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SMART OFFICE

CHAPTER NO: 1

INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION

In previous smart office automation system, the only control of electronics office appliance’s
is present like room temperature control, turn on/off light & fans are available Visitor
guidance system is more important part in the large organizational people who are working in
office they are not aware of current business activities of the organization .so through smart
office system it provides information of each & every activity of ongoing and complete task.
In today’s world keeping the data & record of each employ who works for an organization
very important there must be necessity of the central monitoring system who keeps the record
of the all activity which are happening in the office. Smart office system is fulfilling the
requirement of each office system arranging of meetings is a daily task. The person who work
in the organization must be aware of the current marketing status as well as newly added
business plans. The safety of the private or authorized room is also important issue in the
organization. Also, there is a lack of visitor guidance system in every office system which are
large.The smart office system contains part of the image processing which required for face
detection of the person. The hardware of the object is all based on the GSM module & sensor
to the Raspberry pi including programming of python.
The previous smart office system the activates which are controlled like room temperature
control, turning ON/OFF electronics appliances like fan, light etc. These activities are
controlled through IOT or manually through sensors. There is no any system which provide
guidance to the visitor. Also, there is no any system which gives the current marketing status
as well as each on-going & completed task in the office. The main aim of project focuses on
the visitor guidance’s system & providing status of office activity which is not implemented
in the office system Surprisingly, some people claim that computers have reduced work
effectiveness. For those people, the arrival of computers simply means that a huge new box
takes up desk space and complicates simple tasks. Scott Adams’ axiom humorously claims
that computers increase work speed by 100 percent but increase workload by 300 percent.
Computers are intrusive. Despite claims to the contrary, they are not truly user-friendly
because users must engage in an explicit directed dialogue with the computer, instead of
using more natural ways of interaction. We believe that a computer should not require a new
way of working; it should simply augment current working modes. So, as Mark Weiser points
out, computers should be invisible, not demanding user adaptation, while at the same time
offering the benefits of data-processing power.

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CHAPTER NO: 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

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2. LITERATURE SURVEY

In previous smart office system provide need based emergency services like ambulance call,
fire alarms, biometric fingerprint used for security purpose , ,Also lightning, ventilating,
illuminating is design used to save the energy. PIR Motion sensor will detect the presence of
any person and counts the number of people entered in office. The system will get activate
only in presence of person. If light intensity increases or decreases below or above some
value, the bulb will glow.
The system will then automatically adjust the light intensity according to the atmosphere. The
temperature sensor used to sense the surrounding temperature. If the temperature
increases/decreases the fan will be ON. MQ-7 smoke sensor is used to detect the presence of
smoke/fire. Alarm/buzzer will get activate in presence of smoke/fire. If there is presence of
smoke/fire message will be send to the fire extinguisher and to the service rooms so that
immediate service can be provided.
Fingerprint Identification Module is used for security purpose. The finger prints of all
employees in the office can be taken and enrolled in it .This will only allow the office
employees to enter the area. If other person tries to enter, it will show No match and that
person will not be allowed to enter in the office. IoT technology can also be useful to build a
new model and extensive improvement space for smart office to provide intelligence, comfort
and to improve the quality of life.
Advantages of Viola–Jones algorithm which make it a good detection algorithm are:
• Robust – very high detection rate (true-positive rate) & very low false-positive rate always.
• Real time – For practical applications at least 2 frames per second must be processed.
• Face detection only (not recognition) - The goal is to distinguish faces from non-faces
(detection is the first step in the recognition process).

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Disadvantages of Voila-jones
• Usually needs to search over space and scale.

• Need lots of positive and negative examples.

• Limited view-based approach.


Advantages of PCA
low noise sensitivity, the decreased requirements for capacity and memory, and increased
efficiency given the processes taking place in a smaller dimension; the complete advantages
of PCA are listed below:
• Lack of redundancy of data given the orthogonal components.

• Reduced complexity in images’ grouping with the use of PCA.

• Smaller database representation since only the trainee images are stored in the form of their
projections on a reduced basis.

• Reduction of noise since the maximum variation.

Disadvantages of PCA
Two key disadvantages of PCA are:
• The covariance matrix is difficult to be evaluated in an accurate manner.

• Even the simplest invariance could not be captured by the PCA unless the training data
explicitly provides this information.

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CHAPTER NO: 3

DESIGN AND DRAWING

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

Display

Camera Keyboard

Raspberry-Pi

GSM
Mouse
MODULE

Fig1: Block Diagram of Smart Office

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WORKING
Power supply:
Power supply is used to give +5V DC power to the Raspberry pi. 230V AC supply is provide
to the step down transformer. This transformer converts his 230V AC supply into 12V AC
supply. This 12V AC is rectified by bridge arrangement of diodes and LM 7805 IC. 12V AC
firstly passes through bridge rectifier, by which it is converted in 12V which is having ripple.
LM 7805 is used to covert this 12V to 5V voltage. This 5V with ripple is converted into pure
5V DC supply voltage, which is given to the further peripherals.

In most of our electronic products or projects we need a power supply for converting mains
AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage. For making a power supply designing of each and
every component is essential. Here we use regulated 5V Power Supply.

Let’s start with very basic things the choosing of components

Component List:

1. Step down transformer


2. Voltage regulator
3. Capacitors
4. Diodes
5. Resistor

Voltage regulator:

As we require a 5V we need LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC .LM 7805 three pin IC used to
regulate the input voltage into required amount. It is three pin IC consisting input, output and
ground as pins. It regulates input voltage into 5V output.

7805 IC Rating:

 Input voltage range 7V- 35V


 Current rating Ic = 1A
 Output voltage range VMax=5.2V ,VMin=4.8V

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Fig2: LM7805 – Pin Diagram

Transformer:

 Selecting a suitable transformer is of great importance. The current rating and the
secondary voltage of the transformer is a crucial factor.
 The current rating of the transformer depends upon the current required for the load to
be driven.
 The input voltage to the 7805 IC should be at least 2V greater than the required 2V
output; therefore it requires an input voltage at least close to 7V.
 So I chose a 6-0-6 transformer with current rating 500mA (Since 6*√2 = 8.4V).

Rectifying circuit:

The best is using a full wave rectifier

 Its advantage is DC saturation is less as in both cycle diodes conduct.


 Higher Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)

Fig3: Center Tap Full Wave Rectifier

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Capacitors:

Knowledge of Ripple factor is essential while designing the values of capacitors

It is given by

 Y=1/(4√3fRC) (as the capacitor filter is used)

1. f= frequency of AC ( 50 Hz)

2. R=resistance calculated

R= V/Ic

V= secondary voltage of transformer

 V=6√2=8. 4
 R=8.45/500mA=16.9Ω standard 18Ω chosen

3. C= filtering capacitance

We have to determine this capacitance for filtering

Y=Vac-rms/Vdc

Vac-rms = Vr/2√3

Vdc= VMax-(Vr/2)

Vr= VMax- VMin

 Vr = 5.2-4.8 =0. 4V
 Vac-rms = .3464V
 Vdc = 5V
 Y=0 .06928

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Hence the capacitor value is found out by substituting the ripple factor in Y=1/(4√3fRC)

Thus, C= 2314 µF and standard 2200µF is chosen

Datasheet of 7805 prescribes to use a 0.01μF capacitor at the output side to


avoid transient changes in the voltages due to changes in load and a 0.33μF at the input side
of regulator to avoid ripples if the filtering is far away from regulator.

Steps to Convert 230V AC to 5V DC

1. Step down the Voltage Level

The step-down converters are used for converting the high voltage into low voltage. The
converter with output voltage less than the input voltage is called as a step-down converter,
and the converter with output voltage greater than the input voltage is called as step-up
converter. There are step-up and step-down transformers which are used to step up or step
down the voltage levels. 230V AC is converted into 12V AC using a step-down transformer.
12V output of stepdown transformer is an RMS value and its peak value is given by the
product of square root of two with RMS value, which is approximately 17V.

Step-down transformer consists of two windings, namely primary and secondary windings
where primary can be designed using a less-gauge wire with more number of turns as it is
used for carrying low-current high-voltage power, and the secondary winding using a high-
gauge wire with less number of turns as it is used for carrying high-current low-voltage
power. Transformers works on the principle of Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction.

2. Convert AC to DC

230V AC power is converted into 12V AC (12V RMS value wherein the peak value is
around 17V), but the required power is 5V DC; for this purpose, 17V AC power must be
primarily converted into DC power then it can be stepped down to the 5V DC. But first and
foremost, we must know how to convert AC to DC? AC power can be converted into DC
using one of the power electronic converters called as Rectifier. There are different types of
rectifiers, such as half-wave rectifier, full-wave rectifier and bridge rectifier. Due to the

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advantages of the bridge rectifier over the half and full wave rectifier, the bridge rectifier is
frequently used for converting AC to DC.

Fig4. Bridge Rectifier


Bridge rectifier consists of four diodes which are connected in the form a bridge. We know
that the diode is an uncontrolled rectifier which will conduct only forward bias and will not
conduct during the reverse bias. If the diode anode voltage is greater than the cathode voltage
then the diode is said to be in forward bias. During positive half cycle, diodes D2 and D4 will
conduct and during negative half cycle diodes D1 and D3 will conduct. Thus, AC is
converted into DC; here the obtained is not a pure DC as it consists of pulses. Hence, it is
called as pulsating DC power. But voltage drop across the diodes is (2*0.7V) 1.4V; therefore,
the peak voltage at the output of this rectifier circuit is 15V (17-1.4) approx.

3. Smoothing the Ripples using Filter

15V DC can be regulated into 5V DC using a step-down converter, but before this, it is
required to obtain pure DC power. The output of the diode bridge is a DC consisting of
ripples also called as pulsating DC. This pulsating DC can be filtered using an inductor filter
or a capacitor filter or a resistor-capacitor-coupled filter for removing the ripples. Consider a
capacitor filter which is frequently used in most cases for smoothing.

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Fig5: Smoothing of ripple using filter

We know that a capacitor is an energy storing element. In the circuit, capacitor stores
energy while the input increases from zero to a peak value and, while the supply voltage
decreases from peak value to zero, capacitor starts discharging. This charging and
discharging of the capacitor will make the pulsating DC into pure DC, as shown in figure.

4. Regulating 12V DC into 5V DC using Voltage Regulator

15V DC voltage can be stepped down to 5V DC voltage using a DC step-down converter


called as voltage regulatorIC7805. The first two digits ‘78’ of IC7805 voltage regulator
represent positive series voltage regulators and the last two digits ‘05’ represents the output
voltage of the voltage regulator.

1. SELECTION OF TRANSFORMER:

Line to line secondary voltage= (2*Vdc/2^(1/2))+0.7

Using Equation,

Vdc=Vm+5000*(Idc/c)

=12+5000*(120*10^-3)

=12.6V

Line of secondary voltage=(2*12.6/2^(1/2))

=18.51V

Use center tapped secondary transformer with 9-0-9 at 120mA.

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2. SELETION OF DIODE:

Use diode having PIV=2Vm.

=2*12.6V

=25.2V

Average current = (Idc/2) +(0.25*60mA)

= (120*10^-3/2) + (0.25*60mA)

=75mA

Peak current, Im =Vdc/100

=12.6/100

=126mA

Select diode IN4007 with PIV=1000V

3. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR:

Assume the values of capacitors as

C1=10 uF

C2=1000 uf

4. REGULATOR IC:

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IC 7805 is used for +5V voltage supply which converts 12V Bridge rectifier output
into +5V. For 3.3V, use LM317 IC regulator and resistors of values 350 ohm and 220 ohm
are used for divider circuit.

Camera

The camera is used to take the picture of the person who enter into office system through the face
detection algorithm in PYTHON. So this person is either employee or visitor is identified.
QHM495LM NIGHT VISION
Specification:
• Interpolated to 25 mega pixels

• 10 level zoom (on motion picture)

• Special visual effects

• Night Vision (6 bright light switch on through switch and potentiometer)

• Inbuilt sensitive microphone

• Background changeable (on live motion picture)

• Up to 30% better exposure

• Auto exposure

• Special face effects

• USB 2.0

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Fig6. Diagram of Camera

Keyboard

Keyboard is interface with the Raspberry-pi to enter the information of the visitor and also enter
the information about the person which he wants to visit. The qwerty keyboard usually is used as
input in a project. In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text
and numbers.In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the
software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other key and reports all
key presses to the controlling software.

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Fig7: Keyboard

GSM Module
GSM module is used for sending the information typed by the visitor to the person
which he want to meet.

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Fig8: GSM Module

SIM800 Introduction

SIM800 is a complete Quad-band GSM/GPRS solution in a SMT type which can be


embedded in the customer applications. SIM800 support Quad-band
850/900/1800/1900MHz, it can transmit Voice, SMS and data information with low power
consumption. With tiny size of 24*24*3mm, it can fit into slim and compact demands of
customer design. Featuring Bluetooth and Embedded AT, it allows total cost savings and fast
time-to-market for customer application Details.

Raspberry-pi

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The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single board computer. On which we connect all
inputs and also output is displayed. The Raspberry Pi consist of an HDMI port, audio/video
port, Micro USB power input and two ribbon connectors.

The Raspberry Pi is an inexpensive and self-contained microcomputer that features a 900


MHz, 32-bit quad-core ARM processor and 1 GB of RAM

Fig9: Raspberry P

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Memory card

A memory card, flash card or memory cartridge is an electronic flash memory datastorage
device used for storing digital information.These are commonly used in portable electronic
devices, such as digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, tablets, PDAs, portable
media, video game consoles, synthesizers, electronic keyboards, and digital pianos.

Fig10: Memory card.

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Display

Display is used for user interface. Which provides the detail information about all
staffs, ongoing meetings and to a help the user for meeting hall as per requirement through
keyboard.

Fig11: Display

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CHAPTER 4

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

 It helps to Guides to the visitors.


 You can manage your schedule with the help of Smart office.
 Current situation of the office will be updated regularly.
 Time consuming and efforts will be less.
 It also useful for security purpose.

DISADVANTAGES

 The smart office is quite expensive so its increase the cost of project.
 The smart office used GSM module for communication hence sometime the external
noise and range are affect the communication.

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APPLICATION

 Smart Office is the emerging concept in this fast changing world.


 In large offices, college, etc.
 It consumes less time for daily routine Office.
 It used for the unknown visitors to getting appointment.

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

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CONCULSION AND RESULT

In smart office system project, the visitor guidance system is implemented using Raspberry pi
microcontroller with help of PYTHON. The data entry work is done by keyboard interfacing
with Raspberry pi. The communication between visitor and office employee is achieved
through GSM module.

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REFERENCES

Books:
https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Digital_Image_Processing.html?id=a62xQ2r
https://www.makerspaces.com/arduino-for-beginners-book
International/National Conference Proceedings:
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)
Volume 1, Issue 9, November 2012

Websites:

www.raspberrypi.com

www.realpython.com

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APPENDIX

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