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Electromagnetic Induction

Introduction to electromagnetic induction

Electricity and magnetism are inter-related and the energies linked with them are also
inter- convertible.

Whenever there is relative motion between the magnet and a coil, an electric current is
induced in the coil.

Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction

The area of a plane surface is represented by a vector drawn along the outward normal to
the plane surface.

φB=B .A=BA cos⍬

The time rate of change of magnetic flux through a closed coil induces an emf through it.

E=- d øB/dt
Lenz’s law

The polarity of induced emf in a closed loop is such that it tends to produce a current
which opposes the change in the magnetic flux that produces it.

Motional electromotive force

Magnetic flux ɸB = BƖx

Motional electromotive force, e= -BƖv

The electric field produced by a changing magnetic field is called “induced electric field”.
This electric field causes an emf to be developed.

A varying magnetic field can exert force on stationary charges.

Energy consideration

The induced EMF in a conductor when moved in a magnetic field is in accordance with
the law of conservation of energy.
Eddy currents

Eddy currents are produced when a metallic plate is subjected to a changing magnetic

Eddy currents can be reduced by reducing surface areas in electric machinery.

Eddy currents can be minimized by using laminations of metal to make a metal core.

Eddy currents play an important role in magnetic braking system of trains, providing
electromagnetic damping in galvanometers, producing high temperatures in induction
furnaces and in analog electric power meters.

Self inductance

The work done in establishing a current in a circuit with a coil of inductance L is W= ½


The self inductance of a solenoid is L=µ0 n2 AƖ

L=µ0 N2 A/Ɩ

n- Number of turns per unit length

N- Total number of turns

Ac generator

The coil of a generator is called the armature.

EMF induced in a coil is given by: ε = ε0 sin (2πvt)

ε = ε0 sin (2πωt)

Where ε0= N B A ω

Mutual conductance

Mutual conductance is the ratio of the electromotive force in a circuit to the corresponding
change of current in a neighbouring circuit.

The inductance between two coaxial solenoids of length Ɩ and radii r1 and r2, with r1<r2,
when the medium within them is air is given by, M=µ0n1n2πr12Ɩ.

The inductance between solenoids of length Ɩ and radii r1 and r2, with r2>r1, when the
medium between them has relative permeability µr is given by, M=µ0µrn1n2πr12Ɩ.