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4, OCTOBER 2012

Shading Effects in Photovoltaic Arrays

Ali Bidram, Student Member, IEEE, Ali Davoudi, Member, IEEE, and Robert S. Balog, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—Partial shading in photovoltaic (PV) arrays renders control [19], and dP/dV or dP/dI feedback control [20]). A

conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques comparison of MPPT techniques for normal operation of PV

ineffective. The reduced efficiency of shaded PV arrays is a sig- systems under uniform insolation is presented in [21].

nificant obstacle in the rapid growth of the solar power systems.

Thus, addressing the output power mismatch and partial shading However, when multiple power maxima exist [22]–[29], such

effects is of paramount value. Extracting the maximum power of as in a partially shaded array or an array installed on a curved

partially shaded PV arrays has been widely investigated in the lit- surface [30], [31], these conventional MPPT techniques do not

erature. The proposed solutions can be categorized into four main perform well. Multiple maxima occur due to the bypass diodes,

groups. The first group includes modified MPPT techniques that which are used to avoid hot spots formed when some cells in a

properly detect the global MPP. They include power curve slope,

load-line MPPT, dividing rectangles techniques, the power incre- module, or some modules in a string, receive less insulation than

ment technique, instantaneous operating power optimization, Fi- others [32]–[37]. Without remediation by power electronics, the

bonacci search, neural networks, and particle swarm optimization. lost generation due to partial shading can be significant. Thus, it

The second category includes different array configurations for is imperative to utilize MPPT techniques that reliably track the

interconnecting PV modules, namely series–parallel, total-cross- unique global power maximum present in shaded arrays.

tie, and bridge-link configurations. The third category includes

different PV system architectures, namely centralized architec- Partial shading effects can also be alleviated through PV ar-

ture, series-connected microconverters, parallel-connected micro- ray configurations, system architectures, and converter circuit

converters, and microinverters. The fourth category includes dif- topologies. PV array configuration pertains to the intercon-

ferent converter topologies, namely multilevel converters, voltage nections of individual PV modules which are typically either

injection circuits, generation control circuits, module-integrated series–parallel (SP), total-cross-tied (TCT), or bridge-linked

converters, and multiple-input converters. This paper surveys the

proposed approaches in each category and provides a brief discus- (BL) [38]–[41]. The PV system architecture describes how the

sion of their characteristics. power electronics converters are connected to configurations

of PV modules. An architecture that permits the module-level

Index Terms—Impedance matching, maximum power point

tracking (MPPT), partial shading, photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar MPPT can often harvest more energy than a string-level or

arrays. array-level inverter [42], [43]. The circuit topology of the power

electronics converters can be modified to further enhance the

output power of PV systems under the partial shading condition

I. INTRODUCTION and provide module-level MPPT [44], [45].

Given the large body of work published on MPPT techniques

HE installed photovoltaic (PV) capacity in the U.S. is

T projected to increase up to 24 GW by 2015 [1]. However,

the low-energy conversion efficiency of PV materials remains

and circuit topologies for shaded PV arrays, a comprehensive

survey of existing approaches is of paramount value. This pa-

per summarizes various ways to extract a maximum amount of

a barrier to the prolific growth of solar electricity [2]–[6] and power from shaded arrays and is intended for the researchers

necessitates tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of the and practicing engineers working in PV-based power systems.

PV arrays to ensure harvesting the most energy. Under uniform This paper does not include conventional MPPT techniques or

insolation, the characteristic curve of a PV array presents a circuit topologies that cannot differentiate between global and

single power maximum [7]–[9] which can be tracked using one local maximum and hence are ineffective under shading or mis-

of several well-known maximum power point tracking (MPPT) matching conditions.

techniques (e.g., hill-climbing [10], perturb & observe (P&O) This paper is organized as follows. Section II discusses the

[11]–[16], incremental conductance [17], [18], ripple correlation salient characteristics of partial shading including the PV electri-

cal characteristics and hot-spot phenomena under partial shad-

ing. Section III reviews control algorithms that perform global

Manuscript received March 6, 2012; revised April 24, 2012; accepted May MPPT under partial shading conditions. These algorithms pre-

20, 2012. Date of publication July 5, 2012; date of current version September sented vary in their implementation, complexity, cost, and track-

18, 2012. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under ing speed, as well as their effectiveness to track the global

Grant 1137354.

A. Bidram and A. Davoudi are with the Department of Electrical Engi- maximum under different partial shading conditions. Section

neering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76011 USA (e-mail: IV provides different PV array configurations that alleviate the

ali.bidram@mavs.uta.edu; davoudi@uta.edu). negative effects of partial shading. In Section V, different PV

R. S. Balog is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engi-

neering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 USA (e-mail: system architectures are discussed. Section VI provides the PV

robert.balog@ieee.org). circuit topologies that are proposed to address the partial shading

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2012.2202879

BIDRAM et al.: CONTROL AND CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE PARTIAL SHADING EFFECTS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS 533

I P

(0 , Isc) MPP

(Vmpp , Impp)

(Voc , 0) (Voc , 0)

0 V 0 V

(a) (b)

(b) power–voltage curve.

teristics of discussed control schemes and circuit topologies and

concludes this paper.

Fig. 2. PV modules under the partial shading condition.

I

II. PARTIAL SHADING EFFECTS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS Operation of

shaded cell in

Fig. 1 illustrates typical current–voltage and power–voltage reverse bias region

curves for a homogeneous PV array under uniform insolation Unshaded cell in the string

of all the PV modules. Conventional MPPT techniques find the

String Current

voltage Vm pp and current Im pp at which the PV array operates

at the MPP. However, these techniques may malfunction for Shaded cell in the string

nonuniform insolation of the PV array [21].

Break down Vbias 0 V

Various factors such as aging, dust, and partial shading result voltage

in mismatching and, hence, nonuniform operation conditions.

Partial shading is a frequent phenomenon that occurs when some Fig. 3. Current–voltage curve of a PV cell operating in a reverse bias region.

cells within a module or array are shaded by buildings, birds,

passing clouds, or some other object, as illustrated in Fig. 2.

Since the short-circuit current of a PV cell is proportional to the

insolation level, the partial shading effect is a reduction of the - V1 + + V2 - - V3 + - Vn +

photocurrent for the shaded PV cells while the unshaded cells

continue to operate at a higher photocurrent. Since the string

current must be equal through all the series-connected cells, the + VD -

result is that the shaded cells operate in the reverse bias region Bypass Diode

to conduct the larger current of the unshaded cells [22]–[28].

Fig. 3 illustrates how the string current flows through all the Fig. 4. Bypass diode across the PV cells when one cell is shaded.

series-connected cells including shaded and unshaded. The bias

voltage Vbias is the reverse voltage at which the shaded cells that is shown in Fig. 4 begins to conduct when

must operate to support the common string current.

n

The shaded cells consume power due to the reverse voltage V2 − Vi ≥ VD , i = 2 (1)

polarity. Therefore, the maximum extractable power from the i=1

shaded PV array decreases. The high bias voltage may also

is satisfied, where VD is the forward voltage drop of the diode.

lead to an avalanche break down. This, in turn, may cause the

Since the bypass diodes provide an alternate current path,

thermal break down of the cell, creating a so-called hot spot.

cells of a module no longer carry the same current when partially

If untreated, excessive heating can result in cell burn out and

shaded. Therefore, the power–voltage curve develops multiple

create an open circuit in the shaded string. This hot spot can be

maxima, shown in Fig. 5. Conventional MPPT algorithms may

avoided by using the bypass diodes. These diodes are connected

not be capable of distinguishing between the local and global

parallel to the cells to limit the reverse voltage and, hence, the

maximum.

power loss in the shaded cells. For example, in a module with

36 series cells, one diode may be connected across each set of

18 series cells [31]–[33]. III. MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING TECHNIQUES FOR

SHADED PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS

If the reverse voltage across the shaded cell increases, the

bypass diode restricts the reverse voltage to less than the break- The different MPPT techniques that address the partial shad-

down voltage of the PV cells. For example, the bypass diode ing condition are presented in an arbitrary order.

534 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

with bypass diodes

Curve under partial shading Curve without shading

rs

Single MPP of the shaded array

occu

without bypass diodes ing

ad

Operating point shifted Sh

to global maximum

0 V e

lin

oad

L

Fig. 5. Power–voltage curve of a PV array under the partial shading condition. Intersection of load

line in the vicinity

of global maximum

P P P< 0

>0 V

V 0 V

To left To right

P P

Fig. 7. Load line and the power curve with and without the partial shading.

<0 >0

V V

detecting the global MPP of the PV array. The reported error

for the calculated global MPP is less than 0.5% of the actual

0 V global MPP. The tracking speed has been improved to the order

of couple of seconds in [37] by applying a feed-forward control

Fig. 6. Change of ∂P /∂V sign in both sides of a local maximum. scheme for the dc–dc converter. However, this technique is not

fast enough for the portable PV applications due to the rapid

A. Power Curve Slope change of partial shading condition [9]. This technique is effec-

tive under both the uniform and nonuniform insolation of the

In this technique, the sign of ∂P/∂V at different points is PV array.

used to track the global maximum. It utilizes the fact that the

presence of another maximum on the left side of an existing B. Load-Line Maximum Power Point Tracking

maximum is indicated by the change of the ∂P/∂V sign from

positive to negative, shown in Fig. 6. Similarly, the change of Two different load-line MPPT approaches have been identi-

∂P/∂V sign from negative to positive indicates the existence fied in the literature, herein called Type I and Type II. In Type

of another maximum on the right side of the existing one [37]. I, the load line is defined by the ratio of Vm pp to Im pp . This line

This technique performs the search for the global maximum can be computed by measuring the open-circuit voltage Vo c and

on both sides of the last stored maximum. Initially, the search is the short-circuit current Isc of the PV array under the uniform

performed on the vicinity of the MPP, found under the uniform insolation. Vm pp and Im pp are set to the 80% of Vo c and 90%

insolation. If a local maximum is found, as indicated by the of Isc , respectively [46]. Subsequent to the partial shading con-

change of the sign of ∂P/∂V , it is compared with the stored dition, the operating point is moved to the vicinity of the global

maximum. If the detected local maximum is greater than the maximum that is the result of intersection of the load line with

stored maximum, the stored maximum will be updated. Oth- current–voltage curve, shown in Fig. 7. Once in the vicinity

erwise, the search for the global maximum in that direction is of the MPP, a conventional incremental conductance method is

immediately terminated. The search continues until the global used to find the global maximum. It uses the fact that the slope of

maximum is reached, shown in Fig. 6 [37]. Therefore, once a the power–voltage curve is equal to zero at the MPP [21], [47].

local maximum with lower power is encountered, there exists Since

no higher maximum power afterward. This significantly short- dP d(V I) dI ΔI

ens the tracking time. The subroutine keeps searching in one = = V +I ∼

= V +I (2)

dV dV dV ΔV

direction until a smaller local maximum is found or the voltage then

threshold is reached. The voltage threshold is the lowest possi-

ΔV V

ble voltage below which the existence of the global maximum =− (3)

is unlikely. ΔI I

The power curve slope technique works in conjunction with is satisfied at MPP. Thus, the MPP can be found by comparing

Δ I and − I at different time instants. This technique can be

ΔV V

a dc–dc converter and can be simply implemented by an inex-

pensive microcontroller and current and voltage sensors. Often, simply implemented by an inexpensive microcontroller or in-

the functionality is included within the controller for the dc–dc cluded within the controller for another power converter such

converter. This technique has been empirically verified in [37]. as an inverter or dc–dc optimizer. In addition to the voltage and

The test setup consists of three series-connected PV arrays each current sensors, an additional circuit is needed for online mea-

with six series-connected modules. The maximum power rat- surement of Vo c and Isc . As reported in [46], this technique can

ing of each module is 38 W. The experimental results show the track the global MPP in an order of 0.2–0.3 s. For the case study

BIDRAM et al.: CONTROL AND CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE PARTIAL SHADING EFFECTS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS 535

I Shading occurs P

C. Dividing Rectangles Technique

Isc C A

A The dividing rectangles (DIRECT) technique utilizes a Lip-

Linear D D schitz condition to track the global maximum of the PV array

3

function C 1 power as a function of the array voltage [50]. For the uniformly

B

B 2 bounded power function P (v) on the voltage interval [a, b], (7)

is deduced

b−a

P (v) ≤ max(P (v)) ≤ P (v1 ) + M (7)

0 V* VD VA V 0 V* VD VA Voc V 2

(a) (b)

where v1 is the center of [a, b], and M is the maximum value of

Fig. 8. Tracking the global maximum using the linear function. (a) Current– ∂P/∂V on [a, b]. DIRECT uses (7) to track the global maximum

voltage curve and (b) power–voltage curve. power of a PV array. In each MPPT iteration, the voltage interval

that is found in the previous iteration [a, b] is divided into three

in [46], the error ratio of the tracked MPP is around 4.8%. The equal subintervals. Among which, the ith interval is chosen as

load-line technique relies on the assumption that the estimated the potentially optimum interval (POI) if a constant k > 0 exist

operating point will land in the vicinity of the global maximum. such that

⎧ bj − aj bi − ai

However, the partial shading may result in more complex multi- ⎪

⎨ P (vj ) + k ≤ P (vi ) + k ∀j

modal power–voltage curves. Therefore, this technique can only 2 2

(8)

track the global MPP under certain shading conditions [46], [48]. ⎪

⎩P bi − ai

In the Type-II load-line MPPT, a linear function brings the m ax + ε |Pm ax | ≤ P (ci ) + k

2

operating point into the vicinity of the global maximum [48]. where Pm ax is the current tracked maximum power, and ε is a

The tracking process starts once partial shading condition is positive constant value. ai , bi , aj , and bj are the end points of

detected. Shading is detected if the ith and jth intervals, respectively. P (ci ) is the power value

sampled at the midpoint of the ith interval. The first condition

ΔV = V [n] − V [n − 1] < ΔVset (4) in (8) ensures that the interval with the highest potential for the

ΔI I[n] − I[n − 1] I[n] maximum power is chosen for further exploration. The second

= < −ΔIset = − (5)

I[n − 1] I[n − 1] Np condition in (8) ensures that this interval results in the further

increment in Pm ax by at least ε |Pm ax |. In the global search

are satisfied, where the indices n and n − 1 correspond to the mode, a relatively large ε is chosen (0.03 is adopted in [50]) to

last two operating points of the PV array, and Np is the number bring the operating point into the vicinity of a global maximum.

of strings that are connected in parallel. ΔVset and ΔIset are the In the local search mode, ε is reduced further to accurately track

prespecified thresholds. the global maximum. This procedure is repeated until the global

When partial shading occurs, the operating point is moved maximum of the function is detected.

from point A to B, shown in Fig. 8. Then, the controller responds The DIRECT technique does not depend on the shape of

by adjusting the converter operation to move to the reference power–voltage characteristics and can track the global maxi-

voltage (point C) as mum under different shading conditions. In this technique, the

requirement to calculate the power–voltage curve gradient has

Ns V o c been obviated [49]. Therefore, this technique can be simply im-

V∗ = I[n] (6)

Np Isc plemented by an inexpensive microcontroller that controls the

dc–dc converter connected to the PV array. Voltage and current

sensors are required to measure the PV array’s voltage and cur-

where Ns is the number of modules in a string. Finally, the

rent. The performance of this technique has been verified by a

incremental conductance method is used to track the global

60-W PV array in [50]. The experimental results show that this

maximum power (point D).

technique is efficient and accurate in tracking the global MPP

Type-II load-line technique can be simply implemented in

under the partial shading condition. The average tracking effi-

a microcontroller using voltage and current sensors. The per-

ciency is more than 95%, and the tracking speed is around ten

formance of this technique has been verified by a 3-kW PV

sampling cycles [50]. However, the initial point in this algorithm

system in [48]. The experimental results show that this tech-

needs to be appropriately chosen to avoid being trapped at the

nique is relatively fast and has an acceptable accuracy (tracking

local maxima power points [51].

efficiency) in detecting the global MPP of the PV array [48].

For the case study in [48], compared with the conventional

incremental conductance method, Type-II load-line technique D. Power Increment Technique

improves the output power of the PV system by 15% of the The power increment technique utilizes the augmented power

output power under uniform solar irradiance. However, the ac- converter as a tunable constant power load [49]. This technique

curacy of the Type-II load-line technique can be declined by the is implemented by an inexpensive microcontroller. As shown

change of the electrical parameters of PV arrays which is caused in Fig. 9, the power converter is controlled to draw a constant

by aging [49]. power in a successive manner, starting from the open-circuit

536 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

P6 the estimated global MPP and its actual value is approximately

B5

P5 less than 0.1% of the actual global MPP. Additionally, for the

P4 B4

PV load lines case study reported in [49], the tracking speed of the power in-

B3

P3 crement technique is approximately three times of the tracking

P2 B2

speed of the particle swarm optimization technique [61].

B6

E. Instantaneous Operating Power Optimization

B1

0 V This technique relies on the fact that the maximum output

power of a PV array is dependent on the irradiance E(t) and

Fig. 9. Constant power lines in a power increment technique. p–n junctions temperature T (t) as [52], [53]

PERTURBATION SELECTION IN THE P&O METHOD

Thus, the expression for MPP can be written as

Existing perturbation sign PV array power Next perturbation sign

Negative Increases Negative MPP(t) = a(T (t))b(E(t)) (10)

Negative Decreases Positive

Positive Increases Positive where a(T (t))is the voltage factor. The irradiance factor b(E(t))

Positive Decreases Negative determines IMPP . The p–n junctions temperature T (t) depends

on the ambient temperature, the operating point of the PV

condition: point B1 . At each step, the amount of power is in- module [54], [55], and the environmental conditions includ-

creased, resulting in progressing toward the global MPP (points ing weather, mounting angle, and surrounding objects [56]. The

B1 to B5 ), and the corresponding PV array voltage is stored voltage factor a(T (t)) is computed as follows. If IMPP is less

in the microcontroller memory. The power increment process than a prespecified threshold, a(T (t)) = a0 , where a0 is a con-

is continued until further increasing of the drawn power is not stant value. Otherwise, the P&O method is adopted to assess

feasible because of passing the maximum power of the PV array a(T (t)). Since the P&O method may detect a local maximum,

(reaching B6 in Fig. 9). Once B6 is achieved, the dc–dc con- it needs to be performed around an approximated value of the

approx approx

verter regulates the output voltage of the PV array at the stored global IMPP , IMPP , to assess a(T (t)). IMPP is found as

voltage corresponding to B5 . Therefore, the converter operates approx

in the close vicinity of the global MPPT. Then, the P&O or hill IMPP = Ki Im eas (t) (11)

climbing algorithm is adopted to attain the global MPP. where

In the P&O algorithm, a perturbation is applied to the oper-

Iloi cal

ating voltage of the PV array until the global MPP is reached. Ki = . (12)

In this method, as can be seen in Fig. 1(b), once the operating IMPP

point is on the right of the MPP, the voltage decrement (in-

crement) increases (decreases) the power. On the other hand, A preassessment of the current at local maxima Iloi cal and the

once the operating point is on the left of the MPP, the voltage current at global maximum IMPP is needed to calculate Ki .

decrement (increment) decreases (increases) the power. The per- Once a(T (t)) is found, the proposed algorithm in [52] con-

turbation is chosen which is based on the algorithm summarized tinuously compares the measured PV power Pm eas (t) and the

in Table I. If the power increases by applying a voltage pertur- reference power P (t) = a(T (t))Im eas (t), where Im eas (t) is the

bation, the same perturbation is kept until the global MPP is measured current of the PV array. If Pm eas (t) < P (t), IMPP is

achieved. If the power decreases by applying a voltage pertur- tracked by changing the operating current as

bation, the direction of the perturbation is reversed. Once the I(t) = Im eas (t) − ΔI (13)

global MPP is reached, the perturbation step size is reduced to

diminish the oscillation of operating point around the global where ΔI is kept constant. If Pm eas (t) > P (t), IMPP is tracked

MPP [11]–[16], [21]. by changing the operating current as

The hill climbing method is similar to the P&O method. Pm eas (t)

However, instead of the operating voltage, the perturbation is I(t) = . (14)

a(T (t))

applied to the duty cycle of the power converter which in turn

perturbs the PV array current and t voltage [10], [21]. This procedure is repeated until (15) is satisfied

The power increment technique can track the global MPP in

Pm eas (t) − a(T (t))Im eas (t)

both stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems. In this tech- < ε. (15)

Pm eas (t − 1)

nique, voltage and current sensors are required to measure the

PV array’s voltage and current. This technique does not require The instantaneous power optimization can be used for the

any previous knowledge of the PV modules’ characteristics and power–voltage curves with more than one local maximum. How-

configurations, and can accurately track the global MPP in a ever, a potential drawback of this technique is that a preliminary

relatively short period of time. The experimental results on a investigation is needed to assess the currents at different maxima

BIDRAM et al.: CONTROL AND CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE PARTIAL SHADING EFFECTS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS 537

P P Hidden

layer

Input

layer

Isc

Output

layer out

αs Pmax

0 v3i v1i v2i v4i V 0 v3i+1 v1i+1 v2i+1 v4i+1 V

Estimated output power

(a)

ai bi ai (b) ai+1 bi+1 ai+1

Temp.

Old search range New search range

wij

Fig. 10. Shifting and restricting search strategy to find the maximum value.

(a) Old search range and (b) new search range.

_

Weight adjustment Error + Actual power

algorithm Σ

to calculate Ki in (12). In this technique, voltage and current sen-

sors are needed. The instantaneous power optimization can be

Fig. 11. ANN configuration to estimate the MPP of the shaded PV array.

implemented by an inexpensive microcontroller. An experimen-

tal PV system has been used in [53] to verify the performance of

this technique. In this PV system, the microcontroller controls a The search interval for the next iteration is shifted either to

dc–dc converter that is connected to a storage device (e.g., ultra- the left or right based on the following rule:

electric double-layer capacitors). The storage device is adopted

if P (v1i ) < P (v2i ) ⇒ v3i+1 = v1i , v4i+1 = v4i

to store the energy from the PV source under high irradiance (18)

conditions and deliver it to the grid or local loads during the if P (v1i ) > P (v2i ) ⇒ v3i+1 = v3i , v4i+1 = v2i .

low irradiance conditions. The storage device is connected to The search is terminated when (19) is satisfied

the grid (or ac load) through a dc–ac inverter. Experimental re- i

v4 − v3i ≤ δ

sults show that this technique is relatively fast and can track

(19)

the global MPP in less than 0.2 s. For the case study reported P (v4i ) − P (v3i ) ≤ ε

in [53], the difference between the estimated global MPP and its

actual value is approximately less than 1% of the actual global where δ and ε are predetermined tolerances.

MPP. The Fibonacci search technique is similar to the P&O and hill

climbing techniques. However, the step size is variable and is

determined by the Fibonacci sequence in (16). It should be noted

F. Fibonacci Search that this technique may mistakenly detect the local maxima

The Fibonacci line search can be employed to find the MPP instead of the global maximum in power–voltage characteristics

under both uniform and nonuniform insolation [57], [58]. This with many local maxima. This technique has been empirically

technique utilizes Fibonacci sequence of numbers tested in [58] using a 300-W PV array that consists of six series-

connected PV modules. The tracking speed of this method is

⎧ acceptable if it is not trapped at the local maxima. This technique

⎪

⎨ c0 = 0 can be simply implemented by an inexpensive microcontroller

c1 = 1 (16)

⎪

⎩

and voltage and current sensors [58].

cn = cn −2 + cn −1 , n ≥ 2.

G. Artificial Neural Networks

The search relies on the shifting and restricting strategy, Artificial neural network (ANN) can predict the MPP of a PV

shown in Fig. 10. The subscript i represents the iteration num- array under both the uniform and nonuniform insolation condi-

ber. In each iteration, the curve is evaluated at two check points tions [59]. The neural network has a three-layer feed-forward

(e.g., v1i andv2i ) within an interval. In Fig. 10, ai denotes the dis- configuration that consists of an input layer, a hidden layer of

tance between the check point and the interval bounds, v3i and neurons, and an output layer, shown in Fig. 11. Ambient tem-

v4i , and bi denotes the distance between two subsequent check perature Temp and short-circuit current Isc of a pilot PV cell

points. ai and bi are determined by the Fibonacci rule (as a measure of the solar insolation level) are taken as input.

⎧ ai The sun’s position αs is used as another input to consider the

cn +1

⎪

⎨b = c shading effect.

i n The system is first trained with a known set of input and

(17)

⎪ ai+1 = cn .

⎩ output data. During the training process, the weights wij , which

bi+1 cn −1 are shown in Fig. 11, are trained to correctly map input data

to the desired output. The training is based on minimizing the

538 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

error between the network output power and the desired output where vjk is the jth array voltage at the kth iteration, and N is

power level. Once trained, this network of artificial neurons is the number of PV modules. The velocity vector is

expected to estimate the maximum output power of a PV array

for any shading condition. velk = [v1k − v1k −1 , v2k − v2k −1 , . . . , vN

k k −1

− vN ]. (23)

In [59], it is assumed that shading due to moving objects such

The function to be optimized is the total array output power.

as clouds has a uniform effect on the PV array, and hence, it uses

The PSO technique has been shown to track the global MPP

only the sun’s position to consider the effect of partial shading.

within 2 s, is based on the experiments that are performed on

It is advantageous as it needs fewer inputs to train the neural

a 200-W PV array, and have a deviation between the estimated

network. However, the assumption of a uniform shading effect

global MPP and the actual global MPP of less than 4% [61]. A

due to mobile objects is not always valid. An additional fuzzy

more accurate algorithm, adaptive perceptive particle swarm op-

logic controller is used with ANN to track the actual MPP in

timization (APPSO), is presented in [62]. In APPSO, each agent

[60]. The fuzzy controller tracks the reference voltage generated

scans the search space within its perception range. The agent

by ANN. Adjacent PV modules are assigned as a group, and the

performs the search in a fixed number of directions by sam-

average irradiance level and the cells temperature are used as

pling finite number of points along each direction. In APPSO,

the inputs to train the neural network. This is applicable under

the agent modifies its perception radius, search directions, and

different shading conditions.

the number of sampling points along each direction depending

For the case study reported in [59], the ANN technique shows

upon whether or not the current iteration improves the agent

an acceptable accuracy and tracking speed in detecting the

performance. This adaptability ensures accurate tracking of the

global MPP under the partial shading condition. The ANN tech-

global maximum. As reported in [62], the error in estimating

nique can be implemented by an inexpensive microcontroller.

the global maximum by APPSO is less than 3%.

The sensors that are required to implement the ANN technique

In a PSO-based MPPT, a structure similar to hill climbing

are current and temperature sensors. Additionally, the irradi-

method can be adopted to utilize the direct duty cycle control.

ance factor needs to be measured as an input to ANN. This

The duty cycle is maintained at a constant value, and the steady-

technique is system specific and may not yield accurate results

state oscillations are reduced [63]. The PSO technique needs

under all shading conditions if periodic tuning is not conducted.

only two sensors for the PV voltage and current. However, the

Since the characteristics of PV arrays change by time, neural

algorithm exhibits a complicated implementation, and a power-

networks need to be trained regularly to preserve the accuracy

ful microcontroller is required for digital implementation. The

of MPPT.

performance of the PSO technique does not depend on the shape

of the power–voltage curve.

H. Particle Swarm Optimization

IV. ARRAY CONFIGURATION

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a metaheuristic ap-

proach which is used to optimize a multivariable function. This The partial shading effects can be alleviated by employing dif-

technique consists of so-called cooperating agents that scan ferent array configurations for interconnecting PV modules [40],

through the search space based on the shared information to [41], [64]. SP, TCT, and BL configurations are shown in Fig. 12.

find the optimum value of a function. The velocity velki , with The interconnections between the PV strings enable different

which the ith agent proceeds at the kth iteration, is determined current flowing through the PV strings in TCT and BL con-

by the agent’s previous best solution pib est and the best solution figurations. This may decrease the current that flows through

of the group of agents gb est [61]. The velocity velki and position the shaded cells and keep them in the forward bias region,

ski of each agent are updated as given by thus blocking the operation of bypass diodes. Therefore, com-

pared with the traditional SP array configuration, TCT and BL

configurations can improve the MPP of the PV system under

velki +1 = wvelki + c1 r1 pib est + c2 r2 gb est (20) partial shading. In [65], an artificial static shading is applied on

ski +1 = ski + velki +1 (21) a 2.2-kW PV plant, causing the power–voltage curve to have

two maxima. The comparative study shows that BL and TCT

configurations result in a 2.3% and 3.8% increase in MPP com-

where w is the momentum factor. c1 and c2 are positive con- pared with the SP configuration, respectively. A similar study

stants. 0 < r1 < 1 and 0 < r2 < 1 are random numbers. pib est in [35] and [66] shows that the TCT configuration yields the

is updated only if the current position of the agent gives a better highest MPP. Considering the number of interconnections, the

solution. SP configuration has the minimum wiring, while the TCT con-

PSO can be applied for MPPT of a PV system by dividing figuration requires the maximum number of wires. The higher

the PV array into a number of different modules each controlled number of interconnections slightly increases the loss of the PV

by an individual dc–dc converter. The modules’ voltages are system due to the additional cable loss. However, the simpler

considered to be the position vector of each agent in the PSO pattern of TCT configuration for large PV arrays causes easier

algorithm, which is shown in wiring process [65].

Reconfigurable PV arrays are another viable solution to com-

sk = [v1k , v2k , . . . , vN

k

] (22) pensate the power loss due to the partial shading condition [39].

BIDRAM et al.: CONTROL AND CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE PARTIAL SHADING EFFECTS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS 539

dc/ac dc/ac

Grid Grid

(a) (b)

Fig. 12. Array configurations for alleviating the power loss under the partial dc/dc dc/dc dc/dc dc/ac dc/ac dc/ac

shading condition. (a) SP, (b) TCT, and (c) BL.

dc/ac Grid

Grid

(c) (d)

Switching Fig. 14. PV system architectures. (a) Centralized, (b) series-connected micro-

matrix converter, (c) parallel-connected microconverter, and (d) microinverter.

MPP of individual PV modules cannot be tracked. Therefore,

this architecture is more vulnerable to shading and mismatching

Fixed part of Adaptive loss [42], [43]. In the series-connected microconverter architec-

PV module bank ture, shown in Fig. 14(b), dc–dc converters are employed to

track the MPP of individual modules [67]. The output of the

Fig. 13. Decomposition of a reconfigurable PV array.

series-connected converters is fed to a central inverter. In the

parallel-connected microconverter, shown in Fig. 14(c), mod-

For example, a reconfigurable PV array with TCT configura- ules are connected to the central inverter using individual dc–dc

tion is presented in [39]. The PV system consists of a fixed converters. Alternatively, the microinverter architecture, shown

part and a small adaptive bank of PV modules used for energy in Fig. 14(d), eliminates the central inverter and permits MPPT

compensation, as shown in Fig. 13. Once shading is detected, for individual modules. Except for the central architecture, other

a switching matrix reconfigures the PV modules. The shaded architectures enable module-level MPPT and are suitable for

modules in the fixed part are compensated by the modules in the partial shading conditions.

adaptive bank. Thus, the PV system produces a constant power

even when shaded. As reported in [39], equipping a 3×3 PV VI. CIRCUIT TOPOLOGIES

array with TCT configuration (three PV modules in each row

and three PV modules in each column) with a 3×3 adaptive part In this section, circuit topologies that specifically mitigate the

can increase the MPP by 60%. Therefore, the reconfigurable PV partial shading effects are discussed.

array shows the most improvement of MPP compared with the

TCT and BL configurations. However, the reconfigurable PV A. Multilevel Converters

array is not cost efficient, compared with TCT and BL configu-

Multilevel diode-clamped converters have a slightly modi-

rations, due to the requirement for a complicated control system

fied centralized architecture [45], [68]–[71]. A four-level diode-

and additional PV modules [39].

clamped converter that is connected to three PV arrays is shown

Another potential drawback of the reconfigurable PV array

in Fig. 15. Each PV array is connected parallel to a capaci-

is its performance under severe shading conditions: With a low

tor. This architecture allows array-level MPPT by controlling

number of cells in the adaptive bank, it is not practical to com-

the operating voltage of the corresponding array. As reported

pensate for all shaded cells. A large adaptive bank significantly

in [68], experimental results demonstrate 30% improvement

increases installation cost and requires a complicated control

in the output power when a four-level converter is used in-

algorithm [39].

stead of a conventional inverter. A PV system with a multi-

level diode-clamped converter is not upgradable, i.e., to increase

V. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES

the number of PV arrays, a multilevel diode-clamped converter

Centralized architecture, series-connected microconverters, with more semiconductor switches is required. The larger num-

parallel-connected microconverters, and microinverters are ber of PV arrays significantly increases the number of semi-

the basic architectures for grid-connected PV systems, as conductor switches, making the control system more complex

shown in Fig. 14. The most conventional architecture is the and the approach cost prohibitive. The switching loss in the

540 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

P P

Non-shaded 50% shaded Non-shaded

50% shaded

a

b Grid

c

0 s n n

Vmax Vmax V Vmax V

(a) (b)

(a) Without bias voltage injection and (b) with bias voltage injection.

I1 I2 In

multilevel converter is relatively high due to the larger number

of semiconductor devices [70].

Alternatively, each PV array can be divided into two identical

and independent subarrays and connected to the grid using a Grid

neutral point-clamped converter with an individual MPPT sys-

tem for each subarray [72]. The individual MPPT system for

each subarray can also be implemented using half-bridge con-

verters. Since the power of both subarrays can be separately

optimized, it is more probable to track the global MPP. There-

fore, these circuit topologies are more energy efficient than the

multilevel diode-clamped converter topology. However, since PV String Selector

I1,...,In

Relay Id

there is only one MPP tracker for each subarray, module-level

MPPT is not achieved. Therefore, despite improvement, there Fig. 17. Voltage injection-based circuitry to align the MPP of shaded and

will still be losses due to the partial shading effects. Individual nonshaded PV modules.

MPPT for each subarray would increase the complexity and cost

of the control system [70], [73].

in [74], for a 300-W shaded PV system, the bias-voltage injec-

tion improves the extracted power from the PV panel by 20%

B. Voltage Injection under a certain partial shading condition. The Type-I voltage

In the voltage injection topology, the extracted maximum injection topology can be simply controlled by an inexpensive

powers of the PV systems are improved by injecting a bias microcontroller. This topology can be upgraded as the number

voltage into the shaded PV strings or modules [74]–[76]. of PV strings increases. However, a potential drawback of this

In the first approach, referred to here as Type I, the bias voltage topology is that if two or more PV strings experience differ-

is injected to align the global MPP of the shaded PV strings ent shading levels, each shaded string requires a different bias

with the MPP of the nonshaded PV strings. This procedure is voltage. Therefore, since the proposed circuitry cannot provide

elaborated for two parallel PV strings, when one of them is different bias voltages simultaneously, the maximum power of

50% shaded. The power–voltage curves of these PV strings are the PV panel cannot be extracted, and the energy efficiency of

shown in Fig. 16(a). Vmnax and Vms ax are the operating voltages the PV system decreases [76].

of the MPP in the normal and shaded PV strings, respectively. In the second approach, referred to here as Type II, the

As shown in Fig. 16(b), the global MPP of the shaded PV string bias voltages can deactivate shaded PV modules in a string,

is aligned with the MPP of the nonshaded string by injecting a as shown in Fig. 18. In this circuit, individual dc–dc converters

bias voltage to the shaded PV string. The bias voltage can be are mounted on each PV string. Each dc–dc converter is fed

provided by connecting the shaded PV string to a capacitor in from the output voltage of the PV system Vout and provides the

i

series. bias voltage Vbias for the ith PV string. The shaded PV modules

The circuitry that is proposed for the aforementioned voltage in each PV string are deactivated by forward biasing the bypass

injection-based approach is shown in Fig. 17. As seen, the ca- diodes. The number of PV modules that needs to be deactivated

pacitors are connected in series with PV strings. The PV string specifies the required bias voltage for each PV string. There-

selector connects the shaded PV string with the capacitor de- fore, the voltage of each PV module needs to be monitored and

pending on PV strings’ current I1 , . . . , In and dc bus current Id . compared with other modules’ voltage to extract the number

The string selector deselects the PV string if the bias voltage, of the shaded modules in each string. A complicated control

that needs to be injected, becomes small enough. As reported system is required to manage the dc–dc converters. As reported

BIDRAM et al.: CONTROL AND CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE PARTIAL SHADING EFFECTS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS 541

+ I

I1 D2

Vout 1

Pmax

+

I2

1 2 + m +

Vbias _ dc/dc Vbias _ dc/dc Vbias _ dc/dc

_

2

Fig. 18. Voltage injection-based circuitry to deactivate shaded PV modules. Pmax

0

2 1 V

Vmax Vmax

+ +

Vout m Fig. 21. Effect of changing the off-duty ratio of switches on the extracted

_ power in the multichopper topology.

Vout Ipv

+

Vout m

S3 S4

_ _

S1 S2 Istring

+ microconverter architecture.

(1)

+

+

_ Vout

Vout

+

_

(2)

MPPT 1 MPPT 2

_

The generation control circuit (GCC) improves the extracted

Fig. 20. Multichopper-based-GCC topology.

power of a PV string by controlling the operating voltage of

PV modules [77]–[79]. Here, two different GCC topologies are

discussed.

The first topology, which is named dc–dc converter-based

in [75], for a PV array with three strings and eight modules in topology [77], [78], is shown in Fig. 19. In this topology, the

each string (MPP of each module is 24.4 W), Type-II topology operating voltage of all PV modules is controlled at a constant

improves the energy efficiency of the shaded PV system from value of Vout /m. Vout is the output voltage of the PV string,

23% to 95%. As opposed to Type I, Type-II voltage injection and m is the number of PV modules in the string. Once one

topology properly functions when two or more PV strings expe- module is shaded, its parallel capacitor provides extra current

rience different shading levels. One of the potential drawbacks to compensate for the difference between the string current and

of Type-II voltage injection topology is that the full power ca- the current of the shaded PV module. The compensating current

pacity of the PV system cannot be exploited since the shaded PV facilitates the operation of the shaded PV module at the same

modules are deactivated. This circuit topology can be upgraded voltage as the operating voltage of nonshaded modules. As re-

by using more dc–dc converters as the number of PV strings ported in [78], the dc–dc converter-based topology improves the

increases. However, increasing the number of dc–dc converters extracted power from the PV panel. In this topology, the individ-

increases the system cost [75], [76]. ual voltage control of each PV module is not feasible. It should

542 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

TABLE II

COMPARISON TABLE FOR DIFFERENT MPPT TECHNIQUES DISCUSSED IN SECTION III

Type Tracking accuracy

tuning speed complexity parameters Limitations

Power curve slope No Medium Highly accurate Medium

current maximum is reached.

Load line must intersect I-V curve in the

This technique is not

vicinity of the global maximum. The

always accurate Voltage and

Type I Yes Fast Low accuracy of this technique can be

under all partial current

Load line deteriorated by the aging of the electrical

shading conditions.

MPPT components in the PV system.

The change in electrical components,

Voltage and

Type II Yes Fast Accurate Medium caused by aging, can negatively affect the

current

accuracy of this technique.

A proper initialization is needed to avoid

Voltage and

Dividing rectangles No Fast Accurate Medium being trapped at the local maxima power

current

points.

Power increment Voltage and

No Fast Highly accurate Medium Convergence is always guaranteed.

technique current

No Medium Highly accurate Medium

optimization current assess the currents at different maxima.

This technique is not

always accurate Voltage and Uncertain converge to global maximum if

Fibbonaci search No Medium Medium

under all partial current a large set of local maxima exist.

shading conditions.

Temperature

Artificial neural A system specific approach that requires

Yes Fast Accurate High irradiance,

network retuning.

and current

Particle swarm Voltage and

No Medium Accurate High Convergence is always guaranteed.

optimization current

voltage can improve the PV string power to some extent; how- The module-integrated converters (MICs) conventionally

ever, module-based MPPT is not feasible, which confines the

use a series-connected microconverter architecture, shown in

energy efficiency of the PV system. This potential drawback has Fig. 14(b). In this circuit topology, a dc–dc converter is inte-

been obviated in multichopper topology [77], shown in Fig. 20. grated to each PV module. The sets of PV modules and their

The dc–dc converter-based topology can be upgraded, and ac-

associated converters are connected in series to form a PV

commodate higher number of PV modules. The control system string. This circuit topology facilitates the operation of series-

can be simply implemented by an inexpensive microcontroller. connected PV modules at different current levels. Each dc–dc

In multichopper topology, the off-duty ratio of the switch

converter is controlled by an autonomous local controller to

associated with the ith PV module Di can be individually con- extract the PV module’s maximum power. Additionally, the de-

trolled to regulate the operating voltage of the ith PV module.

coupled control policy of PV modules significantly increases

This is elaborated for a PV string with two PV modules, where

the PV system robustness and reliability [80]–[85].

the second one is shaded. The current–voltage curves of these The dc–dc converter can be conventional converters (e.g.,

PV modules are shown in Fig. 21. Pm1 ax and Pm2 ax are the MPP

buck, boost, buck–boost, and Cuk) [81], [82]. More recently,

of the first and second PV modules, respectively. The total out-

modified converter topologies have been presented to achieve a

put power of this PV string can be adjusted by adjusting the higher efficiency [83], [85]. For example, the circuitry shown in

off-duty ratio of the shaded PV module D2 . Similarly, for a PV

Fig. 22 can operate in buck, boost, and pass-through modes. In

string with m PV modules, the central controller needs to suc- this circuit, when the PV module is partially shaded, i.e., Ipv <

cessively adjust the off-duty ratio of all switches to ensure that Istring , the converter operates in the buck mode. In this mode, S4

all PV modules are working at their MPPs. This might increase

is ON and S2 is OFF, and the converter is controlled by S3 and

the complexity and cost of the PV system controller and is a S1 . When the other PV modules work at a lower power level, i.e.,

potential disadvantage of this GCC topology [77]. As reported Ipv > Istring , the converter operates in the boost mode. In this

in [77], for a 600-W shaded PV system, the multichopper topol-

mode, S3 is ON and S1 is OFF, and the converter is controlled

ogy improves the extracted power from the PV panel by 20% by S2 and S4 . Under the normal condition Ipv ≈ Istring , the

under a certain partial shading condition. This circuit topology converter operates in the pass-through mode. In this mode, S3

can be upgraded as the number of PV modules increases.

and S4 are always ON, and the input is directly linked to the

BIDRAM et al.: CONTROL AND CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES TO MITIGATE PARTIAL SHADING EFFECTS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAYS 543

TABLE III

COMPARISON TABLE FOR DIFFERENT CIRCUIT TOPOLOGIES DISCUSSED IN SECTION VI

Individual PV modules may not operate at their MPP.

MPPT for individual PV arrays. A large PV array requires numerous semiconductor

Multilevel diode-clamped

PV system has acceptable energy efficiency under switches, increasing the system complex and cost.

converter

partial shading condition. High switching power loss.

PV system is not upgradable.

MPPT for individual PV sub-arrays.

PV system provides better energy efficiency than the

PV system with an auxiliary Individual PV modules may not operate at their MPP.

multilevel diode-clamped converter.

half-bridge converter PV system is not upgradable.

Lower number of switches and, hence, lower switching

loss than the multilevel diode-clamped converter.

MPPT for individual PV sub-arrays. Individual PV modules may not operate at their MPP.

Neutral point clamped converter PV system provides better energy efficiency than the PV system is not upgradable.

multilevel diode-clamped converter. High switching loss.

Maximum possible power cannot be extracted when

Simple circuitry and control system.

Type I two or more PV strings are partially shaded (confined

Voltage Upgradability.

energy efficiency).

injection based

Higher energy efficiency than Type I when two or more More complicated control system than Type I.

topology

Type II PV strings are partially shaded. Full power capacity of PV system cannot be exploited

Upgradability. since the shaded PV modules are deactivated.

Dc-dc Simple control system. Shaded PV modules may not operate precisely at

converter Upgradability. their MPP (Confined energy efficiency).

Generation

MPPT for individual PV module.

control circuit

topology Multi- PV system has acceptable energy efficiency under the

Complicated control structure.

chopper partial shading condition.

Upgradability.

Module-integrated circuit MPPT for individual PV module. Relatively large number of passive and active

(series-connected micro- High energy efficiency. components per PV module.

converter architecture) Upgradability. Complicated control structure .

Relatively large number of passive and active

MPPT for individual PV modules.

components per PV module.

High energy harvest efficiency.

Module-integrated circuit The ac gird technical issues and electromagnetic

Smaller size and safer installation than series-connected

(micro-inverter architecture) interface issues need to be considered in the design of

micro-converter architecture.

integrated inverters.

System expandability.

Complicated control structure.

Higher output power than single input boost converters. With the higher number of inputs, the number of

Multiple-input boost converter Acceptable energy efficiency under partial shading semiconductor switches and inductors increases

Upgradability. which in turn adds to the system size and cost.

Multiple-input single-output Lower size and cost compare to conventional MISO.

More complex control structure than the multiple-

(MISO) converter with a single Upgradability.

input boost converter.

inductor Acceptable energy efficiency under partial shading.

for the MIC-based topology improves the efficiency of the PV

A multiple-input single-output (MISO) boost converter can be

system by 95% for most operating ranges. Additionally, for implemented as a first-stage dc–dc converter in micro-converter

a shaded 85-W PV system, the MIC-based topology in [83] architectures [43]. In a modified PV module, which is shown

improves the output power of the PV array by 38%.

in Fig. 23, the electrical contact is separated in point 1, and the

The MIC-based topology can also be implemented as a mi- bypass diodes are removed from point 2. The string outputs are

croinverter architecture, shown in Fig. 14(d). In this circuit

connected to the boost converters. The voltages and currents of

topology, which are known as “ACPV modules,” an inverter

the strings are measured for the purpose of MPPT. Since bypass

is used instead of a dc–dc converter. Using inverters obvi- diodes are removed from the PV module, the power–voltage

ates the requirement of the central dc–ac converter and the

curve has only one MPP. Thus, a simple control algorithm, e.g.,

high-voltage dc bus, thus resulting in lower size and safer in-

P&O, can be implemented for MPPT. As reported in [43], for

stallation of the PV string [86], [87]. However, ACPV intro- a shaded 120-W PV module, a MISO boost converter increases

duces filtering, protection, and the electromagnetic interface

the output power by 9.6%, compared with a single-input

issues [81]. boost converter. This circuit topology can be upgraded for the

The MIC-based topology requires a fast and complicated con- connection of more PV strings. With a higher number of inputs,

trol system to manage the operation of converts that are installed

the number of semiconductor switches and inductors increases,

on the PV modules. This increases the cost and complexity of the which, in turn, adds to the system size and cost. The size and cost

PV system. The MIC-based topology can be simply upgraded issues can be reduced by using single-inductor MISO converters

by adding new PV modules.

[88].

544 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

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546 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012

partially shaded insolation conditions,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 49, Ali Davoudi (S’04–M’11) received the B.Sc. degree

pp. 2307–2316, Aug. 2008. from the Sharif University of Technology, Tehran,

[77] T. Shimizu, M. Hirakata, T. Kamezawa, and H. Watanabe, “Generation Iran, the M.Sc. degree from The University of

control circuit for photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, and the

vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 293–300, May 2001. Ph.D. degree from the University of Illinois, Urbana-

[78] T. Kamezawa, M. Hirakata, M. Ohsato, T. Shimizu, G. Kimura, N. Ito, Champaign, in 2003, 2005, and 2010, respectively,

S. Fukao, N. Sunaga, M. Tsunoda, and K. Muro, “Photovoltaic system all in electrical and computer engineering.

with generation control circuit,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Ind. Technol., He is currently an Assistant Professor with the

1996, pp. 242–246. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of

[79] Z. Qi, S. Xiangdong, Z. Yanru, and M. Mikihiko, “A novel topology Texas at Arlington. He was with Solar Bridge Tech-

for solving the partial shading problem in photovoltaic power generation nologies, Texas Instruments Incorporated, and Royal

system,” in Proc. Power Electron. Motion Control Conf., 2009, pp. 2130– Philips Electronics. His research interests are all aspects of modeling, simula-

2135. tion, and control of power electronics and energy conversion systems, renewable

[80] J. H. R. Enslin, M. S. Wolf, D. B. Snyman, and W. Swiegers, “Integrated energy sources, and transportation electrification.

photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Dr. Davoudi is an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICU-

Electron., vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 769–773, Dec. 1997. LAR TECHNOLOGY and the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS.

[81] G. R. Walker and P. C. Sernia, “Cascaded DC–DC converter connection He is also the guest associate editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER

of photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, ELECTRONICS Special Issue on Transportation Electrification and Vehicle

pp. 1130–1139, Jul. 2004. Systems.

[82] L. Quan and P. Wolfs, “A review of the single phase photovoltaic module

integrated converter topologies with three different DC link configura-

tions,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1320–1333, May

2008.

[83] L. Linares, R. W. Erickson, S. MacAlpine, and M. Brandemuehl, “Im-

proved energy capture in series string photovoltaics via smart distributed

power electronics,” in Proc. Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo., 2009,

pp. 904–910. Robert S. Balog (S’92–M’96–SM’07) received the

[84] E. Román, V. Martinez, J. C. Jimeno, R. Alonso, P. Ibañez, and S. Elor- B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Rutgers-

duizapatarietxe, “Experimental results of controlled PV module for build- The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick,

ing integrated PV systems,” Solar Energy, vol. 82, pp. 471–480, May NJ, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical en-

2008. gineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-

[85] R. K. Hester, C. Thornton, S. Dhople, Z. Zheng, N. Sridhar, and D. Free- Champaign.

man, “High efficiency wide load range buck/boost/bridge photovoltaic mi- He was an Engineer with Lutron Electronics,

croconverter,” in Proc. Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo., 2011, pp. 309– Coopersburg, PA, from 1996 to 1999, a Researcher

313. with the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Engineering

[86] R. Carbone and A. Tomaselli, “Recent advances on AC PV-modules for Research and Development Center (ERDEC), Con-

grid-connected photovoltaic plants,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Clean Electr. struction Engineering Research Lab (CERL), Cham-

Power, 2011, pp. 124–129. paign, IL, from 2005 to 2006, a Senior Engineer with SolarBridge Technologies,

[87] C. Prapanavarat, M. Barnes, and N. Jenkins, “Investigation of the per- Champaign, from 2006 to 2009, and he then joined Texas A&M University, Col-

formance of a photovoltaic AC module,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Gener. lege Station, where he is currently an Assistant Professor with the Department

Transm. Distrib., vol. 149, pp. 472–478, Jul. 2002. of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He holds 11 issued and pending U.S.

[88] S. Poshtkouhi and O. Trescases, “Multi-input single inductor dc–dc con- patents. His current research interests include power converters for solar energy,

verter for MPPT in parallel-connected photovoltaic applications,” in Proc. particularly microinverters for ac photovoltaic modules and highly reliable elec-

Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo., 2011, pp. 41–47. trical power and energy systems, including dc microgrids.

Dr. Balog is a Registered Professional Engineer in Illinois. He received the

IEEE Joseph J. Suozzi INTELEC Fellowship in Power Electronics in 2001. He

is a member of Eta Kappa Nu, Sigma Xi, the National Society of Professional

Engineers, the American Solar Energy Society, and the Solar Electric Power As-

sociation. He received the 2011 Rutgers College of Engineering Distinguished

Engineer Award.

Ali Bidram (S’09) received the B.S. (Hons.) and

M.S. (Hons.) degrees in electrical engineering from

the Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, in

2008 and 2010, respectively. He is currently working

toward the Ph.D. degree with the University of Texas

at Arlington.

His research interests include the application of

power electronics in power systems, microgrid, and

renewable energy resources.

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