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AWEA Pre-Show, Orlando, FL May 18, 2015

Wind Farm Best Practice Series


Technical Training

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 1
Wind Farm Best Practices
Speakers

Dennis McKinley Vythahavya Vadlamani Aniruddha Narawane Nick Powers

Director, Wind Power Senior Consulting Transformer Engineering Global Product


Solutions NAM Engineer Manager Marketing Manger, HVIT

Pat Hayes Sameer Kapoor Clinton Davis

Business Development Sr. BDM, VP, Renewable Solutions


Manager, Energy Storage Power Generation NAM

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 2
Wind Farm Best Practices
Optimize output, improve forecasting capabilities

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 3
Wind Farm Best Practices
Agenda

Time Topic

1:00 Opening remarks

1:05 Planning for a wind farm: What are the pitfalls to look out for?

1:25 Applications for optimizing the performance of your wind farm:


• Energy efficient transformers
• Substation Service Voltage Transformer
• Grid connectivity, and energy storage
2:25 BREAK

2:40 Applications for improving forecasting capabilities:


• SCADA Solutions
• Enterprise Software

3:20 Question & Answer Session

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 4
Vythahavya Vadlamani, Senior Consulting Engineer

Preparing for wind farm integration


How to avoid common pitfalls

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 5
Agenda

 Equipment Failures due to electrical resonances


 Interconnection Requirements

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 6
Equipment failures

Step up Operating beyond capacity, harmonic


transformer loading & overvolatges, DC Currents

Shunt Transient Overvoltages: Switching Events,


capacitor Parallel resonance

Surge
Dynamic Overvoltages
arresters

WTG Sub-synchronous resonance (SSR)

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 7
WTG harmonics and voltage distortion
Wind farm #1 and #2 operating together

6.37%
9.29%

IEEE 519 Voltage Harmonics Limits for 69kV & below


© ABB
IHD = 3% and THD = 5%
May 18, 2015 | Slide 8
WTG harmonics and voltage distortion
Wind farm #1 and #2 operating together

2.46% 2.57%

IEEE 519 Voltage Harmonics Limits for 69kV & below


© ABB
IHD = 3% and THD = 5%
May 18, 2015 | Slide 9
Transient overvoltages example

Switching a capacitor bank on high voltage side


L1

C1
L2

C2

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 10
Transient overvoltages example
Shunt capacitor switching

Synchronized closing of circuit breakers and additional arresters on the


collector system can address this issue

Plot of 115-kV 40 MVAR capacitor Plot of 115-kV 40 MVAR capacitor


switching switching
voltage on 115-kV bus voltage on 34.5-kV bus
(maximum peak voltage 1.44 pu) (maximum peak voltage 1.8 pu)

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 11
Transient overvoltages example
Feeder switching with shielded cables

Surge arresters can limit the transient voltages to an acceptable level

1.85 pu

Feeder energized on 34.5-kV collector


system

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 12
Dynamic overvoltages

 Load rejection or
interruption
 Open-ended lines and
cables
 Transmission line and cable
tripping

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 13
Dynamic overvoltages example
Feeder de-energizing

Asynchronous generator – Normal Asynchronous generator – Normal


feeder de-energizing feeder de-energizing

Feeder-side voltage at 34.5 kV Bus with Feeder-side voltage at 34.5 kV bus


Grounding Transformer without Grounding Transformer

Fast grounding switch to close and ground each phase immediately


after opening the feeder can help mitigate the overvoltage
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 14
Dynamic overvoltages example contd..
Feeder trip with & without grounding transformer

Asynchronous generator – SLG fault at Asynchronous generator – SLG fault at the


the station station

Feeder-side voltage at 34.5 kV bus with Feeder-side Voltage at 34.5 kV bus without
grounding transformer grounding transformer

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 15
Series Compensated Lines
Series Resonance

Series compensation of a transmission line results in a series resonance.


bypass
breaker
network
34.5kV:345 kV
equivalent
𝑋𝐶
WTG 𝑓𝑟 = 𝑓𝑏
345kV line series 𝑋𝐿
capacitor

Xd” XGSU Infinite 𝑋𝐿 = 𝑋𝑑" + 𝑋𝐺𝑆𝑈 + 𝑋𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒


Xline XC Bus
𝑓𝑏 = 𝑆𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑏𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦
𝑓𝑟 = 𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦

XC is always less than Xline and XL so fr is less than fb . In other words, the
resonance is sub-synchronous.

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 16
Sub-synchronous Interactions
Type 3 Machine

10
crowbar command
on 34.5kV [kA]
WTG Current

series cap
inserted
-10

1
speed [pu]

0.5

0
2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1
time [s]

Self-excitation of a 100 MW Type 3 wind farm connected radially


through a 60% compensated line

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 17
Sub-synchronous Phenomena
Self-excitation

Example induction generator, running before series capacitor is


inserted.
8
7 Hz 1.4
(w2)
6 1.2
60 Hz
4 1 synchronous
Capacitor Protection trip is likely speed
2 switched in 0.8
Line Current [kA]

Speed [pu]
0 0.6

-2 60 Hz 0.4

31 Hz (w1) 7 Hz
-4 0.2
synchronous
speed
-6 0

-8 -0.2
1 1.5 2 2.5
time [s]

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 18
Interconnection Requirements

Powerfactor & Reactive Power Ramp Rate Voltage & Frequency Rid-
Power Requirements Requirements through Requirements
Shunt Capacitor Frequency Response Fault performance
Banks and Regulation
STATCOM’s etc. Energy Storage
Requirements

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 19
Conclusions

 Equipment Failures
 Parallel Resonance
 Voltage Magnification
 Step-up Transformer, Surge Arrester, Capacitor

 Series Resonance

 Current Magnification
 WTG

 Interconnection Requirements

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 20
Aniruddha Narawane, Transformer Engineering Manager

Optimizing performance
Energy efficient transformers

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 21
Transformers for wind farms
Distribution transformers or….???

 Step up transformers with higher


efficiency requirements
 Occasional extreme load changes
 Step up and step down operation
 Higher chances of anomalies than a
conventional distribution transformer

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 22
Factors to consider while specifying efficiency

 BIL
 Impedance
 Loss limits with other specifications
 Type of winding material
 DOE regulation

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 23
Optimal transformer design

 Transformer design can be altered to provide a


solution with reduced no-load, load losses or both.
 Improvement in performance (efficiency): Cost
and size
 Trade off is required between high efficiency (high
initial cost) and life cycle cost savings (loss
evaluation)
 No load loss and load loss reduction

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 24
Conditions which affect the design and efficiency

 Harmonics
 DC current Injection
 Resonance
 Frequency variation
 Back-feeding the transformer
(Inrush)

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 25
Nick Powers, SSVT Global Product Marketing Manager

Optimizing Wind Performance


Station Service Voltage Transformers

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 26
Need reliable available substation power
Powering wind power substations with SSVTs

Getting Power to Remote Sites


SSVT substation  Hard to reach places with less
power
population, general sparse
distribution but transmission access

 Direct connection to transmission is


available to connect the substation

 Need high reliability and constant


availability from power source

 Strive for cost-effective low-loss


power

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 27
Station Service Voltage Transformer (SSVT)
Hybrid from IVTs & Power Transformer

Compact Power Source


 Single step HV to LV for substation
power

 46kV to 500kV HV Rating

 120/240V, 240V, ….600V LV Output

 Power rating from 25kVA to 333kVA

 Fully rated insulation (oil or SF6 gas)


for system reliability

 Small footprint, easily installed

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 28
SSVT right-sized power for wind
Substation practice – 2 sources of power

 Substation Power Must-Haves


 Availability of source and Reliability to keep the lights on
 Efficiency of power supply
 Substation Source Options – Pros and Cons
 Main power transformer tertiary – Concern over impact of
tertiary cost, higher losses, thru-fault, 3rd Harmonic control
 Distribution infrastructure – Remote sites make distribution
less economical, concern on reliability and eco-impact
 Small power transformer – Oversized kVA, high losses,
and too expensive for application
 Generator or Solar panel – Maintenance intensive and
concern about availability
 Station Service VT – High availability, reliable format with
higher cost than inductive VTs due to the Power level
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 29
SSVT designed for efficiency
Efficient solution for wind

Design Format
 Unique single transformation HV-LV

 High voltage shield design inner bushing

 Ground shield between High and Low

 Small frame construction vs power

 Reduced core size

 Total losses less than 1kw for 100kVA (Compared with 4kW for
Power Transformer tertiary)

 No need for further transformation and more losses

 Very good regulation control for voltage support

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 30
SSVT designed for efficiency
Right solution for wind

Compact Power Source


 Single step HV to LV for substation power

 46kV to 500kV HV fully rated for system reliability

 120/240V, 240V, ….600V LV Output

 Power rating from 25kVA to 333kVA

 Small footprint, easily installed

 Reasonable investment

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 31
SSVT designed for efficiency
Medium Voltage Output

Create dedicated distribution feeder


 Higher power output

 Reduce voltage drop for longer runs

 Up to 1MVA power rating

 Up to 138kV in Oil and up to 500kV in SF6

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 32
SSVT designed for efficiency
Possible future solutions for wind?

Value-Added Application-
Construction Use
 Dual use – first for construction,
next for station service

 Installed to provide power for Farm


build-out

 Should have protection preinstalled


for grid protection

 Up to 1MVA power rating


(maximum at 230kV)

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 33
SSVT designed for efficiency
Possible future solutions for wind?

Value-Added Application- Distributed Generation


 Decreases cost for connecting limited generation to grid

 Up to 1 MVA capability (at 230kV) in small footprint

 Fully integrated substation in SF6 Insulation

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 34
SSVT designed for efficiency
Right solution for wind

Oil-insulated Convenient Efficient Power


 Eliminates bringing the tertiary out on main power
transformer
 Protects Power Transformer

 Controls 3rd Harmonics

 Saves Expense

 Highly reliable and available control power

 Connected to HV Line
SF6-insulated
 Not limited by Power Transformer

 Economical and Easily sited

 Mounts like VT

 Direct connected to HV bus

 Small footprint

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 35
Pat Hayes, Power Conversion Account Manager

Optimizing performance
Grid connection and energy storage

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 36
Integrating renewables can be challenging
Need to protect the fleet and the surrounding network

Renewable Plant Grid

Energy
Storage /
Statcom

Solving problems in the Wind Farm . . . And solving problems on the grid . . .
 Prevent grid system instability & network imbalances
 Grid Interconnection Requirements
 Provide frequency and voltage control
 Fault Ride Through (LVRT & HVRT)
 Reactive power control
 Power Factor (voltage regulations)
 Active power regulation
 Power Quality (harmonics) & Efficiency  Decrease stress on Existing Assets
 Increase Capacity Factor

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 37
ABB’s Energy Storage EssPro™ Solutions
Applications & Benefits

Residential
loads

Solar power

Industrial
loads Peak Shaving UPS

Load Levelling Capacity firming

Wind power
Power Station

Frequency Regulation Voltage Support

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 38
Power Conversion
Definition of Energy Storage System (ESS)

 A solution for storing energy for use at a


later time
 Store energy and supply it to loads as a
primary or supplemental source
 ESS contains
 Inverters that rectify AC energy into
DC to store in the batteries

 Then invert DC energy into AC


energy

 AC power is connected to the


electrical network at low or medium
Voltage

© ABB
| Slide 39
ABB Energy Storage Experience
Saft / Cowessess Nation / SRC
 Customer needs
 400 kW / 744 kWh BESS
 Wind Integration.
 Customer wanted BESS to smooth out wind
turbine output.
 Demand Response
Saft’s IM 20E Container  Demonstrate Anti-Islanding functionality
(1) X 200 kW / 372 kWHr
 Project Details
 Li-ion batteries

(Inside)
 Installed in 2012
 ABB Scope
 400 kW PCS including (2) x 200 kW Indoor
units
 Includes inverters, dc contactors, ac circuit
breakers, control and external isolation/step-
up transformer to 23kV grid
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 40
ABB Energy Storage Experience
Saft / Cowessess Nation / SRC BESS

GRID 25kV PCC LOAD

ABB Vantage
Controller

ABB ABB
EssPro PCS EssPro PCS

Customer Communication
& SCADA / PCC INFORMATION

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 41
ABB Energy Storage Experience
Saft / Cowessess Nation / SRC

Courtesy of SRC

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 42
Case study results: Canadian wind facility
Energy storage & power conversion system

Field Results - Smoothing


 Volatility was reduced by 64%
 Smoothing algorithm based on user
settable ramp rate limitations (i.e. 10%
over 1 minute)
 Ramp rates were shown to be limited
by a factor of 20
 Improved capacity factor and
availability

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 43
STATCOM unique features & capabilities
Enhancing power quality and network performance

 Dynamic VARs: Delivers continuously variable reactive


current IGrid
 Speed of Response: Rapidly delivers reactive current
on a sub-cycle basis. XT
 Performance at Low Voltages: Is a current injection
device. Reactive power decreases linearly with voltage
(impedance based system’s reactive power decreases ~
with voltage squared)

 Programmable and Versatile: A STATCOM operates


as a self-sufficient voltage or power factor regulator, =
and contains highly programmable control systems with
optional features such as capacitor and reactor bank
control, droops, deadbands, etc.

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 44
ABB’s STATCOM solution applied
PREPA Performance Requirements

LVRT Reactive Power Frequency Stability


Support

 Renewable facilities are


required to provide
frequency response
support similar to
conventional generators

 All generation to remain  Additionally, renewable


online and be able to facilities must not
ride-through: contribute to frequency
 0 p.u. voltage at PCC for 600ms instabilities
 1.4 p.u. voltage at PCC for
125ms The total power factor
 Limiting ramp rate to
 Must support the grid range shall be from 0.85 10% of nameplate
with reactive current lagging to 0.85 leading. output per minute.
injection

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 45
ABB’s STATCOM solution applied
Naguabo, Puerto Rico

 A Puerto Rican wind farm required


dynamic reactive compensation support
power factor and voltage control

 System comprised of
13 x 1.8 MW wind turbines connected to
a 34.5 kV collector grid for a total
capacity of 23.4 MW

 Dynamic simulations showed the ABB


STATCOM voltage control system able
to meet PREPA’s Minimum Technical
Requirements

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 46
ABB’s STATCOM Solution Applied
Naguabo, Puerto Rico

 ±12 MVAR ABB STATCOM

 1 x 5 MVAR Switched
Capacitor Bank

 1 x 4 MVAR Reactor

 STATCOM system provided


reactive power and voltage
control

 Automatically used its rapid


speed of response and
overload to assist in LVRT and
HVRT

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 47
PREPA minimal technical requirement
Frequency response & ramp rate control

Frequency Regulation - BESS Output (MW) versus Frequency (Hz)


60.8
 Frequency Response

60.6
 Frequency regulation on 5%
droop
60.4

 Major frequency events +/-0.3


Point of Control Frequency (Hz.)

60.2
Hz
60
 Farm must inject or absorb
59.8
real power up to 10% of
nameplate
59.6

 Speed of response 1 second


59.4

 Ramp Rate Control


59.2
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
BESS Active Power Output (MW)  Limit to 10% of farm
nameplate per minute

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 48
Frequency Response Solution (ESS PCS)
Example PCS BESS analysis for wind farm

10 MW PVF - PCC Frequency


60.40

60.30

60.20

60.10
Frequency (Hz)

60.00

59.90

59.80

59.70

59.60
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time Step

MaxFreq MinFreq

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 49
Frequency Response Solution (ESS PCS)
PCS BESS analysis for wind farm- areas of operation

10 MW PVF - PCC Frequency


60.40

60.30

60.20

60.10
Frequency (Hz)

60.00

59.90

59.80

59.70

59.60
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time Step

MaxFreq MinFreq

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 50
ABB’s STATCOM Solution Applied
Voltage support for a Micro-grid in Alaska

 An Alaskan village on a wind/diesel micro-


grid 30 miles above the arctic circle
required dynamic voltage regulation
 Terrain consisting of tundra and
permafrost with little infrastructure in place
 The diesel generator was used to provide
reactive power regardless of active power
output
 ABB supplied a 1 MVAr STATCOM unit
with transformer for reactive power control
 This alleviated the diesel generator,
reducing stress to the micro-grid and
saving fuel costs

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 51
Break
Please return
at 2:40

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 52
Sameer Kapoor, Senior Business Development Manager, Power Generation NAM, Greenfield

Improving forecasting capabilities


SCADA Solutions

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 53
Challenges

Dispersed and dynamic generation resource impacting


planning and forecasting

Scale performance of an environment comprising turbines


from multiple manufacturers and various control
technologies

Optimize production by improving Turbine performance

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 54
Efficient Operations- Turbine

 Ergonomic HMI to visualize all


relevant process data from the plant,
grid connection and weather stations
 Improved reaction time through
structuring and visualization of critical
data in a high level displays

© ABB
© ABB

Group |
Month DD, Year | Slide 55
Real Time Monitoring- Wind Farm

 IEC based information model for each


turbines
 Integration of generation and electrical
systems into a single information model
 Efficient engineering and additions of
new farms and new turbines into the
system

© ABB
© ABB

Group |
Month DD, Year | Slide 56
Unified Information Flow -Wind Fleet

 Real time monitoring of assets, with HMI


refresh rate of a second
 Flexible configuration of data retention
policies
 Leverages Big Data for superior insights
into fleet level performance leading to
better decisions

© ABB
© ABB

Group |
Month DD, Year | Slide 57
Centralized management

Unified information
Real Time Monitoring Efficient operations
model
Real time monitoring of Integration of generation Ergonomic HMI to visualize
assets, with HMI refresh and electrical systems into all relevant process data
rate of a second a single information model from the farm, grid
connection and weather
stations

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 58
Wind farm/Fleet diagnostic
Availability, performance and condition analysis

Time Performance Indicators Energy Production - April 2012


Capacity Factor
External Availability 55% 1.2

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1


100%

0.8 90%
Total Time Availability 53%
0.6 80%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
0.4 Capacity Factor 70%
Total Unavailability Time 25%
0.2
60%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
0 April 12
01/04/201203/04/201205/04/201207/04/201209/04/201211/04/201213/04/201215/04/201217/04/201219/04/201221/04/201223/04/201225/04/201227/04/201229/04/2012 50%
Turbine Availability 97% 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Energy Production - April 2012 Lost Production (MWh)
88% 40%

30%
Producible Energy (MWh) Energy Availability Lost Production Factor Production (MWh) Lost Production (MWh) 20%

10%
239.08 75% 25% 179.28 59.80
0%
January February March April 12 May June July August September October November December
Capacity Factor 88%
Capacity Factor - April 2012
Capacity Factor (%) 2011 Capacity Factor (%) 2012 2 per. Mov. Avg. (Capacity Factor (%) 2011) Linear (Capacity Factor (%) 2012)
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Measure and understand Condition monitoring & root


Performance analysis
availability cause analysis
 Dedicated applications to  IEC 61400-12 based  Asset condition monitoring
measure the availability of methodology to calculate based on SCADA and/or
turbines wind turbine performance specific sensor data
 Categorized causes of  Root cause analysis of  Estimation of failure
turbine downtime underperformance occurrence and early
 Comprehensive reporting  Comprehensive reporting warnings
across the entire portfolio across the entire portfolio  Root cause analysis of
of plants of plants failures
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 59
Enterprise SCADA For wind fleet management

Service & Maintenance Market operator Grid operator

ENTERPRISE SCADA SOLUTION

Wind Farm Condition Power Power and price


Diagnostics Monitoring management forecasting

Real time monitoring

Modbus IEC104 & OPC IEC 61850 Modbus IEC104 Modbus IEC104 Modbus IEC104
Modbus

Asset Controllers Wind Farm Control Substation STATCOM Energy Storage Grid Stabilization

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 60
Spinner anemometer
iSpin from ROMO Wind

 Three Sonic sensors dispersed across


spinners
Technology
 Precisely measures wind speed & direction.
 Future development include turbulence, wind
shear and flow inclination

 More precise wind speed and direction


measurements as compared to the traditional
Capabilities nacelle anemometry
 Patented concept and data can be wirelessly
transferred to control center

 Independent measuring device & alternate to


Value nacelle anemometry
 Calculated power curve scales potential of
power production from each turbine
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 61
Yaw misalignment = Lower production

Functions of lower production by yaw


misalignments Yaw misalignments Lower production

12% 4° 0.5%

10%
Lost Production [%]

6° 1.1%
8%
8° 1.9%
6%
4% 10° 3.0%

2%
12° 4.3%
0%
0 5 10 15 20 16° 5.9%
Yaw Misalignment [degrees]
14° 7.6%

18° 9.5%

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 62
Correcting Yaw misalignment

Good yaw control Average yaw control Bad yaw control

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 63
Turbine performance

Nacelle Anemometer iSpin Met-mast (filtered data)

* No filtering for wind sector or wake. The nacelle anemometer power curve as seen
in SCADA system.
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 64
Remote management of renewables

North America
Total 1673 MW Total plants 93

93 renewable energy plants of multiple


types: Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass and
Geothermal

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 65
Remote management of renewables

Italy
Total 3068 MW Total plants 403

Monitoring and Control Center for


Wind, Solar & Hydro plants
Disaster Recovery Control Center

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 66
Symphony Plus for Wind
Customer benefits

Integrates all
assets into a
single
management
system
Global and
Provides
local support
monitoring,
from a leading
control and
technology
forecasting
provider
Symphony
Plus for
Wind
Enables fleet
Improves management
performance of and energy
assets trading of
renewables
Improves
Operations &
Maintenance of
entire fleet

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 67
Clinton Davis, VP, Renewable Solutions

Improving forecasting capabilities


Enterprise Software

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 68
2.2 Billion Unique Forecasts

50 Terabytes of Weather Data

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 69
Evolution of forecasting and operation

Proactively
Predict Address
Network Network
Visibility & Issues Issues
Optimal
Control
Visibility

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 70
Challenges requiring investment in solutions

Inaccurate market predictions

Failure to optimize maintenance


procedures

Misleading unit performance


monitoring

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 71
Cost of inefficient business execution

Market losses

Work crew safety

Asset health

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 72
Growing pains

 Variable weather data, along


with the constraints of
renewable assets, makes
forecasting a resource
intensive, error-prone process
 Forecasting complexity and
error can grow as the number
of individual units increases

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 73
What can be improved?
Wind forecasting lifecycle

Preparation
Planning &
Scheduling

Post
Operate
Analysis

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 74
Visibility

 Geographical diversity
 Resource aggregation
 Joint asset ownership
 Unbundling of physical energy and renewable energy
credits

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 75
Model accuracy drives forecasts

 Model from asset


registration to operations
and reporting
 Model unique constraints
of renewable energy
 Capture unique assets
and their connectivity

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 76
Accounting improvements

 Complex renewable transactions and intermittent


output make energy accounting difficult and time
consuming
 Enterprise software can enable accurate accounting
and support auditing

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 77
Generation applications

 Day-ahead, intra-day and


mid-term forecasts
 Monitoring of actual vs.
nameplate (power curve)
vs. forecasted power
production
 Wind Power Automatic
Generation Control (AGC)
 Energy portfolio
optimization applications

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 78
Forecasting benefits

 Improved planning
 Efficient operation & maintenance of fleet
 Prediction of future issues allows mitigation plans

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 79
Forecasting in action

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 80
Gotland project
Vattenfall, Visby

Renewable integration

Demand response
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 81
Grid integration

“Wind- and solar  30% of Gotland’s electricity comes from locally


produced wind power
power is produced far

out in the distribution  Additional 1000 MW Planned

grid, presenting great  Software used to forecasts wind, load, and


demand response
challenges to power

quality and control of

the grid”

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 82
Value of Enterprise Software Solutions

Know the cost of getting work


Knowledge
completed

Confidence that your fleet is operating at


Performance
peak performance

Work done right ensures quality and


Quality
safety

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 83
Wind farm value chain

Operate &
Plan Wind Power
maintain
Connect to Control &
Collect
the grid manage

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 84
An overview of ABB in wind
Products and solutions from turbines to towns
MV Submarine Offshore HVDC Offshore HVAC HV Breakers Power FACTS, SVC,
Cables HVDC Station Cables Substation Cables & Switches Transformers STATCOM

Grid Connection
& Transmission

Wind Farm
Wind Turbine Collection & BOP
Utility
Distribution

MV Dry Generators Control & Aux DC Converter Distribution HV & MV Energy


Transfomers & Mechanical Motors & VSDs Station Equipment Switchgear, Storage:
& Systems Transformers, Turnkey - Central
LV & MV LV Protection & Robotic Power Wind Farm Capacitors, & Compact - Substation
Converters Control Products, Paint Transformers Controls & Sensors, Substations - Community
Turbine Controllers Systems Asset Health Controls

Power Systems Consulting, Wind Farm Optimization & Automation, Grid Integration, Communication Networks,
© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 85 Substation & Distribution Automation, Energy Management
Questions?

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 86
Wind Farm Best Practices
Speakers

Dennis McKinley Vythahavya Vadlamani Aniruddha Narawane Nick Powers

Director, Wind Power Senior Consulting Transformer Engineering Global Product


Solutions NAM Engineer Manager Marketing Manger, HVIT

Pat Hayes Sameer Kapoor Clinton Davis

Business Development Sr. BDM, VP, Renewable Solutions


Manager, Energy Storage Power Generation NAM

© ABB
May 18, 2015 | Slide 87