Anda di halaman 1dari 2

# Siraj Ibrahim Ahmed Al sharif Natural gas processes 3115204

Definition
Henry's law is one of the gas laws formulated by William Henry in 1803. It states that:

At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of
liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid.

An equivalent way of stating the law is that the solubility of a gas in a liquid at a particular temperature
is
proportional to the pressure of that gas above the liquid. Henry's law has since been shown to apply for
a wide range of dilute solutions, not merely those of gase

An everyday example of Henry's law is given by carbonated soft drinks. Before the bottle or can is
opened, the gas above the drink is almost pure carbon dioxide at a pressure slightly higher than
atmospheric pressure. The drink itself contains dissolved carbon dioxide. When the bottle or can is
opened, some of this gas escapes, giving the characteristic hiss (or "pop" in the case of a champagne
bottle). Because the pressure above the liquid is now lower, some of the dissolved carbon dioxide
comes out of solution as bubbles. If a glass of the drink is left in the open, the concentration of carbon
dioxide in solution will come into equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the air, and the drink will go
"flat". Note that the pressure acting above the drink in the sealed container must come from the partial
pressure of carbon dioxide. If the gas is only air it would not produce the same effect even if the
pressure value is the same.

## Raoult's law states:

The vapor pressure of an ideal solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical
component and the mole fraction of the component present in the solution

Consequently, as the number of components in a solution increases, the individual vapor pressures
decrease, since the mole fraction of each component decreases with each additional component. If a
pure solute which has zero vapor pressure (it will not evaporate) is dissolved in a solvent, the vapor
pressure of the final solution will be lower than that of the pure solvent.

This law is strictly valid only under the assumption that the chemical interactions between the two
liquids is equal to the bonding within the liquids: the conditions of an ideal solution. Therefore,
comparing actual measured vapor pressures to predicted values from Raoult's law allows information
about the relative strength of bonding between liquids to be obtained. If the measured value of vapor
pressure is less than the predicted value, fewer molecules have left the solution than expected. This is
put down to the strength of bonding between the liquids being greater than the bonding within the
individual liquids, so fewer molecules have enough energy to leave the solution. Conversely, if the
vapor pressure is greater than the predicted value more molecules have left the solution than expected,
due to the bonding between the liquids being less strong than the bonding within each.

The vapor pressure and composition in equilibrium with a solution can yield valuable information
regarding the thermodynamic properties of the liquids involved. Raoult’s law relates the vapor pressure
of components to the composition of the solution. The law assumes ideal behavior. It gives a simple
picture of the situation just as the ideal gas law does. The ideal gas law is very useful as a limiting law.
As the interactive forces between molecules and the volume of the molecules approaches zero, so the
behavior of gases approach the behavior of the ideal gas.

## Formula of Henry's law & Raoult's law

Henry's law can be put into mathematical terms (at constant temperature) as

1
Siraj Ibrahim Ahmed Al sharif Natural gas processes 3115204

𝑃 = 𝑘𝐻 . 𝑐

where P is the partial pressure of the solute in the gas above the solution, c is the concentration of the
solute and 𝑘𝐻 is a constant with the dimensions of pressure divided by concentration.

## However, Raoult's law could be expressed in the following term:

𝑃𝑖 = 𝑃𝑖∗ . 𝑥𝑖

Where 𝑃𝑖 is the partial pressure of the component i in the mixture (in the solution)
𝑃𝑖∗ is the vapor pressure of the pure component i 𝑥𝑖 is the mole fraction of the component i in the
mixture (in the solution)

## Comparison between Henry's law & Raoult's law

At first sight, Raoult's law appears to be a special case of Henry's law where 𝑘𝐻 = 𝑃𝑖∗ . This is true for
pairs of closely related substances, such as benzene and toluene, which obey Raoult's law over the
entire composition range: such mixtures are called "ideal mixtures".
The general case is that both laws are limit laws, and they apply at opposite ends of the composition
range. The vapor pressure of the component in large excess, such as the solvent for a dilute solution, is
proportional to its mole fraction, and the constant of proportionality is the vapor pressure of the pure
substance (Raoult's law). The vapor pressure of the solute is also proportional to the solute's mole
fraction, but the constant of proportionality is different and must be determined experimentally
(Henry's law). In mathematical terms:

Raoult's law:

Henry's law:

Application of Raoult's law to species i requires a value for 𝑃𝑖∗ at the temperature of application, and
thus is not appropriate for a species whose critical temperature is less than the temperature of
application. therefor Henry's law could be applied.

Also, Raoult's law describes the behavior of solvents containing a small volume fraction of solute.
While Henry's law Describes the behavior of a solute in a dilute solution.

𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = (𝑘𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 . 𝑥𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 ) + (𝑃𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 . 𝑥𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 )

## Henry's law Raoult's law

References
 A to Z of Thermodynamics by Pierre Perrot. ISBN 0198565569
 www.henrys-law.org (http:/ / www. henrys-law. org) - Large compilation of Henry's law constants