos on page 6.
The built-in Pulsation Dampener controls the flow of fill-liquid
between the high and low pressure bellows, with an externally
adjustable needle valve. In applications where pulsation is not a
problem, the needle is set to the full open position.

Adjusting Pulsation Dampener

1. Remove dust cover and insert 1/8 hex key into needle valve.
2. Turn valve clockwise to closed position, approx. 3 turns.
3. Back out valve 1/2 turn, or as required to reduce pulsations or shock pressures.

Recording Mechanism
The recording mechanism is a linkage and pen system that permanently
records data. It converts mechanical inputs from the DPU and static
pressure element to transcribe lines on a revolving chart. All operative
parts of the recorder mechanism are made of stainless steel for a longer
field life. The pen mount is exceptionally rugged. All lines are adjustable.
Screw adjustments for zero, range, and linearity assure fast and accurate
calibration. The DP Pen mechanism is shown below:

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Static Pressure Element
This element measures static pressure in a piping system from 0 to 30 inches of Hg (mercury)
vacuum or from 0 to 10,000 psi. The sensor element is a bourdon tube
consisting of a slightly flattened cross-section of tubing coiled into a helix
or flat spiral. The outer end of the tubing is sealed and attached to a
drive arm, which is attached to the static pressure connection tubing.
The Static Pen mechanism is shown below:

The static pressure connection is located on the back of the recorder

case. Static pressure introduced through the tubing causes the spiral
or helix to unwind. A reduction of pressure within the tubing causes
the element to wind more tightly. Sensor elements are available in
various alloys for a variety of pressure ranges.

(See Static Pressure Element Table below.)

Chart Drive
Spiral wound chart drives (electrical or mechanical) can be selected to
fit a wide variety of chart speeds or time intervals to reduce maintenance time. All chart drives
are interchangeable and fitted with a flow recorder hub clip, which locks the chart in place.
Explosion proof electrical drives are also available.

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The instrument should be inspected at time of unpacking to detect any damage that may have
occurred during shipment.
Standard Practice Considerations
The following practices should be observed upon installation:
1. The distances between the primary device and the DPU should be minimized. Distances
exceeding 100 feet are not recommended. For distances up to 50 feet, use 1/4-inch or 2/8-inch
pipe or tubing. For runs of 50 to 100 feet, use 1/2-inch pipe or tubing. The recommended
limitation doesnot apply when an air purge or blow-back system is used.
2. Slope all piping at least 1-inch/linear foot to avoid liquid or gas entrapment.
3. Provide two feet of uninsulated piping between the DPU and the primary
device for each 100°F (+37.8°C) in excess of 200°F (+93.3°C).
4. Assure that the temperature of the DPU never exceeds 180°F (+162°C).
When steam tracing is necessary, the steam pressure should not exceed pounds per square inch
and insulation should not be used. If pressure must
exceed five pounds per square inch, limit the length of tubing around the DPU to two turns and
do not insulate.
5. Install a suitable pulsation dampening device upstream of DPU. Severe
pulsation will affect the accuracy of flow measurement. Avoid severe
pulsating flows, such as reciprocating pumps or compressors.
6. Mount the DPU on a solid support to minimize vibration. Tighten all points, using a suitable
compound. Leaks in piping can cause measurement errors.
7. Rotate the housing as necessary to place the connection in the proper position. The DPU has
connections in the pressure housings to accommodate various pipe sizes (See Section 5).
8. Install a valve manifold connecting the DPU and the source of differential
pressure to facilitate operation and checking of the DPU.
9. Locate all shutoff and bypass valves so they are accessible from the front
the instrument. Locate block valves at the source of differential pressure.

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Application Considerations
Flow— Make sure the DPU high pressure housing is connected to the
upstream tap of the primary device. Note: To prevent overheating the DPU
during blowdown, the operator should monitor the temperature by placing a
hand on the pipe between the DPU and the manifold pipe containing the vent valves.
Liquid Level— The process media can be used as a reference leg seal fluid when it is of a type
that will condense in the reference leg under all conditions.

If process or process media characteristics prevent meeting the above requirements, a special
reference leg seal fluid will be required. The special seal fluid
must not be volatile and must not be miscible with the process
media. Also, the difference in the densities of the special seal
fluid and the process media will require compensation in
calculating the DP range of the DPU.

Explosion Hazard. No Organic compounds, oil, grease, dirt, or
scale of any kind can be tolerated in an oxygen installation.
Calibration Check
Note: There should be enough pen pressure to produce a
continuous line. The pen should spring free of chart when
chart is pushed inward about 1/8-inch. If necessary, adjust
pen pressure by bending pen arm in the required direction.

A. Differential Pressure Pen

To adjust the instrument to factory set calibration levels:
1. Verify the instrument is positioned approximately level and
is securely
2. Connect the high pressure housing into the calibration setup:

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3. Vent the DPU low pressure side to atmosphere by removing one vent
plug from the low pressure housing.
4. Remove the dust cap of the pulsation dampener valve, using a regular
Screwdriver. Open the dampener valve by turning it fully counterclockwise
until it stops turning (using a 1/8-inch Allen wrench).
5. Place a recording chart onto the chart plate. Lock the chart into
position with the hub clip.

6. Set the pen precisely at zero, using the pen zero adjustment screw.
7. Apply 100% pressure. Verify that the pen moves across scale to the
100% pressure indication.
8. Apply 50% pressure. Verify that the pen indicates 50% pressure on
the chart.
9. If the pen does not accurately indicate the pressure being applied,
Further adjustments are necessary; perform the calibration procedure
Outlined in DP Pen Calibration on page 13.
B. Static Pressure Pen
If the instrument includes a static pressure element, use the following to
Check the static calibration:
1. Connect the static pressure element into the calibration setup:

2. Release pressure. Set the pen to zero, using the zero adjustment screw.

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3. Apply 100% pressure. Verify that the SP pen moves across scale to the
100% pressure indication.
4. Apply 50% pressure. Verify that the SP pen indicates 50% pressure on the chart.
5. If the pen does not accurately indicate the pressure being applied, further adjustments are
necessary; perform the calibration procedure outlined in SP Pen Calibration on page 17.

Recorder Mounting
Before installation, perform a calibration check (page 8). Do not place unit near vents or bleed
holes that discharge corrosive vapors or gases. Do not apply wrench/bar pressure to recorder
case. All fittings must be leak tight. All tubing must be secure to minimize vibration. Mount the
instrument as level as possible.

1. Flush Mounting
a. Cut opening in panel to the dimensions shown in Section 5.
b. Drill out pilot holes located on top and bottom of case. Use a
No. 1 (0.288) drill. Limit drill penetration and remove chips.
c. Attach mounting brackets to case bottom with supplied self-tapping screws.
d. Slide case (from front of panel) into the panel cutout.
e. Attach remaining mounting bracket and install panel mounting screws.
2. Pipe Mounting
a. Place a suitable length of 2-inch pipe into a well-secured floor or wall flange; or attach
the 2-inch pipe to existing pipe with a saddle that is fitted with a 2-inch NPT outlet.
b. Thread the DPU onto the pipe, orient the instrument (with wrench or
bar applied to the DPU bracket only), and tighten retaining screws. Piping
Connect the pressure element to system pressure using tubing or pipe. Pressure connection on
outside of recorder case is 1/4-inch NPT, female.

Electrical Connections
Two knockouts are on the bottom of the case. One knockout is on the back of the case to
accommodate conduit clamping connections, through which wiring is fed to the terminal strip.

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The terminal strip is below the chart drive motor. The standard electrical power supply
requirement is 110 VAC, 60 Hz (50 Hz wiring available upon request).

Chart Installation
Perform the following steps to install the chart:
1. Open the recorder door and release the chart lock (on chart drive hub).
2. Raise the pen lifter arm and slide the chart between the pen(s) and the chart plate.
Insert the chart in the chart guides in the chart plate, and locate the hole in the chart
onto the chart hub. Place the pressure chart onto the chart hub. Then, lower the pen
lifter arm and position the chart to place the pen(s) on the desired chart time line.
3. Secure the chart in place with the chart hub lock.

Note: Be careful not to subject the DPU to unnecessary shock or over range
pressure during operations.
1. Always start with the block valves closed. Note: Do not perform a zero check with
only one block valve closed. If seal pots are used, some of the sealing fluid will be lost or
displaced. In gas service, a standard wave effect may occur that will displace the zero
2. Perform a zero check on the instrument, per the following:
For Gas Service:
a. Verify the instrument is mounted approximately level and is properly
connected to the pressure source.
b. Tighten process connections to each DPU housing. Check manifold and piping
for leaks:
1) Close shutoff valves, open the equalizer or bypass valve(s), and then
slowly open one shutoff valve to pressurize the instrument.
2) When system is pressurized, close both valves opened in Step 1.
3) Any leakage will be indicated by pen movement, up or down the
scale. If leakage is indicated, check all manifold and piping joints.
Tighten as necessary.

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4) Repeat Steps b.1) through b.3) until no pen movement occurs.
c. The pen should indicate zero. If it does not indicate zero, check for gas or
liquid entrapment in the lines or in the DPU (depending upon orientation of
piping and service). If no entrapment is found, set the pen to zero using the pen
zero adjustment screw.
d. Close equalizer valve and observe the pen:
1) If zero, no further check is needed.
2) If upscale, a leak may exist on the low pressure side. Check and
tighten connections.
3) If downscale, a leak may exist on the high pressure side. Check and
tighten connections.
4) If still slightly off, make a fine adjustment using the pen zero
adjustment screw.

For Liquid Service:

a. Fill service lines with process fluid. Vent and bleed each side of the DPU
before tightening the vent plugs.
b. Perform Steps 2.a. through 2.d. in For Gas Service procedure above.
c. Open shutoff valve. Leave the equalizer valve closed. Flow recorder is
now operational.
3. Adjust the dampener valve as required.

To place the instrument into operation:
1. Turn on the drive.
2. Verify that the pen has ink and is in contact with chart.
3. Turn on pressure to the recorder.

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Required Tools
Tool Purpose
1/2-inch Open-End Wrench Pushrod - Bellows Cup Connection
Modified Box/Open-End
7/16-inch Wrench Kickoff Spring Lock Nut
Torque Wrench (100 ft/lbs) Pressure Housing Bolts
Screwdriver Bracket Screws
Generally, Barton recorders require no maintenance other than replacement of the chart,
replenishment of the ink, winding of the spring-wound chart drives, and occasional calibration.
In addition, the operator should periodically check the door seal for wear and the pressure
fittings for tightness.
Differential Pressure Pen Calibration (Refer to page 14)
To calibrate the DP pen:
1. Make sure chart plate is on same plane and flush with hub flange. The chart must be flat with
the hub locked. Also, make sure the pens and pen arms are correctly connected and that they
do not interfere with one another.
2. With a chart locked into place, move the pen from zero to full span and back to ensure that
the pen travels along the time line. If adjustments are needed: loosen the two pen mount
screws, adjust the pen mount position until the pen follows the time line, then tighten the pen
mount screws.
3. Disconnect the differential pressure drive link from the range arm. Move both differential and
static pressure pens to full span. Adjust the static pen so that pens are approximately 7-15
minutes apart by adjusting the static pen arm mounting location on the pen arm shaft assembly.
Move both pens to the 50% indicating position. Ensure that the pens don’t interfere with one
another. Adjust static pens as necessary; do not alter the differential pressure pen once it has
been adjusted to the time line.
4. Assure that there is enough pen pressure against the chart to produce a
continuous line. If necessary, adjust the pen pressure by bending the arm in the required
5. Unlock the flow recorder hub clip. Remove the chart and chart plate.

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Note — Prepare a calibration chart by cutting a chart into the wedge shape and gluing it to a
piece of similarly shaped cardboard of stiffener. This allows calibration of the pens and
permits access to the flow recorder mechanism when linkage adjustments are necessary.
6. Mount a calibration chart onto the flow recorder hub. Lock the chart in
place. Move over range stops out of play.
Notice — Verify that all linkage is free. Adjust range arm and drive arm
at precisely the same distance back of the case. Adjust the lever arm and pen zero adjust
screws to their midpoints all 90° midscale linkage angles must be measured.

7. Apply 50% differential pressure to the high-pressure side. Arrange the differential pressure
linkage as shown on page 12. Set a 90° angle between the drive arm and link. By varying the
length of the link, set a 90° angle between the range arm and link. Slip the range arm to 50% on
the chart.
8. Remove pressure. The pen should indicate zero. If the pen deviates less than 10% from zero in
either direction, perform fine adjustment by using the pen zero adjust screw (refer to page 12)
and proceed to step 8.b. If the pen deviates more than 10% from zero, make adjustments as
a. Rotate pen arm and shaft by gripping the range arm and forcing (or slipping) the pen
until it indicates zero. The pen arm and shaft should rotate at the range arm pivot point
without loosening the range arm lock screw.
b. Apply 100% pressure. Make the necessary adjustment by turning the range arm
adjust screw counterclockwise if the pen is slightly under ranged and clockwise if the
pen is slightly over ranged. Repeat zero and 100% adjustments until calibration at these
points is achieved.
c. Apply 50% pressure. The pen should be on the 50% chart line. If the pen is low,
lengthen the linkage to make a correction forty times as great in the low direction.
Adjust the pen to 50% as in step 8.a. (refer to page 12). If the pen is high, shorten the
linkage to make a correction forty times as great in the high direction. Adjust the pen to
50% as in Step 8.a. Assure all linkage screws are retightened.
9. Repeat step 8 until calibration of all three points (0, 50, and 100% indication) is achieved. To
assure accuracy a nine point calibration check (1, 24, 50, 74, and 100% ascending and

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descending) must be run. Model 208E Only: perform steps 1 through 9 above on remaining DP
Note — Calibration checks at 24% and 74% are recommended so that
chart lines are utilized for reading accuracy.

10. Adjust overrange stops for 5% overtravel.

a. Loosen the screws on the zero and full scale over range stops (refer to page 12).
b. With the low-pressure side vented to atmosphere, apply 105% differential full scale
pressure to the high-pressure side, and position the high-pressure stop to the contact
drive arm. Tighten the screw.
c. With the high-pressure side vented to atmosphere, apply 5% differential full scale
pressure to the low-pressure side. Position the low pressure stop to the contact drive
arm and tighten the screw. Disconnect pressure.
11. Unlock the flow recorder hub clip and remove the calibration chart.

Note — The drive arm must contact the stops to prevent recording pens from going off the
flow recorder chart.

12. Replace the chart plate by sliding it into the chart plate retainer brackets and engaging each
side into the chart plate latches (refer to page 2).
13. Install a 24-hour flow recorder chart and engage the chart hub clip into the lock position as
seen on page 2.
14. Check the pens to assure that they have correct pen pressure as previously described. If
necessary, straighten the pens by sliding them between two fingers and curling them in or out.

Adding Counterweight to #2 Pen (DP) (Refer to page 14)

A. Fabricated Counterweight
For 3 or 4 Pen Flow Recorders:

1. Disconnect the drive link from the range arm.

2. Remove the #2 pen from the pen mount (note approximate position from range arm).

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3. Remove the range arm from the shaft, and slip the counterweight to about mid point.
Position approximately as shown on page 12 and secure in place. Replace the range arm to
approximate position (note step 2) and secure in place.
4. Reassemble in pen mount and prepare for calibration.
For 2 Pen Flow Recorders:
1. Disconnect the drive link from the range arm.
2. Remove the #2 pen from the pen mount.
3. Slip the counterweight over the shaft in front of the pen (shaft length is approximately 9/16")
and position approx. as shown on page 12 and secure in place.
4. Reassemble in pen mount and prepare for calibration.
B. Die Cast Counterweight
These counterweights slip over the pen shaft without disassembly. This is
applicable to a 2 pen or 3 pen assembly:
1. Remove lock screw from counterweight.
2. Slip over #2 shaft at any convenient location. Replace lock screw carefully,
orienting the counterweight in the position shown on page 12.

Note: The counterweight is die cast zinc, subject to bending if too

much torque is applied to the lock screw.

C. Calibration
1. After removal of the range arm, complete recalibration is required. In
PEN, include step 7: set the counterweight to the 3 o’clock position
shown on page 12 with the differential set at 50%.
2. After the addition of the counterweight in front of the DP (#2) pen,
apply 50% differential and set the counterweight at the 3 o’clock position.
1-5. The addition of the counterweight causes a zero offset, but has
little effect on span. Reset zero, check span and adjust as necessary.

3. After addition of the die cast counterweight, orient to 3 o’clock position

at 50% differential as shown on page 12. Reset zero and check span.

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Adjust as necessary for proper calibration.

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Static Pressure Pen Calibration

To calibrate the static pressure pen and associated linkage, proceed as follows:
1. Adjust the static range arm and drive arm at precisely the same distance from the back of the
2. Place static drive link in the fourth hole from the pen shaft of the range arm.
3. Adjust static pressure linkage to form 90° angles between the drive link (see above
illustration) and pivot points of the associated linkage, as follows:
a. Apply 50% static pressure, center thumb nut on the drive arm, and arrange static
linkage as shown on page 16.
b. Set a 90° angle between drive arm & link. Tighten clamp block screw.
c. Vary the length of link to get a 90° angle between range arm and link.
d. Slip the range arm on pen shaft to 50% on chart

Notice — Verify that all linkage is free. Adjust range arm and drive arm at precisely the same
distance back of the case. Adjust the lever arm and pen zero adjust screws to their midpoints
all 90° midscale linkage angles must be measured.

4. Release pressure and reset the pen to zero indication, using pen zero adjust screw for fine
adjustment (10% or less). For major adjustments (more than 10%), loosen range arm lock screw
and slip the pen to zero on chart and retighten lock screw.

Note — It may be necessary to raise or lower the pivot point of the drive link on the range
arm, as in step 3. If counterclockwise movement of thumb nut (step 5) does not increase span
sufficiently, move the pivot pin up to next pivot hole; if clockwise, movement of the thumb nut
does not decrease span sufficiently, move pivot pin down to the next pivot hole.

5. Apply 100% pressure and observe the pen. Make the necessary adjustments by turning the
drive arm thumb nut counterclockwise if the pen is slightly under ranged and clockwise if the
pen is slightly over ranged. Repeat zero and 100% adjustment until calibration at these two
points is achieved.
6. Repeat steps 3, 4, and 5 until full scale calibration is obtained.

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7. Apply 50% pressure and observe pen indication.
a. If pen indicates high or low, adjust drive link to make a correction approximately 40
times the error — in the direction of the error.
b. Reset the pen to the 50% line by slipping the pen shaft at the range arm pivot point.
c. Repeat this step (7), as necessary.
8. Release pressure and reset the pen to zero indication, using pen zero adjust screw for precise
9. Repeat steps 4 through 8 until calibration of zero, linearity, and span (0%, 50%, and 100%
indication) is achieved.
10. Assure range arm lock screws, thumb nut lock screw, and link screws are tight.
11. Reconnect the DP link and range arm.
12. Unlock the recorder hub clip and remove temporary calibration chart.
13. Replace the chart plate by sliding it into the chart plate retainer brackets and engaging each
side into the chart plate latches.

Static Pressure Element Replacement

If the static pressure element needs replacement, proceed as follows:
1. Close all valves and turn off the power switch to the recorder.
2. Separate the drive link arm by opening the link table and disengaging the
Pivot pin from the clamp.
3. Loosen the clamp block screw on the lever arm assembly and separate the drive arm from the
static pressure element shaft.
4. Disconnect the tubing from the static pressure element at the tubing connection (refer to
page 18).
5. Remove the mounting screws from the static pressure element and discard the damaged
6. Install the new element, using the old mounting screws.
7. Connect tubing to the element at the tubing connection.
8. Assemble the lever arm assembly onto the static pressure element shaft; do not tighten the
clamp block screw yet.
9. Connect the drive link to the drive arm by engaging the pivot pin and locking the link tab into

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10. Align the static pressure linkage (range arm, drive link, and drive arm) so that it lies in the
same plane without binding or bending.
11. Tighten clamp block screw.
12. Calibrate in accordance with the procedure outlined in SP Pen Calibration.

Chart Drive Replacement

To replace the chart drive, proceed as follows:
1. Release the pressure to the recorder.
2. Turn off the chart drive.
3. Raise the pen lifter and remove the chart and chart plate.
4. Remove chart drive mounting screws and remove chart drive.
5. Position new chart drive at the back of recorder case and attach with
Mounting screws.
6. Replace chart plate and chart. Lower the pen to the recording position.
7. Check the time line on first pen from chart, zero, and span elements. Linkage Adjustments
(see linkage illustration on page 21)
A. Range Arm and Drive Arm Lock Screws:

Note: Tightening lock screws finger tight is often not tight enough, but
Tightening them more than a full turn often breaks them.

1. Tighten the lock screw until snug.

2. Hold the drive arm at the clamp block by hand or with a 1/4-inch open wrench. If a wrench is
used, place it between the torque tube shaft and the lock screw, taking care not to damage the
torque tube shaft or bearing. (In the case of the range arm lock screw, place the wrench
between the shafts and lock screw.)
3. Tighten the lock screw 1/3 to 1/2 turn beyond snug.

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4. Test for tightness by moving free end of drive arm approximately 1/2- inch in either direction.
Drive arm should spring back without yielding.
B. Over range Stops Adjustment (Refer to pages 2 and 12)

Note — Prepare a calibration chart by cutting a chart into the wedge shape shown on page 12
and gluing it to a piece of similarly shaped cardboard of stiffener. This allows calibration of the
pens and permits access to the flow recorder mechanism when linkage adjustments are

Over range stops may be adjusted to prevent the pen from excessive over travel (check for
interference at zero and full span), per the following:
1. Unlock the flow recorder hub clip. Remove the chart.
2. Remove the chart plate by disengaging the chart plate latches on both sides and sliding the
chart plate retainer brackets.
3. Mount a calibration chart onto the flow recorder hub and lock in place.
4. Loosen the screws on zero and full scale over range stops.
5. Vent the DPU low-pressure housing. Apply sufficient pressure to the high-pressure housing to
move the pen approximately 3/8-inch above 100% indication.
6. Position the zero over range stop so that it contacts the drive arm.
7. Tighten the zero scale over range stop screw.
8. Apply sufficient pressure to the DPU low-pressure housing to move the
Pen approximately 3/8-inch below zero indication.

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9. Position the full scale over range stop so it is in contact with drive arm.
10. Tighten the full scale over range stop screw.
11. Unlock the flow recorder hub clip. Remove temporary calibration chart.
12. Replace the chart plate by sliding it into the chart plate retainer brackets and engaging each
side into the chart plate latches.
13. Install a regular recorder chart and lock it into place with chart hub clip.
14. Check the pens to make sure that they touch the chart; if necessary, straighten pens by
sliding them between two fingers and curling in and out.

DPU Replacement
Before installing a replacement DPU, the new DPU should be checked for proper torque tube
1. Mount the DPU on a suitable pipe stand and connect to a standard pressure source.
2. Adapt a graduated degree scale to torque tube housing.
3. Adapt a pointer to exposed end of the torque shaft.
4. Apply 100 percent differential pressure to the high pressure housing of the DPU. The pointer
attached to the torque tube shaft should indicate 8 degrees of travel.

DPU Cleaning and Inspection


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Notice — if accumulation of solids or semi-solids is extensive, remove the housings carefully to
prevent damaging the bellows.

A. Pressure Check Procedure


This procedure should be performed prior to removing the DPU housing bolts, if the DPU has
been installed in gas applications with working
Pressures greater than 200 psig.
1. Back off all housing bolts 4 turns.
2. Check for internal pressure by attempting to move the housing in and out along the
a. If the housing moves freely — no pressure is present — servicing or repair
may continue.
b. If the housing does not move freely — the bellows may be pressurized and is
potentially hazardous if further disassembled. Tighten the bolts and return the
unit to the factory or authorized Barton service center for repair. Tag the unit
and specify “Gas in Bellows”.
B. Cleaning/Inspection Procedure
Instruments used where solids or semi-solids may accumulate inside the
Pressure housings require periodic inspection and cleaning, as follows.
1. Remove the DPU from service and remove the pressure housings.
2. Carefully remove the pressure housings from the bellows unit assembly.


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3. Remove the accumulation from between the bellows convolutions and from the
inside of the housings. Use a solvent if possible. Do not use a sharp instrument to clean
between convolutions.
4. Assure that there are no broken range springs.
5. Replace the housings and O-rings.
6. Set the pressure housing bolts to the TORQUE VALUES listed below:

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Range Change
Changing the range of the Model 199 DPU requires replacing the bellows unit assembly with a
unit of the desired range .(see BUA Replacement).
NOTE — The calibration range of the DPU was carefully set at the factory. The following
procedure maintains the original factory bellows travel setting while the range spring change
is performed. This procedure must be strictly followed while changing the range spring
assembly or altering the adjustment.

To replace the range spring assembly with either a new assembly of the same range or one with
a different range value, proceed as follows (this procedure assumes that the DPU is either
connected to an indicating instrument or fitted with a scale and pointer to measure torque tube
shaft movement):
A. 2-1/8-Inch Diameter Bellows
1. Remove the DPU from service.

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2. Remove the pressure housing bolts and the low-pressure housing.
3. With the pointer at zero, remove the spring retainer screw, retainer springs, and the
range spring assembly.

NOTE — The pointer will shift from zero. This is a normal action and the pointer should not be
readjusted at this point.

4. Install the new range spring assembly onto the push rod, and replace the spring
retainer screw.
5. If the pointer is set above zero, rotate the spring adjustment clockwise until the
pointer is set at zero. If the pointer is below zero rotate the spring adjustment counter
clockwise until the pointer is set at zero.
6. Replace and tighten the lock nut. If the pointer shifts from zero, loosen the lock nut
and reset the pointer as in step 5. Tighten the lock nut.
7. Replace the low-pressure housing and bolts (new gaskets are recommended). Use the
torque values listed on page 23.
8. Calibrate in accordance with the technical manual for the actuated instrument.
B. 3-3/4-Inch Diameter Bellows without Kickoff Spring (above 50-inches w.c.)
1. Remove the instrument from service.
2. Remove the pressure housing bolts and the low-pressure housing.
3. With the pointer set at zero, remove the lock nut retainer nuts, and the range spring
assembly. To remove the range spring assembly, rotate the assembly counterclockwise
while pulling outward on the assembly.

NOTE — The pointer will shift from zero. This is a normal action and the pointer should not be
readjusted at this point

B. 3-3/4-Inch Diameter Bellows Without Kickoff Spring (Continued)

4. Thread the new assembly onto the push rod, and align the holes in the range spring
assembly with the spring posts. Replace and tighten the retainer nuts.

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5. Using a spanner wrench, rotate the spring adjustment until the pointer is set at exact
zero. Replace and tighten the lock nut. The pointer must remain at the zero setting. If
the pointer shifts from zero, loosen the lock nut and repeat this step.
6. Replace the low-pressure housing and bolts (new gaskets are recommended). Use the
toque values listed on page 23
7. Calibrate in accordance with the technical manual for the actuated instrument.
C. 3-3/4-Inch Diameter Bellows with Kickoff (“anti-stick”) spring

NOTE — The kickoff spring is supplied with the 0-40” w.c. and lower range DPUs as standard
equipment. It is optional with 0-50” w.c. DPUs.

1. Remove the instrument from service. Set the pointer (or pen) at zero, using the
instrument zero adjustment.
2. Remove the pressure housing bolts and remove the low-pressure housing.
3. With the pointer set at zero, remove the lock nut, four spring retainer nuts, washer
and lock nut, and range spring assembly.

NOTE — The pointer will shift from zero. This is a normal action and the pointer should not be
readjusted at this time.
4. Install the range spring assembly, using a 1/2-inch open-ended wrench to connect the
push rod to the low-pressure bellows cup.

NOTE — The range spring assembly consists of the range springs, kickoff spring assembly, and
the push rod. The assembly is furnished as a complete and assembled unit.

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5. Position the range spring assembly over the retainer posts and replace the retainer
6. Insert the tubing between the range springs and tighten the inboard lock nut.
7. Zero the pointer by adjusting the spud on the push rod. Be sure that the kickoff spring
is not engaged during this operation.
8. Position the kickoff spring to prevent interference with the coil springs and tighten
the kickoff spring lock nut. If clearance is needed for the wrench during this operation,
note the position of the spud (measure with a scale or count threads to the end of the
push rod) and move the spud for the required clearance. After the lock nut is tightened,
return the spud to the original position.

NOTE — the lock nut requires a special wrench for tightening. See illustration below for
information on how to modify a 7/16-inch, 12 point box wrench:

9. Check the back-clearance between the kickoff spring and the slot. Use a wire feeler
gage or comparable measuring device. The clearance will vary between each individual

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slot but must be at least 0.005-inch for any one slot to prevent interference with
instrument zero. Add or remove washers as required to obtain the proper clearance.
Tighten the lock nut securely.
10. Install the jam nut and lock the spud to the push rod. Hold with pliers. If the spud
was moved in step 9, return the spud to the proper position before tightening the jam
11. Apply 100 percent negative pressure to the high-pressure side of the DPU and
repeat the clearance check and adjustment of step 9.
12. Apply 100 percent positive pressure to the high-pressure side of the DPU and repeat
the clearance check and adjustment of step 9.
13. Release all pressure from the instrument and replace the low-pressure housing. Use
new gaskets.
14. Replace the housing bolts. Use the torque values listed.

Setting Bellows Travel

The travel of the DPU bellows must be adjusted if one of the following occurs.
1. The range spring assembly is removed without following the procedure.
2. Broken range springs are replaced.
3. The indicator pointer has excessive over travel.
4. The indicator pointer has excessive under travel.
To set the bellows travel requires that the DPU be attached to the actuated
Instrument and connected to a test pressure source. The procedure for this
Adjustment is presented in the technical manual of the actuated instrument.

Bellows Unit Assembly (BUA) Replacement


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NOTES — Support the DPU during disassembly. Do not loosen the drive arm hold plug located
in the top of the BUA center plate, when removing the mounting bracket. If the plug is
loosened, the bellows fill fluid will be lost.

The reference designations (#) relate to 199 Parts drawing on page 47.
1. Disconnect the DPU piping and remove the instrument from service.
2. Loosen the actuated instrument drive arm and slide off of the torque tube shaft. Do not
disconnect the instrument linkage.
3. Remove the four case-retaining screws and remove the case assembly.
4. Remove three mounting bracket screws and remove bracket (18).
5. Remove the pressure housings bolts and pressure housings (26).
6. Place the pressure housings (26) on the replacement bellows unit assembly (1) and insert and
start (only) the pressure housing bolts.
7. Attach the case mounting bracket (18) to the replacement assembly, using three mounting
bracket screws.
8. Support the DPU and tighten and torque the pressure housing bolts to the
Specifications listed on page 23.
9. Attach the case assembly using four case retaining screws.
10. Attach linkage to DPU torque tube shaft.
a. Tighten clamp screw until “snug.”
b. Tighten further, 1/3 to 1/2 turn of screw.
c. Test by moving end of drive arm, approx.
11. Replace/adjust components removed or moved to gain access to DPU case mounting screws.
12. Calibrate the instrument before returning it to service.

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H2S and CO2

The H2S gas (rotten egg smell) is a dangerous gas which is formed due to biological
activities and are present in atmosphere for a long period. The density of H2S is heavier than air
that it accumulates in the low lying area. Inhaling of this pungent gas (odourless when the
quantity exceeds 10ppm) can lead to fatality. It is advised that in presence of H2S a person can
work for 8hours if the concentration is 8ppm.

CO2 is another gas that is released during well fluid recovery. It is also harmful but as not much
as H2S. It is necessary measure these gases, and is done by H2S and CO2 bragger tubes.

Dragger Types and Tubes

Gas Specific Gravity- Ranarex


Portable with carrying handle
Size: 13%"W x 13h"H x 10%"D, excluding handle and gas hose
Weight: Approximately 38 lb
Indicating dial
Drive Motor:
115 volt, +lo% 50 or 60 Hz, single-phase

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Permanent split-capacitor (no arcing during Start, Run or Stop)
Explosion-proof motor not available
Within 0.5% of actual value at any reading within range
Portable Gravitometer:
Dual-range: 0.52-1.03 and 0.97-1.90
Case and Chassis: Aluminum
Impellers, Impulse Wheels: Molded phenolic
Drive: Stainless steel shafts; sealed ball bearings
Pivots: Stainless steel shafts in jewels
Internal trim: Aluminum and stainless steel
Ambient Temperature Rating:
Saturated gas and air: 40 to 120°F2 (4" - 50°C).
Normal gas and dry air: 0 to 130°F2 (-18" - 54°C).

RANAREX gravitometer measure the relative density (specific gravity) of gases as compared to
air at standard temperature and pressure (STP). For all gases there is a definite relation between
the composition of the gas mixture and its relative density. The instrument is calibrated over
two ranges to indicate relative density.
RANAREX gravitometer excel over more complex and costly analyzers in total performance,
including simplicity, fast response, accuracy, sensitivity, ruggedness and lowest long-term cost.

The RANAREX gravitometer uses dynamic forces to measure the relative density of a gas. The
operating principle is described below. The instrument contains two cylindrical gas-tight
measuring chambers, each having separate inlet and outlet connections. Each chamber contains
an impeller and an impulse wheel. These wheels oppose each other on separate shafts in a way

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that resembles an automotive fluid coupling or torque converter. An electric motor and drive
belt rotate both impellers at the same speed.
The impellers draw the sample gas and dry reference air into their respective chambers. The
torques created on the impulse wheels are proportional to the densities of the gas and of the
reference air. The impulse wheel shafts are coupled using a cam and flexible tape in a way that
causes the torques to balance. The ratio of the sample impulse wheel torque to the reference
impulse wheel torque represents the relative density of the gas. A mechanism and graduated
dial are used to indicate the relative density

Figure 1 illustrates the measuring system for two operating

conditions. The left view shows the position of the cam and
reference wheel when the reference gas is admitted into both
chambers. In this case, the impeller wheel torques will be equal.
As a result of this condition and the linear profile of the cam, the
graduated dial is calibrated to indicate 1000.
The right view of Figure 1 shows the position of the cam and
reference wheel when an unknown gas is admitted to the upper
chamber and reference air is admitted into the lower chamber.
The lighter gas (in the upper chamber) creates a smaller torque
than the air in the lower chamber. As a result of this condition, the cam will rotate until the cam
radii allows the opposing torques to balance. The cam rotation is calibrated to indicate the ratio
of the torques, or relative density.
To measure relative densities above 1.000, the unknown gas is admitted to the lower chamber
and the dry reference air is admitted to the upper chamber. The principle of operation is the
same. The graduated dial has two scales. The inner scale is used for relative densities below
1.000. The outer scale is used for relative densities above 1.000.

Due to the nature of the design, the pressures and temperatures of the gas and reference air are
equalized. Any changes in pressure, temperature, and motor speed affect both torques equally.
Since the torques produce opposing forces the effects of varying pressure, temperature and
motor speed are canceled.

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An air drier is built into the gravitometer to dry incoming ambient air for use as the reference
gas. The gravitometer is equipped with a selector valve that is used to direct sample gas and dry
reference air to the correct chambers. The three positions are used for checking the instrument
ZERO, for measuring gas relative densities below 1.000, or for measuring gas relative densities
above 1.000.
The motor is designed for operation on 115 VAC + l o %, 60Hz. When the
Gravitometer is to be used in an area where AC power is not available, a DCAC invertor may be
used to convert the DC voltage supplied by an automobile alternator or other DC source to the
correct AC voltage.


To assure accuracy, the gas sample and the reference air must be measured at the same
temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity content. The sampling system must condition
the gas and air to meet these requirements.
When these conditions are met, the analyzer and sampling system as a unit will be self-
compensating for all variations except the analysis and relative density of the gas.
The RANAREX gravitometer measures relative density in accordance with the definition:

"The ratio of the density of the gas, under the observed conditions
Of pressure and temperature to the density of dry air at the same
Pressure and temperature."

To provide the basis for accurate measurements a sampling system must satisfy the following

Dry Reference Air

Provided by the built-in air drier. The drier uses silica gel as the desiccant and is easily replaced
when the silica gel becomes exhausted.
NOTE: The silica gel desiccant is normally blue in color. The
Desiccant must be replaced whenthe color has changed to pink.

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The gas sampling system must reduce the gas to barometric pressure to equal the pressure of
the reference air. The correct gas pressure corresponds to a sample flow rate of 10-15 scfh for
the portable RANAREX gravitometer. The flow rate is measured by a Rota meter. As an
operating convenience, the flow scale is graduated in relative density units. The operator can
adjust the needle valve so that the flow meter reads the approximate relative density of the gas.
For gas pressures above 20 psig, a suitable pressure reducing regulator must precede the Rota
NOTE: The flowmeter can be used with inlet pressures up to 20 Psig. When the sample
pressure is above 20 Psig it must be reduced using anexternal pressure regulator.
The reference air is admitted to the gravitometer at the ambient temperature of the instrument.
For the gas and air to be measured at the same temperature, the gas must be heated or cooled
to ambient temperature. This is important if the gas pressure has been reduced more than 100
Psig, or if the gas flows through a temperature zone more than 10'~ (LZ°C) different from the
ambient temperature of the gravitometer. If the sample gas temperature must be adjusted, the
gas may be passed through a coiled 10 ft. (30m) section of metal tubing before entering the
Moisture Content
Gases that are "wet" (dew point above 50°F, 10°C) must be measured against
Humidified air. Gases that are "dry" (dew point below 50°F, 10°C) or gases which would be
dissolved by a humidifier, such as NH,, or gases which are corrosive when moist, such as SO2,
must be measured against dry air. Dry instrument air may be reduced to barometric pressure
and used as reference air. If instrument air is not available, ambient air can be dried and, when
specified, the gravitometer will be equipped with an integral air drier.
A commercial filter (25 micron) must be used ahead of the regulator and
Flowmeter to protect the instrument. Other precautions must be used to prevent liquids from
entering the instrument. A Ballston filter (or equivalent) may be required.

NOTE: RANAREX instruments do not include the gas filter, pressure reducing regulator or
sample hose because most users have individual preferences for these items and maintain
their own stock.

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Sampling Systems
Components for conditioning the gas and reference air may be furnished by the purchaser.
However, as a convenience and to assure correct selection, it is recommended that they be
purchased with the RANAREX gravitometer.

1. Check all accessories.
A. All RANAREX gravitometer include:
1 Electric cord, 6 ft. of 18 gauge cable with male
and female plugs
1 1-1/2 lb. can indicating silica gel
1 Filling funnel
1 Instruction Manual

B. When the RANAREX gravitometer is operated from a 12

volt DC battery,
The following is also furnished, unless excluded by
1 RANAREX Invertor
2 Battery Cables, 16 ft. of 12 gauge wire with battery clips
1 Inverter Instruction Manual (found in Reference Material section
Of Gravitometer manual)
2. Select the location for the gravitometer. The instrument should not be near hot or cold
objects. Allow at least 5" clearance on the left side and 3" on the right side for making
connections and normal operating functions. If the instrument is to be permanently mounted in
one location, it should be secured with four 1/4-20 machine screws. These screws are used with
the holes in the gravitometer base. See Figure 2 for mounting dimensions of the gravitometer
and the location of the mounting holes. See Figure 3 for location of connections and external

3. 'Install the power inverter. Read the instructions that are packed with
The inverter.

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4. Fill the air drier. The air drier must be removed from the upper left side of the instrument by
loosening the two fasteners. Remove the plastic drier assembly from the gravitometer far
enough until the rubber tube can be removed from the elbow at the rear of the drier. Remove
the rubber plug on the front of the drier by lifting the lever at the center of the plug (but do not
turn the lever).
Hold the drier horizontal with the front face up
and pour silica gel using the funnel into the
spout. Tap or shake the drier vigorously and
continue to fill the drier to the base of the spout.
Replace the rubber plug, attach the rubber tube
on the elbow at the rear of the drier, and install
the drier into the gravitometer.

NOTE: I f the drier assembly is damaged, the

entire assembly must be replaced.

The moisture capacity of the silica gel will vary

according to the atmospheric humidity and it must be inspected at regular intervals. When the
upper half of the narrow compartment shows a change from deep blue color to gray-pink color,
the silica gel must be replaced.
Active silica gel has a deep blue color and must be kept in a tightly closed container. Expended
silica gel has a light grayish-pink color. The silica gel may be reactivated and used over and over
again. To reactive, heat the silica gel in an open container to approximately 250°F until the dark
blue color returns, then store in a tightly closed container. Additional silica gel may be obtained
from Chandler Engineering as Part

5. Attach the outlet hoses. If the gravitometer is operated in a confined space, such as inside a
vehicle, the gas sample must be discharged outside the vehicle. This will prevent contaminating
the operating space with noxious or hazardous gas and air mixtures. If measuring only gas below
1.000 relative density, attach a hose to the port LIGHT GAS OUTLET on upper right side of
gravitometer case. If measuring gases above 1.000 relative density, attach a hose to the port

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HEAVY GAS OUTLET. These hoses must remain attached when checking the instrument "zero

6. Gas filter. If the gas contains suspended particles larger than 25 microns, or if the gas is "wet",
filtering is required. If a commercial filter is not available, a suitable moisture trap may be made
from 1" (2.54cm) pipe 15" (38cm) long mounted vertically. Cap both ends and install a drain
valve in the bottom cap. Install an inlet connection from the gas line 2" (5cm) from the bottom
and place the outlet to the gravitometer 2" (5cm) from top. Fill the pipe loosely with commercial
No. 0 steel wool. Drain the trap frequently to keep the steel wool free from condensate.

7. Gas temperature. If the gas sample is at a pressure above 100 Psig, or if the sample flows
through a temperature zone more than 10°F (-12°C) different from the ambient temperature of
the gravitometer, sample temperature adjustment is required. Install a section of 3/8" (LCM)
metal tube 10 ft (3m) long, and locate it near the gravitometer case. The tube may be coiled or
bent to suit the space available. The tube will serve as a heat exchanger to heat or cool the
sample gas.

8. Make the gas sample connection. Attach a pressure reducing regulator to the sample tap and
route the sample line to the gravitometer. The sample line must be capable of delivering 12
SCFH gas, free of condensed liquids, at a pressure not exceeding 15 Psig. It is recommended to
use proper sample probes and sampling techniques as defined in ASTM, GPA, and API standards.


Caution: This type WAREXGravitometer is provided with a Pointer Lock (Figure 4), which must
be locked at all times when the RANAREX motor is s not operating. The function of the lock is
to exert tension on the flexible tape, which connects the cam and reference wheel (Figure 1).
This tension maintains correct "tracking" of the tape when the RANAREXis stopped. The user
is cautioned to leave the lock applied until after the RANAREX motor has been started and to
apply the lock before shutting off the motor, to avoid operating inconvenience and prevent
damage to the RANAREX.

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The "LOCK" position of the pointer is at the upper right corner of the scale, near the 0.970-1.030
graduations. The position of the locking mechanism is shown by the arrow of the knob and the
legends on the gravitometer front cover. To check if the pointer is locked, turn the knob to
"UNLOCK" and observe if the pointer drifts downward, then turn the knob to the "LOCK"
position and observe if the pointer snaps into original position.
The correct procedure for operating the RANAREX gravitometer is described on the instruction
plate located over the center of the indicating scale and reproduced. It is recommended that the
user observe the sequence of steps as listed. In this way, maximum accuracy will be achieved.
The following comments are also helpful:
Zero Adjustment:
The zero adjustment screw must be turned in the direction opposite to the correction required
in the pointer reading. For example, if the pointer must be moved clockwise to 1.000 on the
scale, the screw should be turned counterclockwise. After making adjustments, allow the
pointer to stabilize.
During normal operation, the zero adjustment screw will require less than a 1/4 turn to set
pointer to 1.000. If more than 1/2 turn is ever required, stop the motor and investigate the

NOTE: Never turn the zero adjustment screw to the limit of the adjustments (clockwise or
counter- clockwise) with motor operating.

Response Time:
When measuring gas at the normal flow rate of 12 SCFH, the response time to reach the final
reading is 40-45 seconds. This time can be reduced by operating at a higher flow rate, obtained
by adjusting the flow meter valve so the float reads higher than the actual gas relative density.
For example, when measuring 0.6 gravity gas, a flow meter setting of about 1.2 will reduce the
response time to about 30 seconds. However, the flow must not exceed the range of the flow
Over-Pressure Protection:
If the flowmeter valve is opened before the selector valve is turned to "LG" or "HG”, the valve
cover will lift off the body to relieve the pressure and will be

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Reseated by the spring.

Purging to 1.000 after Measuring a Gas:

The instrument must be purged to bring the pointer within
the range of the pointer lock mechanism. If the pointer
starts toward 1.000 and then hesitates and remains at an
intermediate reading, turn the selector valve halfway
beyond "0" toward the next position. If the pointer then
continues toward and reaches 1.000, check for an
obstruction as described in the Troubleshooting Section.


The motor bearings, impeller bearings and idler pulley
bearings have long-life lubrication to provide long service. If
the impeller bearings bind or become extremely noisy, they
may be lubricated as described in the section titled Impeller Bearings, or the complete assembly
may be replaced. The idler pulley bearing should be inspected and re-lubricated if it does not
turn freely or becomes noisy.

If the sample selector valve is contaminated, it will require cleaning and lubrication. Should this
become repeatedly necessary, a gas filter should be used. To clean the selector valve, remove
the screw at the center of the valve cover and withdraw the screw, 2 washers, spring and cover.
Remove all old grease and contamination from the surfaces and channels in the cover and valve
body. Lubricate the faces of the cover and body with silicone-based grease and replace all parts.
If the valve cover or valve body become scored, it is necessary to lap/polish the mating surfaces
to eliminate the scoring. Clean both surfaces, apply fine valve grinding compound to them and
reassemble the valve. Loosen the detent spring which engages the "O”, "LG" and "HG" notches
of the cover. Repeatedly rotate the cover on the valve body beyond its normal operating range,

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continuing until the scoring is removed. After the lapping/polishing operation, thoroughly clean,
lubricate and reassemble all parts.

If the connecting tape leaves the cam or reference wheel while the gravitometer is in transit, the
pointer lock will require adjustment in the following sequence:
1. Remove the front cover to check if the sides of the U-hook at end of lock spring are parallel
with inner face of the cover, and if the set screw is fully tightened in the shaft of the lock knob.
Turn the spring and tighten the screw if necessary.
2. Remove the indicating scale, track the connecting tape on the cam and reference wheel, then
set pointer approximately at the 1.000 position. Hold front cover by hand in correct position on
gravitometer casing. Turn the knob toward the lock position to check if the U-hook straddles the
radial edge of the cam. If necessary, bend the spring in the correct direction at the knob shaft.
3. Hold the front cover to the casing by hand, turn knob toward lock position to check if the
spring takes up the slack in the connection tape before the lower end of the spring snaps
between the detent pins of the cover. If it does not, bend the upper section of the lock spring, at
the knob, toward the cam edge. This will be toward the left when viewed from inside the cover.
4. Finally, with the cover held to the casing, check if the lower end of the lock spring will snap
between the detent pins and will be retained. If necessary, bend the lower end of the spring
toward, or away from, the front cover, as required.
Tracking the Tape
Release the pointer lock and remove the front cover and indicating scale. If tape does not track
on both the measuring and reference wheels, turn both wheels clockwise. Replace the tape
onto each wheel, set pointer to approximately 1.000 and turn the reference wheel to take up
slack in the tape. If tape has fallen behind either wheel, extract it carefully by rotating the wheel
as necessary, to avoid kinking the tape.

Cleaning the Tape

Wipe off dust, finger marks, or oil with tissue or cloth. Do not use cleaning fluid or solvent. At
the same time clean the rims of the cam and reference wheel.
Replacing the Tape

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If a new tape must be installed, loosen the clip screws at the ends of the tape, remove retaining
clips from the rims of the cam and the reference wheels and remove the old tape. Hook the new
tape over the screw heads and install clips with curved end pointing in direction of tape. Adjust
tape flush with edges of the wheels and tighten the clip screws.
If spare tape is not available, a replacement tape can be made from 3M
Company "Scotch" brand #I75 Tenzar Recording Tape, or any other 1.5 MIL Heavy Duty Mylar
Recording Tape. Cut tape to 13-9/16" long and punch 2 holes 9/64" diameter spaced 13-1/16"
center to center. Check the operation of the pointer lock and if necessary, adjust it as described
in Section 4.


The correct tension required to prevent belt slippage without overloading the
Bearings is maintained by a spring loaded idler pulley. If dust or dirt accumulates between the
idler pulley arm bushing and the pivot shaft, it will interfere with free motion and must be
removed. Before disassembling, scratch a mark on the face of the adjusting collar and end of the
pivot shaft to show the original positions. Obtain a firm grip on the collar by inserting a pin in a
hole in the rim or face and loosen set screw. Allow collar to turn clockwise until spring tension is
relieved, then draw collar and arm off shaft. After cleaning, reassemble in original position.
The correct load of the idler pulley on the belt is 5 to 6 pounds which may be measured with a
spring scale. Remove belt and place scale hook around pulley shaft. Pull on the scale in direction
perpendicular to the normal position of the idler pulley arm until the pulley is swung into its
normal position. If necessary to increase the load, turn the adjusting collar one quarter turn
counterclockwise to the next flat of the pivot shaft. Before loosening the set screw, obtain a firm
grip on the collar by inserting a pin in a hole in the rim of face.

This bearing should be inspected and replaced if it does not turn freely or
Becomes noisy.

NOTE: Bearing is lubricated as shipped. It cannot be disassembled but can be relubricated

when necessary.

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1. Grip round shaft where it extends from pulley.
2. Remove adapter shaft by gripping hex section and turning for right-hand thread. Unscrew
adapter shaft completely but do not lose split lock washer.
3. Insert tip of grease tube (PN 187-14010 or equivalent) into the tapped hole in the pulley shaft.
Fill the hole with grease.
4. Replace adapter shaft in pulley shaft. Be sure split lock washer is in position in recess around
base of male thread.
5. Tightening the adapter shaft into the pulley shaft will force the grease into the bearings.
Excess grease will be forced out through the seals but do not use more grease than needed to
obtain smooth rotation of shaft in the pulley.


If the gravitometer must be disassembled, the following sequence must be observed.
1. Front Cover: Release pointer lock and turn fully to UNLOCK position to set lock spring below
bottom of scale plate. Loosen the 8 fasteners but hold cover from dropping downward on scale
and pointer. If cover is placed flat on bench-top, inside face must be upward to avoid damage to
locking spring.
2. Rear Cover: Loosen the 8 fasteners to remove the rear cover.
3. Indicating Scale: Set pointer to about 0.950 and loosen scale fastening screws one turn. Lift
scale up so keyholes will pass over screw heads. Then move scale downward holding it in until
right side clears pointer.
4. Front Chamber Cover: Remove 8 screws around the rim of both chambers. Grasp assembly by
scale posts and zero adjust screw and pull forward. The assembly may be set down on a bench-
top against the 4 pins which project from the rear, or it may be placed on the right edge,
steadied by the zero adjust screw. In this position exercise care that the pointer is not bent.
5. Rear Chamber Cover: First remove the Front Chamber cover. Then remove the belt and
unscrew both impellers from front of the chambers; impellers have right hand threads. Remove
8 screws around rim of chambers and 2 inner screws at lower section of casting. Grasp assembly
by bearing housing and pull outward from body. Assembly may be set on right edge, steadied by
idler pulley, or may be placed on bench with pulleys downward.
6. Operating Mechanism (Front chamber cover, chamber Body and ear Chamber Cover) :
Remove front and rear covers, as previously described, and unscrew outlet nipples from right

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side of casing. Remove 2 outer screws from base of assembly accessible through rear. Remove 2
screws with carrying handle and internal spacer plate from upper section.
Slide assembly to rear of the instrument, supporting it by hand and guided by pins in lower

The impeller ball bearings are lubricated with sufficient grease for 2-3 years of
Operation. If the bearings do not turn freely or become noisy, the bearings should be replaced.
The bearing part number is 187-17004. A design modification has been implemented to this
assembly to improve its operating performance at low temperature as well as to simplify its
service procedure.
The new design uses double seal ball bearings and additional o-rings to seal between the
bearing (Key No. 1246/PN 187-17004) and the impeller shaft (Key No. 1247/PN 302-01889) and
between the bearing and the impeller bearing casing (Key No. 1248/PN 302-01888). Use Part
Number 300-00258 if ordering the complete bearing and shaft assembly. There is no need to fill
the void between the impeller shaft and casing with bearing grease (P/N 187-14010).

NOTE: All portable gradiometers with serial number P-259 and later
Incorporate the new design ball bearing assembly.

Impeller Disassembly
a. Remove the front chamber cover assembly, impellers and rear chamber cover assembly from
the operating mechanism per instructions 1-5 in the section titled
Gravitometer Disassembly Procedure.
b. Temporarily reinstall front chamber cover assembly in instrument to avoid damage while
working on bearings.
c. Remove the nuts from the shaft without bending it.
d. Mark the pulleys and shafts so that they can be reinstalled in their original positions.
e. Gently tap on the end of the shafts to push the front ball bearing out of housing. Use small
bearing puller to remove bearing from shaft.
f. Gently push or tap on threaded end of shaft to push the rear bearing out of the housing. Use
small bearing puller to remove bearing from shaft.

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Impeller Assembly
A. Inspect and clean interior of impeller bearing casing and the shaft.
b. Insert shaft and bearing into bearing casing. Replace the nuts on the ends of the impeller
shafts. Install bearing on pulley end of shaft. Seat bearing bore
Against shoulder of shaft and turn shaft by hand to check for smooth rotation.
c. Reassemble the rear chamber cover assembly, impellers, front chamber cover assembly in
reverse order of disassembly.
To be accurate the gravitometer must satisfy the following operating conditions:
* Sufficient flow of gas sample and reference air
* Impellers rotating at correct speed
* Pointer moves without friction
Instrument free of internal leaks
* Pointer statically balanced
* Air drier filled with active silica gel
* Instrument is properly calibrated
If there is reason to believe the gravitometer is reading incorrectly, tests and remedies should
be made in the sequence described below. If necessary to disassemble the gravitometer, refer
to the Gravitometer Disassembly Procedure found earlier in this section.

1. Check the gas and air flow. Disconnect all inlet and outlet hoses, set selector valve to "0" and
purge the gravitometer. Verify that there is flow at the discharge ports. If there is no evidence of
flow, disconnect the hose from the rear of the air drier and retest. If flow is established, empty
the air drier, clean the outlet elbow, fill with fresh silica gel (6-16 mesh) and retest.
If there is no evidence of flow, remove the cover of the selector valve, inspect and clean the
ports and channels of the cover and valve body and retest.
Finally, if there still is no evidence of flow, it indicates the passages within the
Instrument are obstructed. Remove the rear chamber cover and check the passages which
extend from impeller bearing location to the elbows near the bottom of the chamber cover. Also
check the outlet tubes and nipples from both chambers.
2. Check the impeller speed. Correct speed is approximately 2800 RPM as measured with a
strobe tachometer. If a tachometer is not available, remove the drive belt and verify that the

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motor pulley, impeller pulleys, and the idler pulley turn freely. If the impeller pulleys do not turn
freely, lubricate the impeller bearings as described earlier in the section titled Impeller Bearings
or replace the assembly. If the idler pulley does not turn freely, the motor should be replaced.
3. Check for frictionless indicator response. Remove front cover and connect the instrument to a
gas sample. Record the reading. Gently move the indicator to each side of the true reading and
release. Indicator should return to the same reading from each direction, within -001 relative
density within 15 seconds. If it does not, the impulse wheel shafts and bearings should be
cleaned. Remove the front chamber cover of the operating mechanism and hold it upright by
gripping firmly in a vise, or stand it securely on right side edge. Loosen the set screws in the hub
of the cam and reference wheel and draw the impulse wheels with shafts out of the bearings.
Use care that the cam and reference wheels and the flexible tape are not damaged while
removed from the instrument. Tag the impulse wheels to indicate the chamber from which they
were removed. Polish the shafts with crocus cloth or fine steel wool. Do not bend the shafts.
If the impulse wheel shafts show a bright polished groove where they rotate in the jeweled
bearings, or if the hubs of the cam and reference wheel show a groove where they have been
drawn against the ends of the impulse wheel bearings, these grooves should be removed by
lapping and polishing. If the wear is excessive, the shafts must be replaced.
Gently blow out the impulse wheel bearings with clean air or gas and add a drop of instrument
oil to both ends of each bearing. Suitable oil is available from Chandler Engineering.
Replace the shafts with wheels in their bearings in the correct chamber and turn them slowly. If
the protruding portion of the shaft wobbles or if the wheel does not turn freely, the shaft should
be replaced with a new one. A bent impulse wheel shaft will cause the instrument to lose
accuracy and sensitivity. Attach the measuring and reference wheels to the impulse wheel
shafts being certain that the set screws bear on the flats of the shafts. A small amount of shaft
end play [.005" to 0.010" (.13-.25mm) maximum] must exist to prevent binding. Verify that no
parts of the indicating mechanism have been bent and that there is no binding between parts.
4. Check for internal leaks. Operate the instrument connected to a gas sample and obtain a
relative density reading at the far end of the measuring range. Shut off the gas flow by closing
the flowmeter valve. The indicator should remain steady or should not return toward 1.000
reading at a rate faster than .007 on the inner scale in 3 minutes. If it does not meet this test,
there is an internal leak. To determine where the leak is located, stop the motor, remove the
front and rear covers and disconnect hose from the inlet port of the selector valve. Individually

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pressurize (approximately 10 psig) the upper and lower chambers with gas and use a gas leak
detector to find the leak.
The leak is probably caused by loose screws or a gasket which has become damaged. Verify that
the Tygon7 tubes which join the internal connector to the selector valve and to the elbows near
bottom, of rear chamber cover are not cracked or damaged.
5. Check the indicator balance. The measuring mechanism was statically balanced by the
manufacturer and does not change with wear or age. The balancing weights behind the cam
should not be disturbed. However, if required, the balance can be verified and restored as
described below.
Stop the motor and remove the front cover. Place the pointer consecutively at the right side,
bottom, and left side of the scale. In each position tap the front of the gravitometer case to
overcome static friction. The pointer should remain stationary or very nearly so. If it drifts more
than two small graduations on the red scale, make compensating adjustments of the balancing
weights on the threaded rods. When loosening or re-tightening the balancing weights, use care
that the threaded rods, pointer and impulse wheel shaft are not bent or damaged.
Balancing the cam and mechanism is a trial and error process. The pointer may be considered
balanced if it remains steady or drifts only two scale divisions. After rebalancing, do not permit
the weights to be moved. A drop of low strength Loctite7, lacquer, or fingernail polish on the
weights and threaded rods will lock the adjustments is place.
6. Check the silica gel in the air drier. If silica gel is exhausted, remove and empty the air drier.
Refill with active silica gel.
7. The gravitometer was accurately calibrated by the manufacturer and the calibration does not
change appreciably with wear or age. The adjustments should not be changed without first
checking every other possible source of error. Calibration should proceed if all other sources of
error are eliminated.
8. Sometimes during calibration, repeatability problems occur due to static friction
Gently tapping the side of the case will eliminate the static friction.

To calibrate the instrument there are three adjustments:

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1. Zero Adjust. This is the only adjustment required in normal operation. The zero adjust screw
operates the chain, sprockets and lower impulse wheel bearing which positions the lower
impulse wheel longitudinally in the lower chamber to match the torque of the upper chamber
when operating on air. Refer to the section titled Zero Adjustment in Section 3 for instructions
for use of the zero adjust.
2. Sensitivity. The longitudinal position of the upper impulse wheel in the upper chamber
governs sensitivity of the instrument. If the pointer is too sensitive, it may be reduced by moving
the upper impulse wheel closer to the front of the chamber, by turning the upper impulse wheel
bearing counterclockwise. If the pointer lacks sensitivity (and if there is no evidence of
mechanical binding), it may be increased by moving the upper impulse wheel closer to the rear
of the chamber, by turning the upper impulse wheel bearing clockwise. This adjustment requires
loosening the 7/8" hex lock nut behind the measuring wheel, turning the 1/2" hex head of the
bearing in correct direction, and tightening the lock nut. Turn only one flat (1/6 turn) at a time
and retest.
3. Span Adjustment. The span of the gravitometer is governed by the angular
Position of the pointer on the measuring wheel. To permit adjustment, the pointer is attached
to the measuring wheel by two screws which pass through circular slots in the pointer hub. If
span adjustment is necessary, the pointer should be moved in relation to the measuring wheel
in the direction of the desired reading. For example, if the pointer reads numerically too high on
the red scale (too low on the black scale), the pointer should be moved clockwise. Similarly, if
the pointer reads numerically too low on the red scale (too high on the black scale), the pointer
should be moved counterclockwise.
Before making an adjustment, mark the position of the pointer hub on the face of the cam, then
loosen the screws just enough that the pointer can be turned against slight friction of the
washers under the screw heads, but that it will not slip freely. Make adjustments in small
increments of 2 or 3 small graduations on the red scale at one time and retest. When either the
sensitivity or span adjustment is changed, it is necessary to reset the zero adjust to 1.000 on air.


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A Calibration Pulley is fastened inside of every new instrument. This pulley can be used, instead
of a certified gas, to check the calibration of the instrument. The pulley, Part No. 315-03031, is
intended to make the instrument read 0.640 theoretical relative density. Because of the
tolerance on the, diameters of the pulleys, the following test procedure must be used to
determine the exact relative density (k.001) the pulley will produce.
1. Operate Gravitometer with new silica gel in the drier and the selector valve
On "0”. If necessary, turn ZERO ADJUST until pointer reads 1.000.
2. Turn power OFF; remove Upper Impeller Pulley and measure its maximum diameter at the
crown with a micrometer.
3. Install the Calibration Pulley on the Upper Impeller Shaft. Measure its
Maximum diameter at the crown, using the micrometer.
4. Continue to operate the gravitometer without making any adjustments. Observe and record
the relative density reading.
5. Divide the diameter of the standard Upper Impeller Pulley by the diameter of the Calibration
Pulley and square the answer. This value is the correct relative density reading.

6. If it is necessary to test the calibration at different relative density values, a Calibration Pulley
is required for each test value.
7. After completing the tests, replace the Calibration Pulley with the standard Upper Impeller
Pulley and store the Calibration Pulley for future use. The following additional calibration pulley
sizes are available:

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Measuring Turbidity through Water Clarity Methods

Water clarity and turbidity are directly related. In any body of water, the higher the turbidity,
the lower the water clarity will be. However, while one is often an indicator of another,
measurements between the two parameters are not interchangeable.

While most secchi discs alternate black and white quadrants, oceanographic discs tend to be
all white.
Water clarity is measured by a Secchi disk 7.
Named after Angelo Secchi, these discs are usually
quartered in black and white, though solid white
and solid black discs are used in certain
Secchi disks are used in lakes, oceans and deep
rivers, where they are lowered into the body of
water until they are no longer visible. Then they
are slowly raised back to the last point of visibility, and
that depth is recorded. The depth at which visibility is lost is known as the Secchi depth (7). High
Secchi depths are associated with high water clarity and low turbidity, while low Secchi depths
indicate high turbidity.
Secchi disk readings rely on light attenuation in water. In other words, they measure the depth
of visibility based on light penetration 9. When the disk is underwater, light reflects off of it,
making the disk visible to the human eye. When the disc is obscured by suspended sediment,
algae or dissolved colored material, the light is no longer directly reflected back to the viewer 9.

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Instead, it is scattered and diffused. The more scattered the light becomes, the less visible the
disc will be until it disappears completely.

In more turbid water, a secchi disc will be less visible than at the same depth in clear water.
Larger, solid white Secchi disks are commonly enlisted in marine environments, while the black
and white quartered disc is the standard for lake studies. These discs are usually attached to a
measuring tape or rod for ease of measurement. When using this method, readings are usually
recorded in meters or centimeters, though some organizations use English units.
Solid black Secchi disks are useful in shallow lakes and rivers, where they are used to take
horizontal measurements instead of vertical depths 13. This allows for a more accurate water
clarity reading in shallow water bodies where a disc would still be visible on the bottom. The
solid black disc provides greater visibility despite sunlight penetration, and a horizontal
measurement offers the ability to take a Secchi reading that is greater than the depth of the
Transparency tube, or Secchi tube.
In shallow streams, where neither vertical nor horizontal methods are effective, a transparency
or Secchi tube can be used 10. Transparency tubes can be found with the black/white disc
permanently affixed to the bottom of the tube, or with the disc separate. In the first style, the
transparency tube is slowly filled with water until the disc on the bottom disappears 2. The
depth is then read from the side of the tube. In the second model, known as a standard Secchi
tube, a one-meter-long tube is filled with water. The separate Secchi disc is then lowered into
the tube until it is no longer visible. The point of disappearance is then recorded, just as it would
be with a larger disc in a body of water 10.
While these water clarity methods have been used effectively, they are only as accurate as the
user’s eyesight. Secchi readings can be affected by changes in sunlight conditions, choppy water,
time of day, and human error in reading the Secchi depth. In addition, they are not practical
when turbidity is below 5 NTU or if a high resolution is required. As the World Health

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Organization and other agencies specify a maximum of 1 NTU for drinking water, Secchi disks
and tubes cannot be used to ensure compliance 8. However, they are affordable, portable and
fairly intuitive to use. Secchi disks have been used for decades in places like Lake Tahoe, where
more than 45 years of Secchi depth data can reveal trends in water clarity 12

Portable Gravitometer
The portable version operates on the same principle as the stationary unit but is scaled down in
size and weight. No elaborate setup is required. The unit can be operated from the floor, a
bench, or hung from the wall and operated from a standard AC power supply or from a 12-Volt
vehicle battery through a DC-AC inverter.

Note: The unit has a specific gravity measuring scale for light gas of 0.52 - 1.03 and for heavy
gas 0.970 - 1.90

►Accurate- Eliminates span drift to ensure permanently accurate calibration.
►Sensitive- Advanced design develops large measuring forces and is virtually friction-free.
►Fast Response- Gas sample flows continuously at a high rate through a small measuring
chamber that purges rapidly.
►Rugged- Durable, corrosion-resistant materials. Outer case protects against dust, humidity,
and shock.
►Low Cost- Simple design for low equipment cost; simple piping and wiring for low installation
cost; rugged construction for low maintenance cost. These features ensure lowest long-term,
total cost.
►Easy to Use- Completely mechanical and easily understood. Installation
requires only piping or tubing and electrical power. No special skills
►Readable- Indicating scale is almost 9” wide on stationary model and 6”
wide on portable. Can be read from a distance. 12-inch chart has 3.75” pen
sweep on recording gravitometer.

Oil Gravity- Hydrometer

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 Hydrometers are available in ranges of -1 to 101˚ API and 0.650 to 2.000 specific
 The hydrometer is carefully lowered (at the same time a thermometer will also be
dipped to get the temperature of the oil) into the sample to a level two smallest
scale divisions below that at which it will float and then released. When the
hydrometer has come to rest, floating freely away from the walls and bottom of the
cylinder, the gravity is read at the point the surface of the sample cuts the
hydrometer scale. The reading obtained is corrected by an arbitrary deduction of
0.1˚ API.
The observed gravity and observed temperature obtained is corrected to the API gravity at
60˚F. Tables are available for the necessary correction
Hydrometer Beaker

Oil Rate Measurements

 Oil rates are measured using Turbine Meters and Gauge/surge Tank levels.
 Turbine Meter readings are required to be corrected with
Meter correction factor (Cf)


Mf = Meter factor
Wf = Shrinkage factor
 Meter factor (Mf) is the ratio of Oil rate from the turbine and actual oil rate taken from
Gauge / Surge tank.

Meter Factor Calculation

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A known volume of fluid or a volume of fluid flown for a time period through the oil/water
outlet line of the separator and taken through the surge tank will give us the accurate meter
factor for the particular turbine.


Measurement of Shrinkage with Shrinkage Tester

A diagram of the shrinkage tester is given. It operates as follows:

1. Close liquid inlet valve.

2. Open liquid bleed valve.
3. Close gas decompression valve.
4. Open gas inlet valve slowly, purge shrinkage tester by allowing gas to flow out oil bleed valve.
5. Close oil bleed valve and allow shrinkage tester to reach separator pressure.
6. Open oil inlet valve and allow oil level to reach zero on Graduated scale.
7. Close oil inlet and gas inlet valves.
8. Record tester pressure and temperature.
9. Allow tester to decompress by opening
decompression valve (this should have a
1/64th calibrated orifice in the valve).
10. Leave it 30 minutes to decompress.
11. Read the shrinkage percentage and
12. Close decompression valve and drain oil.

Dead Weight Tester Shrinkage Tester

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This is an equipment used for the calibration of Gauges, Sensors and Hi-Lo Pilots etc. using

 Baseplate: The main components of the tester are fixed on a rigid aluminum baseplate.
The baseplate is provided with 4 levelling screws. A sheet metal cover is provided for
protecting the interconnecting pipes against damage.
 Screw Pump: The screw pump provides the main pressure generation mechanism of the
tester. It consists of a plunger operating inside a cylinder used to suck the oil into the
cylinder from the oil reservoir as well as to generate the pressure.
 H.P. (High Pressure) Block: This is the manifold that houses the high pressure piston. Oil
from the screw pump cylinder enters this block and pressurizes the high pressure piston.
The high pressure block is connected to the low pressure block also.
 LP. ( Low Pressure) Block: This is the manifold that houses the low pressure piston. Oil
from the HP block flows into the LP block in a simple line circuit.
 Main Block: This is the manifold that connects the screw pump to the tester.
 Piston Cylinder Unit (PCU): This is mounted on the top face of the low/high pressure
block. Oil from the block flows through the mounting column and the pressure acts
below the piston. A weight carrier is fixed on the piston to provide a loading surface on
which weights are stacked. A weight marked 'carrier' (if supplied) must also be loaded
on the carrier each time before use.

The pistons and weights should be rotated before any readings are taken. Oil pressure
generated by the screw pump acts on the bottom of the free piston, producing a force
that pushes the loaded piston vertically upwards. This force is balanced by dead weights
which are marked in pressure units. The piston should be vertical before use. This is
ensured by using leveling screws and placing a spirit level on the weight carrier.

The tester is provided with separate LP and HP PCUs. The LP PCU is direct top loading
type, whereas the HP PCU is provided with a bell for loading weights in an overhang
fashion. Both pistons can take the full pressure of the tester and no separate isolation is

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 Union Connectors: The gauge connector on the gauge block is a union connector which
may be rotated in any direction even after the gauge is tightened on it. The connector
has soft seating washers that allow hand tightening of the gauge on them. There is no
need to use Teflon tape on the union connector or the BSP adaptors. Teflon tapes are
useful only when tightening gauges on NPT adaptors as the sealing in NPT threads is on
the thread, while the sealing in BSP threads is on the washer and gauge bottom face.
Use of Teflon tape is to be avoided on the union connector as loose tape may clog the
tubing in the system.
 Set of Weights: The top face of each weight including carriers are marked with the
pressure equivalent of the weight and the serial number of the tester for which it is
calibrated. The weights have a projection on the top face and a recess on the bottom
face to maintain concentric stacking of the weights on the carrier or elsewhere.
 Release Valve: The release valve is the only user operable valve in the system. It should
be left open during storage or dis-use of the tester. The valve should normally be closed
after the screw pump handle has been withdrawn all the way back by rotating it
counter-clockwise. The valve is kept closed during normal testing.
 Electrical Power Rotation (if ordered): The rotation of the PCU is accomplished by the
electrical system provided. The mechanism is designed to transmit only torque and no
vertical or horizontal forces. The rotation is designed for approximately 30 rpm. The
motors run on standard mains 220VAC single phase supply

Liquid Turbine Flowmeters

Halliburton developed its first flow meter for oilfield applications in 1957. The meter
incorporated a tungsten-carbide shaft and bearing to
withstand the rugged conditions of the oilfield
environment. Over the years, this flow meter has built
an unsurpassed reputation for withstanding severe

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punishment while maintaining operational and measurement integrity. Halliburton turbine flow
meters indicate flow rate and measure total throughput of a liquid line. As liquid flows through
the meter and over the rotor, the rotor turns at a speed that is directly proportional to
The flow rate. A magnetic pickup senses the rotor blades as they pass and generates an electrical
(sine wave) signal. These electrical pulses are then
Transmitted to the flow measurement readout equipment.

This product is now distributed by NuFlo.

(1) Permanent conduit connection is standard.

(2) ROTOR is pitched and pre-calibrated for maximum accuracy.
(3) END CONNECTIONS available, flanged or threaded, standard or special.
(4) FLOWVANES increase performance at low rates.
(5) FLOWVANE HUB supports rotor assembly.
(6) ROTOR SHAFT, BEARINGS, AND THRUST BALL are tungsten carbide for long service without
lubrication other than by the liquid being measured.
(7) RETAINING RINGS make disassembly easy.
(8) FLOW METER BODY is sturdy, one-piece construction, precision finished.

NuFlu offers turbine flow meters for applications in a variety of end connections and accuracy
Typical applications are:
• Water-injection measurement
• Heater Treater
• Test and production separators
• Disposal wells

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• CO2 injection
• Steam generator fuel and feed water
• Food and beverage industry
• Metering liquid fertilizer
• Water, fuel, and chemical measurement in plant settings
• Chemical tank loading and unloading
• Measuring liquid propane
• Insitu mining and leaching
Specifications Accuracy*
NuFlo meters are classified as Standard Grade and Industrial Grade, based on the accuracy of
the meter. The Standard Grade meter provides a cost-effective measurement solution for
applications where higher accuracy is not required. For higher accuracy applications, an
Industrial Grade meter can
Be used. Such meters can achieve even greater accuracy if the range of the flow through the
meter is specified.
• Standard Grade ± 1% of reading
• Industrial Grade ± 0.5% of reading
• Enhanced Accuracy (Consult Factory) Note: 3/8-in. Meters
• Standard Grade ± 2% of reading
• Industrial Grade ± 1% of reading

• Standard Grade ± 0.05%
• Industrial Grade ± 0.02%
(Based on water calibration)
TemperatureRange (magnetic pickup)
• Standard -67 to 250° F (-55 to 121° C)
• Medium -67 to 450° F (-55 to 232° C) (Requires high temperature magnetic pickup)
• High -67 to 850° F (-55 to 454° C) (Requires special pickup and pickup adapter. Shaft
and bearings must be silver-soldered.)
Mating Output Connection AN3106A-10SL-4S

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• CSA Certified Hazardous Locations Class I, Group A, B, C, D, Div. 1
• NACE MR01-75 (NACE traceability available on pressure containing components - on
Accuracy is the combination of linearity and repeatability

Materials of Construction
Meter Body and Vanes Grade 316L stainless steel
Rotor CD-4MCu
Shaft and Bearings Tungsten Carbide
Optional Materials
• Shaft Binder less carbide for enhanced corrosion resistance to selected
Chemicals Silver brazing to withstand temperatures to 550°F and chemicals that attack
epoxy bonding bearing materials
• Rotor Duplex electro less nickel plating for enhanced corrosion resistance to selected
chemicals (especially acids that corrode ferrous materials)
• Accurate and repeatable measurement.
• An economical solution for turbine flow meter applications.
• Easy installation and a variety of end connections.
• Minimum maintenance required.
• Long service life even in severe applications.
Meter Size Selection
Flow meter size selection should be based on the instantaneous flow rate of the line into which
the meter will be mounted. Meter size should not be based only on the nominal piping size of
the installation. Refer to Linear Flow Range Chart for meter size selection. The meter will remain
accurate at flow rates higher than its rating, but bearing wear and pressure drop across the
meter can shorten the life span of the meter. NuFlo flow meters can be over-ranged by 10% for
short periods without damage.
• The meter should be installed with the arrow on the meter body corresponding to
flow direction of the line.

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• A 10-diameter length of straight pipe must be upstream and a five-diameter length of
straight pipe must be downstream of the flow meter. Both pipe sections should be the
same nominal pipe size as the flow meter.
• Both pipe sections should be the same nominal pipe size as the flow meter end
• Throttling/Control valves should be located downstream of the flow meter.
NuFlo Turbine Flow Meter
Conduit Thread Data
Temp. Rating 250°F (121°C) 450°F (232°C) 850°F (454°C)
Thread Size 1” NPT 1” NPT 1.5” NPT
End Connections
NuFlo flow meters are available in a variety of end connections.
Threaded (NPT) Connections
Threaded meter sizes range from 3/8-in. to 2-in.
Meter sizes from 3/8-in. to 1-in. pipe all have 1-in.
NPT end connections to simplify meter size changes.
All meter sizes other than the 2-in. have male threads.
The 2-in. meter is available in a 5,000-psi standard model and a 10,000-psi high-pressure model.
Grooved Connections
Flow meters with grooved end connections are available in 7/8-in. through 8-in.
Flanged Connections
Turbine flow meters with flanged end connections are available in both raised-face (RF) models
and ring-type joint (RTJ) models. Flanged materials can
Be carbon steel or stainless steel. All flanged NuFlo meters are equipped with slip-on flanges,
which are then welded to the outside of the meter rather than being welded to the end of the
meter body. Thus, the flange never comes into contact with the fluid being measured.
EZ-IN™ Connections
Series BF Turbine Flow meters with EZ-IN connections provide a cost-effective alternative to
typical flanged-meter applications. Series BF meters with EZ-IN connections offer the accuracy,
rugged construction, and maintenance-free operation of conventional NuFlo flow meters plus
the following advantages:
• Lower installation cost.

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• Less expensive than a conventional, flanged meter.
• S p reader nuts enable easy removal and inspection.
• The raised-face EZ-IN meter will mate to any flange rated ANSI 150# to 1500#. The
new ringjoint (RTJ) version will mate to ANSI 900#, 1500# or 2500# RTJ flange. Specify
flange type when ordering.

Tri-Clover Connections
Tri-clover end connections enable fast, easy removal of the meter from the line for cleaning and
routine maintenance.

Specifications Accuracy
• ± 0.5% of reading
• ± 0.25% of reading (limited flow range)

Materials of Construction
Body and vanes 316L Stainless steel with electro-polished finish Rotor Alloy CD-4MCu with
nickel-plated finish Shaft Tungsten carbide or 316 (user-specified)
Bearings Tungsten carbide
Vanes in 3/8-in. through 3/4-in. size are nickel-plated.

Specialized Flow Meters

• High-pressure
• Nitrogen
• CO2
• Cement-Slurry
• Corrosive-Service
• Drilling Fluids Contact NuFlo Product Support for
Application assistance.

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Pressure Drop

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Temperature Ranges

Meter Size Selection

Flowmeter size selection should be based on the instantaneous flow rate of the line into which
the meter will be mounted. Meter size should never be based on the nominal piping size of the
installation. Refer to the Linear Flow Range chart below for meter size selection. The meter will
remain accurate at flow rates higher than its rating, but bearing wear and pressure drop across

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the meter can shorten the life span of the meter. NuFlo flowmeters can be over-ranged by 10%
for short periods without damage

Gas Rate Measurements

 Orifice Flow meter

 The orifice plate is a steel circular
plate with a hole in the middle; the
hole is smaller than the internal
diameter of the pipe. The plate is
placed perpendicular to the gas flow,
and is sealed so that all the gas flows
through the hole.
 Required parameters for Gas rate calculation
 Orifice plate size
 Pipe ID
 Temperature of gas line
 Gas Gravity
 Pressure differential across orifice plate
 Pressure at upstream of orifice meter / Separator pressure


Flange Tapped Orifice Calculation:

 D: Meter tube internal diameter, calculated at Tf

 D: Orifice plate bore diameter, calculated at Tf
 Tf: Absolute flowing temperature
 Pfl: Absolute flowing pressure
 Hw: Orifice differential pressure
 Ts: Standard Temperature

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 Ps: Standard Pressure
 Qv: Volume flow rate at standard conditions
 C: Composite orifice flow factor
 Fn: Numeric conversion factor
 Fc: Orifice calculation factor
 Fst: Orifice slope factor
 Y1: Expansion Factor (upstream tap)
 Y2: Expansion Factor (downstream tap)
 Fpb: Base pressure factor
 Ftb: Base temperature factor
 Ftf: Flowing temperature factor
 Fgr: Specific gravity factor
 Ftpv: Supercompressibility factor

Senior Orifice Meter- Daniel

The Daniel Senior Orifice Fitting is a dual-chamber device that reigns as the most widely used
means of measurement for natural gas. With an installed base of well over one million orifice
fittings worldwide, more natural gas is measured
with The Daniel Senior Orifice Fitting than any other
type of device.

The Senior Orifice Fitting (Figure 1) saves users time

and money by providing a fast, safe and extremely
simple method of changing orifice plates under
pressure without flow interruption, preventing
unscheduled shutdowns. In addition, its dual-
chamber design eliminates the need for costly
piping bypasses or additional valves and fittings
required with conventional orifice flange

The Senior Orifice Fitting meets all requirements and recommendations

Senior Danielfor accurate flow
measurement of gas and liquid, including AGA-3 / API 14.3 requirements, without compromise.

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From duplex stainless steel fittings to carbon steel and severe service trims (Monel, Hastellloy-C
and Alloy-20), Daniel delivers fittings to meet the stringent requirements of corrosive
environments or specific temperature and pressure needs.
The Senior Orifice Fitting requires no beta ratio range restrictions and no added uncertainty to
published values. It is available in 2" through 48" flange line sizes, up to ANSI 2500, and 10,000
psi (68958 KPa) in 3" to 6" only.
Gas Flow Measurement
There are numerous applications of gas flow rate measurement, among the most
important of which are:

• The accurate measurement of gas produced by a gas well.

• The determination of Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR) for an oil well.

GOR is an important measurement required by most state and national authorities in

order to check that the well is producing within acceptable limits. It is also used by
reservoir engineers in evaluating well and reservoir performance.

• The accurate recombination of oil and gas samples taken at the separator to
obtain a representative sample of the reservoir fluid.

All meters consist of two distinct parts: the primary element, which comes in contact
with the fluid to be measured, and the secondary element, which registers or records
the results.

The primary element in gas measurement includes the orifice plate, the orifice holder,
the pressure connections and the meter tubes (adjacent sections of pipe). An important
advantage over other types of elements is that these do not require calibration even for
accurate measurements. This is due to the great number of studies and tests which
have established the characteristics of the primary element.

The majority of gas measurement is at present carried out by orifice meter because of
its low cost, ease of fabrication to necessary accuracy, flexibility and simplicity of
operation. Because of these features it will probably continue indefinitely to be used as
the primary element.

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The secondary element measures and records the differential pressure across the orifice
and other parameters required for determination of flow rate such as static pressure
and temperature. The bellows type Barton 199 with associated 202A recorder has
conditions for correct installation and operation, errors, and other characteristics which
are independent from those of the primary element.

Elements of an Orifice Meter

Orifice Plate
The orifice is a circular hole in a thin flat plate of stainless steel or other non-corrodible
material. An orifice plate produces a change in velocity of the gas, causing a measurable
pressure differential.

The orifice is the most critical part of the primary element. Be sure that the orifice is
clean, free from nicks, flat and that the inlet edge is sharp. A beveled 1/8" thick orifice
plate is required in meter runs which are 8 inches and smaller. The beveled orifice
should be installed with the bevel downstream. The orifice should be scrapped and
replaced if any erosion, corrosion or other damage such as a rounded upstream edge is
observed. Example: If the radius of curvature of the edge of a 2 inch orifice is 0.040 inch
the orifice will give a flow rate 4% low.

Orifice Holder or Fitting

When the flow rate varies the Daniel "senior" orifice

fitting provides a fast, safe and simple method of
changing the orifice plate without interrupting the flow.
It comprises of two compartments separated by a slide
valve. The slide valve cannot be closed unless the orifice
is concentric with the bore of the fitting. The orifice
carrier is raised and lowered by a double rack and pinion
mechanism. All parts can be replaced or repaired
without removing the fitting from the line.

Pressure Connections
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Pressure ports for attaching differential and static pressure lines are integral with the
flanges, so that the difference in pressures upstream and downstream of the orifice can
be measured.

The pressure tap locations generally used in gas measurement are known as "flange
taps". Flange taps are centered one inch upstream and one inch downstream from the
relevant faces of the orifice plate.

Thermometer Wells
Thermometer wells should be so located as to sense the average temperature of the gas
at the orifice plate. The wells should be placed about 4 pipe diameters downstream of
the orifice plate.

Meter Tubes and Straightening Vanes

The term "meter tubes" refers to the upstream and downstream straight sections of
pipe between the orifice and the nearest fittings.
Eddies due to some fixed obstruction or irregularity,
such as a valve or bend, may affect the pressure
measurement. One method of eliminating this is to
have a sufficient length of straight pipe ahead of any
section where the static pressure is to be measured.
However, other methods, such as straightening vanes
can be employed to assist in straightening the flow.

Straightening vanes consist of a number of parallel passages of relatively small

transverse dimensions installed in the pipe. For maximum efficiency, no passage
through the vane should have an area of greater than 1/16 of the cross section area of

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the inside of the pipe and the length of the vane should be at least 10 times the
maximum transverse dimensions of the passages.

NOTE: The straightening vanes are often held in place by a plug located upstream of the Daniel
- Do not remove.

Operating Principle
The increase of fluid velocity through the reduced cross sectional area of the orifice
develops a differential pressure which can be measured. This difference in the
pressures at the two sections is used to evaluate the difference in velocities and hence
to calculate the rate of flow.

For computation of rate of flow through a differential pressure meter the amount is
expressed in the equivalent inches of water at a defined temperature (60 degrees
Fahrenheit is used by the AGA although 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius) is
often used commercially).

The static pressure in a stream of fluid is the pressure that would be indicated by a
gauge if it were moving along with the fluid so as to be at rest or "static" with respect to
the fluid.

Obviously, its measurement in accordance with this definition is impracticable so that

some equivalent substitute method must be adopted. The usual procedure is to use a

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small hole perpendicularly to the wall of the pipe. The pressure measured at this hole is
called the "static pressure".

For static pressure measurement purposes the edge of the hole where it breaks the
inner surface of the line must be completely burr-free; otherwise, due to velocity
pressure, the reading will be too high.

Flow Pattern near an Orifice

Note the smooth flow upstream of the orifice, the minimum flow area just past the
orifice, and the eddies either side of the jet downstream of the orifice.

Since with an orifice the section change is abrupt and there is

no guidance of the stream the cross section of the stream
continues to decrease for a short distance after passing
through the orifice. That section where the fluid occupies
the minimum area is called the "Vena Contracta". Its location
and area depends upon the orifice diameter and the flow

Since there is no guidance of the stream either side of the orifice, the flow is
accompanied by turbulence, particularly on the outlet side. Eddies in a stream are
simply whirling currents superimposed on the general motion and they cause local
variations of static pressure. But they do not change the average static pressure which
can still be accurately measured at a side hole.

Differential Pressure Tap Location

A point to be emphasized is that the measured differential pressure across an orifice is
not simply dependent on the orifice diameter, but also on the location of the pressure
taps. Flange taps are most widely used, but pipe taps may be standard with some
companies. Pipe taps are located 2.5 pipe diameters upstream and 8 diameters
downstream of the orifice.

The location of the upstream tap is relatively unimportant; the increase in pressure is
slight and even negligible for diameter ratios (d/D) below 0.5. However, the location of

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the downstream pressure tap is of particular importance. The best measurement is

obtained at a point where the pressure curve is flat; for example, between the orifice
and the vena contracta, as is the case with flange taps for pipe sizes of 2" and larger. It
should be noted that at this section the channel area is less than the orifice area. This
infers that the fluid velocity is greater than through the orifice and consequently the
differential pressure is also greater.

Downstream of the vena contracta, a very unstable region exists in which pressure taps
should be avoided. For flange taps with pipe size less than 2 inches the downstream tap
may be in this unstable region. For this reason where D < 2" either corner taps or pipe
taps are recommended.

Stability is restored at a point before 8 pipe diameters downstream or before the

downstream tap of a pipe tap installation. Therefore, pipe taps actually measure the
total pressure loss in the primary element.

Data for both flange and pipe taps are given in AGA Report No. 3. The EXPRO standard is
flange taps which are most commonly used in industrial flow measurement for the
following reasons:

• Flange taps allow more accurate measurements.

• Flange taps require a simpler pipe layout than pipe taps.

• The tolerance in meter tube diameters is greater with flange taps than with pipe

• The expansion factor Y2 varies less for flange taps than for pipe taps.

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Static Pressure near an Orifice

On the inlet side, the static pressure increases slightly and reaches its maximum value at
the orifice.

The pressure of the gas drops abruptly as it flows through the orifice and on the outlet
side it continues to decrease and reaches a minimum value at the vena contracta plane
a short distance beyond. The pressure then increases again; slowly at first, rapidly fora
short distance, then again more slowly until its second maximum is reached several pipe
diameters beyond the orifice.

The static pressure of the flowing gas may be measured either at the upstream or
downstream pressure tap. More accurate measurement will result if the static pressure
is taken from the side requiring the smallest correction for expansion factors. In all
cases this is the downstream pressure for which the maximum range is from 1.0000 to
1.0272, while that for upstream pressure is from 1.0000 to 0.9422.

The standard EXPRO connection for measuring static pressure is the downstream flange
pressure tap.

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Orifice Plates
After use, orifices should be cleaned and replaced in the boxes provided. If any erosion,
corrosion, flow bend or rounded edges are visible, they should be scrapped and

Daniel Orifice Fitting

All essential maintenance can be carried out with the fitting in the line. Ideally the
fitting should be operated and lubricated every 30 days. Routine maintenance consists
of the following:

When a Daniel is in continuous service, liquid blow down valves fitted on the bottom
and should be bled as often as necessary. The plate carrier should be raised before
blowing down. The pressure ports should be periodically checked for clear passage.
When the Daniel is left unused the upper chamber should be filled with diesel oil and
the plate carrier raised.

Daniel Type 1 Lubricant is expressly made for use in "SENIOR" Orifice Fittings for
lubricating the all-important slide valve, insuring maximum operating performance. The
cylinder shape grease sticks fit neatly into the grease fitting which comes on the Daniel.

Instructions for lubricating:

• Before lubricating, close both the slide valve and the equalizer valve and open
the bleeder valve.

• To lubricate, remove stem from grease fitting, insert lubricant stick, replace stem
and slowly turn.

• Inject lubricant slowly. If done hastily, high pressure from the lubricant may
rupture valve seat gasket or force apart the valve and seat.

• Crank stem all the way in to grease fitting. If more lubricant is required, repeat

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To clean out dried or cracked lubricant when fitting has not be operated for long periods
of time, close slide valve, de-pressure line and fill top chamber with a grease solvent.
Also, solvent may be forced through grease fitting with a large chamber grease gun.
After cleaning, replace with new lubricant.

Daniel Operating Instructions

Secondary Element of Orifice Meter

The output of the orifice meter is two pressures - (1) a static pressure, which is the
average pressure in the flow stream over the cross-section of the pipe at a certain point,
and (2) a differential pressure, the difference between the pressures at a certain
distance upstream and downstream of the orifice. It has been stated that EXPRO's
standard is flange taps and static pressure is downstream of the orifice. To record these
parameters the standard in EXPRO is the Barton Flowmeter.

This instrument combines in one housing, elements to measure static pressure and
differential pressure and a temperature pen can be incorporated. The outputs are
recorded on a rotating chart in different colored inks. The components parts are
described below.

Static Pressure Element

The static element consists of a helically spiral wound Bourdon tube whose movement is
transmitted to the pen by means of a simple linkage.

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Static Calibration

• Apply 50% pressure.

• Adjust static arm, static linkage and offset arm to form 90o angles at pivot points.

• Release pressure and reset zero with zero adjusting screw.

• Apply 100% static pressure and set pen to full scale with range adjusting screw.

• Release pressure and reset zero. Continue steps to pen is correct at zero and full

• Apply 50% pressure. If pen is low, shorten static link. If pen is high, lengthen
static link.

• Release pressure and reset zero by loosening clamp block or static pen shaft.

• Set precise zero with zero adjust.

• Repeat steps to static pen is accurate at zero, 50% and 100% pressure.

Differential Pressure Element

The differential element consists of an assembly in which the upstream and
downstream pressures are applied to either side. The assembly consists of two bellows
systems in communication via a passage, the whole being filled with a fluid. The end
plates of both bellows are connected by a push rod which is free to move horizontally
within limits of travel provided by stops. As the push rod moves it displaces the torque
tube arm, thereby turning the output shaft.

The bellows are marked High Pressure and Low Pressure indicating the way the
instrument should be connected to the primary element.

The differential pressure acts to compress the high pressure bellows and displace the
fluid to the low pressure bellows, thus displacing the push rod. This movement is
resisted by the spring assembly. There is a damping adjustment in the fluid passage in
the form of a needle valve and over pressure protection is provided by 'O' ring seals on
the push rod shoulders, which thus double as travel stops and pressure seals.

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The range of the element is changed by fitting a spring assembly with springs of
different strength or number. Normal ranges in EXPRO are 100, 200, and 400 inches of
water. The output shaft is connected to the pen by a simple system of linkage allowing
adjustment for zero, angularity and linearity.

Differential Calibration

Calibration is carried out by using a manometer (bourdon tube, mercury or water

column) applied to the "high pressure" chamber to reference the differential pressure.
The "low pressure" chamber is left open to the atmosphere.

• Cut away part of the chart to have access to the adjustment screws.

• Check that the differential pen follows an arc of the chart, if not; adjust the pen
mount base plate.

• Apply 50% of nominal differential to the H.P. chamber.

• Adjust the linkage and regulating screws until the linearity and angularity are as
nearly at right angles as possible. *

NOTE: As in Bourdon tube pressure gauge calibration, it will be seen that this position is
that which will give equal arcs for the linearity adjustment. By setting this position first
it ensures that subsequent adjustments to the linearity, if necessary, are very small, this
being the most difficult part of the calibration.

• Remove differential pressure and set the pen to zero using the zero adjusting

• Apply 100% of differential pressure.

• Adjust pen to halve the error by altering the range adjustment screw.

• Release pressure and reset zero.

• Continue above operations until recorder is correct at zero and full scale.

• Apply 50% nominal differential.

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• Alter the linearity adjustment for any error. If error is high - turn
counterclockwise until travel is 20 times error upscale. If error is low - turn
clockwise until travel is 20 times error downscale.

• Reset zero and full scale indications using angularity adjustments (zero and

• Continue adjusting angularity and linearity alternately until the recorder is

correct at zero, 50% and 100% of nominal pressure.

Changing Recorder Differential Range

The differential range is

affected by changing the
spring support assembly.

NOTE: Ensure that the Pen

is zeroed

• Remove the
chamber fixing bolts.

• Remove the lock-nut, retainer nuts and finally the spring assembly by pulling
outwards and turning counterclockwise. The pen will move from the zero

• Screw the new spring assembly onto the threaded push rod. Fix the eight spring
post pins into the holes in the spring assembly plate and tighten the retainer

• Using the special spanner provided, turn the spring end cup; do not adjust the
tension in the springs until the pen returns exactly to zero. Replace the lock-nut,
being careful not to move from zero.

• Replace the housing end-caps and rebolt.

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• Calibrate

• Change the stamped plate indicating the differential pressure range.

NOTE: After changing springs, apply full working pressure to the housing cell and check
for leaks.

IMPORTANT: Never unscrew the rod connecting the "low pressure" bellows and the
spring support plate. If air enters the bellows, the apparatus is rendered useless.

Temperature Element (if fitted)

The sensor bulb, of the vapor pressure type, is inserted in a thermometer well
downstream of the orifice and flow tube. The bulb is connected by a capillary line to the
Bourdon tube assembly in the housing. As temperature changes it modifies the vapor
pressure in the system, the Bourbon tube uncoils and the movement is transmitted
through linkage to the pen.

Chart Drive
The standard chart drives are either battery operated or clockwork and they rotate the
chart one complete revolution in 24 hours. The differential pen should be registering
the correct time.

Installation of Secondary Element

The Barton Recorder is usually mounted on a support made from a length of 2" line
pipe. It is equipped with a five-valve manifold for starting up and is connected by lines
and isolating valves to the flange taps on the Daniel. Liquid traps, fitted with drain
valves, may be incorporated in the manifold. Tubing and valves should be of adequate
ID's (3/8" or greater) to prevent any plugging possibilities.

Periodically, the bellows assembly caps should be removed and the inside carefully
cleaned with a solvent. Check for broken springs. After reassembly, always pressure
test housing joints and then recalibrate, not only the differential scale, but also static

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pressure and temperature scales. A good general rule is to frequently check and/or
recalibrate the instrument, preferably before and after each operation.

The manifolds should be pressure tested at the same time as above and periodically
dismantled for cleaning. The inside of the instrument housing should be kept clean and
dry, the hinge and catch oiled regularly and the weather seal strip kept in good

NOTE: If either bellows is pierced or if air gets into the bellows system, it will be
necessary to replace the whole cell and return the inoperative unit to the manufacturer
for repair.

Initial Installation Instructions

• Check position of gate, it should be closed.
• Check that equalizing valve on the Daniels Senior is closed.
• Check that the plate carrier is in the upper chamber.
• Open bleed valve and release any trapped pressure.
• Loosen bolts on seal plate (the uppermost plate) start from the middle. Only
loosen bolts by two turns.
• Use the handle and raise the plate carrier so that it moves the sealing bar and
gasket. If free then there is no trapped pressure.
• Loosen top plate bolts further to allow removal of plates and gasket.
• Raise the carrier plate and remove from Daniels Senior.
• Check that no damage to plate carrier.
• Select an orifice plate. Check that no damage to plate.
• Fit plate into seal ring (Teflon) and then fit seal ring into carrier. Beveled edge
and writing should always face downstream.
• Fit carrier with plate into Daniels Senior, making sure that the carrier is

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• Lower carrier into upper chamber to just below the inside lip. Do not rest it on
the gate.
• Check that gasket is ok, and then place gasket sealing bars and tighten by using
daniel’s spanner to hand tight. Start from the middle and work out.
• Tighten fully.
• Close bleed valve.
• Inform Supervisor and Scan that you are lowering the orifice plate.
• Slowly open equalizing valve making sure that there is no leaking from top seal.
• Open gate and start to lower plate into bottom chamber. When the bottom
gears start to move, switch to bottom gear.
• Slowly lower into bottom chamber watching at all times the differential on the
chart recorder.
• If the differential should rise above 80%, raise plate, remove and put bigger plate
• If the differential is below 20% raise the plate and fit small one.
• Once plate is in position and you have a differential reading above 20%, then
close gate and equalizing valve.
• Inform Supervisor and Scan that the orifice plate has been lowered.
• Bleed upper chamber to zero. Close equalizing valve.
NOTE: Measurements using a choke as the primary element is the best way to estimate
flow rate during cleanup of gas well, determine orifice plate size and, if necessary, to
check on the quality of measurement during a test.

After a few minutes check rotation of chart and satisfactory operation

To change an orifice plate

• Check that the bleed valve is closed.

• Inform Supervisor and scan that you are lifting the orifice plate.
• Open equalizing valve slowly, making sure no leaking from upper chamber.
• Open Gate.

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• Using bottom gear, raise the plate until the upper gear moves. There is no need
to check the differential pressure.
• Once the plate is fully in the upper chamber then shut the gate.
• Now close the equalizing valve.
• Slowly open the bleed valve and relieve the pressure from the upper chamber. If
the pressure does not dissipate then close bleed valve open equalizing valve and
open and close gate. If the old style (not soft seat), then insert more grease into
top of gate. Close gate and close equalizing valve. Slowly open bleed to relieve
• Loosen bolts on seal plate (the uppermost plate) start from the middle. Only
loosen bolts by two turns.
• Use the handle and raise the plate carrier so that it moves the sealing bar and
gasket. If free then there is no trapped pressure.
• Loosen top plate bolts further to allow removal of plates and gasket.
• Raise the carrier plate and remove from Daniels Senior.
• Check that no damage to plate carrier, seal and orifice plate.
• Select a new orifice plate. Check that no damage to plate.
• Fit plate into seal ring (Teflon) and then fit seal ring into carrier. Beveled edge
and writing should always face downstream.
• Fit carrier with plate into Daniels Senior, making sure that the carrier is
• Lower carrier into upper chamber to just below the inside lip. Do not rest it on
the gate.
• Check that gasket is ok, and then place gasket sealing bars and tighten by using
daniel’s spanner to hand tight. Start from the middle and work out.
• Tighten fully.
• Close bleed valve.
• Slowly open equalizing valve making sure that there is no leaking from top seal.

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• Open gate and start to lower plate into bottom chamber. When the bottom
gears start to move, switch to bottom gear.
• Slowly lower into bottom chamber watching at all times the differential on the
chart recorder.
• If the differential should rise above 80%, raise plate, remove and put bigger plate
• If the differential is below 20% raise the plate and fit small one.
• Once plate is in position and you have a differential reading above 20%, then
close gate and equalizing valve.
• Bleed upper chamber to zero. Close equalizing valve.

Continue with readings.

When should I raise the Orifice Plate

• When changing choke.

• Any alterations to the separator conditions.
• Before Flushing Sand Filters.
• Before Flushing Cyclonic Desanders.
• Any time there is any chance of a change in Separator Conditions.

Practical Application to Gas Measurement

The gas flow rate is determined by the use of the following formula:

Q scf/d =√h w p f x F u x F g x F b x F tf x F pv x Y 1 /Y 2

Y1 is used by EXPRO Edge System when calculating the gas rate. The Static is taken from
upstream of the Daniels Meter.

Y2 is used by EXPRO Fardux System when calculating the gas rate. The Static is taken
from downstream of the Daniels Meter.

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NOTE: Do not get these mixed up and it can make a substantial difference to the Gas


hw = Differential pressure in inches of water

pf = Absolute static pressure (psia)

d = Diameter of orifice

Fu = Conversion factor for standard conditions and rate

G = Specific gravity of gas (dry air = 1)

Fg = Specific gravity factor = 1√G

Fb = Basic orifice factor

F tf = Flowing temperature factor= 60+460

Tf +460

tf = Absolute Temperature of flowing fluid expressed in

degrees Rankine = degrees Fahrenheit + 460


F pv = Supercompressibility factor

p f2 = Downstream pressure

Y 1 /Y 2 = Expansion factor:

D = Inside diameter of pipe

ß = d/D = Ratio of orifice diameter to inside pipe


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Unit Factor Fu

Unless otherwise instructed by the customer, always choose 14.73 psia and 60 degrees
Fahrenheit as standard conditions and report flow rate in cubic feet per day. This gives
Fu = 24

for rates resulting in SCF/D. For comparison, for rates in m3/hour and standard
conditions of 15 degrees Celsius and 760mm Hg; Fu will equal 0.02833.

Specific Gravity Factor Fg

Specific gravity factor is given in the tables. It may also be calculated using the relation:

F g = √1/G

Basic Orifice Factor Fb

The value of this factor depends upon: the location of the differential taps; the diameter
of the orifice, d; and upon the internal diameter of the pipe, D. For standard orifices
and meter tubes and for flange taps the value of F b is given in the table. Be certain to
use the correct line bore which is stamped on the Daniel housing and flange.

Temperature Factor F tf

Flowing temperature factor corrects for absolute temperature which differs from 60
degrees F. Ftf is given but may be calculated as follows:

F tf = √60+460 / tf+460

Supercompressibility Factor Fpv

In obtaining the relation it was assumed that the specific weight of the gas would
increase directly with the absolute pressure and inversely with the absolute
temperature, which is the case for a perfect gas. However, real gases may deviate
markedly from this relationship and thus introduces the supercompressibility factor to
account for the deviation of natural gas from the ideal gas laws.

F pv = √1/Z

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Several procedures have been developed for empirically determining the

Supercompressibility factor, Fpv. The AGA has published tables in the "Manual for the
Determination of Supercompressibility Factors for Natural Gas - Project No. 19",
covering the following ranges:

Pressure - from 0 to 5000 psig

Temperature - from -40 to +240 degrees Fahrenheit

Specific Gravity - from 0.554 to 1.000

Expansion Factor Y
The expansion factor Y may be taken from upstream (Y 1 ) or downstream (Y 2 ) pressure
tap whereas some intermediate pressure of the gas passing through the orifice is
required to obtain the correct density of gas to be used in the flow equation. The
expansion factor is included to compensate for this. More accurate measurement will
result if the static pressure is taken from the side requiring the smallest correction for
expansion factors (downstream flange tap).

The expansion factor depends upon:

• The ratio of differential pressure to static , h w /p f

• The ratio of the diameter, ß = d/D
• The location of the pressure taps (EXPRO uses flange taps)
• The location of the static pressure tap (downstream is standard)
Chart Computation
A period is chosen small enough to permit averaging of differential and static pressure
by eye. Shorter or longer periods may be used according to conditions of flow rate and
duration of test. However, on oil well tests it is best not to use periods of less than 30
minutes. In this case a difference of one minute gives rise to 3.3% error in flow rates.
Gas well tests usually begin with 15 minute readings and are extended as stabilization

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Setting the Gas Flow at a Predetermined Value

Often the customer requests that the flow choke be set to obtain a pre-determined flow
rate. In this case, it is necessary to determine the differential pressure required for a
certain separator pressure, gas temperature and gas gravity for the flow rate involved.

Minimizing Errors
The orifice meter should be used only on clean fluid. It should never be used during
cleaning up of the well. For gas wells, during this phase the production may be
estimated using the choke nipple flow equation.

Condition of orifice edge

The orifice is the most critical part of the primary element. Check to be sure that the
orifice is clean, free from nicks and that the inlet edge is sharp. The orifice should be
installed with the bevel downstream. The orifice should be scrapped and replaced if any
damage is observed.

Types of orifice plate seal

Orifice seals are available in various materials and sizes. The most common seal
materials are nitrile for standard service, Teflon and viton for sour service. Teflon seals
may have more difficulty providing an adequate seal depending upon condition of
meter bore surface and the seal itself.

Orifice plate seal sizes must be matched with the schedule of meter run pipe. This
means that a 6.065" (schedule 40) Daniel requires a different size seal than a 5.761"
(schedule 80) fitting. The appropriate pipe schedule is typically found on the seal's
outer edge.

Condition of Meter Tubes

Some errors in measurement can be introduced as a result of variation in the inside

finish of the meter tubes. The accepted coefficients were obtained with meter tubes
constructed of commercial iron pipe with the inside surface roughness corresponding to

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such. This should be clean and free from deposits, bumps or other irregularities. To
improve smoothness (roughness not to exceed 300 micro inches) the walls may be
machined, ground, coated and/or polished. Measurements would be low with too
rough an inside surface, and high with too smooth an inside pipe surface.

Choice of Orifice Diameter

The effect of pipe diameter and roughness, upstream disturbances the length of the
meter tube, tap hole size and location, flange recess and other sources of measurement
variation are magnified as the diameter ratio ß = d/D increases.

For the most accurate measurement, as needed for surface sampling purpose, for
instance, the importance of keeping the diameter ratio low cannot be too greatly
emphasized. On diameter ratios below 0.15, however, the difficulty of inadequate data
is encountered. For this reason extremely low diameter ratios have to be avoided.

As recommended by AGA the orifice should be sized so that:

0.15 < d/D < 0.70

For sampling purposes, however, the following is recommended:

0.30 < d/D < 0.65

Choice of h w and p f scales

As a consequence of the square root relationship between h w , p f and flow rate low
values of h w and p f should be avoided. Scales and orifice size should be chosen so that
the differential and static pens will read between 30% and 90% of full scale.

Frequency of Gas Specific Gravity and Supercompressibility factor

The differential pressure, hw, and therefore, the gas flow rate, depend on the gas
characteristics, the most critical of which are the supercompressibility factor and the
specific gravity.

The accurate value of F pv can be determined only either experimentally or when the
composition of the gas is known. In other cases, for example, when only the specific

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gravity is known, F pv can be estimated using empirical tables or charts. In this case the
estimated value used has to be reported in order to permit the necessary correction to
be made when the accurate value of F pv is determined in the laboratory.

Except for low pressure and high temperature conditions this factor cannot be ignored.
For example, at 100 psig and 100 degrees Fahrenheit, for a gas gravity 0.7, F pv = 1.0085.
If the factor is ignored the error will be 0.85%. However, at 1000 psig and 40 degrees
Fahrenheit, F pv = 1.16. If the factor is ignored this time the error will be 16%.

A change of 2% in specific gravity G, for example from 0.700 to 0.714, affects the rate of
flow inversely by 1%. For this reason, we recommend at least one measurement of gas
gravity on each flow rate during the test.

Effect of Entrained Liquid

Entrained liquid (condensate) may form a puddle at the bottom of the horizontal line
ahead of the orifice. This deposit of liquid decreases the contraction of the jet thus
decreasing the differential. Also fluid may enter the Barton lines causing either high or
low differential readings (dependent upon tap flooded). This can cause a substantial
error and it is recommended when measuring wet gas to raise the orifice from time to
time in order to bleed off the accumulated liquid.

To avoid this problem, and to ensure meter accuracy, the gas must remain in a single
phase and separation of gas from produced liquid must be accomplished ahead of the

Effect of Hydrates

Under certain conditions of temperature and pressure at the back pressure valve
hydrates may form, either intermittently plugging the valve or causing it to freeze up. In
either case, the result will be poor pressure regulation causing differential and static
pens to fluctuate and making accurate computation of gas flow rate impossible. The
cure is to either increase separation temperature or, if the heater is inadequate, inject
methanol upstream of the back pressure valve.

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Irregular Flow and Pulsations

Where flow rate is more or less constant, as for most gas wells, there is little difficulty in
reading the chart and obtaining acceptable accuracy in the flow rate computation.
However, this is not always the case with an oil well where the gas flow rate may vary in
different ways from a slow fluctuation to a rapid oscillation.

As the frequency and magnitude of these flow rate changes increase, metering
becomes increasingly difficult and errors of considerable magnitude may be introduced
by ambiguous recordings on the chart.

Theoretically, there are various methods and combinations of methods of reducing

measurement errors due to this effect.

• Adjust the Barton cell dampener, as a last resort.

• Operate at the highest practicable differential by changing to a smaller orifice.

• Fit stronger differential springs to Barton cell in order to be able to use a smaller
orifice or a lower separator pressure.

• Fit a clock which will rotate the chart fast enough to produce a distinct record of
pen movements.

• Install a surge chamber between the separator and the meter to reduce
pulsation amplitude.

• Use electronic pressure transducers. This is in fact the only way to achieve flow
rate measurement when it is changing so fast that the differential pen cannot
follow the fluctuations.

Corrected Gas Rate

• F u . A correction factor which is dependent upon the standard conditions and gas
rate units. If the base pressure and temperature are 14.73 psia and 60oF and the
rate is to be reported in cubic feet per day, F u will equal 24. If other standard
conditions or units are needed the F u factor will differ.

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• F g . √1/G. The specific gravity factor equals 1 divided by the gas gravity and
determining the square root of the result. The factor will normally remain fairly
stable during the course of a particular flow rate once stabilized separator
conditions have been achieved.

• √h w P f . This factor is obtained by multiplying the differential (h w ) in inches of

water times the absolute static pressure (P f ) in psia and determining the square
root of the product of the two numbers.

• F b . The basic orifice factor depends upon: the location of the differential taps;
the diameter of the orifice, d; and upon the internal diameter of the pipe, D. For
standard orifices and meter tubes and for flange taps the value of F b is given in
the table. Be certain to use the correct line bore which is stamped on the Daniel
housing and flange.

• F tf . The flowing temperature factor corrects for gas temperature above and
below 60 degrees F. F tf is given but may be calculated as follows:

F tf = √60+460 / Tf+460

• F pv . The Supercompressibility factor is the correction factor to account for the

deviation of the natural gas from the ideal gas laws. Compressibility is a function
of pressure, temperature and gas composition.

• Y 1 /Y 2 . The expansion factor Y 1 /Y 2 is taken from the upstream/downstream

pressure tap to obtain a pressure correction for the density of gas to be used in
the flow equation.

• The expansion factor depends upon:

a) The ratio of differential pressure to static (h w /p f )

b) The ratio of the diameter, ß = d/D (orifice/meter run ID)

c) The location of the pressure taps (flange taps)

d) The location of the static pressure tap (downstream)

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• Corrected gas flow rate (Q g ). The corrected gas rate is obtained by multiplying
the various factors times each other to determine the number of cubic feet of
gas at the designated standard conditions. The gas flow rate is determined by
the use of the following formula:

Q scf/d = √h w p f X F u X F g X F b X F tf X F pv X Y 1 (Y 2 )

Typical Applications

 Gas transmission / pipeline

 Gas distribution
 Offshore gas production and onshore, including shale
 Gas plants
 Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO)
 CO2 injection
 Bi-directional high pressure storage

Features and Benefits

 Highly reliable, time proven technology

 Field-repairable, reducing downtime and costs associated with shipping to a repair site
 Available in compliance with ISO-5167, PED, NORSOK and other code standards /
requirements (1)
 Corrosion resistant and other special casting materials, including Wrought Carbon Steel
(WCC, WCB), low temperature carbon steel (LCC), 316 Stainless Steel and Duplex, makes
this fitting suitable for sour gas service and other special applications
 Slide valve / isolation mechanism featuring a metal-to-metal seat (hard seat (2)) with
injected lubricant / sealant is standard on all Daniel Senior Orifice Fittings, providing an
optimal seal in the production environment where particulate matter is common
 Optional soft seat slide valve (3) (O-ring seal without lubricant) is available in 2" to 12"
sizes, up to 600 ANSI, for use with gas products such as ethylene

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Operational sequence of removing an Orifice Plate under pressure

A. Under flow conditions B. Equalize pressure

1. Open equalizer valve

C. Raise orifice plate D. Bleed upper chamber and lubricate valve seat
2. Open slide valve carrier (isolation mechanism) 4. Close slide valve carrier (isolation mechanism)
3. Raise plate to upper chamber 5. Close equalizer valve and inject sealant

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6. Open bleeder valve (blow-down valve)

Pilot operated safety relief valve

A pressure relief valve is a safety device designed
to protect a pressurized vessel or system during an
overpressure event. An overpressure event refers
to any condition which would cause pressure in a
vessel or system to increase beyond the specified
design pressure or maximum allowable working
pressure (MAWP).
Since pressure relief valves are safety devices,
there are many Codes and Standards written to
control their design and application. The purpose
of this discussion is to familiarize you with the
various parameters involved in the design of a
pressure relief valve and provide a brief introduction to some of the Codes and Standards which

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govern the design and use of pressure relief valves. Excerpts of various applicable Codes and
Standards are included in other sections of this handbook.
Many electronic, pneumatic and hydraulic systems exist today to control fluid system variables,
such as pressure, temperature and flow. Each of these systems requires a power source of some
type, such as electricity or
Compressed air in order to operate. A pressure relief valve must be capable of operating at all
times, especially during a period of power failure when system controls are nonfunctional. The
sole source of power for the pressure relief valve, therefore, is the process fluid.
Once a condition occurs that causes the pressure in a system or vessel to increase to a
dangerous level, the pressure relief valve may be the only device remaining to prevent a
catastrophic failure. Since reliability is directly related to the complexity of the device, it is
important that the design of the pressure relief valve be as simple as possible.
The pressure relief valve must open at a predetermined set pressure, flow a rated capacity at a
specified overpressure, and close when the system pressure has returned to a safe level.
Pressure relief valves must be designed with materials compatible with many process fluids
from simple air and water to the most corrosive media. They must also be designed to operate in
a consistently smooth and stable manner on a variety of fluids and fluid phases. These design
parameters lead to the wide array of Crosby products available in the market today and provide
the challenge for future product development.

Spring Loaded Design

The basic spring loaded pressure relief valve has been developed to meet the need for a simple,
reliable, system actuated device to provide overpressure protection. Figure F2-1 shows the
construction of a spring loaded pressure relief valve. The valve consists of a valve inlet or nozzle
mounted on the pressurized system, a disc held against the nozzle to prevent flow under normal
system operating conditions, a spring to hold the disc closed, and a body/bonnet to contain the
operating elements. The spring load is adjustable to vary the pressure at which the valve will

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Spring Loaded Pressure Relief Valve

Figure F2-1

Figure F2-2 is a simple sketch showing the disc held in the closed position by the spring. When
system pressure reaches the desired opening pressure, the force of pressure acting over Area A1
equals the force of the spring, and the disc will lift and allow fluid to flow out through the valve.
When pressure in the system returns to a safe level, the valve will return to the closed position.
When a pressure relief valve begins to lift, the spring force increases. Thus system pressure must
increase if lift is to continue. For this reason pressure relief valves are allowed an overpressure
allowance to reach full lift. This allowable overpressure is generally 10% for valves on unfired
systems. This margin is relatively small and some means must be provided to assist in the lift

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Trim Areas Diagram

Figure F2-2

Most pressure relief valves, therefore, have a secondary control chamber or huddling chamber
to enhance lift. A typical configuration is shown in Figure F2-3. As the disc begins to lift, fluid
enters the control chamber exposing a larger area A2 of the disc (Figure F2-2) to system
pressure. This causes an incremental change in force which overcompensates for the increase in
spring force and causes the valve to open at a rapid rate. At the same time, the direction of the
fluid flow is reversed and the momentum effect resulting from the change in flow direction
further enhances lift. These effects combine to allow the valve to achieve maximum lift and
maximum flow within the allowable overpressure limits. Because of the larger disc area A2
(Figure F2-2) exposed to system pressure after the valve achieves lift, the valve will not close
until system pressure has been reduced to some level below the set pressure. The design of the
control chamber determines where the closing point will occur.
The difference between the set pressure and the closing point pressure is called blowdown and
is usually expressed as a percentage of set pressure.

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Pressure Relief Valve Trim

Figure F2-3

The design of the control or huddling chamber involves a series of design tradeoffs. If the design
maximizes lift effort then blow down will be long. If the design objective is to minimize blow
down, then the lift effort will be diminished. Many pressure relief valves are, therefore,
equipped with a nozzle ring which can be adjusted to vary the geometry of the control chamber
to meet a particular system operating requirement (Figures F2-2 and F2-3).

Series 400* Modulating Valve

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The Series 400 modulating valve, with non-flowing pilot, incorporates an advanced design in
pilot operated valves. Under process conditions, both pilot and main valve can be tight as high
as 98 percent of set pressure. The main valve lifts proportionally, according to demand,
restricting product loss to only that which must be relieved to prevent process pressure from
exceeding the code allowance.
The Series 400 valve is well suited for gas and/or liquid services, including dirty and/or wet
services. The modulating action is strongly preferred for liquid relief because it eliminates the
destructive effects of ‘liquid hammer.’ The Series 400 valve is available with the following:
effective orifice areas of 0.110 through 38.96 inch2 [0.710 through 251.3 cm2] valve inlet sizes
1-inch through 8-inch [25 mm through 200 mm], set pressure between 15 and 1480 psig [1.03
and 102.0 barg], and continuous service temperatures from -65°F to +500°F [-54°C to +260°C].

Features and Benefits

• Unique Field Test Capability. Allows accurate set pressure verification with valve in service. No
system isolation valve or rupture disc required.
• Reduced Product Loss and Pollution. Soft seats for premiumtightness before and after relief
cycles.Modulating action relieves minimumproduct to prevent overpressure.
• ASME Section VIII Code Stamp. Certified National Board capacitiesfor both gas and liquid
service assures user of independent third party flowrate verification.
• Suited for Dirty or Wet Service. Non-flowing pilot minimizes entrance
of dirt and formation of hydrates in pilot. Due to low velocities within the pilot and supply
tubing, most particles will drop out upstream of pilot inlet screen. Optional cartridge type pilot
filter is available for extremely dirty services.
• Rugged Bracket Pilot Mounting.
Extremely rigid mounting protecting against vibration and careless handling. Shake table proven.
• Reduced Noise. Modulating action minimizes flow and resultant noise
during normal system upset, reducing noise abatement costs.
• Increased System Output. Because of valve tightness to 98 percent of set
pressure, the system can be operated nearer set pressure without valve leakage, resulting in
greater system throughput.
• Reduced Maintenance Costs. Soft seats greatly extend service life, making
costly and time-consuming metal seat lapping unnecessary.

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• Ease of Adjustment. Single adjustment for set pressure allows accurate
and dependable setting.
• Balanced Design. Proper valve operation and lift are unaffected by
back pressure. Costly and fragile metal bellows are not required.
• Patent Protected

With no system pressure, the pilot inlet seat is open and the outlet seat is closed.
As pressure is admitted to the main valve inlet, it enters the pilot through a filter screen.
Pressure is then transmitted through passages in the feedback piston, past the inlet seat, into
the main valve dome, which causes the main valve piston to remain closed.

As system pressure increases and approaches valve set pressure, it acts

upward on the sense diaphragm, with the feedback piston also moving upward to close the inlet
seat. This seals in the main valve dome pressure, since the outlet seat is also closed. A small,
further increase in system pressure opens the outlet seat, partially venting the main valve dome
pressure. This reduced dome pressure acts on the unbalanced feedback piston to reduce
feedback piston lift, tending to ‘lock in’ the dome pressure. Thus, at any stable inlet pressure,
there will be no pilot flow (i.e., zero leakage).
As inlet pressure rises above set pressure, dome pressure reduction will provide modulating
action of the main valve piston proportional to the process upset. The spool/feedback piston
combination will move, responding to system pressure, to alternately allow pressure in the main
valve dome to increase or decrease. This moves the main valve piston to the exact lift that will
keep system pressure constant at the required flow. Full main valve lift, and therefore full
capacity, is achieved with relatively little overpressure. As system pressure decreases below set
pressure, the feedback piston moves downward and opens the inlet seat to admit system
pressure to the dome. This closes the main valve. Due to the extremely small pilot flow, the pilot
on gas/vapor valves normally discharges to atmosphere through a weather and bug proof
fitting. Pilots for liquid service valves have their discharge piped to the main valve outlet.

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• Non-flowing pilot.
• Single point set pressure adjustment.
• Replaceable main valve seat, located on piston to take wear.
• Feedback mechanism in pilot, independent of primary pressure sensing
mechanism, to ensure smooth modulation of main valve.
• Indicator button for field test capability.
• Field replaceable main valve nozzle.

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Iso-Dome* Series 400 Valve

The Iso-Dome accessory for the 400 pilot provides protection of the critical pilot internals from
the process media. The pilot is actuated by the process fluid and is ASME Section VIII Code
stamped for gas and liquid service. The Iso-Dome 400 pilot is available with the following:
effective orifices areas of 0.110 through 38.96 inch2 [0.710 through 251.3 cm2 ], valve inlet sizes
1-inch through 8-inch [25 mm through 200 mm], set pressure between 15 and 1480 psig [1.03
and 102.1 barg], and continuous service temperature from -65°F to +500°F [-54°C to +260°C].

Features and Benefits

• Critical Pilot Internals and Main Valve Dome Protected from Process Media. Expands the
application of pilotoperated valve technology.
• Valve is Fail-safe. Meets ASME code requirements.
• Allows System Operating Pressure to be Near Set Pressure. SRV tightnessis maintained,
resulting in greater system throughput.
• All Adjustments are Factory Sealed. Just add the clean gas supply for simpleand inexpensive
field installation.
• Modulating Action. Minimizes fugitive emissions, product release, product loss, and noise.
• Valve Operation Insensitive to Back Pressure. Costly and fragile metal bellowsnot required.

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• Unique Field Test Capability. Set pressure may be verified while valve remains in service
protecting the system. No system isolation valve or rupture disc required.



The Anderson-Greenwood Pilot Operated Pressure Relief Valves use the principle of back-
loading the top, large area, of a differential area piston with line pressure to hold it closed below
set pressure. At set the pilot valve actuates, partially evacuating the dome (volume above
piston) and the piston lifts permitting discharge from the main valve. When process pressure
decreases the pilot repressurizes the main valve dome, closing the main valve.

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Piping to the inlet of the safety valve should meet the general requirements set forth in the
recommends inlet piping pressure losses not exceed 3% of the set pressure, discharge piping be
properly braced to withstand reactive thrust forces when the safety valve relieves and the safety
valve be properly supported to withstand system vibration. Main valve.

Dirt can be damaging and cause a safety relief valve to become inoperative. Valves which are
not installed immediately should have the inlet and outlet connections closed off. All safety
valves should be handled with care and not subject to heavy shocks.

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A. Remove cap from field test fitting and connect flex hose from test gas bottle.
B. Close vent valve "C" on gas bottle, open block valve "A" to slowly pressurize pilot and observe
test pressure gage.
C. Set pressure is s where the pressure gage stops increasing and test gas rapidly vents from
field test indicator port. Caution: Stand clear of indicator port during test to avoid contact with
high pressure gas
D. To remove set up, close block valve "A", open vent valve "C" and install cap on field test

Maintenance should be performed on a regular basis. Depending on the service conditions, an
inspection/maintenance on an annual basis is the recommended maximum time interval.

The installation of the safety valve should be in accordance with the recommendations set forth
in the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, Section VIII, Appendix M Pressure Vessel Code. This document
Recommends the safety valve be installed in the upright position, as
Shown in Figure 1.

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There must be pressure at the valve inlet to establish a differential in force across the piston and
"load" it in the closed position. Pressure must pass through the pilot supply tube and pilot and
exert force on the top of the piston. On normal plant start-up the valve loads itself as plant
pressure increases. It is not uncommon that slight leakage past the main seat occurs until
system pressure reaches two or three pounds.


Block valves are often used under safety valves in order to isolate them when maintenance is
required. When putting the safety valve in service be sure the block valve is fully opened. If the
block valve is opened after start-up, the safety valve may briefly vent past the main valve seat
before the dome gets pressurized; it will then close.


When remote pressure pick-up is used the pilot supply tube is connected to a remote location
rather than to the inlet neck of the valve. A block valve for shut off in the remote pilot sense line
is not recommended. If one is used, it must be opened before pressurizing the system.

NOTE:Remove pressure pick-up piping must have the equivalent flow area of 318" tubing for
lengths up to 100 feet. For lengths greater than 100 feet, larger tubing or pipe should be used.


A safety relief valve should be used only to protect a system from overpressure during a
pressure upset. It should not be used as a control valve that is required to operate continuously.
It should not be used as a pipe fitting or transition piece in a piping system.


The set pressure of valves equipped with a field test accessory can be checked with the valve
installed, in operation, using a test set up similar to that shown in Figure 2. This procedure
accurately checks the set pressure; it will not be an accurate check of the reseat pressure.

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The main valve will not open using the procedure described here. If the main valve must be
opened, slowly increase the test gas pressure beyond set point until the valve opens. To close
the valve, close block valve "A" on the test gas bottle and open vent valve "C".

Field Service
The pilot assembly is not intended to be field serviceable; doing so will void the set point
Field service is limited to the main valve, filter, and accessories. Many potential problems may
be prevented by frequent draining and cleaning of the filter and dipper tube.
If not present, add the heavy dome spring(s) which assist in the initial low pressure seal.

Nitrogen charge system

If a valve starts to leak during pressure testing or while in service a Nitrogen charge can be
applied to the dome to energize the main valve piston. To preserve full functionality, the rig up
of the nitrogen to the relief valve must be done as per the attached drawing. Deviation or
omissions from the complete system as shown may impede the relief valve function.
Each component of the nitrogen charge system performs a specific task. The small orifice needle
valve limits the N2 flow rate from overrunning the pilot vent capability. The rupture disc guards
in case of regulator failure. The back flow preventer ensures that the pilot senses the greater
pressure of the nitrogen supply or process fluid.
Nitrogen pressure must not exceed 1/2 relief valve set pressure. Rupture disc setting must not
exceed 70% of relief set point.
Prior to applying the nitrogen dome charge check the following:-
1. Check relief valve filters for debris.
2. Check the SS tubing and dipper tube for leaks, damage, or plugging.
3. Check main valve seat and piston. Replace as necessary.
If any valve continues to leak, remove leaking valve from service and send it to an approved
AGCO service shop for further inspection and testing.

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Pilot-operated safety relief valves operate
on the principle of unequal areas exposed
to the same pressure. When the relief
valve is closed, system pressure pushes
upwards against the piston seat seal on an
area equal to the inside diameter of the
seat. Simultaneously, the same system
pressure passes through the pilot, exerting
a downward force on the piston acting on
an area approximately 50% greater than
the inside diameter of the seat. The
resulting differential force holds the valve
tightly closed. As the system pressure
rises, the force against the piston seal

Then, when the system pressure reaches

the relief valve discharge set pressure, the
pilot cuts off system pressure and opens
the top of the piston to vent pressure. As the pressure above the piston is relieved, the relief
valve opens, discharging line pressure.

Once the PRV is released it has to be manually set it back to the desired set pressure.

Note: In market PRV’s which can reset to the set pressures after release automatically are
available which are connected to the actuator which helps in this action.
Installation of PRV

 Valve to be installed in vertical position.

 Use proper flange gasket or seal rings as required by the inlet and outlet flange

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 Inlet piping and block valves, if installed must be full size with a minimum inside
bore or flow diameter.
 Risers longer than three pipe diameter should be at least one pipe larger than
the relief valve inlet.
 Exhaust must be directed away from any area that maybe occupied and away
from any nearby structure. Vertical exhaust is required.
 Valves installed on long raisers or for liquid services should be installed with a
remote sensing line. Introduce sensing pressure as slow as possible to pilot to
ensure piston dome is completely charged.

Control valves
The valve provides a variable restriction in flow. The standard way of actuating the valve is to
move the stem by means of a pneumatic actuator. A mechanical movement is required to move
the valve. Signals to the actuator can be either electrical or pneumatic. In the case of electrical
signals being received, an additional electrical/pneumatic converter will have to be fitted to
achieve the mechanical movement.

Types of valves used for control purposes are

 Globe;
 Ball;
 Butterfly;
 Gate;
 Diaphragm.

The most common type of control valve used in the industry is a

globe valve. This hasan efficient gland arrangement for attainment of
leak free operation. It can also be sizedaccurately for good
controllability. In the event of a power failure or failure of pressure of
the air supply to the actuator, it is possible to arrange for this type of
actuator to go into one of three modes:

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 Fail Open – under these circumstances, in the event of failure of the motive force to
actuate the valve, the valve will fully OPEN.
 Fail Close - under these circumstances, in the event of failure of the motive force to
actuate the valve, the valve will fully CLOSE.
 Stay put - under these circumstances, in the event of failure of the motive force to
actuate the valve, the valve will remain in the position that it was at when the power
supply failed.

Once the signal has been sent to the valve, some form of
indication is required to ensure that the valve has actually
moved by the amount that the signal demanded the valve
to move. This is achieved by connecting a valve positioner
to the actuator. The figure above shows a globe valve with
a valve positioner line connected to the actuator.
This positioner is a local pneumatic amplifier, which
ensures that the valve goes to the desired position and
gives an indication locally of the actual position of the
valve. With the use of an electrical/pneumatic converter,
the signals from the valve positioner can be transmitted to
the control room, so the control operators can be made
aware of the actual position of each of the critical valves
under their supervision. It should be possible for the
control valves to be designed in such a way that their trims
can be made to linear change for level control and equal
percentage change for flow control.
The effect of controlling flow through the valve could cause cavitation and thus erosion/noise
within the body of the valve. Careful consideration should be given to these factors when
selecting the valve size for the duty.

Level Measurement

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Measurement of level takes different forms and some are explored here:

 Sight glass: This is perhaps the simplest form of level measurement where tapping are
taken from the top and bottom of the vessel and a glass is fitted to the end of the
tapping. The liquid level in the main vessel is replicated in the glass outside and direct
measurement can be taken of the level inside the vessel;
 Differential pressure: This is a slight variation of the sight glass principle. The pressure at
the bottom of the vessel is compared to that at the top of the vessel and the reading is
converted to give a measurement of the level of the liquid in the vessel. In order to carry
out this computation, accurate information of the density of the liquid within the vessel
is required;
 Displacement of a float: Where the level of the liquid to be measured is contained
within a vessel at high pressures, it may not be possible to attach a glass out ide to
measure the level directly using a sight glass. Under these circumstances, the liquid level
is replicated within a container where a float is present. This float moves up and down
on the top of the liquid level. The movement of the float is then translated into a gauge
to indicate the level of the liquid.
 Capacitance: A piece of electrical apparatus consisting of two plates separated by the
liquid whose level is to be measured is inserted into the vessel. The capacitances will
vary depending on the level of liquid between the two plates. The measured
capacitance can be calibrated and converted to give an accurate reading of the liquid
inside the vessel;
 Nucleonic: This is a non-intrusive method of measuring levels where a radioactive
material is placed on the surface of the vessel at a point where the level of the liquid is
expected to be and the reflected wave is measured to indicate the actual level of the
 Radar – Similar to ultrasonic in principle. The source this time is a radio wave.

 Ultrasonic: This is similar in principle to nucleonic where an ultrasonic signal is sent from
a source outside the vessel and the resulting reflected wave is calibrated to indicate the
actual level of the liquid inside the vessel;

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Level Controllers- Fisher

Fisherpneumatic controllers and transmitters are
used wherever rugged, dependable, and simply
constructed displacer-style pneumatic
instrumentation is required in liquid level,
interface level, or density service. The
ruggedness of these products is demonstrated
by their use in many kinds of demanding
applications, including those in the power,
chemical process, oil and gas production, and
petrochemical industries. MOUNT ON VESSEL SIDE WITH

Proportional band
Spring- out adjustment
cleaning wire





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The level is set manually to be maintained in the separator. In a separator there are two
level controllers available each one in oil line and water line. LVC is working on the
principle of pressure to open. When an air supply is given to the LCV (3 to 15 psig) the
controller starts to open to full, as to what we use in Superior SWT separator.

Caged Displacer Sensors

Cageless Displacer Sensor

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Pressure Measurement
Pressure measurement can take the form of measuring:

 Gauge pressure: Pressure compared to atmospheric pressure meaning that atmospheric

pressure will be given as 0 psig or 0 barg. The standard way of carrying this out is by a
flattened tube bent to a curve, which tends to straighten under internal pressure, thus
indicating, by movement of an indicator over a circular scale, the fluid pressure applied
to it;
 Absolute pressure: This is measured with respect to zero pressure and given as pounds
per square inch absolute (psia) or bar absolute (Bara). Atmospheric pressure at sea level
is normally approximately 14.7 psia;
 Differential pressure: Here pressures between two points in the process are measured
and compared with each other.

Pressure Controllers- Fisher

Supply Pressure Medium

 Air or natural gas

Air: Supply pressure must be clean, dry air that meets
the requirements of ISA Standard 7.0.01. A maximum
40 micrometer particle size in the air system is
acceptable. Further filtration down to 5 micrometer
particle size is recommended. Lubricant content is not
to exceed 1 ppm weight (w/w) or volume (v/v) basis.
Condensation in the air supply should be minimized.

Natural Gas: Natural gas must be clean, dry, oil-free,

and noncorrosive. H2S content should not exceed 20

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Pressure Controller

Steady-State Air Consumption

0.2 to 1.0 bar (3 to 15 psig): 0.08 normal m3/hour (3 scfh)
0.4 to 2.0 bar (6 to 30 psig): 0.12 normal m3/hour (4.5 scfh)

Ambient Operating
Temperature Limits

Standard Construction: -40 to

71_C (-40 to 160_F)

High Temperature
Construction: -18 to 104_C (0
to 220_F)

Anti-reset windup (differential

pressure relief) and process
pressure gauge options are
only available in the standard
construction. If the process temperature is outside the ambient operating range of the
controller, the length of the capillary tube run from the sensor point to the controller process
input may be adjusted to protect the controller from the process temperature.
Actuator Mounted Controller

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Controllers specified for mounting
on a control valve actuator are
mounted at the factory. If the
instrument is ordered separately for
installation on a control valve
actuator, mount the instrument
according to the following

Mounting parts for the different

actuator types and sizes vary. See
the parts list for parts required for
the specific actuator type and size

Use a hammer and punch to knock out the blanks in the two holes indicated.

Attach the spacer spools (key 228) and the mounting plate (key 213) to the controller with
machine screws, lock washers, and nuts (keys 215, 221, and 216).

Attach the mounting bracket to the actuator yoke with cap screws (key 222) and, if needed,
spacer spools. On some designs, the mounting bracket is attached to the actuator diaphragm
casing rather than to the yoke.

Installation- Safety standards

To avoid personal injury or property damage resulting from the sudden release of pressure:
 Always wear protective clothing, gloves, and eyewear when performing any installation
 Personal injury or property damage may result from fire or explosion if natural gas is
used as the supply medium and appropriate preventive measures are not taken.
Preventive measures may include, but are not limited to, one or more of the following;

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remote venting of the unit, re-evaluating the hazardous area classification, ensuring
adequate ventilation, and the removal of any ignition sources.
 If installing into an existing application, also refer to the WARNING at the beginning of
the Maintenance section in this instruction manual.
 Check with your process or safety engineer for any additional measures that must be
taken to protect against process media.
The pressure is set manually to be maintained in the separator. In a separator there is
one PVC present in the gas line. PVC is working on the principle of pressure to close.
When an air supply is given to the PCV (6 to 30 psig) the controller starts to close to full,
as to what we use in Superior SWT separator.
Supply pressure requirements

Bourdon Tube Pressure Range and Materials

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Air Regulators
Type 67CF and 67CFR FilterRegulators


Scope of Manual

This manual describes and provides instruction and parts list for Type 67CF and 67CFR
regulators. Although sometimes shipped separately for line or panel mounting, these regulators
are usually shipped installed on other equipment. Instructions and parts lists for other
equipment, as well as for other 67 Series regulators not covered in this manual, are found in
separate manuals.

Product Description

Type 67CF and 67CFR self-operated, aluminum-body, filter regulators provide constant reduced
pressures in a variety of applications. They are commonly used as supply pressure regulators for
pneumatic instruments as shown in figure 1.

A Type 67CF or 67CFR regulator with a cellulose or stainless steel filter removes particles greater
than 0.0016inch (0.040mm) in diameter, or with a glass filter removes particles greater than
0.0004 inch (0.010mm) in diameter.

The Type 67CFR regulator additionally has an integral low-capacity internal relief valve. In this
construction, the stem seats against a soft seated orifice in the diaphragm assembly. A
downstream pressure increase above the outlet pressure setting moves the diaphragm
assembly off the stem, venting the excess pressure through a hole drilled or tapped in the spring

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Table 1 gives some general Type 67CF and 67CFR regulator ratings and other specifications. A
label on the spring gives the recommended and actual control spring range for a given regulator
as it comes from the factory.

BODY SIZE AND END 1/4-inch NPT INTERNAL RELIEF Low capacity for seat leakage
CONNECTION STYLE screwed PERFORMANCE only; external relief valve must
(TYPE 67CFR be provided if inlet pressure
MAXIMUM 250 psig (17 bar) REGULATOR ONLY) can exceed maximum
ALLOWABLE INLET emergency outlet pressure

OUTLETPRESSURE 3 to 100 psig (0.21 to TEMPERATURE Nitrile Parts: -20°F to 150°F

RANGES 6.9 bar) with the CAPABILITIES(1) (-29°C to 66°C)
springs shown in Fluoroelastometer Parts: 0°F to
parts list key 9 350°F (-18°C to 177°C)

MAXIMUM 50 psig (3.4bar) over PRESSURE Internal

OUTLET setting, or 100 psig
PRESSURE(1) (7.6bar), whichever is
1. The pressure/temperature limits in this manual, and any applicable code or standard limitations,
must not be exceeded


Personal injury, property damage, or leakage due to escaping gas or bursting of pressure-containing
parts may result if this regulator is over pressured or is installed where service conditions could
exceed the limits given in table 1, or where conditions exceed any ratings of the adjacent piping or
piping connections. To avoid such injury or damage, provide pressure-relieving or pressure- limiting
devices (as required by the appropriate code, regulation, or standard) to prevent service
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Conditions from exceeding those limits. A Type 67CFR regulator, because of its low-capacity internal
relief, does provide very limited downstream overpressure protection, but it should not be considered
complete protection against overpressure.

Additionally, physical damage to the regulator could cause personal injury or property damage due to
escaping gas. To avoid such injury or damage, install the regulator in a safe location.

Regulator operation within ratings does not preclude the possibility of damage from debris in the lines
or from external sources. A regulator should be inspected for damage periodically and after any
overpressure condition.

If the regulator is shipped mounted on another unit, install that unit according to the appropriate
instruction manual

1. Only personnel qualified through training and experience should install, operate, and maintain a
regulator. For a regulator that is shipped separately, make sure that there is no damage to, or foreign
material in the regulator. Also ensure that all tubing and piping have been blown free.

2. Install the regulator so that flow is from the IN to the OUT connection as marked on the regulator
body. Cut out dimensions for panel-mounting regulators are shown in figure 2.

3. For best filter drainage, orient the drain valve (Key17, figure 2) to the lowest possible point on the
filter cap (key 25, Figure 2). This orientation may be improved by rotating the filter cap with respect to
the body assembly (key 1, figure 2).
4. A clogged spring case vent hole may cause the regulator to function improperly. To keep this vent
hole from being plugged (and to keep the spring case from collecting moisture, corrosive chemicals, or

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other foreign material) orient the vent to the lowest possible point on the spring case or otherwise
protect it. Inspect the vent hole regularly to make sure it has not been plugged. Spring case vent hole
orientation may be changed by rotating the spring case with respect to the body. A Type 67CF or 67CFR
regulator with a tapped spring case may be remotely vented by installing obstruction-free tubing or
piping into the 1/4 inch NPT vent tapping. Provide protection on a remote vent by installing a screened
vent cap in the remote end of the vent pipe.

5. For use in regulator shutdown, install upstream and downstream vent valves or provide some other
suitable means of properly venting the regulator inlet and outlet pressures.

6. If using pipe, apply a good grade of pipe compound to the pipe threads before making the

7. Install tubing or piping into the 1/4-inch NPT inlet connection on the body assembly (Key 1, figure 2)
and also into the 1/4 inch NPT body outlet connection, unless this connection already has been factory-
piped to another unit.


A regulator may vent some gas to the atmosphere. In hazardous or flammable gas service, vented gas
may accumulate and cause personal injury, death, or property damage due to fire or explosion. Vent a
regulator in hazardous gas service to a remote, safe location away from air intakes or any hazardous
area. The vent line or stack opening must be protected against condensation or clogging.

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Start up and Adjustment

Key numbers are referenced in figure 2.

1. With proper installation completed and downstream equipment properly adjusted, slowly open the
upstream and downstream shutoff valve while using pressure gauges to monitor pressure.
2. Regulator outlet pressure may be monitored on a gauge installed at some point downstream from the
regulator, such as the supply pressure gauge of a pneumatic instrument for which the regulator is
providing reduced pressure. Or, outlet pressure may be monitored on a gauge (Key 21, not shown)
installed on the body of a regulator has no gauge but the side outlet. If the regulator has no gauge but
the side outlet is tapped and plugged, the pipe plug (key 21, not shown) may be removed and a gauge
temporarily installed for monitoring.


To avoid personal injury, property damage, or equipment damage caused by bursting of pressure
containing parts or explosion of accumulated gas, never adjust the control spring to produce an outlet
pressure higher than the upper limit of the outlet pressure range for the particular spring. If the
desired outlet pressure is not within the range of the control spring, install a spring of the proper
range according to the diaphragm parts maintenance procedure.


Each regulator is factory-set for the pressure setting specified on the order. If no setting was specified,
outlet pressure was factory-set at the midrange of the control spring.

3. If outlet pressure adjustment is necessary, monitor outlet pressure with a gauge during the
adjustment procedure. A standard Type 67CF or 67CFR regulator is adjusted by loosening the locknut

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(key 11, if used) and turning the adjusting screw or hand wheel (key 10) clockwise to increase, or
counter clockwise to decrease, the outlet pressure setting. Then, tighten the locknut (if used) to
maintain the adjustment position. On some regulators, a closing cap (key 28, not shown) must be
removed before adjustment and replaced afterward.


First close the nearest upstream shutoff valve and then close the nearest downstream shutoff valve to
vent the regulator properly. Next, open the vent valve between the regulator and the downstream
shutoff valve nearest to it. All pressure between these shutoff valves will be released through the open
vent valve, since a Type 67CF or 67CFR regulator remains open in response to the decreasing
downstream pressure.

Regulator parts are subject to normal wear and must be inspected and replaced as necessary. The
frequency of inspection and replacement of parts depends on the severity of service conditions and
upon applicable codes and government regulations. Open the drain valve (Key 17, figure 2) periodically
to empty accumulated moisture from the filter cap (key 25, figure 2).


To avoid personal injury, property damage, or equipment damage caused by sudden release of
pressure or explosion of accumulated gas, do not attempt any maintenance or disassembly without
first isolating the regulator from system pressure and relieving all internal pressure from the


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If sufficient clearance exits, the body assembly (key 1) may remain mounted on other equipment or in
a line or panel unless the entire regulator will be replaced.

Key numbers are referenced in figure 2 unless otherwise noted

Filter Element and Trim Parts

1. Use a 12-point socket wrench to remove the cap screws (key 18). Remove the filter cap and
gasket (keys 25 and 19).

2. The retainer assembly and filter element (keys 43 and 29) may come off with the filter cap; if
not, remove these parts to let the plug spring (key 6), plug spring seat (key 5), and plug/stem
assembly (key 4) drop freely from the body.

3. Inspect the removed parts, replace as necessary, and make sure the plug seating surfaces are
free from debris. A dirty filter element may be cleaned with solvent and blown dry.

4. Apply a good grade of lubricant to the gasket (key 19) before installing it. Stack the gasket,
retainer assembly, filter element, plug spring, plug spring seat, and plug/stem assembly (keys
19, 43, 29, 6, 5, and 4) on the filter cap (key 25).

Install the filter cap with stacked parts into the body assembly (key 1) and secure with the cap
screws (key 18).

Diaphragm Parts

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1. Remove the closing cap if used (key 28, not shown), loosen the locknut if used (key 11), and
back out the adjusting screw or hand wheel (key 10) until compression is removed from the
control spring (key 9).

2. Remove the machine screws (key 12) and separate the spring case (key 2) from the body
assembly (key 1). Remove the control spring seat and control spring (keys 8 and 9).

3. Remove the diaphragm assembly (key 7) and inspect the diaphragm.

4. Install the diaphragm assembly (key 7) and push down on it to see if the plug/stem assembly
(key 4) strokes smoothly and approximately 1/16 inch (2 mm).


In step 5, if installing a control spring of a different range from the one that was removed, be sure to
delete the spring range originally appearing on the control spring label (key 20, not shown) and
indicate the new spring range.

5. Stack the control spring and control spring seat (keys 9 and 8) onto the diaphragm assembly (key
7).Install the spring case (key 2) on the body assembly (key 1) with the vent oriented to prevent
clogging or entrance of moisture. Install the machine screws (key 12) and torque to 5 to 7 foot-pounds
(7 to 9 N.m).

7. When all maintenance is complete, refer to the startup and adjustment section to put the regulator
back into operation and adjust the pressure setting. Tighten the locknut if used (key 11), and install the
closing cap if used (key 28, not shown).

Oil and Gas manifolds

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The oil that comes from the separator can be directed through an oil manifold to the gauge tank, the
surge tank, the production flowline or the burner depending on the circumstances prevailing during the
test. The manifold usually consists of 5-in. by 2-in. ball valves.

From the gauge tank, flow is piped to the oil manifold, which is connected to a transfer pump. Here,
pressure is boosted so that it can be supplied to a burner or re-injected to a flowline. If a surge tank is
used, the manifold serves the same purpose. In effect, it allows the flow from the separator to be
directed without interruption to the burner or flowline. For offshore tests, two burners are normally
used to allow continuous testing without respect to the prevailing wind direction. The oil manifold
allows the selection of either port or starboard burner without stopping the well test because of
undesirable wind directions.

The gas manifold performs the same functions, the gas that comes from the separator can be directed
through the gas manifold to one of the burners depending on the prevailing wind during the test.

5 Way Manifold 3 Way Manifold

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Oil manifold
Skid mounted manifold fitted with 5 valves. This manifold is used to divert oil produced by the separator

 The surge tank or

 The waste pit or
 The storage tank.

Gas manifold
The gas manifold directs the gas to the starboard or port flare in function of the wind direction. It
consists of a skid-mounted assembly with two ball valves.

Specification for oil and gas manifold

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There are several ways to measure the liquid flow rate from the
separator. These include inferential meters, positive-
displacement meters and gauge tanks.
This section develops the different types of tank used today:
 The surge tank
 The atmospheric gauge tank
The surge tank can also be used as a second stage separator. Its
use is compulsory for offshore operations and whenever H2S is
The gauge tank allows the definition of an accurate shrinkage
factor as the oil volume change is measured at atmospheric
pressure on a large volume.

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Surge Tank

The surge tank is a pressurized vessel used to measure liquid flow rates. There are two types of surge

 A single-compartment vessel
 A dual-compartment vessel, so that one compartment can be emptied by the transfer
pump while the other one is being filled.

They both have an automatic pressure-control valve on the gas outlet line to maintain a back pressure
that can be set to any pressure up to 50 psi for the single compartment and 150 psi for the dual one.
Level indicator allow the change in volume to be inferred from knowledge of the physical dimensions of
the surge tank. A high and low-level alarm warns when gauging will be stopped.

Safety features include a safety relief valve in

100bbl Dual compartment
case the vessel is accidentally over surge tank
pressured(the maximum working pressure is
50 psi or 150 psi). A grounding strap isattached
to discharge the surge tank inthe event of any
static charges. An accurate measurement of
shrinkageand meter factor can be obtained at
thesurge tank.

The tank on a test, serves one of three


1. To calibrate the meters on the separator.

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2. To measure oil flow rate when the flow rate is less than the minimum for the meters on the
3. To measure the shrinkage/meter factor combined.

Caution: A separate gas vent line withflame arrestor to the burner isnecessary when using a surge tank.
Itcannot be connected to the separatorgas outlet; pressure could80bbl
a backpressure on Surge
Compartment the surge
tank. tank


1. The tank is used to calibrate oil meters, or measure oilflow on wells which have a flow rate less than
theminimum rate for the flow meters of the separator.
2. To this end, a tank calibration is marked on a plate on theside of the vessel.
3. The tank is fitted with graduated sight glasses so thatvolume can be measured.
4. Flow rates should be limited, so as not to fill the tank too rapidly. A filling time of 30 minutes is
normal. Thereshould always be an operator in close proximity to thetank while it is filling.
5. When calibrating flow
meters setting an initial
liquidlevel just above the
manhole is recommended, as
themanhole can give
significant errors in
6. Check operation of the HI-Lo
level alarms before starting
test. To start from a
completely empty tank, theLo-
Level alarm has to be by

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passed until the liquid levelis above the Lo-Level sensor.

7. The filling and emptying of the tank must be supervisedat all times.
8. The pressure in the tank is sufficient for burning to aburner. The transfer pump must be used to
empty thetank.
Note: When using tank for meter calibration ensures “O”level is above manhole cover.

Safety Operation
1. Check the validity of the official test documentation of the surge tank
2. Check the setting of the safety valve before starting operations
3. Tanks must be earthed and the resistance value checked. (Minimum section of 1cm² cable)
4. Ensure an unrestricted flow from the vessel is available before flowing in. Empty all liquids before
flowing in and be aware of any residual H2S.
5. Any residual liquid or gas must be evacuated with steam before working inside a tank or any welding
job on the equipment. Flushing with water is NOT sufficient.
6. Breathing apparatus is mandatory when entering or working inside a tank.
7. Empty tanks and vessels prior to transportation or lifting.
8. The flow rate should always be limited so as not to fill the tank too rapidly, 30 min. filing time is a
reasonable figure, it corresponds to 3800 bbl per day or 160 bbl/hr. for the 100 bbl surge tank. Never fill
the tank above 80% of its capacity.
9. A flow rate of 1350 bbl per day is the maximum for the 35bbl surge tank.
10. A surge tank must be used whenever H2S is expected or suspected during a test.
11. A wizard pressure controller acts on a normally open automatic control valve and regulates the
pressure inside the surge tank; the gas is evacuated to the flare line. This valve closes whenever the
pressure is below 40 psi if the wizard is set correctly, the valve will be fully open if the pressure inside
the tank exceeds 70 psi.
12. The liquid level is adjusted manually so constant supervision is still required, HI – LO pilots are
installed to indicate if the level is above or below pre-set limits.
13. A safety valve on top of the surge tank can prevent the bursting of the tank due to excess pressure.

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14. Never tie the surge tank gas line into the separator gas outlet.
15. Never fill the tank beyond 80% of its capacity.
16. Ensure the tank is grounded. Offshore an earth strap bolted to the deck. On land, an earth stake
driven into the ground. In dry climates, water the earth stake daily. Earth straps should have a cross
sectional area of at least 1 cm².
17. Check the operation of the Hi-Lo Level alarms.
18. Lifting or transportation of the equipment shall only be performed with the tank empty. Operational
position is vertical, transport position horizontal. The tank and flare knock-out drum should only be
lifted by the lifting eyes set in the frame.
19. Pie the drain from the flare knockout drum to the flare pit.
The pressure and the temperature can be measured by gauges or sensors fitted to the ports
respectively. The pressure of the vessel is maintained by a PCV in the gas line where a predetermined
set pressure is fed and works accordingly as the PCV in the separator does.
Note: refer to the PCV section of separator.

Side glass level monitor

Penberthy Flat Glass Gauge

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Penberthy liquid level gages are used to allow direct visualization of liquid level in vessels. By peerlng
through the glass, it is possible to monitor color, clarity, and level of a gas/liquid interface. Gages are
available in varying lengths and configurations (end connect, side connect, multiple sections, NPT or
flange connections, etc.). Visual indication can be enhanced by using reflex glass or illuminators (
System Description
Penberthy gages are comprised of six basic components. Each component may vary slightly, depending
on the desired physical and mechanical properties for the gage. Use the exploded parts view in Section
I1 as additional reference material. Chamber - provides a pressure retaining metallic channel for the
liquid to enter and be viewed. Slot(s) are machined into the chamber to provide direct visualization of
the process fluid.

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Gaskets - seal the gap and prevent leakage between the chamber and the glass. Gaskets are available in
a variety of materials for
compatibility with the media in
the gage. Glass - glass allows for
visual observation of the process
fluid in the chamber
Cushion - acts as a protective
buffer between the glass and the
cover for proper sealing cushions
must be as hard as or harder
than the gasket material.
Cover - protects the glass
assembly from external hits and
provides a flat, rigid surface that
is used to evenly compress the
gage assembly.
Boltinq - compresses the
components between the covers
(transparent gages) or cover and
chamber (reflex gages) Shield
(optional) - used to prevent the
process media from contacting
the glass.

Available Models
Penberthy (Series L) low pressure

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liquid level gages are designed for applications other than steam/water where the physical and
mechanical properties of a ductile iron cover are sufficient to meet the pressure and temperature needs
of the application.

The pressure and temperature ratings may deviate from the previous tables if the gasketing materials of
construction and/or bolting are other than those specified. Higher and/or lower temperature ratings are
available with different materials of construction.
To determine the maximum allowable working pressure for a specific temperature within the design
limits stated in the tables, the user should refer to Penberthy dimension sheets, or when provided, the
specifically stated design limits on a Penberthy product proposal.

NOTE: under no circumstances should shields be used in reflex style gages. Installation of shields in
reflex style gages will keep the liquid from coming in contact with the refractive prisms, thereby
prohibiting visualization of the liquid level in the gage.

NEVER exceed these design ratings or application data. Exceeding design
ratings or application data may result in mechanical failure of gage components resulting in
death, serious personal injury and property damage.

Upon receipt of a liquid level gage, check all components carefully for damage incurred in shipping. If
damage is evident or suspected, do not attempt installation. Notify carrier immediately and request
damage inspection.
Penberthy's standard 1 section TL gage consists of: (1) chamber, (2) gaskets, (2) borosilicate flat glass, (2)
rubber bands, (2) cushions, (2) covers, (1) washer, (1) nameplate, and (6-14) bolting sets, depending on
the size.

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Glass inspection
The self stick caution tape was applied at the factory to protect the glass during shipping, handling, and
installation. Do not remove the tape from the glass until all installation procedures have been
completed, except during receiving inspection to momentarily inspect glass for shipping damage.
Glass that is not protected will be vulnerable to dust, grit, tools and any other objects which may
scratch, chip, or break the glass.

DO NOT use glass that is chipped or even slightly scratched. Glass surface
defects weaken the glass which may result in glass breakage and fluid loss under pressure resulting in
serious personal and property damage.

User Rating lnspection

The user should confirm that:
1) the Series L liquid level gage model and assembly number stamped on the nameplate conforms to the
description on the user's purchase order,
2) the operating conditions described in the purchase order agree with the actual operating conditions
at the installation site,
3) the actual operating conditions at the installations site are within the application data shown on the
Penberthy Technical Data Bulletin or product proposal referred to above, and
4) the materials of construction of the liquid level gage are compatible with both the contained media
and surrounding atmosphere in the specific application.

If the size, model, or performance data of the liquid level gage as received does not conform with any
of the criteria above, do not proceed with installation. Contact an authorized Penberthy distributor
for assistance. The incorrect gage can result in unacceptable performance and potential damage to
the gage.

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Installation should only be undertaken by qualified personnel who are familiar with equipment of this
type. They should have read and understood all of the instructions in this manual. The user should refer
to Penberthy dimension sheets or Penberthy product proposal to obtain dimensional information for
the specific sire and model liquid level gage.

Penberthy recommends that all liquid level gage installations be provided with gage valve sets equipped
with ball check shut-off. Gage valve sets are designed to isolate the gages from the pressure vessel when
it becomes necessary to drain or service the gages. The ball check shut-off is designed to retard leakage
of the contained fluid in the event of gage glass breakage. Ball checks are available for both positive and
negative vessel pressures.
The number of different types of gage and valve installations is too great to adequately detail in an
installation manual. It is, therefore, the user's responsibility to assure that the knowledgeable
installation personnel plan and carry out the installation in a safe manner. The following procedures are
some of the installation guidelines that should be employed.
Piping Strain
The gage should be mounted and connected so that it does not support any piping weight. Piping not
properly supported, independent of the gage, may subject the gage to stresses that can cause leaks or
glass breakage. Support brackets are available as an accessory.
Differential Thermal Expansion
High mechanical loads may be imposed on a gage by expanding and contracting pipes due to hot or cold
service. Such mechanical loads on the gage must be minimized by the use of expansion loops in the
system. Failure to allow for expansion or contraction can result in leaks or glass breakage.
Mirror Viewing
For added safety, a system of indirect viewing by means of mirrors should be installed to protect
personnel from the hazards of possible gage failure.

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Nut Retorquing (not applicable for gages with Belleville washers) - see Section 5.5 Nut retorqueis vital to
the operation of a liquid level gage because gaskets take permanent setunder initial bolt loading at
assembly. Tightening of nuts before installation to values specified inTable 3 is necessary to insure
pressure retaining capabilities ofliquid level gage to specific design ratings. The user must refer tothe
liquid level gage model and assembly number and to the
Purchase order or tag to determine materials of construction.

Using a torque wrench, tighten nuts in five ft-lbincrements following the "Z" pattern sequence in Figure
1, until the torque values shown in Table 3 above for the specific liquid level gage are reached. For
multiple section gages, torque the center section@) and progressively work toward the
Ends of the gauge. If bolting, gasketing or glass on any or repaired section of a multi-section gage is
disturbed, all sections must be checked for integrity and retorqued as necessary.

Failure to comply with the proper torquing sequence or force/height value can lead to leakage, gasket
blow-out or glass breakage resulting in gage failure, serious injury and/or property damage.

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NOTE: Depending on gage size there may be less bolting than shown in FigureI. Start at the center and
follow "Z" pattern outward to the limit of bolting on a specific gage.

5.5 Belleville Washers

Belleville washers are used to reduce or eliminate the need to retorque nuts. This is especially important
for gages subject to pressure and/or thermal cycling and also in offshore applications where use of
wrenches often cracks or chips the protective coat the conical washers allow for material expansion and
contraction while maintaining axial bolt loading and, therefore, compression on the gasket.

The effective range of a Belleville washer is measured in height (or compression distance) of the washer
NOT TORQUE. Refer to Figure 2 and Table 4 for proper compression height. Do not tighten nuts until the
washers are flat. Belleville washers cannot absorb expansion when flat. If bolting, gasketing or glass on
any section of a multi-section gage is disturbed, all sections must be checked for integrity and stack
height, if necessary.
Before initializing liquid level gage operation, check that all installation procedures have been
completed. Use only qualified, experienced personnel who are familiar with liquid level gage equipment
and thoroughly understand the implications of the tables and all the instructions. Check to determine
that all connections are pressure tight. Assure that nuts have been retorqued to their proper values as

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specified in Table 3. Remove self-stick caution tape from the glass and inspect to be sure that glass is
clean and free of any damage such as cracks, scratches, pits, and chips.

Hydrostatic Test
Liquid level gage installations should be brought into service slowly to avoid
Excessive shock or stress on the glass. Rapid pressurization or sudden changes
In temperature may cause glass breakage. To avoid excessive thermal shock or.
Mechanical stress on glass, the connecting valves should be opened slightly, and
The gage temperature and pressure allowed to slowly equalize. If the valves are
Equipped with ball checks, the valves must be opened all the way after the
Pressure and temperature have equalized to permit operation of the automatic ball checks in the event
of failure. Failure to follow the recommended operating
Procedures can result in death, severe personal injury and/or property damage.
Take all precautions necessary to handle the possibility of leakage during the test. Hydrostatically
pressure test all installations to at least 100 PSlG but less than design pressure and correct any leakage
before proceeding.

Use only qualified, experienced personnel who are familiar with liquid level gage
Equipment and thoroughly understand the implications of the tables and all the
Instructions. DO NOT proceed with any maintenance unless the liquid level gage
Has been relieved of all pressure or vacuum, has been allowed to reach ambient
Temperature and has been drained or purged of all fluids. Failure to do so can
Cause serious personal injury and property damage.
The rate at which components degrade is dependent upon a variety of conditions. Pressure,
temperature and process media all influence the rate at which gage components deteriorate. Higher
temperatures can accelerate the deterioration of gaskets, cushions, glass, and metals. Acids and similar
chemicals can break down the integrity of almost any material. Concentration of chemicals can

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accelerate the corrosion rate. Penberthy cannot create a blanket maintenance schedule for every
The end user is the most familiar with the process media and conditions and must be responsible for
creating a maintenance schedule. The user must create maintenance schedules, safety manuals, and
inspection details for each liquid level gage. Realistic maintenance schedules can only be determined
with full knowledge of the services and application situations involved. These will be
Based upon the user's own operating experience with their specific application.
On all installations the following items should be regularly evaluated by the user for purposes of
1) Glass, for cleanliness and signs of damage or wear,
2) Shields, if used, for signs of clouding, wear or deterioration,
3) Gage, for signs of leakage around gaskets or at connections and
4) Gage, for signs of internal or external corrosion.
If bolting, gasketing or glass on any section of a multi-section gage is disturbed, all sections must be
checked for integrity and retorqued or repaired as necessary.

Maintenance Procedures
GLASS should be given regular and careful attention. Keep glass clean using a commercial glass cleaner
and a soft cloth. Inspect the surface of the glass for any clouding, etching or scratching or physical
damage such as bruises, checks or corrosion. Glass that is damaged is weakened and may break under
pressure. Shining a light at approximately a 45" angle will aid in detecting some of these conditions.
Typical damaged areas will glisten more brightly than the surrounding glass because the light is
Detection of any damage, problem areas or surface wear is sufficient evidence to take the liquid level
gage out of service. DO NOT proceed with operation of the liquid level gage until the glass has been
replaced with a glass replacement kit following the disassembly - reassembly instructions in Section 8.

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SHIELDS showing any signs of clouding, wear, or deterioration are an indication that the gage glass has
been exposed, or could soon be exposed to the contained fluid. Immediately take liquid level gage out
of service. DO NOT proceed with operation of the liquid level gage until shields and glass have been
replaced by following the disassembly-reassembly instructions in Section 8.
GASKET LEAKS must be repaired immediately. DO NOT proceed with operation of a liquid level gage
until gaskets have been replaced by following Section 8 disassembly-reassembly instructions.
CONNECTION LEAKS at a flanged or threaded connection should be corrected by tightening I the bolting
at the connection or by taking the liquid level gage out of service and wrapping the connection threads
with Teflon@ tape on all male pipe threads.
CORROSION may occur if the user has selected an improper material for the liquid level gage
application. It is the responsibility of the user to choose a material of construction compatible with both
the contained fluid and the surrounding environment. If internal or external corrosion is present, an
investigation must immediately be performed by the user. It may be
necessary to contact an authorized Penberthy distributor to better determine the origin of the
Trouble shooting
Problem: glass becomes prematurely etched or clouded in service
Cause: fluid being handled is not compatible with the glass or shields
Solution: replace the glass and install shields which will not be affected by contained fluid
Problem: glass continually breaks in service despite careful attention to maintenance procedures
Cause: thermal shock, hydraulic shock, mechanical loads, exceeding design ratings or a
combination of these
Solution: check entire system to determine possible sources of loads. Check application to
determine actual operating conditions and contact an authorized Penberthy distributor
on how to proceed.

Removal - Disassembly – Reassembly

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Use only qualified, experienced personnel who are familiar with liquid level gage equipment and
thoroughly understand the implications of the tables and all the instructions. DO NOT proceed with
any maintenance unless the liquid level gage has been relieved of all pressure or vacuum, has been
allowed to reach ambient temperature, and has been drained or purged of all fluids. Failure to do so
can cause serious personal injury and property damage.

Secure workbench longer than the liquid level gage, and sufficiently
wide to lay out parts as they are removed.
1) Lay gage on bench so nut side of fastener is up.
2) Hold gauge firmly, and loosen nuts starting at both ends of each
section and then proceeding from both ends to the center of each
section as outlined in Figure 3.
3) Nut Loosening Sequence
- remove nuts, washer, belleville washers (if any) and
- tap covers with rubber hammer as needed to loosen and
- forbelleville washer assemblies: to remove covers, studs may
need to be removed by laying the assembly on its side and
knocking the stud/U-bolts through the cover with a hammer and punch
- remove cushions, glass, shields (if any), and gaskets
- tap liquid chamber or remaining covers as necessarywith rubber hammer to break loose, and
remove remaining components
- remove, destroy, and dispose of all glass, cushions, gaskets, and shields. Under no
circumstances should these components be re-used or installed on a gage

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NOTE: If size of gage is smaller than shown, follow "Z" sequence from the ends until all bolting is

After assembly and proper torquing, cushions, gaskets and shields are
permanently deformed by compression and if re-used, may cause leaks and high stress points
resulting in glass breakage. Glass may contain hidden damage and internal stresses caused by
previous usage. If re-used, the glass may break under pressure causing personal and property damage.

8.2 Inspection of Glass Seating Surfaces

Clean the glass seating surfaces on the liquid chamber and cover with a soft metal scraper (preferably
brass) to remove all burrs, rust, and remnants of the previous gaskets and cushions. Exercise extreme
care to avoid gouging or scarring gasket and cushion seating surfaces. I Use a known flat piece of metal
the same approximate length as the glass or a new piece of glass and a thickness gage to check flatness
of each glass seating surface on liquid chamber and under cover. Surface must be flat within 0.002 inch
(0.051 mm). If any one surface is found to be beyond a tolerance of 0.002 inch (0.051 mm), the entire
gage must be disposed of and replaced. Gasket
seating surface must have a final surface finish of 450 to 500 AARH. Flatness of glass seating surfaces
outside 0.002 inch tolerance specified is an indication of the gage having been overstressed through
repeated exposure to mechanical, thermal, or hydraulic shock during its previous service. Operation of a
liquid level gage which has been overstressed will result in abnormal stresses on the glass which may
cause glass to break. If surface finish is not in the 450- 500 AARH range, gasket may extrude under
pressure with resulting sudden release of pressure, leakage of contained fluid, serious personal injury, or
property damage.
Glass seating surfaces should NOT be machined to achieve seating tolerance. The chamber and covers
are designed for a critical thickness to achieve the pressure/temperature ratings. Machining glass
seating surfaces may result in non-compliance to the necessary critical thickness due to material

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If all glass seating surfaces are found to be within the 0.002 inch (0.051 mm) tolerance described in the
previous section, proceed to obtain new glass, gaskets, cushions and shields (if used) and proceed to
reassemble as follows (refer to exploded parts view in Section 11 if needed):
1) clean threads on bolt and nuts to remove all paint, rust, and scale. Apply a light coat of oil to the
2) for transparent gages, insert bolts through half the cover and lay out covers along bench, side by side,
with the liquid chambers. Use chambers to space covers and line them up with vision slots.
3) for reflex style and belleville reflex style gages, lay out covers along bench, side by side, with liquid
chambers. Use chambers to space covers and line them up with vision slots.
4) for transparent belleville style gages, thread nuts on stud, place two bellevile washers under nut with
pointed end toward the nut (see Figure 2), insert stud through each cover and lay out covers along
bench, side by side, with liquid chambers. Use chambers to space covers and line them up with vision
5) install one cushion inside each cover.

Separate installation instructions are supplied with replacement glass. All
instructions supplied with the glass must be followed as there are precautions to be taken when
handling gage glass. Among the precautions is avoidance of bumping or sliding glass against any
surface and inspection of individual pieces. Failure to follow any of the replacement gage glass
installation instructions could result in glass breakage with resulting sudden release of pressure,
personal or property damage.

6) install rubber band around each piece of glass, then place glass centered inside each cover
7) install shields, if used, and gasket on glass being careful to keep components centered.
8) place liquid chamber on the gaskets making sure all components are aligned with vision slot.

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9) for reflex gage, install U-bolts in place by tapping as needed with rubber hammer, being careful not to
lose alignment with vision slot.
10) for reflex gage, quickly turn over assembly onto back side of U-bolts. Assemble nameplate, washer,
and nuts to U-bolts. Tighten nuts with fingers. Using a torque wrench, tighten nuts in five ft-lb
increments, following the sequence in Figure 1 until the torque values shown in Table 3 are reached.
NOTE: Depending on gage size there may be less bolting than shown in Figure 1. Start at the center
and follow "Z" pattern outward to the limit of bolting on a specific gage.

11) for transparent gage, install gaskets in place, and shields if used.
12) install rubber band around each piece of glass, then place glass centered inside each cover. NOTE
13) install one cushion on each piece of glass
14) install covers in place being careful to maintain components alignment inside.
15) install nameplate, washer, and nuts to studs. Tighten nuts with fingers. Using a torque wrench,
tighten nuts in five, following the sequence in Figure 1 until the torque values shown in
Table 3 are reached.
15A) for transparent belleville style gages: install nameplate and two belleville washers under each nut
with pointed end toward the nut (see Figure 2). Finger tighten nuts.

NOTE: the following procedure is to be done on only one side of the gage.

15B) for reflex belleville style gages: install nameplate and three belleville washers under each nut with
pointed end toward the nut (see Figure 2). Finger tighten nuts.
16A) Using a torque wrench, tighten nuts in five ft-lb increments, following the sequence in Figure 1.
Once 20 ft-lb is reached, begin measuring stack height. Tighten nuts in five ft-lb increments until stack
spring height is within 0.008" (0.2 mm) of proper height. individually tighten each nut until stack height
is achieved. (see Table 5) To estimate washer height, add the thickness of the nut to the compressed
height requirement and use this value to compare to the measurement from the top of the nut to the

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face of the cover. Refer to Section 5 for installation and Section 6 for operation of liquid level gage when
returning to

Disposal at End of Useful Life

Penberthy gages are used in a variety of fluid
applications. By following the appropriate
governmental and industry regulations, the
user must determine the extent of
preparation and treatment the gage must
incur before its disposal. A Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS) may be required before
disposal services accept certain components.
Metals, glass, and polymers should be
recycled whenever possible. Refer to order
and Penberthy's Material Specification sheets
for materials of construction.

GageValves - Series 500 & 700 OS&Y

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Gauge Valves Series 500 and 700 OS & Y

Penberthy OS&Y gage valves are used to isolate gage glass, magnetic gages or other apparatus from the
holding or pressure vessel when it becomes
necessary to drain and service the gage.
Penberthy Series 500 and 700 OS&Y gage valves
are supplied in pairs (upper and lower) and are
available with socket weld, flanged and NPTF
These valves are equipped, as a standard feature,
with an outside screw and yoke and with a ball
check shut-off to prevent leakage of contained
fluid in case of accidental gage glass breakage. The
outside screw and yoke valve is designed for use
where it is necessary to have external stem
threads due to pressure, temperature, or corrosiveness of the contained fluid. All models have a solid
shank vessel connection.
System Description
Penberthy valves are comprised of six basic components. Each component may vary slightly, depending
on the desired physical and mechanical properties for the valve. Use the exploded parts view in Section
12.0 as additional reference material. The OS&Y valve operation differs from standard armored valves in
that the threads are external to valve operation. The stem reciprocates rather than
rotates (screws) as it seats inside the valve body.
Body - a pressure retaining structure through which liquid passes to enter a gage glass or other
apparatus, Provides a rigid connection to the vessel and seating surfaces for most valve components.
Series 500 is straight pattern body. Series 700 is offset pattern body.

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Yoke - seals and supports the stem and stem packing during valve operation. The yoke contains the
stem packing to prevent valve leakage. The yoke is sealed with a gasket as it is compressed against the
valve body using screws. (Series 550 and 750 Fugitive Emission valves utilize an O-ring between the yoke
and body to prevent fugitive emissions.) Threads in the yoke provide the torsional base that pushes and
pulls the stem when the valve is closed and opened.
Trim - wetted parts that mechanically control the liquid path from the vessel to the gage glass or other
apparatus. The ball and stem act to seal and release the liquid. In the event of mechanical failure, the
ball will seat to prevent large quantities of the contained fluid from exiting the vessel. Liquid is allowed
to exit the vessel into the gage glass or other apparatus when the stem is pulled away from its seated
position. The liquid is sealed when the stem is pushed into its seated position. The stem packing retainer
provides a compression surface between the process liquid and the stem packing. A stem packing gland
is used to compress the packing against the retainer and around the stem to prevent leakage.
Stem packing - under compression the stem packing is forced to mold around the stem and prevent
leakage of media during operation. (Series 550 and 750 Fugitive Emission valves utilize specific packing
materials of construction to prevent vapor or gaseous leakage.)
Gage connection - provides connection between the valve and the gage glass or other apparatus. A
union or rigid connection may be used. A union connection can move in a plain parallel to the vessel
connection. The connection can be threaded, flanged or welded. (Series 550 and 750 Fugitive Emission
valves require rigid gage connections only.)
Handwheel/lever - rotated to engage threads and provide reciprocating action of stem Series 500 valves
are straight pattern valves available with a union connection to the gage (Model 520), a rigid connection
to the gage (Model 530) or as a fugitive emission valve (Model 550). Series 700 valves are offset pattern
valves available with a union connection to the gage (Model 720), a rigid connection to the gage (Model
730), a fugitive emission valve (Model 750) or as a tubular style connection with a stuffing box to allow
for expansion (Model 780).

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To determine the maximum allowable working pressure for a specific temperature within the design
limits stated in the tables, the user should refer to Penberthy dimension sheets, or when provided, the
specifically stated design limits on a Penberthy product proposal.

Never exceed these design ratings or application data. Exceeding design ratings or application data
may result in mechanical failure of gage components resulting in serious personal injury and/or
property damage.

Steam Application
Penberthy Model 780 valves are designed for steam/water flat glass gages. The stuffing box attaches to
the valve body with a coupling nut. A special nipple extends from the gage glass to the stuffing box
where packing is compression fit around the nipple like tubular glass. The gage rests on the bottom
valve while the coupling nuts are tightened.

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4. Inspection
Upon receipt of a gage valve set, check all components carefully for damage incurred in shipping. If
damage is evident or suspected, do not attempt installation. Notify carrier immediately and request
damage inspection. Refer to the exploded view drawing in Section 12.0 to inventory parts.

User rating inspection

The user should confirm that:
1. the gage valve set model number and pressure/temperature rating stamped on nameplate (163)
conforms to the description on the user’s purchase order;
2. the operating conditions described in the purchase order agree with the actual operating conditions
at the installation site;
3. the actual operating conditions at the installation site are within the applications data shown on the
Penberthy Technical Data Bulletin or product proposal referred to previously;
4. the materials of construction of the gage valve set are compatible with both the contained fluid and
the surrounding atmosphere in the specific application.

Safety instructions
If the size, model, or performance data of the gage valve set as received does not conform with any of
the criteria above, do not proceed with installation. Contact an authorized Penberthy distributor for
assistance. The incorrect valve can result in unacceptable performance and potential damage to the
Installation should only be undertaken by qualified personnel who are familiar with this equipment.
They should have read and understood all of the instructions in this manual. The user should refer to
Penberthy dimension sheets or Penberthy product proposal to obtain dimensional information for the
specific size and model gage valve. Penberthy recommendations on gage valve installations are not
necessarily related to the installation of flat glass liquid level gages. The number of different types of
gage and valve installations is too great to adequately explain in an installation manual. Therefore, it is

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the user’s responsibility to assure that knowledgeable installation personnel plan and carry out the
installation in a safe manner. The following procedures are some of the guidelines that should be
Piping strain
The gage valve should be mounted and connected so that it can support the gage without binding.
Torsional stresses can make it difficult or impossible to seal tailpipes. Although union connections can
allow marginal errors in piping alignment, misalignment can still create unusual strain on connectors.
Gages not properly supported by brackets may subject the gage valve to stresses that can cause leaks or
mechanical failure.

Differential thermal expansion

High mechanical loads may be imposed on a gage valve by expanding and contracting gages due to hot
or cold service. Such mechanical loads on the valve must be minimized by the use of expansion loops or
stuffing boxes (Model 780) in the system. Failure to allow for expansion or contraction can result in leaks
or mechanical failure.

1. Prior to installation, turn the hand wheel of each valve clockwise until the stem closes against the seat
2. Mount upper and lower valves to the vessel using Teflon® tape, or equivalent, on all male tapered
pipe thread connections. If valve is flange or weld mounted, use proper industry standard procedures.
3. If installing with a flat glass gage, follow all installation instructions for the specific liquid level gage as
there are many points to consider on gage installation among them, piping strain, differential thermal
expansion, weight, and bolt torque.
4. Install gage tailpipes to union gage connections, where applicable, making sure that coupling nuts are
in place.

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Stuffing box
1. Install tubular packing nut, tubular packing gland and tubular packing to each end of the gage
2. Turn the upper valve counterclockwise approximately 1/8 turn.
3. Insert the end connection of the gage into the upper valve stuffing box connections as far as it will go.
4. Tighten the upper valve to the original position while holding the gage in position with upward force
to insure it clears the lower stuffing box location. Check vertical alignment of the valves.
5. Slide the gage assembly down into the lower valve stuffing box connection to a positive stop. Tighten
the upper and lower valve tubular packing nuts.

6. Operation.0 Operation
Before initializing gage valve operation, check that all installation procedures have been completed. Use
only qualified, experienced personnel who are familiar with valve equipment and thoroughly
understand the implications of the tables and all the instructions. Check to determine that all
connections are pressure tight.

Hydrostatic test
Valve installations should be brought into service slowly. Valves should be opened slightly, and the valve
assembly temperature and pressure allowed to slowly equalize. If the valves are equipped with ball
checks, the valves must be opened all the way after the pressure and temperature have equalized to
permit operation of the automatic ball check in the event of failure. Failure to follow
the recommended operating procedures can result in severe personal injury and property damage.
Take all precautions necessary to handle the possibility of leakage during the test. Hydrostatic pressure
test all installations to 100 psig and correct any leakage before proceeding.

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Use only qualified, experienced personnel who are familiar with valve equipment and thoroughly
understand the implications of the tables and all the instructions. Do not proceed with any
maintenance unless the valve assembly has been relieved of all pressure or vacuum, has been
allowed to reach ambient temperature, and has been drained or purged of all fluids. Failure to do so
can cause serious personal injury and property damage.
The user must create maintenance schedules, safety manuals, and inspection details for each gage
valve. These will be based upon the users own operating experience with their specific application.
Realistic maintenance schedules can only be determined with full knowledge of the services and
application situations involved.
During system shutdown, the valves should be left open to permit the gage to lose pressure and cool
with the rest of the system. Failure to leave the valve open during system shut down may trap high
pressure fluid in the gage.
Preventative maintenance
On all installations the following items should be regularly evaluated by the user for purposes of
1. leakage between the body and the yoke,
2. leakage around the stem packing,
3. internal stem leak,
4. leakage around stuffing box connection, if applicable,
5. internal or external corrosion.
The user must determine upon evaluation of his or her own operating experience an appropriate
maintenance schedule necessary for his or her specific application. Realistic maintenance schedules can
only be determined with full knowledge of the services and application situation involved.
Re-certification program (FE Valves)
Stem packing material may wear with extensive operation of the valve. Over time leak paths may
develop that cause the emission rate to exceed 5 ppm. Penberthy recommends including valve

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recertification in valve maintenance schedules. For a nominal service charge, valves can be returned to
the factory for testing. In most instances if leaks above 5 ppm are found, Penberthy can replace the
packing, retest the valve and return the valve to service.
Contact your distributor for price information.
Leakage between the body and yoke can often be stopped by tightening the yoke
screws. If leak persists, the yoke gasket should be replaced by following steps 1) and 2) of the
Disassembly and 4) and 5) of the Reassembly instructions. The Models 550 and 750 Fugitive Emission
valve use an O-ring to seal the yoke to the body. Follow steps 1) and 2) of the Disassembly and 4) and 5)
of the Reassembly instruction to replace O-ring.
Stem packing leakage can often be stopped by tightening the stem packing follower screws. If leak
persists, the stem packing should be replaced by following steps 1) through 5) of the Disassembly and 1)
through 6) of the Reassembly instructions. If the valve set is equipped with Grafoil® stem packing the
leak may be stopped by adding an additional ring of packing in the packing stuffing box.
Turn the handwheel counterclockwise until it seats against the stem packing retainer. Remove the stem
packing follower screws. Slide the stem packing follower and gland away from the packing stuffing box.
Insert an additional ring of packing in the stuffing box. Slide the stem packing gland and follower down
against the packing and tighten the stem packing follower screws. Internal stem seat leakage is an
indication of a worn or damaged stem or seat. To replace the stem follow steps 1) through 5) of the
Disassembly and 1) through 6) of the Reassembly instructions. To renew the seat surface, follow steps 1)
and 2) of the Disassembly instructions. Renew the seats by using a fine lapping compound and a
mandrel the same size, shape and seat angle as the stem.
Flush the valve body clean and reassemble by following steps 4) and 5) of the Reassembly instructions.
Remove the seat by inserting a 1/4” square driver in the seat and turning it counterclockwise. Replace
the new seat by turning it clockwise using a 1/4” square driver, making sure that the ball check, if used,
is replaced in the body. Tighten the seat in place. Follow steps 4) and 5) of the Reassembly instructions.
Leakage around the stuffing box connection indicates worn out tubular packing or improper

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compression of the packing. To replace the packing, follow step 6) of the Disassembly and step 7) of the
Reassembly instructions. In the event of improper compression, leakage can be stopped by
tightening the tubular packing nut. Internal or external corrosion could be an indication of a
An investigation should immediately be carried out to determine the cause of the problem. It is the
user’s responsibility to choose a material of construction compatible with both the contained fluid and
the surrounding atmosphere.

8. Removal – Disassembly and Reassembly

Use only qualified, experienced personnel who are familiar with valve equipment and thoroughly
understand the implications of the tables and all the instructions. Do not proceed with any
maintenance unless the valve and gage assembly have been relieved of all pressure or vacuum, have
been allowed to reach ambient temperature, and have been drained or purged of all fluids. Failure to
do so can cause serious personal injury and/or property damage.
Refer to the explode parts drawing in Section 12.0 for additional reference during disassembly and
reassembly of the valves.
1. Loosen and remove yoke screws. Slide yoke assembly from the body.
2. Remove the yoke gasket and, if Model 550 and 750 FE valve, yoke O-ring.
3. Remove the handwheel nut, washer, nameplate and handwheel.
4. Remove the stem from the yoke by pulling it through the stem sleeve and yoke.
5. Remove the stem packing retainer, stem packing, stem packing gland and, if Model 550 or 750 FE
valve, Belleville washers from the stem.
6. For valves equipped with a stuffing box connection:
a. loosen the tubular packing nut on both the upper and lower valves.
b. slide the gage assembly into the upper valve as far as it permits.

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c. while holding the gage in this upward position, rotate the upper valve counterclockwise
approximately 1/8 turn to allow clearance to remove the gage from the upper valve.
d. remove the gage from the upper valve.
e. remove the tubular packing nut, tubular packing gland and tubular packing from both the
upper and lower valve.
Refer to the explode parts drawing in Section 12.0 for additional reference during disassembly and
reassembly of the valves.
1. Insure that the stem packing gland screws are loose enough to allow for the new stem packing.
2. Install stem packing retainer, new stem packing, stem packing gland and, if Model 550 or 750 FE
valve, Belleville washers onto the stem. The Belleville washers should not be stacked in the same
direction. The crown of each Belleville washer should point toward one another (e.g., X). Slide the stem
through the yoke and stem sleeve as far as it permits.
3. Place the nameplate, washer and handwheel on the end of the stem. Tighten in place with the
handwheel nut.
4. Turn the handwheel counterclockwise as far as it will go, seating the stem against the stem packing
retainer. Install the new yoke gasket and, if Model 550 and 750 FE valve, O-ring in the body.
5. Mount the yoke assembly to the body and secure using the yoke screws. Yoke assembly should be
tightened securely to insure compression of yoke gasket/O-ring.
6. Tighten stem packing gland screws.

NOTE: Yoke and stem packing gland screws should be tightened evenly to insure even compression of
the yoke gasket/O-ring and stem packing.

7. For valves equipped with a stuffing box connection

a. place the tubular packing nut, tubular packing gland and tubular packing on each end of the gage

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b. with the upper valve turned 1/8 turn counterclockwise from vertical, insert the top gage connection
into the stuffing box connection of the upper valve. To insure clearance of the lower valve stuffing box
connection, slide the gage connection into the upper valve as far as it permits.
c. tighten the upper valve to the original position while holding the gage with upward force to insure
clearance of the lower valve stuffing box connection. Check vertical alignment of the valves.
d. slide the gage assembly down into the lower valve stuffing box connection to a positive stop.
e. tighten the tubular packing nut on both the upper and lower valve.

Refer to Section 6.0 for operation of the gage valve when returned to service.

9. Certification of Models 550 and 750 OS&Y Fugitive Emission Valves

Penberthy’s fugitive emission valves are individually serialized and tested to meet EPA emission test
requirements. Each valve is shipped with its individual test report that certifies less than 5 ppm leak
rates, using Kalrez® and Teflon® as the packing material. Refer to product proposal information for
packing materials other than Kalrez® and Teflon®.
10.Disposal at end of useful life
Penberthy valves are used in a variety of fluid applications. By following the appropriate governmental
and industry regulations, the user must determine the extent of preparation and treatment the valve
must incur before its disposal. A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) may be required before disposal
services accept certain components.
Metals and polymers should be recycled whenever possible. Refer to order and Penberthy’s Material
Specification sheets for materials of construction.

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Exploded Parts Drawing

Single compartment surge tank specification

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Double compartment surge tank specification

Flowrate calculation through surge tank:

𝑄𝑄 = 𝑉𝑉(𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟) × 𝑇𝑇 (bbl/d)
Q= Flowrate of liquid bbl/d
V= Volume received bbl
T= Time of flow, day
𝑉𝑉(𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟) = (𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿(𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐) × 0.1088) − (𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 × 0.1088)bbl

Level= cm rise initial and final in the level scale

0.1088= Tank factor

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Note: A dead volume of 8.698 bbl is to be considered while calculating the volume. It is advised to fill
in with a dead volume in the surge tank before starting in the flow and calculations.

Find the flowrate for the volume of liquid rise from 10cm (initial) to 80cm (final) for a period of 15mins.

10cm= 10*0.1088= 1.088 bbl

80cm= 80*0.1088= 8.704 bbl
V(received) = 8.704 – 1.088
= 7.616 (bbl)
T= 15 mins
=1440/ 15 = 96 (15mins per day)

Q = 7.616 * 96
= 731.136 bbl/day

Gauge tank

The gauge tank is a non-pressurized vessel used to

measure low flow rates or calibrateinferential or
positive-displacement meters. It has two
compartments, the transfer pump can empty one while
the other compartment is being filled. Sight glasses
with a scaleallow the change in volume to be
calculated since the physical dimensions of the Gauge Tank- Front
gaugetank are known.

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Safety features include flame arrestors on each vent of the gauge tank and a thief hatchin case the
vessel is accidentally over-pressured. A grounding strap is attached to thegauge tank to prevent a
buildup of static charges.
The gauge tank is never used when H2S is present in the effluent because gas releasedfrom the gauge
tank is vented to atmosphere and would endanger all personnel. Gauge Tank- Rear

Atmospheric gauge tank specification

Transfer Pumps

It is necessary to empty one compartment of the gauge tank as the other is being filled; a transfer pump,
connected to the gauge tank outlet, is used. Generally, the pump is electrically driven, but diesel-driven
pumps are also available. If the oil must be reinjected from the separator into an existing flowline, a high
capacity, high-pressure transfer pump is used.

Other uses of transfer pumps include pressure boosting when there is insufficient pressure to achieve
atomization at the burner.

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This sections describes the different types of pump used in the field:
 The centrifugal transfer pumps
 The screw type transfer pumps
 The gear type transfer pumps

Centrifugal transfer pump

The transfer pump unit consists of a centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor with a
Star/Delta starter. These pumps operate by an impellor system, as the fluid enters the pump an impellor
pushes the fluid outward where it leaves the pump. These are normally low pressure pumping systems,
with a high volume rate.



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Positive Displacement Pumps

Reciprocating – using a piston system to push the fluid out. These are very high pressure pumps and
commonly used for pressure testing and chemical injection.

What is the important difference between a centrifugal pump and a positive displacement pump?

The positive displacement pump must always have the suction open! If not, then the pressure inside the
pump will build up instantaneously and can blow the seal on the pump.

NOTE: Always make sure that the discharge flow path from the pump is open. Positive displacement
pumps can build up very high pressures and could cause at the minimum discharge to the
atmosphere, or it could prove FATAL.

Gear/Lobe pumps

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These pumps use a set of gears to push the fluid through the pump. They are high pressure but lower
volume pumps.


Screw pumps
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The screw action of the pump pushes the fluid through the pump and out the discharge. Again this is a
high pressure pump and can discharge much more fluid than the gear or lobe pumps.

Screw Pump


Diaphragm Pumps

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Commonly used to transfer fluids from the Calibration Tanks to flare or to stock tanks, transfer of diesel
to DG’s, pumping of fluid into the waste pit.

Wilden Pump

Burners and Booms

Burner Operations
Technicians to ensure all valves on the burner
heads are open for the required flow rate and
that all test plugs have been removed after
pressure testing.Authorized work permits must
be obtained prior to operations on either burner
i.e., Hot work and over the side work
permits.Appropriate safety equipment should be worn as per the installation safety

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procedures.Ensure with O.I.M that all the rigs ancillary equipment is covered and protected
from water and heat radiation.

Note: For clarification purposes the burners will be termed as port and starboard. In these
procedures all burning and flaring operations will initially refer to as commencing through the
port burner.

Startup procedures for operation of burners

a) Determine the prevailing wind direction and select the burner that will burn away
from the rig. The installation control room should clarify this. The procedure from
here on will pertain to the port burner unless stated otherwise.
b) Inform Control room/Barge master that burner operations are about to commence
and from which burner. Make a P.A announcement to inform all personnel of the
hazardous operations about to be performed.
Communication channels to the control room must be maintained at all times, via
portable radios.
c) Set the burner so that the wind blows from the rear, which in turn will allow the
flame to burn directly out of the burner heads, effecting better combustion.
d) Check the route of the flow from the choke manifold making sure all appropriate
valves on this route are open to the port burner. The gas and oil diverter valves to
the starboard burner must be closed) Open propane supply and ignite the pilot
f) Start the remote air compressors and open the valves on the air diverter manifold,
directing the flow of air to the port burner.

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g) Advise the drill floor/control room to turn on the water for the burner cooling rings
and rig cooling curtains. Burner Head
Note: Only a small volume of water should be diverted to the burner rings until the
effluent has ignited then adjust accordingly to maximize the combustion efficiency.

Procedures for changing over booms

Note: For clarification purposes the port burner and its ancillary equipment are in the
meantime still operational. The changeover will be to the starboard burner. (Oil and
gas are both being flared off).

a) Inform the Control room/Barge master that the direction of flaring requires
changing and that the burner booms are about to be changed.
b) If necessary set the burner so that the wind blows from the rear of the burner as
detailed in the startup operations.
c) Ensure that the required burner head oil valves are open. This will have been done
prior to the start up.
Open the propane supply to the starboard burner and ignite the pilot lights.
d) Ensure the air valves on the burner head are open. This should have been done prior
to start up. Open valve on the air diverter manifold to the starboard burner.
Note: At this point the air is still being supplied to the port burner.
e) Notify the Drill floor/Control room for the water to be turned on to the burner
cooling rings and rig cooling curtains. Only a small volume of water is required
initially to the burner cooling rings until the effluent has ignited, then adjust
accordingly to optimize combustion efficiency.
f) A technician should be positioned directly at the boom area with a radio,
maintaining contact with the technician at the diverter manifolds as the changeover

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procedure is being performed. Maintaining communication links and changing

over as follows will result in a smooth and efficient operation without causing any
adverse pressure effects upstream in the system. Open the starboard burner
oil diverter valve. Once the effluent is burning at the starboard burner, proceed to
open the starboard gas diverter valve.Close the port gas diverter valve when the
starboard gas flare has been lit.Close the port oil diverter valve.
g) Close the port air diverter valve isolating the air and commence with the following
shutdown procedures.The air compressors must continue supplying air to the
starboard burner.
Burner shutdown.

a) Once the well is closed in, allow the oil and gas lines to the burner to de-pressurize,
and the flare to extinguish.
b) Do not isolate the propane to the pilots until all the effluent is completely burnt off.
c) Upon completion of burning turn off the propane, air and water - in that sequence.
This will prevent any fallout of burning hydrocarbon droplets into the sea.
d) Do not close all gas and oil diverter valves to the burners. A route must be on-line in
the event of any emergency venting.

Features and Benefits

Burners have the following features and benefits:
 Different types of burners for burning oil, oil-base mud, or foam
 The oil burner is available with one or several combustion heads to accommodate the
expected flow rate
 Atomizers to break the effluent into very fine droplets for efficient burning
 Remotely controlled pilot lights

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 Heads which can be manually or pneumatically oriented, depending on the prevailing

 Water rings on every combustion head to spray water into the flame, improving the
combustion and reducing the heat radiation (dragon series only).

Booms have these principal features:

 They are made of modular sections and are available in two different lengths
 They permit access to the burners
 They can be oriented horizontally and vertically
 They contain all the necessary piping for the burners.
Worldwide, burners are used for the following applications:
 Onshore and offshore well testing
 Well cleanup
 Waste disposal
 Disposal of oil-base mud
 Disposal of foam during stimulation jobs
 Safety on drilling rigs in case of kick.
Burners also have unusual applications such as
burning the high viscosity oil from a sunken tanker or
burning the emulsion oil collected on beaches after
severe pollution.

Flare Stack
The only other piece of equipment that you will not
see on an offshore package is the
Flare Stack. Superior uses a flare stack which can be
mobilized and used in different locations for land

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Vertical Flare Stack

Flame Arrester

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Flame Arrester

Flame arresters are passive, mechanical device installed in a flammable vapour piping system. The
arresters' functions are: (1) to allow the passage of vapour undernormal operating conditions and (2) to
stop and extinguish any flame frontpropagating through the flammable vapour/air mixture under
emergency conditions.Stopping the flame protects the equipment located in the piping system, from
thecatastrophic damage that may result from an uncontrolled ignition. A variety ofarrester designs are
available. The choice of a proper arrester depends on factorssuch as the location of the arrester with
respect to the ignition source and theflammable properties of the vapour/air mixture.

Compressors and Hoses

About the Air Supply
Why is an air supply necessary in Well Testing?

The air supply provides three very important functions.

• Provides air to operate the ESD (Emergency Shutdown) system.

• Provides air to operate the control instrumentation.
• Provides air to facilitate proper burn at the Oil burners.

Air supply is often taken for granted, someone else is controlling that supply and therefore does not
need be watched.

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On many occasions two different air supplies are used:

• Rig air – to run ESD and instrumentation
• Compressors – to supply air to burners and also may have to be used to supply air for

Supply pressure from both these sources will be within the range of 100psi to 150psi. They supply small
amounts of air to 1000’s of scf/m

What is a Compressor?

A compressor is a machine that is used to increase the pressure of gas. The earliest compressors were
bellows, used by blacksmiths to intensify the heat in their furnaces. The first industrial compressors
were simple, reciprocating piston-driven machines powered by a water wheel.

A modern industrial compressed air system is composed of several major sub-systems and many sub-
components. Major sub-systems include the compressor, prime mover, controls, treatment equipment
and accessories and the distribution system. The compressor is the mechanical device that takes in
ambient air and increases its pressure. The prime mover powers the compressor. Controls serve to
regulate the amount of compressed air being produced. The treatment equipment removes
contaminant from the compressed air, and accessories keep the system operating properly. Distribution
systems are analogous to wiring in the electrical world – they transport compressed air to where it is

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Rig Air Supply

On many off-shore jobs rig air supply is readily available for use and can be piped into our system to
supply air for ESD systems and Instrumentation. It is important to realize that most rig air supplies will
be wet, that is moisture will be present in the air. Removal of this moisture is important as this can
cause instrumentation/ESD systems to malfunction.

It is therefore advisable to fit an air drier before the supply is used. This will minimize the amount of
moisture into the equipment. Moisture is also responsible for deterioration of the equipment, rust
forming etc. With the air drier should also
be a filter to remove any particles that are
entrained in the air.

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Example of small air Drier

used with rig supply air

Compressors Air Supply

Compressors are mainly used to supply air to the burners. In certain circumstances they will also be
used to supply air to both instrumentation and ESD systems. Most of the modern compressors will be
fitted with upstream filters, moisture traps and downstream filters with moisture traps. Even so if this
air is to be used for instruments or ESD
purposes then air driers must be fitted
before connection to the systems.

In certain circumstances it is imperative

that proper air driers are fitted after the
compressor. When temperatures
are well below zero then an air drier must be

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fitted. This will considerably reduce the amount of moisture in the air and stop freezing in the lines. If
freezing occurs then instrumentation will shut down. Even worse there is also the possibility that the
ESD system will not function properly.

Full air dryer system.

Air for the burner does not require any additional treatment, but should be blown all the way to the
burner before use, to check that there are no blockages.

Instrumentation should be periodically checked for the retention of water in the instruments and blown
down where necessary.

Air Distribution Systems

It is important to work out the number of compressors required to give a clean burn at the burner
nozzles. Once this is established then we must carefully work out the size of hose require to feed this

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air. It is easily possible to use hoses which will not supply sufficient scfm to the burners. You must also
take into account pressure drops along the length of the hoses.

When supplying air to instrumentation and ESD loops the requirement for large bore pipework is not
necessary. The supply requirements are very small. But it is important that regulation of this supply is
adhered to stringently. Many of the instruments will necessitate a different supply pressure and
therefore fitting of pressure regulators must be done with care. These regulators should be placed next
to the equipment or on the equipment and will therefore eliminate the possibility for confusion. Supply
pressure to instrumentation/ESD systems should be checked before use.

Commonly 35psi is used on most of our equipment, but we have on many occasions dropped this
pressure for other instruments associated with ESD systems which require the maximum pressure at

After reading this section I hope that you realize how important it is to our job that air is constantly
monitored and maintained.

Air compressors are normally used to supply the air necessary for the burner to give a clean burn. They
can put out as much as 750 scf/min at 100 psi. They may also if necessary be used to supply air to the
instrumentation and ESD system.

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Hoses must be of the right size to supply enough air to the desired equipment. They should be
meticulously inspected before use.

Air Compressor

NOTE: Air pressure- Danger (even 100 psi is enough to cause severe injury)

The air compressor is small and only used for instrument air. There is a small compressor which tops up
a vessel to a maximum pressure, normally around 130 psi. Even if the compressor were to shut down
there should be enough air in the vessel to last for a short period of time.

Surface Equipment Pressure Testing Procedures


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Check pressure test program test pressure against the working pressure rating of the
components to be pressure tested. No pressure test are to exceed the working pressure of a
component, if a such should occur investigations have to be done to verify if the pressure have
exceed the yield limit of the component.

Prior to pressure testing, all personnel should be made aware that hazardous operations are
about to commence. A work permit should be obtained. The area where pressure testing is to
be carried out should be cordoned off and warning signs posted. Only personnel essential to
the operation should be present within the hazardous area. All pressure tests will be
performed by the test pump and recorded on a chart recorder. When testing the flow line from
rig floor to the testing area, lines of communication should be open, usually hand held radios,
between pressure testing areas and drill floor, so that in the event of problems arising the
pressure can be bled off as quickly as possible, thereby reducing the risk of accident and injury.

Initially all ESD pressure pilots should be isolated until testing is completed.


Flushing the system with sea water to displace air.

Ensure system is free from trapped air. Starting with ca. 20 bar, pressure should thereafter be
raised carefully to test pressure. Record test pressure for 10 minutes.

Surface lines used for testing must be secured. An announcement that pressure testing is
about to commence should be made and non-essential personnel moved to a safe area.
Warning signs should be posted.

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Surface Test Equipment

1. Flush all lines and equipment through the flow line, heat exchanger, separator, oil
manifold and both burners making sure that the separator is completely filled and
that there is a visible water level in the tanks. Have needle valves open on all high
points on separator, steam heat exchanger and piping while flushing.

Note: Ensure that the valve on the rig diverter line is closed and clearly marked.

2. Close the oil line valves on both burner atomizers and the gas line valves close to the
boom foot. Make sure that the tanks and transfer pumps are isolated at the oil
manifold and pressure the complete surface installation slowly to 69 bar.

3. Close the valves on the oil lines to both burners and pressure test against these
valves to 69 bar.

4. Close the valves on gas line and oil line for both burners, and pressure test against
these valves to 69 bar.

5. Close the valves on the oil manifold and pressure test against these to 69 bar.

6. Close the separator gas outlet and bypass valves, oil bypass, outlet valves, water
outlet valve and pressure test the separator to 83 bar.

Note: It is important not to exceed this pressure due to the possibility of opening the
separator safety valve. If there is doubt as to the accuracy of the pump gauges, the

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gauges on the separator should be used. In this case the pump operator must
closely follow the instructions of Schlumberger.

7. Close the separator inlet valve and pressure test to 100 bar.

8. Close the steam heat exchanger outlet and bypass valves and pressure test the low-
pressure coil to 150 bar.

9. Install a blind choke, open the heat exchanger outlet valve, close valves downstream
on the choke manifold and test to 150 bar.

Note: The steam heat exchanger low pressure coil outlet valve shall be locked in
open position after pressure testing and remain open for the duration of the test.

10. Close the steam heat exchanger inlet valve and valves upstream on the choke
manifold and pressure to test pressure.
Cold Weather Contingencies

The following precautions shall be taken if temperatures below 0 anticipated during the
preparation phase or during the actual test.

1. All pressure testing of surface equipment to be performed with 20/80% glycol/water

2. Surface lines to be drained immediately after successful pressure test. This shall
include drains on low point on gas line to the burner booms.
3. Flush installation with compressed air until free from pressure testing fluid.

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Parker and Swagelok Fittings

Although Parker and Swagelok Fittings may look the same you should not in any
circumstances mix these fittings.

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Swagelok Fittings

Swagelok tube fittings are made to exacting tolerances. Without such close tolerances, the
interaction of the nut, two ferrules, and body would not be successful. If good quality tubing is
used with Swagelok tube fittings, and installation instructions are followed, successful
connections will result.

Swagelok tube fittings come in many different sizes from ¼” to 1” and 6mm to 25mm.

Swagelok tube fittings come to you completely assembled, finger-tight and ready for immediate
use. Disassembly before use is unnecessary and can result in dirt or foreign material getting
into the fitting which can interfere with sealing.

These fitting are installed in three easy steps.

Step 1
Simply insert the tubing into the Swagelok tube fitting. Make sure that the tubing rests firmly
on the shoulder of the fitting and that the nut is finger-tight.

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Step 2
Before tightening the Swagelok nut, scribe the nut at the 6 o’clock position.

Step 3
While holding the fitting body steady with a backup wrench, tighten the nut 1 1/4 turns. A
Watch the scribe mark, make one complete revolution, and continue to
the 9 o’clock position. By scribing the nut at the 6 o’clock position, there will

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be no doubt as to the starting position. When the nut is tightened 1 1/4 turns to the 9 o’clock
position, you can easily see that the fitting has been properly tightened.
Swagelok gap inspection gages assure the installer or inspector that a fitting has been
sufficiently tightened À For 1/16, 1/8 and 3/16 in.; 2, 3, and 4 mm size tube fittings, tighten 3/4
turn from finger-tight.

Gap Inspection Gauges

Swagelok gap inspection gages are designed to assure the installer or inspector that a fitting has
been sufficiently pulled up into the fitting body on initial installation. They are particularly
applicable to systems where fittings are installed in difficult or inaccessible locations or systems
where insufficient pull-up could cause potentially dangerous or expensive consequences.

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Consistent gage ability ensures added safety and reliability. It is a Swagelok tube fitting feature
that allows easy inspection for sufficient pull-up, before a system is pressurised.
Most Swagelok tube fittings are gaugeable. Gap inspection gages are accurate only when all
components are Swagelok components.

Size and type of identification gauges available

for multiple sizes

This gage works on five
sizes of Swagelok tube fittings: 1/4, 3/8, and 1/2in.; 6 and 12 mm.
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Ordering Number: MS-IG-468

Ordering Number: MS-IG-612M multiple metric sizes

This gage works on four metric sizes of
Swagelok tube fittings:
6, 8, 10, and 12 mm.

For individual gauge sizes see the chart below:

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Retightening Instructions
Often fittings have to be re-used and the following steps will provide you with a leak proof seal.
Step 1
Fitting is shown in the disconnected position.

Step 2

Insert tubing with preswaged ferrules into fitting body until front ferrule seats.

Step 3

Tighten nut by hand. Rotate nut to the original position with a wrench. An increase in resistance
will be encountered at the original position. Then tighten slightly with the wrench. Smaller tube
sizes will take less tightening to reach the original position, while

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larger tube sizes will require more tightening. The wall thickness will also have an effect on
The Swagelok gap inspection gage is not intended to be used when the fitting is retightened.

Preswaging Instructions
It is sometimes preferable to preswage the fittings before connection due to working in
cramped conditions or maybe working at height. The following steps should be carried out.
Step 1
Assemble Swagelok nut and ferrules to preswaging tool or fitting. Insert tubing. Make sure the
tubing rests firmly on the shoulder of the tool and the nut is finger-tight.
Tighten nut 1 1/4 turns.

Step 2
Loosen the nut and remove the tubing with preswaged ferrules from the preswaging tool.

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Step 3
The connection can now be made by following the Retightening Instructions shown on previous
Although a preswaging tool can be used many times, it does have a finite life. After frequent
use, ask your Swagelok representative to have it checked.
À For 1/16, 1/8 and 3/16 in.; 2, 3, and 4 mm size tube fittings, tighten 3/4 turn from finger-tight.

Fitting Instruction for other types of swagelok connections and fittings

Port Connectors
1. Remove nut and ferrules from the first of the two Swagelok ports to be connected.
2. Slip nut only (no ferrules) over the machined ferrule end of port connector.
3. Insert port connector into Swagelok Port 1 and finger tighten the nut.
4. Tighten with wrench 1/4 turn only. (For 1/16, 1/8, and 3/16 in.; 2, 3, and 4 mm size tube
fittings, tighten 1/8 turn from finger-tight.) Subsequent connections are made from the finger-
tight position by slightly tightening the nut with a wrench.

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5. Insert other end of port connector into Swagelok Port 2 until bottomed, and tighten nut 1
1/4 turns from finger-tight using normal Swagelok nut and ferrules. For 1/16, 1/8, and 3/16 in.;
2, 3, and 4 mm tube fittings, tighten 3/4 turn from finger-tight.

Tighten plug with wrench 1/4 turn from finger-tight position.
For 1/16, 1/8, and 3/16 in.; 2, 3, and 4 mm tube fittings,
tighten 1/8 turn from finger-tight.
For over 1 in. and 25 mm, tighten plug with wrench 1/4 turn
from finger-tight.
Make subsequent connections by slightly tightening with wrench after snugging the nut by

Swagelok to AN Adaptor
Tighten the Swagelok nut by hand. Rotate the nut with a wrench until an increase in resistance
is encountered. Then tighten slightly with the wrench.
For nylon fittings, see the Assembly Instructions card shipped with each fitting.

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SAE/MS Straight Thread – Positionable Elbows and Tees

1. Lubricate O-ring with a lubricant compatible with the system fluid, environment, and O-ring
material. A (Standard O-ring material is fluorocarbon FKM. Other O-ring materials are also
available, upon request.)
2. Turn the fitting into the straight thread boss until the metal back-up washer contacts the face
of the boss.
3. Position the fitting by backing it out (not more than one turn counterclockwise) until the
Swageloktube fitting end is oriented in the proper direction.
4. Hold the wrench pad with a backup wrench and tighten the locknut until the washer is
against the face of the boss.
NOTE: SAE/MS positionable elbows and tees are compatible with J1926, MS16142, or JIC
female straight thread O-ring bosses. O-rings are coated with a thin film of silicone based

Swagelok Adaptors
When installing pipe elbows or tees, it is often difficult to align the fitting with the desired run.
When pipe threads are tightly engaged, an angle fitting is often pointing in the wrong direction
for the tubing run. Loosening the pipe connection means

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leakage at the pipe thread. By using Swagelok tube adapters in conjunction with union elbows
or tees, these difficulties can be totally avoided.
Adapters can save money while providing greater in-system versatility.
NOTE: Swagelok adapters, reducers, and port connectors are to be used ONLY in Swagelok
tube fittings. Use in fittings made by other manufacturers may result in failure.

Step 1. To facilitate the installation of adapter fittings, it is advantageous to first connect the
end opposite the tube adapter end. This will eliminate alignment
problems which are often encountered with fittings such as male run or branch tees.

Step 2. Place the Swagelok tube fitting over the adapter fitting. Make sure that the adapter
fitting rests firmly on the shoulder of the Swagelok fitting and that the nut is

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Step 3. Before tightening the Swagelok nut, scribe the nut at the 6 o’clock position.
Now, while holding the Swagelok fitting body steady with a backup wrench, tighten the nut 1
1/4 turns. A Watch the scribe mark, make one complete revolution, and continue to the 9
o’clock position. For 1/16, 1/8, and 3/16 in.; 2, 3, and 4 mm size tube fittings, tighten 3/4 turn
from finger-tight.

How to use Swagelok Adaptors and Reducers

(1 1/4, 1 1/2, and 2 in.; 28, 30, 32, and 38 mm)
These adapters and reducers are furnished with nuts and preswaged ferrules. This feature adds
the benefits of increased reliability and safety to the already versatile adapter line.

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For male and female elbows, or connections to SAE/MS straight thread ports, use a union
elbow with male, female, or straight thread adapter as shown.
Adapters can also be used to make male run, male branch, female run, and female branch tees
when used in conjunction with union tees. Benefits are smaller and more flexible inventories
plus an improved ability to orient elbows and tees to the proper direction without thread

Installation Instructions for Swagelok Adaptors and Reducers

(1 1/4, 1 1/2, and 2 in.; 28, 30, 32, and 38 mm)
To install reducers with Swagelok nuts and preswaged ferrules,
tighten with wrench 1/2 turn after snugging nut by hand.

Tubing Installation

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Properly selected tubing combined with the quality of Swagelok tube fittings will give you leak-
free systems. Contact your Swagelok representative for more information on Swagelok tubing.

When installing fittings near tube bends, there must be a sufficient length of straight
tubing to allow the tube to be bottomed in the Swagelok tube fitting.

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Copper Tubing (Fractional)

1. Based on ultimate tensile strength 30 000 psi (206 700 kPa). For metal temperatures -20° to
100°F (-29° to 37°C).2
2. Allowable working pressure loads calculated from S values (6000 psi – 41 300 kPa) as
specified by ANSI B31.3 code. Design factor 5:1

Carbon Steel Tubing (Fractional)

1. Soft annealed seamless carbon steel hydraulic tubing ASTM A179 or equivalent.
2. Allowable working pressure loads based equations from ANSI B31.3 using a Stress (S) value
of 15 700 psi (108,2 MPa) for temperature from -20° to 100°F (-28° to 40°C).
3. 3:1 design factor based on ultimate tensile s strength 47 000 psi (323,8 MPa).

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Stainless Steel Tubing (Fractional)

1. Fully annealed 304 or 316 (seamless or welded and drawn) stainless steel tubing ASTM A269
or equivalent.
2. Allowable working pressure loads based on equations from ANSI B31.3 using a Stress (S)
value of 20 000 psi (137,8 MPa) for temperature from -20° to 100°F (-28° to 40°C).
3. .75:1 design factor based on ultimate tensile s strength 75 000 psi (516,7 MPa).

For Seamless Tubing

NOTE: For welded and drawn tubing, a derating factor must be applied for weld integrity. For
double welded tubing, multiply pressure rating by 0.85 for single welded tubing multiply
pressure rating by 0.80.

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Carbon Steel Tubing (Metric)

1. Soft annealed carbon steel hydraulic tubing. DIN 2391 or equivalent.
2. Allowable working pressure loads based on equations from ANSI B31.3 using a Stress (S)
value of 113 MPa (16 400 psi) for temperature from-28° to 40°C (-20° to 100°F).
3. 3:1 design factor based on ultimate tensile strength of 340 MPa (49 300 psi).

Stainless Steel Tubing (Metric)

1. Fully annealed seamless austenitic stainless steel tubing DIN 2462 (D4, T4 tolerance 3 to 12
mm; D4, T3 tolerance, 14 to 38 mm) or equivalent.
2. Allowable working pressure loads based on equations from ANSI B31.3 using a Stress (S)
value of 137.8 MPa (20 000 psi) for temperature from -28° to 40°C (-20° to 100°F).
3. 3,75:1 Design factor based on ultimate tensile strength 516.7 MPa (75 000 psi).
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Safety Considerations
1. Do not bleed system by loosening fitting nut or fitting plug.
2. Do not make up and tighten fittings when system is pressurized.
3. Use Swagelok gap inspection gage to assure the installer or inspector that a fitting has been
sufficiently tightened.
4. Always use proper thread lubricants and sealants on tapered pipe threads.
5. Avoid combining or mixing materials or fitting components from various manufacturers –
tubing, ferrules, nuts and fitting bodies.
6. Never turn fitting body. Instead, hold fitting body and turn nut.
7. Never disassemble new or unused fittings.
8. Use only long reducers in female Swagelok ports.

Additional tubing considerations:

1. Metal tubing material should be softer than fitting material. For example: stainless steel
tubing should not be used with brass fittings.
2. When tubing and fittings are made of the same material, tubing must be fully annealed.
3. Always use an insert with extremely soft or pliable plastic tubing.
4. Extremes of wall thickness should always be checked against fitting manufacturer’s
suggested minimum and maximum wall thickness limitations.
5. Surface finish is very important to proper sealing. Tubing with any kind of depression,
scratch, raised portion, or other surface defect may be difficult to
seal, particularly in gas service.
6. Tubing that is oval, that will not easily fit through fitting nuts, ferrules, and bodies, should
never be forced into the fitting.

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Statement from Swagelok
Manufacturers of competitive tube fittings often claim that their components are
interchangeable with Swagelok tube fitting components. We believe that interchanging and
intermixing tube fitting components of different designs, or made by different manufacturers,
can result in leaks and tube slippage in a percentage of cases. We also believe this practice can
be dangerous.
Leak-tight seals that will withstand high pressure, vibration, vacuums, and temperature changes
depend upon close tolerances and consistent, exacting quality control in conjunction with good
principles. The full value we build into Swagelok tube fittings is lost when components from
other manufacturers are interchanged or intermixed with ours. We believe that any
manufacturer’s fitting performs best when only that manufacturer’s components are used in its

We do not believe that a tube fitting made up by interchanging and intermixing components
of other manufacturers with Swagelok tube fitting components will perform to the high
standards of an all-Swagelok tube fitting.

Safe Component Selection

When selecting a component, the total system design must be considered to ensure safe,
trouble-free performance. Component function, material compatibility, adequate ratings,
proper installation, operation, and maintenance are the responsibilities of the system
designer and user.

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Caution: Do not mix or interchange parts with those of other


NPT Fittings

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Swagelok NPT come in many different shapes and sizes, above are only some of the variety
available. Expro will tend towards Stainless Steel fittings with a rating of 10,000psi up to ½”.
Larger than this is usually 5,000psi.
When fitting an NPT nipple into a NPT receptacle, then
the threads should first be checked for damage and clean
if necessary, using a wire brush. When using PFTE tape
three wraps is sufficient. On equipment the receptacle
should be gauged using a thread gauge.

This tool should never:

• Be forced into the receptacle

• Used to clean the internal threads (use a brush

and air)

• Be handled roughly, this is a precision instrument, any damage and the gauge is useless.

• Be stored unless separately and inside its tube.

• Be put away dry, always coat with anti-rust oil or grease.

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If the gauge should go in to far on the receptacle, then inform you supervisor immediately. DO
Ball Valve and Needle Valves

When fitting ball valves and needle valves, Check the following:

• Make sure that the valve is fully functional

• The NPT nipple or NPT receptacle is clean and undamaged

• Check the pressure rating of the valve is in line with the Maximum Working Pressure
that it is attached to.

• Use the same connection techniques as you would use for all NPT connections

• Always double valve when using for High Pressures.

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Parker Fittings
Parker Instrumentation Tube Fittings are supplied complete and ready to use. The ferrule(s)
swage onto the tube as it moves down the body seat creating a pressure/vacuum-tight seal on
both tube and body by the interface pressure and surface finish of mating components. The
Parker Suparcase® ferrule (back-ferrule only on A-LOK) creates a strong mechanical hold on the

Assembly and remake instructions

1. Parker instrument tube fittings are sold completely assembled and ready for immediate use.
Simply insert the tube as illustrated until it bottoms in the fitting body. (If the fitting is
disassembled, note that the small tapered end of the ferrule(s) go into the fitting body.)
2. Tighten nut finger tight. Then tighten nut with wrench an additional 1-1/4 turns indicated
below. Hold fitting body with a second wrench to prevent body from turning. It is helpful to
mark the nut to facilitate counting the number of turns.

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For maximum number of remakes, mark the fitting and nut before disassembly. Before
retightening, make sure the assembly has been inserted into the fitting until the ferrule
seats in the fitting. Retighten the nut by hand. Rotate the nut with a wrench to the original
position as indicated by the previous marks lining up. (A noticeable increase in mechanical
resistance will be felt indicating the ferrule is being re-sprung
into sealing position.)
Only after several remakes will it become necessary to advance the nut slightly past the original
position. This advance (indicated by B) need only be 10°-20° (less than 1/3 of a hex flat).

For Sizes above 16 (1"), the Parker IPD Hydraulic Presetting Tool or Rotary Wrench Tool
should be used. Cat. 4290-INST.

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Gauge Instructions
Parker also supply gauge measuring devices which allow accurate tightening of fittings.
1. From “finger tight” position, wrench 1-1/4 turns for 1/4" to 1" size fittings (6mm to 25mm)
(1/16", 1/8", 3/16", 2mm 3mm and 4mm size tube fittings only wrench 3/4 turn from finger
tight position). Hold fitting body hex with second wrench to prevent body from turning as you
tighten. It is a good idea to mark the nut (scribe or ink) to help you count the turns.
2. Now select the proper size inspection gauge and try to place it, as shown, between the nut
and the body hex. If gauge DOES NOT FIT AT ANY POINT between them, you
have correctly tightened the nut. If you can slip the gauge into the space, the fitting is not
properly made up, and you must repeat the assembly procedure.

Tubing Installation
Properly selected tubing combined with the quality of tube fittings will give you leak-free
When installing fittings near tube bends, there must be a sufficient length of straight
tubing to allow the tube to be bottomed in the tube fitting.

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Stainless Steel Tubing Sizes Imperial

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Stainless Steel Tubing Sizes Metric

Safety Considerations
• Do not bleed system by loosening fitting nut or fitting plug.
• Do not make up and tighten fittings when system is pressurized.
• Use gap inspection gages to assure the installer or inspector that a fitting has been
sufficiently tightened.
• Always use proper thread lubricants and sealants on tapered pipe threads.
• Avoid combining or mixing materials or fitting components from various manufacturers
– tubing, ferrules, nuts and fitting bodies.
• Never turn fitting body. Instead, hold fitting body and turn nut.
• Never disassemble new or unused fittings.
• Use only long reducers in female ports.

Additional tubing considerations:

1. Metal tubing material should be softer than fitting material. For example:
stainless steel tubing should not be used with brass fittings.
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2. When tubing and fittings are made of the same material, tubing must be fully
3. Always use an insert with extremely soft or pliable plastic tubing.
4. Extremes of wall thickness should always be checked against fitting
manufacturer’s suggested minimum and maximum wall thickness limitations.
5. Surface finish is very important to proper sealing. Tubing with any kind of
depression, scratch, raised portion, or other surface defect may be difficult to
seal, particularly in gas service.
6. Tubing that is oval, that will not easily fit through fitting nuts, ferrules, and
bodies, should never be forced into the fitting.

Hydrasun Fittings
EXPRO UK, buy most of their fittings from Hydrasun. They buy, Swagelok, Parker, Autoclave, JIC
and also Hydrasun’s own range of NPT fittings. These NPT fittings come up to the standard
required for the industry:
ANSI. B16.11 and BS.3799
They come under the same categories as any other manufacturers fittings and should be
treated so.


L3 L1

L1 – Distance
the fittings

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should go into receptacle by hand

L2 – Distance allowable to be screwed into place
L3 – Distance allowable for internal threads to be screwed in
L4 – Overall distance of threads
See chart below for distances.

N.B. Dim. L1 Dim. L2 Dim. L3 Dim. L4 Dia. E0 Dia. E1 Dia. E2 Dia. E3 Dia. D

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

6 4.102 6.7030 2.8219 9.9669 9.23315 9.48944 9.652 9.65662 10.267

8 5.786 10.205 4.2341 15.102 12.1257 12.4874 12.7635 11.8610 13.716
10 6.096 10.358 4.2341 15.255 15.5450 15.9260 16.1925 15.2806 17.145
15 8.128 13.555 5.4432 19.850 19.264 19.772 20.111 18.924 21.336
20 8.611 13.860 5.4432 20.154 24.579 25.117 25.445 24.238 26.670
25 10.160 17.343 6.6268 25.006 30.826 31.461 31.910 30.412 33.401
32 10.668 17.952 6.6268 25.615 39.551 40.217 40.673 39.137 42.164
40 10.668 18.376 6.6268 26.040 45.620 46.287 46.769 45.206 48.260
50 11.074 19.215 6.6268 26.878 57.633 58.325 58.834 57.219 60.325
65 17.322 29.892 6.3500 39.908 69.076 70.156 70.881 68.679 73.025
80 19.456 30.480 6.3500 41.495 84.851 86.067 86.756 84.455 88.900
100 21.437 33.020 6.3500 44.035 110.093 111.433 112.157 109.696 114.300
125 23.799 35.720 6.3500 46.736 136.925 138.412 135.157 136.523 141.300
150 24.333 35.417 6.3500 49.433 163.731 165.252 166.132 163.334 168.270
L1 - hand tight engagement length E0 - pitch dia. at start of ext. thread
L2 - is the effective thread length E1 - pitch dia. at position L1
L3 - wrench makeup - internal threads E2 - pitch dia. at position L2
L4 - overall length - external threads E3 - pitch dia. at position E3


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Autoclave Fittings
Fast, Positive Sealing for Pressures up to 15,000 psi* (1034 bar)

1. Cut tubing to length and deburr. Allow extra length for proper engagement (per table below).

2. Lubricate male threads. (Lubrication not necessary if tube nut has Bonded Dry-Film
Lubricant.) Slip gland and sleeve onto tubing.

Note: Be sure to remove gland and sleeve from components and slide them onto the tubing
before inserting the tubing into the components.
Make sure larger end of sleeve is toward gland.
Push tubing into valve or fitting until it bottoms. Ifprocess tolerable, a slight amount of inert
grease on the noseof the compression sleeve will improve sealability.


4. Note starting position of wrench. Tighten gland approximately 1-1/4 turns for the SW

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Complete Connection

The illustration below shows the condition of sleeve and tubing after completion of “sleeve
seating.” The sleeve has cut into the tubing as it moved forward into the tapered seat,
upsetting material ahead of it and establishing a shoulder on the tubing to provide positive
mechanical support for the tubing end-load. A properly seated sleeve cannot be displaced back
and forth along the tubing but may be rotated around the tubing.
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To reassemble a connection, insert tubing with sleeve and gland into valve or fitting. Tighten
gland “finger-tight”. Tighten gland with a wrench approximately 3/8 of a turn for a gastight seal.
After frequent reassemblies, it may take less than 3/8 turn to effect a gas-tight seal, and as little
as 1/8 of a turn may be sufficient.

Coning and Threading Installation

Manual Kit:
1. Fig. 1 Cut tubing to length and deburr. Allow extra length for proper engagement into the
connection as listed in Table 1. Allow an additional 1/16” (1.57 mm) each end for squaring off
the tube ends.
Note: Abrasive cutof wheels should not be used to cuttubing.

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2. Install the collet and collet nut into the bottom of the coning tool housing. Remove the cutter
support feed nut from the coning tool housing and install the cutters. This can be done by
backing out the four set screws in the cutter support.

Note: Wheninstalling new blades, be sure the blades are flat against the holder. There should be
no space between the blades and the holder.
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3. Fig. 2 Place the coning tool housing (or optional support arm), without the feed nut/cutter
support assembly, in a vice. The vice should be equipped with soft jaws, and the housing should
be placed in the vice to allow lubricant to flow to the cutters and cone.

4. Fig. 2 Slide the tubing through the collet until the end of the tube appears in the coning tool
housing window. Line the end of the tube with the edge of the window and tighten the collet
nut firmly in place using the collet nut wrench.

5. Fig. 3 Install the feed nut/cutter support assembly into the coning tool housing. Rotate the
feed nut clockwise until the top of the cutters just contact the top of the tube. Do not rotate
the feed nut any further at this point.

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6. Fig. 3 Apply cutting oil through the lubricant opening in the end of the cutter holder. A
medium weight high sulphur content cutting fluid is recommended. Use the cutting oil freely
during the coning operation.

a. Note the position of the feed nut in relation to the undercut of the thread on the coning tool
housing. This can be used to gauge the amount of feed nut travel to properly cone the tube.
The amount of travel is shown in Table 2 and is labeled on the graphic as “Cone Length”. Note:
An additional1/16” (1.57 mm) further coning will beneeded to square the end of the tube.

b. Another method to determine proper cone length is to count the number of turns of the feed
nut. The number of turns is listed in Table 2 under the heading “Number of Turns”. This
includes enough advancement of the feed nut to face off the tube. This assumes the tube is cut
to length in accordance with these instructions.

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8. Rotate the handle in a clockwise direction while simultaneously slowly turning the feed nut
in a clockwise direction. Rotate the feed nut slowly andevenly to smoothly cone the tube.
Loosen collet nut, remove tubing and visuallyinspect the cone. Use deburring tool to remove
any burr on inside edgeof tube after coning.

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9. Fig. 4 Clamp the tubing in a soft jaw vice. Do not over tighten. Slide the threading tool over
the tube through the guide bushing.

10. Apply a medium weight, high sulphur cutting oil to threading area.

11. Apply pressure to the top of the threading tool to start the cutting action. The threads are
left handed, so turn the threader counterclockwise to thread the tube. The threading tool may
need to be periodically rotated clockwise to break and discharge metal chips. Apply lubricant
freely during the threading process.
Note: Lettering on diefaces toward guide bushing.

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12. Continue to rotate die holder counterclockwise while applying cutting oil generously
throughout the process until threads of the following lengths have been cut.

13. After tube is coned, threaded and deburred, check for proper thread fit and length with a
new collar of the proper size. Note: Remember to flush all tubingprior to installation with a fluid
that is compatible with the process fluid beingused.
Assembly and Makeup of Connection
1. Lubricate male threads of gland with a metal based thread lubricant.✝ Slip gland on tubing as
shown and thread collar on tubing until one to two threads are exposed between collar and
✝ Anti-Seize Lubricant: P-3580

2. A small amount of process tolerable lubricant, such as silicone grease, on the cone tip will
help with the sealing process. Insert tubing in connection, engage gland and tighten “finger

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3. Tighten gland with torque wrench to specified values on page 33. When tightening, the use
of an additional wrench is recommended to hold the fitting.

Up to 20,000 psi only Up to 30,000 psi (Some can actually go higher

than this, but again as a rule:

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Shown below are the ranges of types of Autoclave connector that can be used.
(The examples shown are High Pressure Autoclave connections)

30,000 Psi Depend on insert Depend on Tubing

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JIC Fittings and Hoses

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You can purchase these fittings and hoses from the main suppliers; they must be accompanied
by the relevant certification.
Fittings come in different sizes and connections from picture one above which is a double end
JIC fitting in stainless to low pressure brass fittings (Expro will tend towards using Stainless Steel
with a MWP of 10,000 psi.
Hoses can be made up to different pressures. The maximum working pressure should be
printed along the hose for identification.

Pressure Rating

CAUTION: Make sure that the fittings and hoses match up for their respective pressure ratings.

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It is possible to train people to make up high pressure hoses. This should only be done by
qualified persons. The following equipment is one of the available tools to enable you to crimp
your own hoses together.

By inserting the right size of die for the fitting into the Hydraulic Crimping machine you can use
the hand pump to exert the force necessary (as recommended by the manufacturer) to crimp
fitting to hose. Do not mix hose and fitting sizes.

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BSPP Fittings and Hoses

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BSPP fittings are normally used in two areas within the company. Widely used in Subsea for the
connection from Autoclave to BSPP and then to hose and back to Autoclave, but used for many
other operations across the industry. This is used during high pressure testing.

They also use this type of connection with Sampling.

Usually a High pressure BSP Fitting (shown above) used with a hose would have a MWP of
30,000psi, but the hose is normally of a lesser pressure so that would de-rate the entire system.
However, ultimately BSP fittings come in varying pressure ratings so ALWAYS CHECK BY

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BSP Threads Major

Thread Major Minor Tapping
Nominal Per Diameter
Pitch Diameter Diameter Drill
Size Inch (approx in
(inches) (inches) (inches) Size
(inches) (TPI) mm)

Drill G
1/16 28 0.0357 0.304 7.7 0.2583

1/8 28 0.0357 0.383 9.7 0.3372

1/4 19 0.0526 0.518 13.2 0.4546

3/8 19 0.0526 0.656 16.7 0.5886

3/4 in.
1/2 14 0.0714 0.825 21 0.7336 (19.05

21 mm
5/8 14 0.0714 0.902 22.9 0.8186 (0.8268

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3/4 14 0.0714 1.041 26.5 0.9496

7/8 14 0.0714 1.189 30.2 1.0976

1 11 0.0909 1.309 33.2 1.1926

Hoses come from the manufacturer preswaged.

Quick Connect Couplers

There are many different types of Quick

Connect Couplers and with many different
pressure ranges, but most work with the
same operation principle as each other:

• Normally both male and female ends will have its own internal check valve to stop
pressure release if union accidently disconnected.

• These check valves will automatically open when both parts mated to allow flow
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• The Gland sleeve has to be retracted back in order to release the Latch Dogs to allow
male end to enter.

• After Male end is connected, the Gland Sleeve is then released and under spring
pressure will impinge on the latch dogs forcing them into the male end recess, thus
securing the attachment

How Does a Generator Create Electricity? How Generators Work

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Generators are useful appliances that supply electrical power during a power outage and p
business operations. Generators are available in different electrical and physical configurat
sections, we will look at how a generator functions, the main components of a generator, an
electrical power in residential and industrial applications.
How does a generator work?

An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy obtained from an exte
important to understand that a generator does not actually ‘create’ electrical energy. Ins
force the movement of electric charges present in the wire of its windings through an e
constitutes the output electric current supplied by the generator. This mechanism can
analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but does not actually ‘create’ th
The modern-day generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered
that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical conduct
magnetic field. This movement creates a voltage difference between the two ends of the w
electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current.

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Main components of a generator

The main components of an electric generator can be broadly classified as follows (refer to i
(1) Engine
(2) Alternator
(3) Fuel System
(4) Voltage Regulator
(5) Cooling and Exh
(8) Control Panel
(9) Main Assembly / Frame

A description of the main components of a generator is given below.

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(1) Engine

The engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to the generator. The size of the e
output the generator can supply. There are several factors that you need to keep in min
manufacturer of the engine should be consulted to obtain full engine operation specification

(a) Type of Fuel Used – Generator engines operate on a variety of fuels such as diesel, gasol
gas. Smaller engines usually operate on gasoline while larger engines run on diesel, liquid p
can also operate on a dual feed of both diesel and gas in a bi-fuel operation mode.

(b) Overhead Valve (OHV) Engines versus non-OHV Engines – OHV engines differ from othe
engine are located in the head of the engine’s cylinder as opposed to being mounted on th
over other engines such as:

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• Compact design
• Simpler operation mechanism
• Durability
• User-friendly in operations
• Low noise during operations
• Low emission levels
However, OHV-engines are also more expensive than other engines.

(c) Cast Iron Sleeve (CIS) in Engine Cylinder – The CIS is a lining in the cylinder of the engin
the engine. Most OHV-engines are equipped with CIS but it is essential to check for this fe
expensive feature but it plays an important role in engine durability especially if you need to

(2) Alternator

The alternator, also known as the ‘genhead’, is the part of the generator that produces the
by the engine. It contains an assembly of stationary and moving parts encased in a housi
movement between the magnetic and electric fields, which in turn generates electricity.

(a) Stator – This is the stationary component. It contains a set of electrical conductors woun

(b) Rotor / Armature – This is the moving component that produces a rotating magnetic field

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(is) By induction – These are known as brushless alternators and are usually used in large ge
(ii) By permanent magnets – This is common in small alternator units.
(iii) By using an exciter – An exciter is a small source of direct current (DC) that energizes t
and brushes.
The rotor generates a moving magnetic field around the stator, which induces a voltage
produces the alternating current (AC) output of the generator.
The following are the factors that you need to keep in mind while assessing the alternator o
(a) Metal versus Plastic Housing – An all-metal design ensures durability of the alternator. P
moving parts of the alternator to be exposed. This increases wear and tear and more import

(b) Ball Bearings versus Needle Bearings – Ball bearings are preferred and last longer.

(c) Brushless Design – An alternator that does not use brushes requires less maintenance an

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(3) Fuel System

The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational for 6 to 8 hou
the fuel tank is a part of the generator’s skid base or is mounted on top of the generator fra
to erect and install an external fuel tank. All such installations are subject to the approval of
further details regarding fuel tanks for generators.
Common features of the fuel system include the following:

(a) Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine – The supply line directs fuel from the tank to
engine to the tank.

(b) Ventilation pipe for fuel tank – The fuel tank has a ventilation pipe to prevent the build-u
of the tank. When you refill the fuel tank, ensure metal-to-metal contact between the filler n

(c) Overflow connection from fuel tank to the drain pipe – This is required so that any overf
of the liquid on the generator set.

(d) Fuel pump – This transfers fuel from the main storage tank to the day tank. The fuel pum

(e) Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter – This separates water and foreign matter from the liq
from corrosion and contamination.

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(f) Fuel Injector – This atomizes the liquid fuel and sprays the required amount of fuel into th

(4) Voltage Regulator

As the name implies, this component regulates the output voltage of the generator. The m
that plays a part in the cyclical process of voltage regulation.
(1) Voltage Regulator: Conversion of AC Voltage to DC Current – The voltage regulator tak
voltage and converts it into DC current. The voltage regulator then feeds this DC current to
exciter windings.

(2) Exciter Windings: Conversion of DC Current to AC Current – The exciter windings now
generate a small AC current. The exciter windings are connected to units known as rotating

(3) Rotating Rectifiers: Conversion of AC Current to DC Current – These rectify the AC curre
DC current. This DC current is fed to the rotor / armature to create an electromagnetic field
/ armature.

(4) Rotor / Armature: Conversion of DC Current to AC Voltage – The rotor / armature now i
stator, which the generator now produces as a larger output AC voltage.
This cycle continues till the generator begins to produce output voltage equivalent to its fu
increases, the voltage regulator produces less DC current. Once the generator reaches full o

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of equilibrium and produces just enough DC current to maintain the generator’s output at fu
When you add a load to a generator, its output voltage dips a little. This prompts the volt
The cycle continues till the generator output ramps up to its original full operating capacity.

(5) Cooling & Exhaust Systems

(a) Cooling System

Continuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated up. It is
withdraw heat produced in the process.
Raw/fresh water is sometimes used as a coolant for generators, but these are mostly lim
applications or very large units over 2250 kW and above. Hydrogen is sometimes used as
units since it is more efficient at absorbing heat than other coolants. Hydrogen removes he
exchanger into a secondary cooling circuit that contains de-mineralized water as a coolan
plants often have large cooling towers next to them. For all other common applications, b
fan is mounted on the generator and works as the primary cooling system.
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It is essential to check the coolant levels of the generator on a daily basis. The cooling syste
600 hours and the heat exchanger should be cleaned after every 2,400 hours of generator o
and ventilated area that has adequate supply of fresh air. The National Electric Code (NEC)
allowed on all sides of the generator to ensure free flow of cooling air.
(b) Exhaust System
Exhaust fumes emitted by a generator are just like exhaust from any other diesel or gasonlin
to be properly managed. Hence, it is essential to install an adequate exhaust system to
emphasized enough as carbon monoxide poisoning remains one of the most common caus
people tend to not even think about it until it’s too late.
Exhaust pipes are usually made of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel. These need to be freest
the generator. Exhaust pipes are usually attached to the engine using flexible connector
generator’s exhaust system. The exhaust pipe terminates outdoors and leads away from
building. You must ensure that the exhaust system of your generator is not connected to t
the local city ordinances to determine whether your generator operation will need to obtai
are conforming to local laws a protect against fines and other penalties.

(6) Lubricating System

Since the generator comprises moving parts in its engine, it requires lubrication to ensure
time. The generator’s engine is lubricated by oil stored in a pump. You should check th
operation. You should also check for any leakages of lubricant and change the lubricating oil

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(7) Battery Charger

The start function of a generator is battery-operated. The battery charger keeps the gene
‘float’ voltage. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain undercharged. If the f
battery. Battery chargers are usually made of stainless steel to prevent corrosion. The
adjustments to be made or any settings to be changed. The DC output voltage of the bat
precise float voltage for lead acid batteries. The battery charger has an isolated DC voltage o
of the generator.

(8) Control Panel

This is the user interface of the generator and contains provisions for electrical outlets and
regarding the generator control panel. Different manufacturers have varied features to of

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are mentioned below.

(a) Electric start and shut-down – Auto start control panels automatically start your gene
while in operation, and automatically shut down the unit when no longer required.

(b) Engine gauges – Different gauges indicate important parameters such as oil pressure, tem
speed, and duration of operation. Constant measurement and monitoring of these paramet
any of these cross their respective threshold levels.

(c) Generator gauges – The control panel also has meters for the measurement of output cu

(d) Other controls – Phase selector switch, frequency switch, and engine control switch (man
(9) Main Assembly / Frame

All generators, portable or stationary, have customized housings that provide a structural b
to be earthed for safety.

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Lifting Plan for SESI


Date: Work Area: Work Permit No:


Job Safety Analysis No: Diagram, Drawing or Sketches Attached:

Maximum Weight of Load: Actual/Calculated:

Description of Lifting Operation:

Check List: Possible considerations (not exhaustive)

Hazards to personnel in the area Weigh of load verified Trial lift required
No lifting points directly above the load Load on pallets requires securing Risk of overturning
Awkward size / Shape /Sharp edges Transport fastenings removed Working under load
Dedicated lifting points on the load Stability of the load an issue Cross Hauling required
Certified suspension points available High Center of gravity Tandem lifts involved
Restricted headroom or confined area Lifting chemicals Tag lines Required
Correctly installed lifting equipment Conflicting tasks in the area Barriers Required
Correctly installed lifting accessories Dynamic factors involved Certification Checked
Engineering Support required Method of communication agreed Safe Access available
Number of people involved identified Adequate lighting and visibility Lifting over live plant

Route to Be Travelled and Laydown Area Yes No

1 Are the route and laydown area clear of obstructions?
2. Is the laydown / landing area adequate
3. Is the laydown /landing area adequate in term of load bearing
4. Is suitable packing avaialble for protecting the load, lifting equipment, slings etc.
5. Have barriers been positioned to prevent access by unauthorised personnel

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6. Have you confirmed that the laydown area is within the operating limits / radius of the equipment.
7. Have environmental conditions been considered with regards to the safety of the lifting operation
8. Will the Lifting Equipment operator be able to see the banksman throughout the operation
9. Are there hazardous process plan or materials in the areas.
Step by Step of the Lifting Operation
Person Responsible
1. Identify the loactions for lifting in two section. Ensure area is clear from any obstruction.
2. Alert other group about the lifting activity.
3. Position the crane for lifting within in detailed working radius
4. Deploy the competent riggers and identify the signal man.
5. Ensure proper communication established between
6. Ensure certified lifting tools & tackles for lifting operations
7. Secure the load properly, ensure correct angle achieved for the lift
8. Use tag lines to the load to prevent the sudden swing.
9. Lift the load slowly, check the load is secured properly
10.Ensure no movement in loading area, no one working under the load
11.Place the load in designated area. Signalman to guide crane operator
12.unsecure the load from pad eye.

Lifting Plan for SESI (Conti…)


Name of the Plant:

Weight of Load:
Crane Capacity:
(Crane type:
*Crane SWL: ………..Tons
*Working Radius: ……………Max)
*Boom Length: … Meters
(* Refer From Crane Load Chart)

Tools & tackles:

Web Slings:
No. of Web Sling: ………nos.
Sling Details:Length: …. Mts,
Width: ……. inch,
SWL: …... ton
Wire Rope Slings:
No. of Sling: ……nos.
Sling Details: Length: ….. Mts,
Width: ……. inch,
SWL : ……. ton

D- Shackles: ……… Nos.

D-Shackle SWL……………… tons.

(SWL- Safe working load)

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Lifting Authority: I have reviewed the details of the lifting plan and agree the work can proceed

Name: Signature:

DEBRIEF AND LEARNING (Did the lifting opertaion go as planned or are change to plan required)

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HMV Vehicle Checklist

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LMV Inspection Checklist

Superior Energy Services


Vehicle Type & Model: ________________ License Number:_______________________

Registration No:______________________ License Expiry Date:____________________

PUC Expiry Date:______________________ Insurance Expiry Date:__________________

Fitness Expiry Date:___________________ RC Issue Date:________________________

Driver Name:________________________ Inspection Date:______________________

S. No Description Acceptable Unacceptable

1 Parking lights  
2 Head lights  
3 Brake lights  
Flash Light / Torch light
4 Reflectors (front and rear)  
5 Indicators  
6 Tyres condition  
7 Spare tyres condition  
8 Seat belts (functional) front and rear  
9 Windscreen and wipers  
10 Horn / reverse horn  
11 Side mirrors  
12 Rear mirrors  
13 Jack and tools  
14 First aid kit  
15 PESO Certified spark arrestor  
16 Valid driver license  
17 ERP ( Emergency Contact Details)  
18 Portable ABC type extinguisher  

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(Minimum 2kg HMV & 1kg LMV)

19 Exhaust (No Excess Pollution)  
20 Drivers defensive driving training completed  
21 Insurance validity  
22 Chemical & Hydrocarbon PESO License  
23 PUC (Validity)  
24 Fitness Certificate  
25 RC: Validity (Tankers ≤ 5 yrs)  
( Heavy vehicles ≤ 10 yrs)
( Passenger vehicles ≤ 4 yrs or
2,00,000 km)

Inspected By: ________________________________________________________________

Signature of Inspector: ________________________________________________________
Driver (s) Signature: _________________________________________________________

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Lashing Equipment Inspection

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DATE: 17/08/2015 ROADSURVEYFROM Barmer Base Office TO Punam#1

JOBTASK:Road Survey from Barmer to Punam#1 via (Kawas,Baytu, PanchPadhra, Dechu, Palodhi, Bhikampur)

TotalDistance 412 Km RouteSurveyConductedby: Atul Bharshankar

TotalOverheadLine 210

Road Conditions:

1.Paved 2.Bridges 3. Skid 4.Deep Sand 5.TightTurn

Comments: Palodhi road is little bit paved. There are tight turns at Utarlai, Bhungara,Palodhi village. There is water
flowing on road with high velocity in between Baap and Bhikampur village. Due to high flow rate sand got eroded and
created trenches on road shoulder which are at 288 and 289 km away from Barmer. There is one bridge before
Panchpadhra village. There are so many trenches on road shouder which are 334.9 km, 355.4 km, 338.9 Km away from


1.RoadunderConstruction 2.NarrowSection 3. Sharp Bent 4.Mud 5.NoDefect

Comments: There is a deep sand and narrow section after one km. from Dudwa village. There is construction of road going
on from Kawas to Baytu and Baytu to Dudwavillage.which having span of almost 7 km starting from 72 km away from
Barmer and ends at Baytu village. There are trenches on road shoulder from Bhikampur to Punam#1.There is big ditch just
in front of Punam#1 gate.

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1.Overheadline 2. Village 3.Trees 4.RoadCrossing 5.Pole

Comments: Thereareso many power lines over the route. Some overhead lines are approx. 6 meters height
from ground surface.


1.SignBoard 2.RoadDirection 3. GuardRail 4.Delineator

Comments: Signboards and Road Direction Boards are available on the road. There are many S

Is thereanyhotspot?(If Yes, Specify) YES NO

Comments: Yes. There is a deep sand and narrow section after one km. from Dudwa village. Palodhi road is
little bit paved. There are tight turns at Utarlai, Bhungara,Palodhi village. There is water flowing on road with
high velocity in between Baap and Bhikampur village. Due to high flow rate sand got eroded and created
trenches on road shoulder which are 288 and 289 km away from Barmer. There is one bridge before
Panchpadhra village. There are so many trenches on road shouder which are 334.9 km, 355.4 km, 338.9 Km
away from Barmer. There is construction of road going on from Kawas to Baytu and Baytu to
Dudwavillage.which having span of almost 7 km starting from 72 km away from Barmer and ends at Baytu
village. There are trenches on road shoulder from Bhikampur to Punam#1.There is big ditch just in front of
Punam#1 gate.

SN Obstruction Number SN Obstruction Number

1 OverheadLine 210 5 Villages/City 33
2 SpeedBreaker 15 6 Schools/Publicplace 05
3 Turns 175 7 Bridges 10
4 Up-down 28 8 Crossing 016
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TRAILER LOAD( maximum dimensions)

1. TruckTrailer-NIL 1.Weight-8.5 tons (Surge tank)

2. Semi-Trailer-
2. Height-10.4 feet( Surge Tank).( Total height on Low Bed Trailer-
3. LowBedTrailer-
14.4 Feet)

Photograph:Road under construction in between Kawas and Photograph: Water flowing on the road
after Baap village

Baytu village which is 72 km away from Barmer. Which is 288 km away from Barmer.

Photograph: Paved road which is 255.2 km from Barmer. Photograph: Overhead Electric Wire line
at Bhikampur.

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Photograph: Water flowing on the road with

High velocity Photograph: Trenches on
road shoulder after Bhikampur

After Baap village which is 289 km away from

Barmer. Which is 334.9 km away from barmer

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Photograph: Trenches on road shoulder after Bhikampur. Photograph: One big ditch just in front of


• JMP and Routemapshouldbeprovided.
• Properinspectionofvehicleandtheroutemustbedonebeforecommencing themovement.
• Onevehiclemustbethereforescorting.
• Ensureall equipmentarepropertightenedwithslingorchain or rope.
• Overhead bare power lines should not be lifted over by helper until it is approved by Cairn.

Atul M.Bharshankar


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Note: This is an example of how a route survey will be carried out for the SWT unit from one location
to another. All the safety factors have to be considered and the points with respect to the safety issues
has to be met before mobilizing a unit. No compromise on safety standards.

The requirements vary from client to client. The client policy and Superior energy policies has to be
studied first and if any conflict of interest, the HSE personnel must raise the concern to the
management and the client and sort it before the movement of any convey.

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SIMOPS- Simultaneous Operations

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SIMOPS (Conti…)

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Note: This is a sample SIMOPS form for CIL- Client

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Job Safety Analysis- Client Specific

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Job Safety Analysis-Client Specific

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Accountability Matrix- Client Specific- Example

The accountability matrix for Cairn India limited is shown below.

Accountability Matrix (Conti…)

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Accountability Matrix (Conti…)

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Accountability Matrix (Conti…)

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Accountability Matrix (Conti…)

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Accountability Matrix (Conti…)

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Risk Assessment:

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ANSI – American National Standards Institute
API – American Petroleum Institute
API Gravity - The specific gravity or density of oil
ASTM – American Society of Testing and Materials
ASV – Annular Safety Valve

BBL - Barrel
BCV – Ball Check Valve
BDV – Blow down Valve
BHA – Bottom Hole Assembly
BHL – Bottom Hole Location
BHP – Bottom Hole Pressure
BHT – Bottom Hole Temperature
BOP- Blow out Preventer
BPD – Barrels Per Day
BOPD – Barrels of Oil Per Day
BOPE – Barrels of Oil Per Day Equivalent
BPV – Back Pressure Valve
BS – British Standards
BSI – British Standards Institute
BS&W – Basic Sediment and Water
BTU – British Thermal Unit

CCL – Casing Collar Locator
CHP – Casing Hanger Pressure
CIS – Chemical Injection Sub
CITHP – Closed In Tubing Head Pressure
COSHH - Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
CP – Casing Pressure

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CSG - Casing
CTU – Coiled Tubing Unit

DAS – Data Acquisition System
DCV – Directional Control Valve
DHT – Dry Hole Tree
DHSV – Down Hole Safety Valve
DNV – Det Norske Veritas
DP – Differential Pressure
DS – Directional Survey
DW – Deep Well
DWD – Deep Water Development Well
DWE – Deep Water Exploratory Well

EL – Electric Log
E-line – Electric Line
EOR – Enhanced Oil Recovery
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency (USA)
ESD – Emergency Shut Down
ESP – Electric Submersible Pump
EZSV – Easy Drill Subsurface Valve

FPSO – Floating Production Storage and Offloading vessel
FS – Functional Specification
FWV / HFWV - Flow Wing Valve / Hydraulic Flow Wing Valve
FTP – Flowing Tubing Pressure

GIH – Grease Injection Head
GIS – Grease Injection System
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GLM – Gas Lift Mandrel (Side Pocket Mandrel)

GOR – Gas to Oil Ratio
GPH – Gallons per Hour
GPM – Gallons per Minute
GTL – Gas to Liquid

H2S – Hydrogen Sulphide
HAZOP – Hazardous Operation
HP – High Pressure
HPHT – High Pressure High Temperature

ID – Inner Diameter
I/O - Input/output

KWV - Kill Wing Valve

LOLER – Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations
LP – Low Pressure
LMGV - Lower Master Gate Valve
LMV – Lower Master Valve
LNG – Liquid Natural Gas
LTI – Lost Time Incident
LWD – Logging While Drilling

MAWP – Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MCS – Minimum Compliance Standards
MD – Measured Depth
MFWV - Manual Flow Wing Valve
MSCF - Thousands of Standard Cubic Feet
MMSCF - Millions of Standard Cubic Feet
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MMSCF/D - Millions of Standard Cubic Feet per day

MWD – Measuring While Drilling
MWP – Maximum Working Pressure
MRSV – Multi Sensor Relief Valve
MSDS – Material Data Safety Sheet

NACE- National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NORM – Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials
NRV – Non Return Valve (Chicksan Valve)

OBM – Oil Based Mud
OD – Outer Diameter
OGR – Oil to Gas Ratio
OIM – Offshore Installations Manager
OWC – Oil Water Contact

PCE – Pressure Control Equipment
PLT – Production Logging Tool
POL – Pull On Line
POOH - Pull Out of Hole
PPE – Personal Protective Equipment
PSI – Pounds per Square Inch
PSIA – Pounds per Square Inch Atmospheric
PSIG – Pounds per Square Inch Gauge Pressure
PSV – Pressure Safety Valve
PTO – Power Take Off
PTW – Permit to Work
PUWER – Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
PVT – Pressure Volume Temperature
PWV – Production Wing Valve

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QTS - Quick Test Sub
QCDC – Quick Connection Disconnect

RIDDOR – Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations
RIH - Run In Hole
ROV – Remotely Operated Vehicle

SCSSV - Surface Controlled Sub Surface Safety Valve
SDV – Shut Down Valve
SITP – Shut-In Tubing Pressure
SPM – Side Pocket Mandrel
SIWPH - Shut-In Well Head Pressure
SWAB - Swab valve
SST - Subsea Tree (Subsea Xmas Tree)
SSV – Surface Safety Valve
SSSV – Sub Surface Safety Valve
STOP – Safety Training Observation Program
STT - Surface Test Tree
SWL – Safe Working Load

TBG – Tubing
TBT – Toolbox Talk
TC - (Xmas) Tree Cap
TD – Total Depth
TLP – Tension Leg Platform
TP – Test Pressure
TRSCSV - Tubing Retrievable Surface Controlled Sub Surface Valve
TRSCSSV - Tubing Retrievable Surface Controlled Sub Surface Safety Valve
TTRD – Through Tubing Rotary Drilling
TVD – True Vertical Depth

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TVDSS – True Vertical Depth Sub Sea

UMGV / HMV - Upper Master Gate Valve / Hydraulic Master Valve
UMV – Upper Master Valve

WHCP - Wellhead Control Panel
WHP – Wellhead Pressure
WHT – Wellhead Temperature
WLEG – Wireline Entry Guide
WP – Working Pressure
WRSV - Wireline Retrieval Safety Valve
WSS – Well Service Supervisor

XO – Crossover
XX – Hardness of Pipe

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P & ID Well Test Land Job

India monthly report – _________ 2016   

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