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Background of the Study

“Literacy is not a luxury, it is a right and a responsibility. If our world is to meet the

challenges of the twenty first century, we must harness the energy and creativity of all our

citizens.” (Abraham Lincoln). From this standpoint lies the value of education as a vital tool for

national development and progress. The trend today is that people have to cope with the global

competition. In a competitive world, people are expected to keep abreast with the latest

developments and have self-advancement. It is now survival of the fittest, in which the fittest are

mostly the literates, who especially those who have attained a high degree of education.

Reading proficiency is an indispensable tool in learning any other subjects. Our pupils

therefore, should have the highest or at least have the average proficiency. But we cannot deny

the fact that non-readers are a perennial problem in our educational system.

Low reading proficiency has been a growing dilemma in the teaching learning

environment especially in the elementary grades. The researcher have observed that most of the

pupils in her class have difficulty in understanding their lessons as evident in the result of their

summative and periodical test. One of the reasons why they perform low academically, is that

they have poor reading ability. Pupils could hardly read and understand written text. Some

could recognize words but most of them do not comprehend what the text is all about.

It is in this premise that the researcher feels the need to conduct a study on the reading

proficiency of elementary pupils. The result of this study will become the basis for the

establishment of remedial reading program that will best address the needs of the pupils who are

struggling readers.
Statement of the Problem

The main purpose of the study is to determine the reading proficiency as basis for

remedial reading program of Grade V pupils S.Y. 2018-2019. Specifically it seeks to

answer the following questions:

1. What is the level of reading proficiency of Grade V pupils when categorized according


a. Oral Reading

b. Silent Reading

2. Is there a significant difference in the level of reading proficiency between oral and silent


3. Is there a significant relationship between the type of reading and the level of


4. What remedial reading program can be derived from the results?

Statement of the Hypotheses

1. The reading proficiency level of Grade V pupils when categorized according to oral and

silent reading is low or frustration.

2. There is no significant difference in the level of reading proficiency between oral and silent


3. There is no significant relationship between the type of reading and the level of

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on the three major theories of literacy development:

constructivist, sociolinguistic, and emergent literacy theories. Constructivist theory has a

broad definition that accompanies reading and writing (Johnson, 1985; Schallert, 1991,

cited in Klenk, 1994). This perspective considers literacy beyond the performance level

(which is usually associated with school tasks such as decoding and handwriting) to

include the functional level of literacy for interpersonal communication, the

informational level for exchanging knowledge, and the epistemic level for creative and

evaluative uses of literacy (Wells, Chang, & Maher, 1990) . A constructivist theory

focuses on individual child’s language experiences and his or her learning phase when

teaching literacy (Cowden, 2010).

The sociolinguistic theory grew from the work of Vygotsky (1978), who believed

that parents, caregivers, peers and the community at large were responsible for the

development of language and literacy (Diaz, Neal, & Williams, 1990). Klenk (1994)

believes that the sociolinguistic theory guides teachers to understand that literacy learning

is embedded in the social contexts, and is influenced by the learner’s prior experience

and knowledge, the relationship between the novice (learner) and the expert (teacher), the

relationships among learners in a classroom, and the mediation of self-regulated,

intentional learning through mechanics such as scaffolding, bootstrapping, and proleptic

Conceptual Framework

Reading is the key which admits us to the world of thought, fancy, and imagination. It

enables us to see with the keenest eyes, hear with the finest ears, and listen to the sweetest voices

of all times. (James Russel Lowell). Reading means many things to many people. It can be one

of the most rewarding preoccupations of the individual, expanding its horizons and making it

possible for him to partake of man’s accumulated experiences and achievements through the

ages. Reading is an active dialogue between the author and the reader, and is the basic tool for

learning in all subjects. It is a skill that helps man to discover the answers to questions about

existence. It stimulates him to further efforts to unravel the mysteries of nature.

Reading experts explain that reading is subtle complex process that involves five stages:

sensation, perception, comprehension, application, and integration. It is the process of thinking,

evaluating, imagining, reasoning and problem solving. The efficient reader is expected to be

able to perform these mental activities with reasonable proficiency.

Reading is an acquired skill that we must learn; it is not instinct. But being able to read is

vital to our economic and social survival. Reading is necessary to learn and share information in

every aspect of our lives.

Reading is the very first building block in any kind of learning. The importance of

reading begins with the elementary school and stretches by the degree of reading skills. It soon

becomes apparent that unless the child can read, it cannot absorb information in Math, Science

and Social Studies.

Schematic Diagram of the Study

Grade V Pupils

Type of Reading

Oral / Silent

Independent Instructional Frustration

Remedial Reading Program

Scope of the Study

This investigation is confined on the analysis of the reading proficiency level in oral and

silent reading of the Grade V pupils for School Year 2018-2019.

Because reading is the basic foundation in learning any subject, it is indeed relevant to

determine the reading level of pupils through which the generated results may become the basis

to consider in establishing a remedial reading program for pupils with low reading level.

To determine the reading level of pupils in silent and oral reading, the Phil-IRI or the

Philippine-Informal Reading Inventory tool is used.

Significance of the Study

Local Government. The result of this study may give idea to the Local government officials the

reading performance of school children. This will draw their attention to extend financial

support to whatever program the school undertakes in order to cater the reading deficiencies of


School Administrators. The insights of that they may gain from the study may provide

significant input for the school administrators in planning and developing a program of reading

instruction to suit the individual needs of the children. Likewise, they will be able to guide and

assist their teachers in the utilization of the different techniques to improve the reading

proficiency of pupil.

Teachers. This study can be of help to teachers to maximize their time and effort in conducting

remedial reading program to pupils who struggles to read.

Pupils. They are the end recipients of the improvement that this study may bring. This study

maybe the basis for the school administrators to establish remedial reading program for pupils

who are not proficient in reading.

Definition of Terms

Reading Proficiency. As defined, it is the state of being proficient, or having

or showing effective command in an art, skill or study as well.

As used in this study, it refers to the reading proficiency level of Grade V

pupils, School Year 2018-2019 as assessed using the PHIL-IRI.

Oral Reading-

Silent Reading-





Remedial Reading Program. It is defined conceptually as the programs or activities

designed to improve performance in reading.

As used in this study, it refers to programs and activities of the school of

the research participants to be implemented as a way to improve the reading

competence of pupils.
Review of Related Literature

On Meaning of Reading

According to Richard, reading means perceiving a written text in order to

understand its contents. This can be done silently (silent reading). It is a particular way

in which the readers understands texts, passages, paragraphs even books and an ability to

understand and find out the information presented in the form of written text.

In addition, Goodman and Majdi abdullah defines reading as a perceptive process

of written communication. According to him reading begins with a linguistic surface

expression encoded by a write and ends with meaning in which the reader decoded. On

the other hand, Grebe states that reading is not merely a receptive process of picking up

information from the page in a verbatim manner but it is a selective process which is

characterized as an active process of comprehending.

Reading can be seen as an “interactive” process between a reader and a text

which leads to automaticity. It is a dynamic process in which the reader works actively

to construct meaning from the material. In this process, the reader interacts dynamically

with the text as he or she tries to elicit the meaning. Therefore, students must be able

adjust their reading to fit the type of material being presented. Effective readers are

involved in the process of reading and look for meaning actively. Ineffective readers

play a passive role during reading. They do not connect the text material with their prior

knowledge. In other words, student can combine their background and experiences.

On Types of Reading

According to Patel and Preven there are two of reading, they are.
a. Intensive Reading. It is aloud reading. In this type the reader or learner reads

the text to get knowledge and carry out the specific information.

b. Extensive Reading is silent reading. It is reading for pleasure. The reader

wants to know about something. He does not care about specific or important

information after reading. The purpose of this type is to update reader’s knowledge.

Based on the type of reading above a reader has to know what type of reading that

is used. Because each type of reading has different purposes.

There are several stages in reading process. They are:

a. The first stage is the recognition stage. At this stage the student simply

recognize the graphic counterparts of the phonological items. For instance, he

recognizes the spoken words in its written form. The difficulty of this stage depends

upon the difference between the script of the student’s mother tongue and English, and

knowledge with the information from the text when reading. It can help students in

understanding the easily.

According to Patel, Reading is the most useful and important skill. It is a source

of joys and good reading keeps students regular in reading which provide them pleasure

profit. Reading makes students enjoy their learning process and give several advantages

in finding some information that is needed. It is an unlimited area that makes students

know everything, such as education, politic, social, culture, religion, health and etc.

All of the information can be obtained by reading.

W. S. Gray in Patel notes Reading is a form of experience. It brings students in contact

with the minds of great authors, with the written account of experiences. Reading is necessary in

language learning. It is not only a source of information and a pleasurable activity but also as a
means of consolidating and extending one’s knowledge of language. It is important activity for

expanding knowledge of language. Students can increase their knowledge and update their


On Stages of Reading

Reading activity is characterized by the translation of symbols or letters into the words

and sentences that have the meaning to the individual. The ultimate goal of reading is to be able

to understand written material, to evaluate it, and to use it for one’s needs. In order to read, one

must follow a sequence of characters arranged in a particular spatial order. To reach the maturity

in reading, an individual goes through a series of stages, from readiness to adult reading.

Reading Readiness- the earliest stage, readiness encompasses the skills that young

children acquire before they can profit from formal reading instruction. Children acquire

knowledge of the language and / of the letter names; as they learn that spoken words are

composed of separate sounds, and the letters can represent those sounds.

Beginning Reading – children begin to learn the printed equivalents for the spoken words

they know. Some school and reading textbooks teach the child to recognize the whole words,

and stress the meaning of the text.

Development Skills – in this stage, emphasis shifts from reading stories with known

content to reading difficult materials that teach the child new ideas and opinions. Silent and

reading comprehension and study skills are emphasized.

Some educators see reading comprehension as a series of sub-skills, such as

understanding word meanings in context, finding the main idea, making inferences about

information implied but not stated, and distinguishing between fact and opinion.
Improving Adult Reading Skills- word study is ones way for the older student to improve

reading ability. This involves using dictionary and thesaurus, studying word parts,and learning

how to find the meaning of a word from the context.

Reading comprehension involves at least two people: the reader and the writer. The

process of comprehending involves decoding the writer’s word and then using background

knowledge to construct an approximate understanding of the writer’s message.

Comprehension is affected by the reader’s knowledge of the topic, knowledge of

language structures, knowledge of text structures and genres, knowledge of cognitive and meta

cognitive strategies, their reasoning abilities, their motivation, and their level of engagement.

Students who had trouble learning to decode and recognize words often will have

difficulty with reading comprehension. Students who struggle with decoding rarely have a

chance to interact with more difficult text and often learn to dislike reading. As a result, these

students do not have sufficient opportunities to develop the language skills and strategies

necessary for becoming proficient readers.

Readers with poorly developed language skills and strategies will not have the tools to

take advantage of the obvious structures and comprehension cues that are part of considerate text

nor will they have the extra tools needed to overcome the barriers of inconsiderate text.

The type of instruction that a student receives will also affect reading comprehension.

Strategies for improving reading comprehension strategies for improving reading comprehension

must be taught directly by teachers. Simply providing opportunities or requiring for children to

read will not teach many students the comprehension strategies they need to be proficient

readers. These need to be taught directly as students learn to read simple sentences and this
direct instruction need to continue in different forms throughout a student’s elementary and

secondary school experience.

On the Decline of English Proficiency in the Philippines

Proficiency is the state or quality of being proficient; skill; competence. Being proficient

is being competent to a specific field. English language has been the lingua franca and is widely

used up to now. Doors of opportunity and success are widely open to those who are proficient in

speaking the language. In fact, some people even enroll themselves to a special class to improve

their English Proficiency. With this, we must make reforms and adjustments on how the English

language will be prioritized in schools, as part of our drive for global competitiveness.

In February 2018, an article published by the GMA News mentioned that the level of

English proficiency of College graduates from the Philippines is lower than the target English

Proficiency of High School students in Thailand, according to a study conducted by the Hopkins

International Partners, which is the official Philippine representative to the group called Test of

English for International Communication (TOEIC)

Hopkins International Partners said Filipinos are ranked only third or fourth among the

ASEAN countries in terms of English proficiency and that the Philippines’ proficiency is on the

decline while others are on the rise.

English proficiency in public High Schools are really fading. There are still high school

students that are classified as non-readers. In reality, students are promoted to Grade 10 and still

cannot comprehend or even read.

Perhaps, the Department of Education’s lack of paper emphasis for English in the

instruction of our learners is the main problem. Instead of allowing English to grow in

conjunction with the teaching of Filipino, our national language, the resulting scenario was

promoting Filipino in schools at the expense of English, when the ideal but also realizable

scenario could be the mutual development of both English and Filipino as languages of


There are also public officials who are concerned of the worsening proficiency skills of

the Filipinos. In fact, Senator Grace Poe has filed a resolution calling for an inquiry into the

“decline” in English proficiency of Filipino students.

In Senate Resolution No.622, Poe called for an assessment of the present curricula in

elementary and high school in the light of “reports of narrowing advantage of Filipino graduates

in the local language.”

Accordingly, there’s a recent government study that shows only seven (7) percent of high

school graduates can properly read, speak or understand English, and poorly trained teachers are

partly blame. Education is a key to success. We should go with the flow of change and

competence, throwing our best assets: OURSELVES. We really do not know to blame in this

present crisis that we are facing. The Department of Education, together with all the passionate

English Teachers in our country must make an immediate action to resolve the decline of English

proficiency and make our country to be on top. In this world’s competition, being proficient in

English language is now an obligation. (

On Reading Remediation for Struggling Early Readers

Reading print is not a natural biologic process and is a complex process, which requires

looking at man-made, arbitrary black letters and words, and matching that written code with our

spoken language. To read proficiently one needs to use the brain’s natural system for processing

sound. These sound or phonologic processing pathways are essential to proficient reading. If

other other processes are used, reading will require a great deal of effort and remain difficult.

Most problems with reading have nothing to do with intelligence or ability, but rather incorrect

processing. Teachers can help students understand that difficulties in reading are often caused

by weaknesses in phonologic processing and other fundamental skills. Many intelligent people

face difficulty in reading. Problems with reading likely occur because proficient phonologic

processors are not being used. Teachers who work with struggling readers need to understand

that effective remediation directly teaches and develops essential skills to raise the student to the

proficient level. They need to make sure the students understands reading remediation is not

teaching easy words and concepts but rather building necessary skills to help bring the student up

to a proficient level. (Gagen 2015)

An important factor of successful remediation is the student’s effort and attitude, which

will affect how quickly they learn. Motivated students progress faster than students with a poor

attitude. Teachers should help the students with a poor attitude. Teachers should help the

student with learning disabilities develop a positive attitude toward remediation. Some older

students are frustrated with their frequent failures and have developed low self confidence and

negative attitude towards reading. Before beginning an intensive reading remediation program,

teachers need to help the student understand the remediation program. To that end, teachers may

explain the effective remediation plan to the student. Effective remediation instruction improves

reading skills when teachers provide direct instruction and consider students responses to
remediation. Response to intervention (RTI) has altered how educators serve students with

reading difficulties. Its impact is most evident at the primary level, where the focus is on

limiting referrals to special education by preventing reading difficulties ( Legere & Conca,

2014). When students increase significant word recognition skills, background knowledge, and

thinking skills, they can advance rapidly and develop proficient reader skills.

Research Design

Descriptive method of research was used in this study. Descriptive research, also known

as the statistical research, is defined as a research method that describes the characteristics of the

population or phenomenon that is being studied. This methodology focuses more on the “what”

of the research subject rather than the “why” of the research subject.

This study also uses the descriptive method of study since the reading proficiency level of

the respondents were discussed as categorized to types of reading which are the silent and oral

reading. It also determines the significant relationship and significant difference of the reading

level of pupils in both silent and oral reading. Upon determination of results, remedial reading

program was drawn out for those respondents who needed remediation in order to improve their

reading level.

Research Respondents

The respondents of the study were the 69 Grade V pupils of the District of E.B.

Magalona, 34 from section 1 and 35 from section 2.

Instrument of the Study

This study will use the Phil-IRI or the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory, a tool for

measuring and describing reading performance. It is an assessment tool composed of graded

passages designed to determine a student’s reading level. The Phil-IRI used as a classroom-

based assessment tool aims to measure and describe the learners’ reading performance in both

English and Filipino languages in oral reading, silent reading and listening comprehension.
These three types of assessment aim to determine the learner’s independent, instructional and

frustration levels.

Data Gathering Procedure

To be able to conduct the investigation, the researcher will do the following


1. The researcher will ask permission to the head of the school where the

participants of the study are enrolled.

2. Upon the approval of the school principal, the researcher will approach the

adviser of the pupils to be tested.

3. The researcher will conduct the reading evaluation as stated on the PHIL-IRI


4. After the reading evaluation responses of pupils will be gathered and

consolidation will follow.

Data Analysis

The following descriptive and inferential statistics will be utilized by the researcher in the

data analysis procedure:

For Problem 1, which will determine the level of reading proficiency of Grade V pupils

as categorized in oral and silent reading, Mean and Standard Deviation will be used..

For Problem 2, which will determine the significant difference between silent and oral

reading, t-test for paired samples will be used.

For problem 3, which will determine the significant relationship between oral and silent

reading, Chi-square will be used.