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ABRIL 2019

Next we will talk about two very important topics that encompass the learning of English,
through the ESP and the analysis of needs, its most important topics, its decadence and the
proposal to learn this topic better.

The ESP method of language instruction emerged from a strong need that began after
World War II and culminated in the 1960s and 1970s, when more commercial and
scientific businesses around the world were conducted in English. More people needed to
learn English as a commercial tool geared to their specific business or scientific needs.
The historical methods of teaching a second language were analyzed and it was found that
they did not focus on the specific needs of the commercial or scientific user.
ESP did not develop as a single phenomenon, but developed differently and at different
times in several countries. This is still true today, since all the different approaches can be
found in use somewhere in the world.
Since its real development in the 60s, the ESP has gone through four, possibly five phases
of development. They are: 1. record of analysis 2. rhetorical or discursive analysis. 3.
analysis of the situation of the objective 4. skills and strategies 5. A focus on learning.
Each of these will be discussed below in more detail.
1. analysis log
The initial concepts of ESP began with the work of Strevens, Ewer and Swales. The
teaching of English as the "lingua franca" of business and science has itself become a big
business. The commercial restrictions of time and money created a demand for profitable
courses linked to clearly defined objectives.
The traditional concepts of teaching a language, more specifically English, have been to
describe the rules of use, that is, grammar. The new studies, driven by commercial
imperatives, began to focus on the ways in which language is used in daily
communications rather than the traditional definition of characteristics.

formal A significant discovery, which speaks to the core of what ESP is, was that the
spoken and written language we use varies, sometimes significantly, from one context to
another. While learning "general English" can equip one to write an effective novel, it
would hardly be enough to write or understand the concepts of quantum physics or create
an effective manual on how to land a commercial aircraft.
This gave rise to a simple concept: if the language varies from one situation to another,
then the key characteristics of each of these situations can be defined and form the basis
of a series of courses adapted to the needs of the student.

The research findings in the late 1960s that used record analysis found that there was little
to distinguish the grammar of the sentence from "scientific English" to "general English",
apart from a tendency to favor certain grammatical forms . However, in 1971, Ewer and
Hughes-Davies compared the language of the texts used by their science students with
those of some popular school textbooks. They discovered that school textbooks (probably
written in general English) neglected some forms of language commonly found in
scientific textbooks (scientific English). The conclusion was that an ESP course should
give more weight to these forms.

1. Rhetorical or discursive analysis.

The analysis of records as a research procedure was quickly overcome by the new
methodologies. Originally, ESP had focused on language at the level of prayer, but
attention soon changed to the level of the sentence and the field of discourse or rhetorical
analysis. Allen and Widdowson wrote a very brief statement of the hypothesis in 1974:
"We consider that the difficulties students encounter are not so much due to faulty
knowledge of the English system, but rather to a lack of familiarity with the use of
English, and that, consequently, their needs can not be satisfied by a course that simply
provides additional practice in the composition of the sentences, but only by one that
develops a knowledge of how phrases are used in the execution of different
communicative acts. The focus now was on understanding how sentences combined to
produce meaning.

2. I see the needs analysis.

The work I am doing for you goes through the history and evolution of how the needs of
the growing global business and scientific communities required a better method and
more focused on the purpose of teaching a type of English according to their business
The research consisted of identifying successful common uses in commercial or scientific
texts and then specifying the linguistic means that made these uses successful. These uses
would form the basis for a successful ESP course.
Louis Trimble in his work "EST: a discourse approach" provides a table of rhetorical
processes that is representative of this approach.

3. analysis of the objective situation

The Situation Analysis did not add anything new to ESP's knowledge base, but sought to present
knowledge in a more scientific way and link it more closely with the learner's learning reasons.
This seems to be a natural progression in the ESP development process, since ESP learners more
often learn the specific language that will allow them to function in their specific business or
scientific situation or "target situation". Therefore, ESP course designers must perform an in-
depth analysis of the target situation and identify the appropriate curriculum. While this was a
significant improvement compared to what came before, only the most apparent or basic
linguistic characteristics of the target situation were considered.

4. skills and strategies

The fourth stage of the ESP tries to examine the thought processes that underlie the use of
language. This attempts to deal with situations in which classes are taught in native languages,
and students are often required to read texts that are available only in English. The focus is on
interpretive strategies that allow learners to cope with surface shapes without necessarily having
learned them using various means, such as using context to guess the meaning, exploiting
common cognates in both languages, etc.

5. A focus on learning.

All the phases described above have a common defect. All are based on interpretations of
the use of language. It gives little or no consideration to language learning. The four
previous phases assume that describing and organizing what people do with language
allows them to learn the language. The emphasis we will use in this course will be on
strategies to focus on reading strategies and teach only the minimum grammar needed to
understand any specific text that is the student's objective situation

ESP is a process as alive and changing as the languages that underlie any ESP course.
While it has progressed in the work of many people and business forces around the world,
each student must examine their own needs, strengths and weaknesses and those of their
peers and strive to formulate the best possible outcome for themselves using All
Resources past and present of the ESP process.