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1 (a)

Q.1 (b) Crawling or spidering is a term used when Google, or another search engine, sends its
bot to a web page or web post and "reads" the page.
Having your page Indexed by Google is the next step after it gets crawled. By no means does
every site that gets crawled get indexed, but every site indexed had to be crawled. If Google
deems your new page worthy, it will index it.

Q.1 (c) HTML Form Elements

<input> Element
<select> Element
<textarea> Element
<button> Element
value Attribute
readonly Attribute
size Attribute
maxlength Attribute
formaction Attribute
formtarget Attribute
height and width Attributes
list Attribute
multiple Attribute
Q.1 (d) There are three ways of inserting a style sheet:

i. External stylesheet: With an external style sheet, you can change the look of an entire
website by changing just one file.

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css">

ii. Internal style sheet: Internal styles are defined within the <style> element, inside the
<head> section of an HTML page:
iii. Inline stylesheet: An inline style may be used to apply a unique style for a single

<h1 style="color: blue;” > hello</h1>

2(a) On-page SEO describes the manipulations you make directly to a web page to facilitate
higher ranking.
Off-page SEO refers to all the SEO practices that take place outside of your website such as
backlinks, link relevancy, social signals, and others.

2(b) PR: stand for page rank, that measure by the quality of that page on the web. It can be
increased by the building more links, domain age and many other SEO factors.
SERP: stand for search engine result page. When we search anything in search engine
(Google) the search result page is called SERP. it may be 1 or 10 or more

2(c) Web mining can be divided into three different types – Web usage mining, Web content
mining and Web structure mining.
i. Web Usage Mining
It is the application of data mining techniques to discover interesting usage patterns from
Web data in order to understand and better serve the needs of Web-based applications..
Web usage mining itself can be classified further depending on the kind of usage data

 Web Server Data: The user logs are collected by the Web server. Typical data includes
IP address, page reference and access time.
 Application Server Data: Commercial application servers have significant features to
enable e-commerce applications to be built on top of them with little effort. A key feature
is the ability to track various kinds of business events and log them in application server
 Application Level Data: New kinds of events can be defined in an application, and
logging can be turned on for them thus generating histories of these specially defined

ii. Web structure mining

It uses graph theory to analyse the node and connection structure of a web site.
According to the type of web structural data, web structure mining can be divided into two

1. Extracting patterns from hyperlinks in the web: a hyperlink is a structural component

that connects the web page to a different location.
2. Mining the document structure: analysis of the tree-like structure of page structures
to describe HTML or XML tag usage.

iii. Web content mining

It is the mining, extraction and integration of useful data, information and knowledge
from Web page content.

20% 60% 20%

Content Body

<frameset cols="20%,60%,20%">
<frame src="a.htm">
<frame src="b.htm">
<frame src="c.htm">

Image in background:
<body background="b.jpg">

3(b)The two main types of XML Parsers:

1. DOM
2. SAX

A DOM document is an object which contains all the information of an XML document. It is
composed like a tree structure.
A SAX Parser implements SAX API. This API is an event-based API and less intuitive. It is
simple and memory efficient.It is very fast and works for huge documents.

3(c) The CSS box model is essentially a box that wraps around every HTML element.
It consists of margins, borders, padding, and the actual content.

 Content - The content of the box, where text and images appear
 Padding - Clears an area around the content. The padding is transparent
 Border - A border that goes around the padding and content
 Margin - Clears an area outside the border. The margin is transparent