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“TECNOLÓGICO NACIONAL DE MÉXICO”

“Métodos Numéricos” “INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE MÉRIDA”

1. Seleccionar un sistema de 3 ecuaciones lineales con 3 incógnitas y resolver


por 2 métodos directos y los 2 métodos indirectos vistos en clase

SISTEMA DE ECUACIONES
10𝑋1 +𝑋2 +2𝑋3 =3
4𝑋1 +6𝑋2 −𝑋3 =9
−2𝑋1 +3𝑋2 +8𝑋3 = 51

-4F1+F2=F2
Método de gauss 2F1+F3=F3
-F2+F3=F3

1 2 3 1 2 3
1 1
10 10 10 10 10 10
10 1 2 3 𝐹1 28 9 39 4 16 36 156
[ 4 6 −1 9] = 0 − 𝐹2 ∗ = 0 −
10 5 5 5 7 5 35 35
−2 3 8 51
16 42 258 66 330
[0 5 5 5 ] [0 0 7 7 ]
1 2 3
𝑋1 + (3) + (5) =
10 10 10
𝑥1 = −1

16 36 156
𝑋2 − (5) =
5 35 35
𝑥2 = 3

66 330
𝑋3 =
7 7
𝑥3 = 5
“TECNOLÓGICO NACIONAL DE MÉXICO”
“Métodos Numéricos” “INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE MÉRIDA”

Método de Gauss-Jordán

1
− 10F2+F1=F1
-4F1+F2=F2 16
− F2+F3=F3
2F1+F3=F3 5

1 2 3 13 9
1 1 0
10 10 10 56 56
10 1 2 3 𝐹1 28 9 39 28 9 39 66
[ 4 6 −1 9 ] = 0 − 𝐹2 ÷ = 0 1 − 𝐹3 ÷
10 5 5 5 5 28 28 7
−2 3 8 51
16 42 258 66 330
[0 5 5 5 ] [0 0 7 7 ]
1 0 0 −1
= [0 1 0 3]
0 0 1 5
9
− 28F3+F2=F2
13
− F3+F1=F1
56

𝑋1 −1
𝑥 = [𝑋2 ] = [ 3 ] = 𝑆𝑂𝐿𝑈𝐶𝐼Ó𝑁 𝐷𝐸𝐿 𝑆𝐼𝑆𝑇𝐸𝑀𝐴
𝑋3 5
“TECNOLÓGICO NACIONAL DE MÉXICO”
“Métodos Numéricos” “INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE MÉRIDA”

Método de Jacobi
0 0.3
𝑥 0 = [0] 𝑥1 = [ 1.5 ] ∆1 = [𝑥1 − 𝑥0 ] > 𝑒
0 6.375
10 1 2 −1.25 −1.125 − (0.3) −1.425
[ 4 6 −1] 2
𝑥 = [2.3625] ∆2 = [ 2.3625 − (1.5) ] = [ 0.8625 ] > 𝑒
5.8875 5.8875 − 6.375 −0.4875
−2 3 8

−𝑥2 −2𝑥3 +3 3 −(1.5)−2(6.375)+3 −2(2.3625)−2(5.8875)+3


𝑥11 = = 10 𝑥12 =
10
= −1.125 𝑥13 =
10
= −1.113
10

−4𝑥1 +𝑥3 +9 9 −4(0.3)+6.375+9 −4(−1.125)+5.8875+9


𝑥21 = =6 𝑥22 =
6
= 2.3625 𝑥23 =
6
= 3.23125
6

2𝑥1 −3𝑥2 +51 51 2(0.3)−3(1.5)+51 2(−1.125)−3(2.3625)+51


𝑥31 = = 𝑥32 =
8
= 5.8875 𝑥33 =
8
= 5.207
8 8

−1.113 −1.0645 − (−1.113) 0.012


𝑥 3 = [ 3.231 ] ∆3 = [ 3.109 − (3.231) ] = [ 0.8685 ] > 𝑒
5.207 4.88 − (5.207) −0.6805
−𝑥2 −2𝑥3 +3 −4𝑥1 +𝑥3 +9 −2𝑥1 −3𝑥2 +51
𝑥14 = 10
= −1.0645 𝑥24 = 6
= 3.109 𝑥34 = 8
= 4.88

−1.0645 −1.0645 − (−1.113) 0.0485


4 3.109 − (3.231)
𝑥 = [ 3.109 ] ∆4 = [ ] = [−0.212] < 𝑒
4.88 4.88 − (5.207) −0.321

−1.0645 Es una solución aproximada


4
𝑥 = [ 3.109 ] < 𝑒 para el sistema de
4.88 ecuaciones
“TECNOLÓGICO NACIONAL DE MÉXICO”
“Métodos Numéricos” “INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE MÉRIDA”

Método de Gauss-Seidel
𝑒 = 0.2 0 0.3
−𝑥2 − 2𝑥3 + 3 𝑥 0 = [0] 𝑥1 = [ 1.3 ] ∆1 = [𝑥1 − 𝑥0 ] > 𝑒
𝑥1 = 0 5.96
10
−4𝑥1 + 𝑥3 + 9 −1.022 −1.022 − 0.3 −1.322
𝑥2 = 2
6 𝑥 = [ 3.17 ] ∆2 = [ 3.17 − 1.30 ] = [ 1.87 ] > 𝑒
2𝑥1 − 3𝑥2 + 51 4.93 4.93 − 5.96 −1.03
𝑥3 =
8
−1.003 −1.003 − (−1.022) 0.019
𝑥 3 = [ 2.99 ] ∆3 = [ 2.99 − 3.17 ] = [−0.18] < 𝑒
5.003 5.003 − 4.93 0.073

𝑥11 = 0.3 −1.3 − 2(5.96) + 3


𝑥12 = = −1.022
10
−4(0.3) + 9
𝑥21 = = 1.3 −4(−1.022) + (5.96) + 9
6 𝑥22 = = 3.17
6
2(0.3) − 3(1.3) + 51
𝑥31 = = 5.96 2(−1.022) − 3(3.17) + 51
8 𝑥32 = = 4.93
8

−3.17 − 2(4.93) + 3
𝑥13 = = −1.003
10
−4(−1.003) + (4.93) + 9
𝑥23 = = 2.99
6
2(−1.003) − 3(2.99) + 51
𝑥33 = = 5.003
8

−1.003
3
SLN=𝑥 = [ 2.99 ]
5.003
“TECNOLÓGICO NACIONAL DE MÉXICO”
“Métodos Numéricos” “INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE MÉRIDA”

2. Buscar en algún texto en internet un sistema no lineal de 3 ecuaciones con 3


incógnitas y resolverlos por el método de Newton utilizando un 𝒆 = 𝟎. 𝟐

0 3.65
𝑥 21 + 2𝑥2 + 3𝑥3 = 17 𝑒 = 0.2, 𝑥 0 = [0], 𝑥 1 = [2.74]
0 3.64
𝑥1 − 𝑥1 𝑥2 − 𝑥3 = −7
𝑥1 − 𝑥2 + 4𝑥3 = 21

2𝑥 − 2 + 3 20.92 −2 3
𝜕 = [−𝑥1+1 − 𝑥2 − 1] = [−9.46 −13.69 −1]
1 1 4 1 1 4
𝐹1 (0)2 − 2(0) + 3(0) = 17
0 3.65
1
𝐹2 (0) − (0)(0) − (0) = −7 𝑥 = [0]+[2.74]
0 3.64
𝐹3 (0) − (0) + 4(0) = 21

−17 0 −2 3 𝑦1 −17 𝑦1 3.65


−𝐹 = ⌈ 7 ⌉ 𝜕𝑦 = −𝐹 [1 0 −1] [𝑦2 ] = [ 7 ] Y=[𝑦2 ]=[2.74]
−21 1 1 4 𝑦3 −21 𝑦3 3.64

7.3 −2 3 𝑦1 −1.76 𝑦1 3.0034


𝜕𝑦 = −𝐹 [−1.64 𝑦
−2.74 −1] [ 2 ] = [ 2.71 ] 𝑦
Y=[ 2 ]=[2.0026]
1 1 4 𝑦3 5.53 𝑦3 3.9985

3.65 3.0034
𝑥2 = [2.74] = [2.0026]
3.64 3.9985