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OFFICIAL LABORATORY REPORT

Environmental Pollutants Analytical Technique

“ANALYSIS OF ALKALINITY, TOTAL HARDNESS AND CALCIUM”

NAME : CAHYANINGRUM AYU A.


NRP : 03211740000028
LECTURER : WELLY HERUMURTI, ST., M.Sc
LABORATORY ASSISTANT : CINDY FATMAWATI

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, ENVIRONMENT AND GEOSCIENCE
SEPULUH NOPEMBER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLGY 2019
DAFTAR ISI
CHAPTER 1 ...................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Objectives .......................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Principles ........................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Literature Review ............................................................................................. 1
CHAPTER 2 ...................................................................................................................... 2
EXPERIMENTAL SCHEME ........................................................................................... 2
2.1 Workflow ............................................................................................................ 2
2.1.1 Total Hardness Analysis.......................................................................... 2
2.1.2 Calcium Analysis ...................................................................................... 2
2.1.3 Alkalinity Analysis .................................................................................... 3
CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................................................... 4
DISCUSSION.................................................................................................................... 4
3.1 Data and Results .............................................................................................. 4
3.1.1 Total Hardness Analysis.......................................................................... 4
3.1.2 Calcium Analysis...............................................................................5
3.1.3 Alkalinity Analysis ....................................................................................6
3.2 Discussion............................................................................................................... 6
CHAPTER 4 .................................................................................................................... 11
CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................ 11
4.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 11
4.2 Questions and Answers ................................................................................ 11
References ...................................................................................................................... 14
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Objectives
The purpose of this experiment include:
1. To determine the amount of total hardness contained in the water
2. To determine the amount of Calcium (Ca2+) content dissolved in water
3. To measure the alkalinity in water sample

1.2 Principles
The principle of this experiment is to determine the amount of total hardness
caused by Ca2+ ions as well as Mn2+, Fe2+ and all divalent cations. Water with
carbonate hardness is usually found in soil in areas with lime where Ca2+ and Mg2+
exists. The analysis is done by using tirtration method, using EDTA as titrate and
using a sensitve indicator towards all the cations. The total hardness can also be
determined by summing up Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions which are analyzed separately by
AAS method. Before titration the indicator is added to know the equilibrium point.
When equilibrium is reached the sample’s color will change. This happens through
the equation:
Ca2+(aq) + 2HCO3-(aq)  CaCO3(s) +H2O +CO2
Mg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)  Mg(OH)2(s)
Determining the concentration of Ca2+ ions can be done separately if Mg2+
ion is removed from the solution at high pH conditions where almost all Mg 2+ ions are
suspended as Mg2(OH). Indicators Eriochrom Blue Black R (Calcon) or Murexid,
which are sensitive towards Ca2+ ions are used. To determine the alkalinity, titration
is done using standard strong acid solution and is shown by the equivalent value ml/L
CaCO3.

1.3 Literature Review


The terms alkalinity and hardness are often used interchangeably when
discussing water quality. This is because most hardness and alkalinity comes from
limestone or dolomite sources in nature. When water passes through the rocks
contain limestone (calcium carbonate) and dolomite (calcium and magnesium
carbonate) in the ground picks up minerals on the way. When limestone and dolomite
dissolve in water, one half of the molecule is calcium or magnesium (the "hardness")
and the other half is the carbonate (the "alkalinity"), so most of the times they are
equal (Ghadikolaei et al, 2017).

Alkalinity and hardness are both important components of water quality.


However, these two aspects of water chemistry are commonly confused. The
confusion relates to the term used to report these measures, ppm CaCO 3 (same as
mg/L). Total alkalinity indicates the quantity of base present in water --bicarbonates,
carbonates, phosphates, hydroxides, etc. Hardness represents the overall
concentration of divalent salts (calcium, magnesium, iron, etc.) but does not identify
which of these elements is/are the source of hardness. It is important to recognize

1
the difference between hardness and total alkalinity when farming aquatic animals.
The determination of whether water is acid, neutral or base is defined by pH (Wurts,
2002).

Calcium could determined directly with EDTA if pH of test sample is quite high
(12-13), so that magnesium will precipitate as magnesium hydroxide and in end point
of EBT indicator will react with calcium form blue solution. From this method rate of
calcium in water will obtained. From two method can determined the rate of
magnesium with subtract total harness with rate of calcium in gaining, which is
calculated as CaCO3 (Badan Standardisasi Nasional, 2004).

1.4 Materials and Equipments


a. Powder indicators Murexid
b. Buffer solution pH 12
c. EDTA solution 0.0357 N
d. Erlenmayer 100 mL 1 piece
e. Buret 25 mL and 50 mL
f. Pipette 10 mL and 25 mL
g. Black powder Eriochrom indicator R (Calcon) or EBT
h. Buffer solution pH 10
i. Complexon solution III (EDTA) 0.03571 N

CHAPTER 2
EXPERIMENTAL SCHEME

2.1 Workflow
a) Total hardness analysis
25 mL of each well water sample

- Poured into different 100 mL erlenmeyer flasks

1 spatula (±0,5 gr) of Eriochrom Black T


Indicator

- Added into each erlenmeyer flask

2.5 mL pH 10 Buffer Solution

- Added into each erlenmeyer flask

EDTA solution
- Titrated each sample with EDTA solution until the
sample changes colour from purple to dark blue
- Count the concentration.
Result
2
b) Calcium analysis
25 mL of each well water sample

- Poured it into different erlenmeyer


flasks
1 spatula (±0,5 gr) of Murexid Powder

- Added into each erlenmeyer flask


-
2.5 mL pH 12 Buffer Solution

- Added into each erlenmeyer flask


-

EDTA solution
- Titrate each sample with EDTA solution until the
sample changes color from pink to purple
- Count the concentration

Result

b) Alkalinity Analysis
25 mL of well water samples

2 drops of Methyl Orange

- Added to sample by drop pipette

HCl of 0.01 N
- Titrated to solution until first red color appears in
solution
- Measure volume of HCl used and calculate
concentration of alkalinity

Result

3
CHAPTER III
DISCUSSION
3.1 Data and Result
3.1.1 Total Hardness Analysis
No. Treatment Observation Picture

25 mL of sample are poured into


2 erlenmeyer flasks by
1. measuring glass. Each flask
Odorless and colorless
containing different sources of
well water. 1 from ngagel and 1
from karang menjangan

EBT is a dark red/brown


powder, odorless and room
A spatula of EBT indicator is
2. temperature.
added to each sample as being
After addition:
shaken
water sample color turns
into purple

Buffer pH 10 is a colorless,
clear liquid at room
2.5 mL of pH 10 buffer solution temperature and has very
3. is added by pipette. Erlenmeyer strong, unpleasant odor.
shaken. After addition:
Water sample color got
darker

EDTA is a colorless, clear


liquid at room temperature.
 Karang Menjangan water
Each sample is titrated with sample : solution turned
EDTA (1/28 N) until color into dark blue after 3 mL
4. changes from purple to dark
of EDTA addition.
blue. The flask are shaken every
drops of addition  Ngagel water sample :
solution turned into dark
blue after 4 mL of EDTA
addition.

4
3.1.2 Total Calcium Analysis
No. Treatment Observation Picture

25 mL of sample are poured into 2


erlenmeyer flasks by measuring
1. glass. Each flask containing Both sample are odorless
different sources of well water. 1 and colorless liquid
from ngagel and 1 from karang
menjangan

Murexide is red-gray
A spatula of murexide are added
2. powder. After addition, both
to each water sample. Erlenmeyer
sample formed precipitation
flask shaken.
in the bottom of the solution

Buffer pH 12 is a colorless,
clear liquid at room
2.5 mL of pH 12 buffer is added to
3. temperature and with no
each sample by volumetric pipette.
odor
Erlenmeyer shaken.
After addition: both sample
turned into pink color

EDTA is a colorless, clear


liquid at room temperature.
 Karang Menjangan water
Each sample are titrated with sample: the first puprle
4. EDTA (0.03571 N) until the first color appeared after 3 mL
purple color appeared. The flask of addition
are shaken every drops of addition  Ngagel water sample :
the first puprle color
appeared after 2.8 mL of
addition

5
3.1.3 Alkalinity Analysis
No. Treatment Observation Picture

25 mL of sample are
poured into 2 erlenmeyer
flasks by measuring glass.
1. Each flask containing Both sample are odorless and
colorless liquid
different sources of well
water. 1 from ngagel and 1
from karang menjangan

MO indicator is orange liquid,


3 drops of Methyl Orange odorless and at room
2. are added to both sample temperature
by drop pipette After addition, both sample turned
into slightly yellowish

HCl is a clear, colorless solution


and has a highly pungent odor in
a normal temperature.
Each sample is added with
3. The titration is stopped once the
0.01N HCl by titration until
first pink color appeared. Volume
the solution turned pink
required :
Karang Menjangan : 1.85 ml
Ngagel : 2.15 ml

3.2 Discussion
The second experiment of Environmental Pollution Analytical Technique was
conducted on Wednesday, 13th of March in Water Treatment Laboratory, Environmental
Engineering ITS at 08.00 AM - 11.00 PM. There are 3 sub experiments in this
experiment. The first was Total Hardness Analysis, second was Calcium (Ca) Analysis,
and the last was Alkalinity Analysis. These 3 sub experiments aim to determine whether
the sample water are still suitable for drinking water and follow the requirements of
drinking water standard by analyse the quantity of total hardness and alkalinity.
Alkalinity and hardness are both important components of water quality. Total
alkalinity indicates the quantity of base present in water --bicarbonates, carbonates,
phosphates, hydroxides, etc. Hardness represents the overall concentration of divalent
salts (calcium, magnesium, iron, etc.) but does not identify which of these elements
is/are the source of hardness. It is important to recognize the difference between
hardness and total alkalinity when farming aquatic animals (Wurts, 2002).
This experiment required some equipments such as erlenmayer flask 100 mL,
measuring glass 25 mL, volumetric pipett, drop pipette, and buret. While the materials
needed are sample from ground water with 2 different sources, powder indicators
Murexid, buffer solution pH 12, EDTA solution 0.0357 N, black powder Eriochrom

6
indicator R (Calcon) or EBT, buffer solution pH 10, complexon solution III (EDTA)
0.03571 N.
The first step of these 3 sub experiments are the same step, which is pouring 25 mL
of ground water sample into 6 erlenmeyer flasks by measuring glass and volumetric
pipette. Each flask containing different sources of ground water. 3 of them are from
karang menjangan and the others are from ngagel. Then these 6 sample are divided to
the 3 experiments where each experiment required 2 flasks of different sources ground
water. Both are the sample that we would like to test how much are their alkalinity levels
and their total hardness to be compared with the quality standard capacity according to
PERMENKES 492/2010.

a. Total Hardness Analysis


The experiment continued by adding a spatula (±0,5 gr) of Eriochrom Black T
Indicator to both sample. In hardness analysis, EBT is used as an indicator which
will make the optimum point of equilibrium visible to observe, and is added as much
as the tip of a metal spatula into the samples. This blue dye also forms a complex
with the calcium and magnesium ions, changing colour to pink in the process.
Calcium ions and magnesium on example test will react with Eriochrome Black T
(EBT) indicator and form purple reddish solution (SNI, 2004).
Erlenmeyer flask is then shaken to mix and distribute the indicator well in
sample. EBT is powder with purple-gray color. EBT act as an indicator of the titration
when end point has been reached. After the addition, both samples turn dark purple,
but still liquid with no change in viscosity. Then, 2.5 mL of buffer solution of pH 10 is
added into the samples by volumetric pipette and shaken with solution in circular
motion. Buffer pH 10 is a colorless, clear liquid at room temperature and has a very
strong and unpleasant odor. Caution must be taken by students to not inhale its
fumes. The purpose of adding pH 10 buffer is to keep the samples at pH 12. After
buffer is added to the sample, the dark purple color turns darker and has unpleasant
odor.
Titration is then conducted on both samples with EDTA of 0.03571 N as the
titrant. The characteristic blue end-point is reached when sufficient EDTA is added
and the metal ions bound to the indicator are chelated by EDTA, leaving the free
indicator molecule. EDTA itself is a clear and colorless liquid at room temperature.
According to our experiment, the volume of EDTA added to the Karang Menjangan
ground water sample is about 3 mL. Meanwhile, Ngagel ground water sample
needed 4 mL of EDTA to become dark blue. Purpose of titration by EDTA is to bond
ions that cause hardness with sodium salt. The dye–metal ion complex is less stable
than the EDTA–metal ion complex. For the titration, the sample solution containing
the calcium and magnesium ions is reacted with an excess of EDTA. The indicator is
added and remains blue as all the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present are complexed with
the EDTA. From the result of titration, we calculate the hardness concentration of
both water samples by the following formula:
1000
Total hardness (ml/L CaCO3) = 𝑣𝑜𝑙 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 x a x N x 50
Where a : volume of EDTA used in titration (ml)
N : normality of EDTA solution

7
[for Karang Menjangan ground water sample]
1000
Total hardness (mg CaCO3/L) = 25
x 3 x 0.03571 x 50 = 214.28 mg CaCO3/L
[for Ngagel ground water sample]
1000
Total hardness (mg CaCO3/L) = 25
x 4 x 0.03571 x 50 = 285.71 mg CaCO3/L

The results then are compared to the standard of Indonesia Public Health
Ministry 429/Menkes/per/IV/2010 which states that total hardness of drinking water
should be no higher than 500 mg/L. Both ground water water sample analysis results
from titration are less than 500 mg/L, means it still fulfill the standard quantity and
safe to be drank.

b. Calcium Analysis
Move to the second experiment which is Calcium Analysis of water sample.
Firstly, the prepared sample are both added with murexide. Murexide (NH4C8H4N5O6,
or C8H5N5O6·NH3), also called ammonium purpurate or MX, is the ammonium salt of
purpuric acid. Murexide in its dry state has the appearance of a reddish purple
powder, slightly soluble in water.
Murexid indicator initially reacts with calcium ions, so the solution is lightly red.
At the end point of titration with EDTA, the indicator will detach again and the solution
turn to purple. Either way magnesium levels can be calculated by subtracting the
total hardness results obtained with calcium levels, which are calculated as CaCO3
(SNI, 2004).
Next, murexide is added as much as the tip of a metal spatula to both water
sample. When Murexide combines with Ca2+ ions, red color will be produced. This
made both sample turn into slightly pink after the addition.
Afterwards, a pH 12 buffer solution is added as much as 2.5 ml to both
sample in erlenmeyer flask, which are then shaken. The buffer solution of pH 12 is a
clear and colorless liquid with no distinct odor at room temperature. Its purpose is to
maintain a constant pH for the samples so titration later on can be more easily
observed, and the color change much visible as well. After addition, both sample got
darker in color.
Titration is then conducted using the same EDTA solution as in the
previous experiment, using a measuring pipette and propipette, until both solutions
turn purple in color. This time, titration is done to react EDTA with Ca2+ and Mg2+
ions, as well as with other ions. Volume of EDTA needed for Karang Menjangan
water sample solution to turn into purple is 3 ml of titration. Meanwhile, Ngagel water
sample turned into purple after adding 2.8 ml of EDTA. From these titration results,
we can calculate the amount of calcium content in each samples by the formula:

1000
Calcium = 𝑣𝑜𝑙 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 x a x N x 50
Where a = volume of EDTA used in titration (ml)
N = normality of EDTA solution
Below are the calculation for both samples based on the the obtained data.
 Karang Menjangan Sample :
1000
Calcium = 25
x 2 x 0.03571 x 50 = 143.284 mg/L Ca2+

8
 Ngagel Sample :
1000
Calcium = x 2.8 x 0.03571 x 50 = 200 mg/L Ca2+
25

c. Alkalinity Analysis
The terms alkalinity and hardness are often used interchangeably when
discussing water quality. This is because most hardness and alkalinity comes from
limestone or dolomite sources in nature. When water passes through the rocks
contain limestone (calcium carbonate) and dolomite (calcium and magnesium
carbonate) in the ground picks up minerals on the way. When limestone and
dolomite dissolve in water, one half of the molecule is calcium or magnesium (the
"hardness") and the other half is the carbonate (the "alkalinity"), so most of the times
they are equal (Ghadikolaei et al, 2017).
The third and last analysis is to determine the alkalinity level of water
samples. Began by adding 3 drops of Methyl Orang (MO) indicator to each sample.
The reason why we used methyl orange as a pH indicator in titration because of its
clear and distinct color variance at different pH values. MO indicator is an orange
liquid, odorless and exists at room temperature. It is added as an indicator for the
equilibrium point of reaction during titration, in which solution will turn red. After
addition of MO, both water sample turned orange and are slightly turbid.
Afterwards, titration is done with a strong acid, HCl (0.01 N) until the first red
color is observed in solution. The purpose of the titration by HCl is to lower the pH
until less than 8.3 so that the determining titration can be done. Hydrochloric acid is a
clear, colorless solution and has a highly pungent odor in a normal temperature. After
titrating by HCl, there’s no change of color observed and both solutions remain liquid
at room temperature.Titration is done so that HCl will react with the ions that cause
alkalinity in each sample, and their concentration can be determined.
For Karang Menjangan water sample, first red color appeared after titration with
12 ml of HCl. The solution turned peach-red and is slightly turbid. On the other hand,
the first red color is observed in Ngagel water sample after addition of 12.4 ml HCl,
final color of solution being pink-red. Both solutions stayed liquid at room
temperature. The reaction occured can be written as below.
HCO3- + H+  H2CO3 (alkalinity)
From the titration result we can calculate alkalinity value of each water sample as
below.
50.000
Alkalinity (ml/L CaCO3) = 𝑣𝑜𝑙 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 x b x N
Where b : ml HCl titrate used
N : normality of HCl
 Karang Menjangan water sample
50.000
Alkalinity (mg CaCO3/L) : 25
x 1,85 x 0.1 = 370 mgCaCO3/L
 Ngagel water sample
50.000
Alkalinity (mg CaCO3/L) : 25
x 2,15 x 0.1 = 430 mgCaCO3/L

From the three analysis experiments above, we combine the results to obtain
the amount of total hardness, carbonate hardness and non-carbonate hardness.
Total hardness is obtained from the result of hardness analysis; calcium is equal to
the result of the second analysis; magnesium is calculated by subtracting calcium

9
result from the total hardness; and HCO3- which is also the amount of carbonate
hardness, is obtained from the alkalinity analysis result.
The carbonate fraction of hardness (expressed as CaCO3 equivalents) is
chemically equivalent to the bicarbonates of alkalinity present in water in areas
where the water interacts with limestone. Any hardness greater than the alkalinity
represents non-carbonate hardness (Wilson, 2010). Thus, non-carbonate hardness
is the remaining amount total hardness (besides carbonate hardness). Below are the
results from our experiment.
 Karang Menjangan Sample
- Total hardness = Ca2+ + Mg2+ = 214.28 mg CaCO3/L
- Ca2+ = 214.28 mg/L Ca2+
2+ 2+
- Mg (total hardness - Ca ) = 71 mg CaCO3/L
- HCO3- (alkalinity) = 370 mg CaCO3/L

Meq/L = mg CaCO3/L : Ar/valency

Cation/Anion mg CaCO3/L Ar / valency meq/L


Ca2+ 214.28 40 10.7
2
= 20
Mg2+ 71 24 5.9
2
= 12
HCO3- 370 61 6
1
= 61

0 10.7 16.6
2+ 2+
Ca Mg
HCO3-
6

According to the bar graph above, we can calculate the hardness by multiply the
𝑀𝑟 𝐶𝑎𝐶𝑂3
amount of hardness with 𝐵𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡 𝐸𝑘𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛

Thus, the results of total, carbonate and non-carbonate hardness in Karang


Menjangan sample water are:
100
Carbonate hardness = 6 x 2
= 300 mg CaCO3/L
100
Non-carbonate hardness = (16.6 – 6) x 2
= 10.6 mg CaCO3/L
Total hardness= carbonate hardness + non-carbonate hardness = 310.6 mg CaCO3/L

The bar graph calculation of total hardness in Karang Menjangan water sample
resulted in 310.6 mg CaCO3/L, which fulfill the standard of Indonesia Public Health
Ministry 429/Menkes/per/IV/2010, which states hardness must be below 500 mg/L.

 Ngagel water sample results


- Total hardness = Ca2+ + Mg2+ = 285.71 mg CaCO3/L
- Ca2+ = 200 mg CaCO3/L
- Mg2+ = total hardness - Ca2+ = 85.71 mg CaCO3/L
- HCO3- = alkalinity = 430 mg CaCO3/L

10
Cation/Anion mg CaCO3/L Ar / valency meq/L
Ca2+ 200 40 10
2
= 20
Mg 2+
85.71 24 7.14
2
= 12
HCO3- 430 61 7.05
1
= 61

10 17.14
0
Ca2+ Mg2+
HCO3-
7.05

Thus, the results of total, carbonate and non-carbonate hardness in this sample are:

100
Carbonate hardness = 7.05 x 2
= 352.5 mg CaCO3/L
100
Non-carbonate hardness = (17.14 – 7.05) x 2
= 10.09 mg CaCO3/L
Total hardness = carbonate hardness + non-carbonate hardness = 335.59 mg CaCO3/L

The result of bar graph calculation of total hardness in ngagel water sample is 335.59
mg CaCO3/L. It means that the Ngagel water sample fulfill the standard of Indonesia
Public Health Ministry 429/Menkes/per/IV/2010, which states that the level of hardness
must be below 500 mg/L.
From this observation, it’s obvious to see the relationship between hardness,
alkalinity, and calcium. Hardness is the sum of the multivalent metal ions in solution,
whereas alkalinity is a measure of the solution’s ability to neutralize acids (sum of
hydroxide, carbonate, and bicarbonates). In natural water systems, calcium carbonate is
usually present and responsible for different characteristics of the water. Both hardness
and alkalinity are expressed as a concentration of CaCO3 for convenience of reporting a
single number to represent multiple chemicals and for ease in calculating a solution’s
carbonate and non-carbonate hardness.

11
CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION

4.1 Conclusion
From this experiment of “Analysis of Alkalinity, Total Hardness and Calcium”, we can
conclude that Karang Menjangan and Ngagel water samples have the following
properties:
1. Karang Menjangan Water sample
Total hardness of Karang Menjangan water sample analyzed by titration (total
Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) with EDTA solution is 214.28 mg CaCO3/L while if
calculated by bar graph is 310.6 mg CaCO3/L. This is show that both of the result
are fulfilling the standard of Indonesia Public Health Ministry
429/Menkes/per/IV/2010 that states the total hardness of drinking water should
be no higher than 500 mg/L.
2. Ngagel water sample
Total hardness of Ngagel water sample analyzed through titration process with
EDTA solution (total Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) is 285.71 mg CaCO3/L, whereas if
calculated by bar graph is 335.59 mg CaCO3/L. Both of the analysis result fulfills
the standard of Indonesia Public Health Ministry 429/Menkes/per/IV/2010, as it
states that the total hardness of drinking water should be no higher than 500
mg/L.

4.2 Questions and Answers


1. Calculate
a) Total Hardness
b) Non-carbonate hardness
c) Carbonate Hardness, if :
Na+ = 20 mg/L, Ca2+ = 15 mg/L, Mg2+ = 10 mg/L, Sr2+ = 2 mg/L
Cl- = 40 mg/L, SO42- = 16 mg/L, NO3- = 1 mg/L, Alkalinity = 50 mg/L
Answer:
M+ M+ M+
[Ca2+] = BE
x 50 [Mg2+] = BE
x 50 [Sr2+] = BE
x 5
10 𝑥 50 10 x 50 2 x 50
[Ca2+] = 20,4
x 50 [Mg2+] = 12,155
x 50 [Sr2+] = 43,81
x 50
[Ca2+] = 37,425 mg/L [Mg2+] = 41,135 mg/L [Sr2+] = 2,282

 Total Hardness = 37,425 + 41,135 + 2,282 = 80,842 mg/L


 Carbonate Hardness = 50 mg/L
 Non-carbonate Hardness = Total Hardness – Temporary Hardness
= 80,842 – 50
= 30,842 mg/L

2. Explain about :
a) Total Hardness
b) Non-carbonate hardness
c) Carbonate Hardness
Answer :

12
 The total water hardness is the sum of the molar concentrations of Ca2+ and
Mg2+, in mol/L or mmol/L units. Although water hardness usually measures only
the total concentrations of calcium and magnesium (the two most prevalent
divalent metal ions), iron, aluminium, and manganese can also be present at
elevated levels in some locations. The presence of iron characteristically confers a
brownish (rust-like) colour to the calcification, instead of white (the color of most of
the other compounds).
 Non-carbonate hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be
removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of
calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate
out as the temperature increases. Ions causing non-carbonate hardness of water
can be removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column.Total Non-
carbonate Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium Hardness. The calcium
and magnesium hardness is the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions
expressed as equivalent of calcium carbonate.
 Carbonate hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of
dissolved bicarbonate minerals (calcium bicarbonate and magnesium
bicarbonate). When dissolved, these minerals yield calcium and magnesium
cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO32−, HCO3−). The
presence of the metal cations makes the water hard. However, unlike the non-
carbonate hardness that is caused by sulphate and chloride compounds, this
"temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the
addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime
softening. Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and
precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon
cooling.

3. Explain three applications of water hardness data that can be used in


Environmental Engineering field!
Answer : To design water instalation for industry or home use, to know how to
treat effluent water and to know how to trreat drinking water.

4. What is the effect of calcium ions (Ca2+) in water?


Answer : Hard water causes increase in soap usage because of the chemical
relationship between hardness ions and soap molecules, which causes the
decrease in soap efficiency. Excess of calcium ions and CO23- ions cause the
formation of scaling on pipe walls, which is caused by suspension of calcium
carbonate. This scaling will decrease the diameter of pipes and make heating in
kettles more difficult.

13
References

Badan Standarisasi Nasional (BSN). 2004. Air dan air limbah – Bagian 13: Cara uji kalsium
(Ca) dengan metode titrimetri. Jakarta: SNI 06-6989.13-2004
Ghadikolaei, R. K., Hojatollah F., Eesa A., Maryam M., and Mohammadreza Z. 2017. Water
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